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LECTURESERIESONTHEUPDATESOFTHE

NEWSTRUCTURALCODEOFTHE
PHILIPPINES,VOL.1Buildings,Towers
andotherVerticalStructures,7th Edition

PART1:
CHAPTER4,STRUCTURALCONCRETE
3
StructuralConcrete,Chapter4oftheNational
StructuralCodeofthePhilippines,Vol.I,6th
Edition,2010(NSCP),wasbasedonACI31808.
Currently,thelatesteditionisACI31814.Prior
toitspublication,expertsandstakeholdersin
theU.S.statedthatthereorganizationofthis
standardwillbe"monumental,withmajor
changesexpectedintheforthcomingedition.
WehaveusedtheACI318M14asthebasisfor
NSCP2015Vol.1,Chapter4,Structural
Concrete.ThefirstprintingofNSCPVol.1(C101
15)waslaunchedonDec.7,2016.
.
ThiswillmakethelatestChapter4,Structural
ConcreteoftheNationalStructuralCodeofthe
Philippines,Vol.I,7th Edition,(NSCP2015)upto
date.OurNSCP2010wasbasedonACI318M
08,thecurrenteditionatthetimeofNSCP2015
Vol.1inceptionwasACI318M11.Howeverwe
havedecidedtousethedraftversionofACI
318R14whichwaspublishedinMay2014as
ourguide.Wehavesubsequentlyupdatedour
finaldraftwhenACI318M14waspublishedin
March2015asthebasisforNSCP2015,Chapter
4.WewereabletomeetourDec.2016target
becausewehaveencodedthechangesearlier&
encodedthefewcorrectionslater.
REORGANIZATIONOFNSCP2015,7thEdition,inaccordancewithACI318M14

NSCP2015,7thEdition,Chapter4 NSCP2010,6thEdition,Chapter4

Description Section Remarks Section

ofProvisions andTitle andTitle


Part1:General 401 General 401 General

402 NotationandTerminology 402 Definitions

403 ReferencedStandards 403 SpecificationsforTestsandMaterials

404 StructuralSystemRequirements New

Part2:Loadsand 405 Loads 410 FlexureandAxialLoads


Analysis
406 StructuralAnalysis 408 AnalysisandDesignConsiderations

Part3:Members 407 OneWaySlabs

408 TwoWaySlabs 413 TwoWaySlabSystems

409 Beams

410 Columns

411 Walls 414 Walls

412 Diaphragms New

413 Foundations 415 Footings


REORGANIZATIONOFNSCP2015,7thEdition,inaccordancewithACI318M14

NSCP2015,7thEdition,Chapter4 NSCP2010,6thEdition,Chapter4

Description Section Remarks Section

ofProvisions andTitle andTitle


414 PlainConcrete Intact 422 StructuralPlainConcrete

Part4:Joints,
Connections, 415 BeamColumnandSlabColumn Joints
Anchors
416 Connections BetweenMembers

417 Anchoring toConcrete Intact 423 AnchoragetoConcrete

Part 5:
Earthquake 418 EarthquakeResistantStructures Intact 421 EarthquakeResistantStructures
Resistance
Part 6:
Materialsand 419 Concrete:DesignandDurabilityRequirements 408 AnalysisandDesignConsiderations
Durability
420 Steel ReinforcementProperties,Durability,
andEmbedments 412 DevelopmentandSplicesofReinforcement

Part 7:Strength 421 Strength ReductionFactors 426 AlternativeLoadandStrength ReductionFactors


&Serviceability

422 Sectional Strength

423 StrengthandTieModels Intact 427 StrengthandTieModels

424 Serviceability Requirements 409 Strength andServiceability Requirements


REORGANIZATIONOFNSCP2015,7thEdition,inaccordancewithACI318M14

NSCP2015,7thEdition,Chapter4 NSCP2010,6thEdition,Chapter4

Description Section Remarks Section

ofProvisions andTitle andTitle


Part8: 425 Reinforcement Details 407 DetailsofReinforcements
Reinforcement

Part9:
Construction 426 Construction DocumentsandInspection

427 Strength EvaluationofExistingStructures Intact 420 Strength EvaluationofExistingStructures

Part10: Separate
Evaluation 428 BuildingCodeRequirementsforConcreteThin PublicationACI 419 ShellsandFoldedPlateMembers
Shells 318.214

