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Sound

Sound waves are _____________ (transverse/longitudinal). They travel as


_________ (vibrations/EM waves). They are made up of ________
Waves Revision Booklet
(compressions/extensions) and _________ (expansions/rarefactions) and
are detected by our _________ (ear drums/pinna). These vibrations are
converted to ________ (electrical/light) signals in the cochlea.
Sound can travel through solids, liquids and gases, but they cannot travel
through vacuums - this is because a vacuum _____________________.
Which of the following sounds are in the audible range for the average human?
12 kHz 200 Hz 21 kHz 0.5 kHz 1 Hz 0.1 MHz 15 kHz 900 Hz
Name: Class:
Waves transfer ______ and information without transferring ______.
Label each of the waves as either transverse of longitudinal.

1 Second 1 Second
Calculate the time period and frequency of each of the above waves.
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Which of the waves above has the highest pitch? Explain your answer.
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Write a sentence about how each is defined. _____________________
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Which of the waves is the loudest? Explain your answer.
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Properties of Waves Diffraction

Direction
Wave
A B

Label the wavelength and amplitude on the wave, and complete the table below.
Wave Property Definition
Wavelength

Amplitude
Draw on the wavelength of both waves.
Frequency Complete the above diagrams for both waves.
Define diffraction:
Time Period
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Complete the two equations and hence answer the following calculations.
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Frequency = Wave Speed =
Why does one wave diffract more than the other?
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A radio wave has a time period of 5 x 10 s (0.0000005 s). Calculate the
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frequency and the wavelength. _______________________________
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Refractive Index Electromagnetic Spectrum
Complete the two equations for calculating the refractive index: Electromagnetic _______ travels as _______ waves and transfers _____
from one place to another. All electromagnetic waves can travel through a
Refractive Index (n) = Speed of Light in Vacuum or sin i vacuum, and they all travel at the same speed in a vacuum - the speed of
_____. The electromagnetic spectrum is a continuous range of _________.
Complete the above table using the equation you have just completed. Use the space below The types of radiation that occur in each part of the spectrum have different
for your calculations. uses and dangers, which depend on their wavelength and ________.
Substance Speed of Light (m/s) Refractive Index Words: frequency radiation light energy wavelengths r transverse
Air 300 000 000 1.0
Put the seven different sections of the EM spectrum in the table below, in
Water 225 000 000 order of increasing wavelength. Then complete the table.
Perspex 200 000 000 Section Sources Detectors Uses
Glass 1.5
Gamma Rays Radioactive materials. Geiger-Mller tube. Sterilising food and medical
Diamond 2.4
equipment, radiotherapy.
A ray of light enters a glass block at 40 from the normal. The angle of refraction was 25. X-rays X-ray tubes. Photographic film. X-radiography.
Calculate the refractive index of the glass. ________________________________
Ultraviolet UV lamps and the Sun. Skin, photographic Fluorescent tubes and UV
____________________________________________________________ film. tanning lamps.
____________________________________________________________ Visible Luminous objects. Eyes, photographic Seeing, communication
Complete the diagram: film, LDRs. (optical fibres), photography.

What use could we have for this situation? Infrared Hot objects. Skin, blackened Infrared heaters, remote
thermometers. controls, thermal imaging.
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Microwaves Microwave transmit- Microwave receivers. Mobile phone and satellite
____________________________________ ters and ovens. communication, cooking.
____________________________________ Radio Waves Radio transmitters, Radio and TV aerials. Long-, medium- and short-
What other uses do we have for total internal reflection? TV transmitters. wave radio, TV.

____________________________________________________________ Hazards are associated with EM radiation. List some of the dangers below.
____________________________________________________________ Microwaves: ___________________________________________
____________________________________________________________ Infrared: _____________________________________________
Ultraviolet: ____________________________________________
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Gamma-rays: ___________________________________________
What causes light to refract? _____________________________
Reflection & Refraction _________________________________________________
Complete the equation for the law of reflection:
Using the diagram below, explain what happens to a ray of
Angle of Incidence = Angle of Reflection light as it enters and exits a more optically dense medium.
Air
Using the law of reflection, and using a protractor, complete the follow- _____________________
Glass
ing diagram: _____________________
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Air
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What would happen if the angle of incidence was 0?
Angle of incidence = Angle of reflection =
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Give the definition of a virtual image:
Glass Glass
_________________________________________________ C
_________________________________________________ Air Air
What is the name of the angle labelled C?
What are the three properties of virtual image? Use the image to explain
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your answers. ________________________________________ Glass
Explain, in as much detail as you can, what
_________________________________________________ happens as the angle of incidence increases.
Air
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