Adoptedfrom
Design 429 Alternative DesignMethod previousNSCP 424 Alternative DesignMethod
Editions
Referencesand AppendixA SteelReinforcementInformation, WRI
Appendices StandardWireReinforcement(Customary&Metric) IncludedinSection407
AppendixB EquivalencebetweenCustomary U.S. AppendixA ConversionFactors(similar toAppendixBofNSCP2015,but
Units,SIMetric,MKSMetric notyetupdatedtothelatestACI318M14)
Nolonger
existas
Separatesect. 416 PrecastConcrete

Nolonger 418 Prestressed Concrete


existas
separatesection
425 AlternativeProvisionsforReinforcedand
Discontinued Prestressed ConcreteFlexuralandCompression
Members

Discontinued 426 AlternativeLoadStrengthandReductionFactors


Chapter4 STRUCTURALCONCRETE
FirstPrinting,Dec.2016
Chapter4 CONCRETE

401 GENERALREQUIREMENTS
402 NOTATIONANDTERMINOLOGY
403 REFERENCEDSTANDARDS
404 STRUCTURALSYSTEMREQUIREMENTS
405 LOADS
406 STRUCTURALANALYSIS
407 ONEWAYSLABS
408TWOWAYSLABS
409BEAMS
Chapter4 CONCRETE

410COLUMNS
411WALLS
412DIAPHRAGMS
413FOUNDATIONS
414PLAINCONCRETE
415 BEAMCONCRETEANDSLAB
COLUMNJOINTS
416 CONNECTIONBETWEENMEMBERS
417 ANCHORINGT0CONCRETE
418 EARTHQUAKERESISTANTSTRUCTURES
Chapter4 CONCRETE

419CONCRETEDESIGNANDDURABILITY
REQUIREMENTS
420 STEELREINFORCEMENTPROPERTIES,
DURABILITYREQUIREMENTS
421STRENGTHREDUCTIONFACTORS
422 SECTIONALSTRENGTH
423 STRUTANDTIE
424 SERVICEABILITYREQUIREMENTS
425 REINFORCEMENTDETAILS
426 CONSTRUCTIONDOCUMENTS
ANDINSPECTION
Chapter4 CONCRETE

427STRENGTHEVALUATIONOF
EXISTINGSTRUCTURES
428 BUILDINGCODEREQUIREMENTSFOR
CONCRETETHINSHELLS
429ALTERNATEDESIGNMETHOD
Chapter4 CONCRETE
AlthoughthechangesfromACI31808toACI31811are
notasextensiveorassubstantiveasthosebetweenACI
31811andACI31814,someofthechangesinthelatest
cyclearedefinitelysignificant.
ToreflectthereorganizationofACI31814whichcontained
anumberofsignificanttechnicalchanges,theASEP
adoptedsimilarchangesintheNSCP20157th Edition.The
latestACI318wasreorganizedasamemberbased
document,i.e.,particularmembertype,suchasbeam,
column,orslabwillhaveseparatesubsectionsforall
requirementstodesignthatparticularmembertype.This
willeliminatetheneedtoflipthroughseveralSectionsto
complywithallthenecessarydesignrequirementsfora
particularstructuralmember,aswasnecessarywiththe
oldorganizationformat.
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section401 GeneralRequirements
Generalinformationregardingthescopeandapplicabilityof
NSCP2015,Vol.1isprovided.Additionalsubsectionon
interpretationisincludedtohelpusersbetterunderstand
Chapter4,StructuralConcreteprovisions.
Section402:SectionNotationandTerminology
Thedefinitionforhoopshasbeenmodifiedbecausetheuseof
interlockingheadedbarsisaconcernregardingthepossibility
thatitwillnotbeadequatelyinterlockedandbecausethe
headscouldbecomedisengagedundercomplexloadingswell
intothenonlinearrangeofresponse.Itisnowdefinedasa
closedtieorcontinuouslywoundtie,madeupofoneorseveral
reinforcementelements,eachhavingseismichooksatboth
ends. Adefinitionforspecialseismicsystems,atermusedin
Sections418and419,hasbeenadded.
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section403 ReferencedStandards
Thefollowingreferencedspecificationshavebeenaddedto
Section403.2.4:
ASTMA37014,StandardTestMethodsandDefinitionsfor
MechanicalTestingofSteelProducts
ASTMA108513,StandardSpecificationforColdFormed
WeldedCarbonSteelHollowStructuralSections(HSS)
ASTMC173/C173M14,StandardTestMethodforAir Content
ofFreshlyMixedConcretebyVolumetricMethod
ASTMC1582/C1582M11,StandardSpecificationfor
AdmixturestoInhibitChlorideInducedCorrosionof
ReinforcingSteelinConcrete
AnewreferencedspecificationfromAustraliaandNewZealand,
Section403.2.6isadded.Thesestandardswereincludedasthe
ACI318hasnoprovisionsrelatedtoQualificationsontheuse
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section403 ReferencedStandards
ofQuenchedTemperedQT/ThermoMechanicallyTreated
Reinforcement,whicharethetypemanufactured,sold,and
commonlyusedforbuildingconstructioninthePhilippines:
1. AS/NZS4671:2001,SteelReinforcingMaterials
2.NZS3101:2006,Part1andPart2,ConcreteStructures
Standard,andDesignofConcreteStructures
3.NZS3109,Amendment2,WeldingofReinforcingSteel
AS/NZS1554.3:2008,Part3,StructuralSteelWeldingof
ReinforcingSteel
Thefollowingreferencedspecificationshavebeendeleted:
1.ASTMC109/C109M08,StandardTestMethodfor
CompressiveStrengthofHydraulicCementMortars
2.ASTMC192/C192M07,StandardPracticeforMakingand
CuringConcreteTestSpecimensintheLaboratory
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section403 ReferencedStandards
Severalreferencedstandardsandspecificationshavebeen
updated,asinmostcaseswitheveryeditionoftheNSCP.Note
thattheeditionofeveryreferencedstandardisimportant.The
NSCPdoesnotnecessarilyadoptneweditionsofreferenced
standardsunlesstheyarevettedbeforethepublicationofeach
editionofthestandard.
Section404 StructuralSystemRequirements
ThisnewSectionhasbeenaddedtoChapter4tointroduce
structuralsystemrequirements.ThisSectioncontainsSub
sectionsonMaterials,DesignLoads,StructuralSystemandLoad
Paths,StructuralAnalysis,Strength,Serviceability,Durability,
Sustainability,StructuralIntegrity,FireResistance,
RequirementsforSpecificTypesofConstruction,Construction
andInspection,andStrengthEvaluationofExistingStructures.
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section404 StructuralSystemRequirements
MostoftheseSubsectionsrefertotheotherSectionsinthe
NSCP.TheSubsectiononconstructionandinspection,for
instance,referstoSection426.IntheareasforSustainability
andFireResistance,theNSCPdoesnothavespecific
requirements.ThisSubsectiononSustainabilityallowsthe
licenseddesignprofessionaltospecifyintheconstruction
documents,sustainabilityrequirementsinadditiontothe
strength,serviceability,anddurabilityrequirementsofthe
NSCP.Thestrength,serviceability,anddurabilityrequirements
arerequiredtotakeprecedenceoversustainability
considerations,thoughtheserequirementsaregenerallyin
harmonywithsustainablestructures.IntheSubsectiononFire
Resistance,theNSCPreferstothefireprotectionrequirements
oftheNSCPChapter4,Subsection420.6.1.However,ifthe
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section404 StructuralSystemRequirements
NationalBuildingCodeofthePhilippinesrequiresagreater
concretecover,suchgreaterthicknessshallgovern.
Section405 Loads
Thefollowingmodificationhasbeenmadeintheprovisionfor
liveloadreductionbecausetherearestillunincorporatedareas
wheretheremaynotbeincludedinthepreviouseditionsofthe
NSCP.The7th Edition,Subsection405.2.3 Liveloadreductions
shallbepermittedinaccordancewiththeNationalBuilding
CodeofthePhilippines,orinitsabsence,inaccordancewith
ASCE/SEI7.
FormanyCoderevisioncycles,ACI318retainedprovisionsfor
servicelevelearthquakeforcesinthedesignload
combinations.In1993,ASCE/SEI7convertedearthquakeforces
tostrengthlevelforcesandreducedtheearthquakeloadfactor
Chapter4 CONCRETE
to1.0,andthemodelbuildingcodesfollowedsuit.Inmodern
buildingcodesaroundtheworld,earthquakeloadsarenow
strengthlevelforces.Thereforeanyreferencestoservicelevel
earthquakeforces(asinACI31811Sect.9.2.1(c)havebeen
deleted.
Arequirementtoincludesecondarymomentswasproperly
includedinearliereditionsoftheACI,asintheNSCP,sectionon
momentredistributionbutwasnotincludedanywhereelse.
Becausesecondarymomentsaresignificantconsiderations
whenamemberisbeingdesigned,includingwhenmoments
arenotredistributed,theyshouldbeincludedinthemember
Sections.Also,theeffectsofreactionsinducedbyprestressing
includemorethanjustsecondarymoments,sothelanguageis
modifiedtoreflectthis.Twonewsubsectionsshouldbenoted:
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section405 Loads
405.3.11 RequiredstrengthUshallincludeinternalload
effectsduetoreactionsinducedbyprestressing withaload
factorof1.0.
407.4.1.3 Forprestressed slabs,effectsofreactionsinduced
byprestressing shallbeconsideredinaccordancewith
405.3.11.
Subsections408.4.1.3and409.4.1.3have,similarly,been
addedtotheSectionsonTwowayslabsandbeams,
respectively.
Section406 StructuralAnalysis
ThefollowingnewitemhasbeenaddedinSubsection
406.6.2.3:
(b)Forframesorcontinuousconstruction,itshallbepermitted
toassumetheintersectingmemberregionsarerigid.
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section406 StructuralAnalysis
PreviousNSCP6th Editionhasbeensilentontheuseoffinite
elementanalysis(FEA),thoughitisnowfrequentlyused.
Section406hasadded406.9withprovisionsthatareintended
toexplicitlyallowtheuseofFEAandtoprovideaframework
forthefutureexpansionofFEAprovisions,butnotasaguide
towardtheselectionanduseofFEAsoftware.ThenewSub
sectionondiaphragmsandcollectorsmakesanexplicit
referencetotheuseofFEA,whichmakesitimperativethat
NSCP7th Editionrecognizetheacceptabilityofitsuse.
Section408 TwoWaySlabs
Subsection418.10.1(correspondingtoACI318M11,Section
18.9.1),saysthataminimumareaofbondedreinforcement
shallbeprovidedinallflexuralmemberswithunbonded
prestressing tendons.Thepurposeoftheminimumunbonded
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section408 TwoWaySlabs
reinforcementoverthetopsofcolumnsistodistributecracking
causedbyhighlocalflexuraltensilestressesinareasofpeak
negativemoments.However,thehighlocalflexuraltensile
stressesarenotuniquetoslabswithunbonded tendons.The
newreorganizedSubsection408.6.2.3(correspondingtoACI
318M14Section8.6.2.3)requiresthesameminimum
reinforcementinslabswithunbonded orbondedtendons,
exceptthattheareaofbondedtendonsisconsideredeffective
incontrollingcracking.
ItwasalsodecidedbytheACI318Committee,thatifthesame
bondedreinforcementwererequiredforbothbondedand
unbonded posttensionedtwowaysystems,thestructural
integrityrequirementsforbothsystemsshouldalsobethe
same.ThestructuralintegrityrequirementsinACI318M11,
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section408 TwoWaySlabs
Section18.12.6appliedtotwowayposttensionedslabsystems
withunbonded tendonsonly.Thestructuralintegrity
requirementsinACI318M14Section8.7.5.6(correspondingto
theNSCP2015,Subsection408.7.5.6)nowapplytotwoway
posttensionedslabsystemswithbondedaswellasunbonded
tendons.

ENDOFPART1:
CHAPTER4,STRUCTURALCONCRETE
Chapter4 CONCRETE

PART2:
CHAPTER4,STRUCTURALCONCRETE
Section409 Beams
Theuseofopenwebreinforcementfortorsionandshearin
slenderspandrelbeamsbytheprecastconcreteindustryasan
alternativetotheclosedstirrupstraditionallymandatedbythis
Code.Eliminatingclosedstirrupsisdesirablebecausethey
causereinforcementcongestion;productioncostsalsoincrease
significantlybecausepretensioningstrandmustbethreaded
throughtheclosedstirrups.
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section409 Beams
AnextensivePCIsponsoredexperimentalandanalytical
researchprogramwasconductedatNorthCarolinaState
University(NCSU).Theobjectivewastodeveloparational
designprocedureforslenderprecastconcretespandrelbeams.
Specifically,theresearchwasaimedatsimplifyingthedetailing
requirementsfortheendregionsofsuchbeams.Theend
regionsareoftencongestedwithheavyreinforcementcages
whendesignedusingcurrentprocedures.
Inadditiontotheexperimentalprogram,finiteelementmodels
weredeveloped(Fig.2)andcalibratedtoexperimentaldata.
Thesemodelswereusedinconjunctionwithconventional
analysistocorroboratetheexperimentalresultsandtofurther
investigatethebehaviorofslenderprecastconcretespandrel
beams.
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section409 Beams

Figure2.Finiteelementmodelofaprecastconcretespandrelbeam.ImagefromLucier et
al.,DevelopmentofaRationalDesignMethodologyforPrecastConcreteSlender
SpandrelBeams:Part2,AnalysisandDesignGuidelines(2011).
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section409 Beams
AnewrelevantSubsection409.5.4.7forsolidprecastsections
isaddedtotheNSCP2015.

Section412 Diaphragms
NSCP2015Subsection418.12containeddesignanddetailing
requirements,fordiaphragmsinstructuresassignedinareasof
highseismicity(Zone4).Forthefirsttime,anewSection412,
addeddesignprovisionsfordiaphragmsinbuildingsassignedin
areasoflowseismicity(Zone2)ThenewSectionappliestothe
designofnonprestressed andprestressed diaphragms,
including(a)through(d):
(a).Diaphragmsthatarecastinplaceslabs
(b).Diaphragmsthatcompriseacastinplacetoppingslabon
precastelements.
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section412 Diaphragms
Figure3

(c).Diaphragmsthatcompriseprecastelementswithendstrips
formedbyeitheracastinplaceconcretetoppingslaboredge
beams
(d).Diaphragmsofinterconnectedprecastelementswithout
castinplaceconcretetopping.(Fig.3)
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section418 EarthquakeResistantStructures
Thereareanumberofsignificantandsubstantivechangesto
thisSection.
Columnconfinement Theabilityoftheconcretecoreofa
concretereinforcedcolumntosustaincompressivestrains
tendstoincreasewithconfinementpressure.Compressive
strainscausedbyaxialload.Itfollowsthatconfinement
reinforcementshouldbeincreasedwithaxialloadtoensure
consistentlateraldeformationcapacity. Thedependenceofthe
amountofrequiredconfinementonthemagnitudeofaxialload
imposedonacolumnhas beenrecognizedbysomecodesfrom
othercountries(suchasCSAA23.31419andNZS3101
0620,21)butwasnotreflectedinACI318throughits2011
edition.
Theabilityofconfiningsteeltomaintaincoreconcreteintegrity
andincreasedeformationcapacityisalsorelatedtothelayout
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section418 EarthquakeResistantStructures
ofthetransverseandlongitudinalreinforcement.Longitudinal
reinforcementthatiswelldistributedandlaterallysupported
aroundtheperimeterofacolumncoreprovidesmoreeffective
confinementthanacagewithlarger,widelyspacedlongitudinal
bars.Confinementeffectivenessisakeyparameterdetermining
thebehaviorofconfinedconcrete(Mander,etal)andhasbeen
incorporatedintotheCSAA23.314equationforcolumn
confinement.ACI318,throughits2011edition,didnot
explicitlyaccountforconfinementeffectivenessindetermining
therequiredamountofconfinement.Itinsteadassumed
constantconfinementeffectivenessindependentofhowthe
reinforcementisdistributed.
Inviewofthis,confinementrequirementsforcolumnsof
specialmomentframes(Subsection418.7.5)Fig.4)withhigh
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section418 EarthquakeResistantStructures
axialload(Pu >0.3Afc ',where Pu isthefactoredaxialforce,
Ag isthegrossareaoftheconcretesection;andfc isthe
specialcompressivestrengthofconcrete)orhighconcrete
compressivestrength(fc '>10,000psi[6895MPa])are
significantlydifferentinACI318M14.
Oneimportantnewrequirementforspecialmomentframe
columnsisasfollows:
418.7.5.2 Transversereinforcementshallbeinaccordance
with(a)through(f):
(f)WherePu >0.3Afc orfc '>6895MPa incolumnswith
rectilinearhoops,everylongitudinalbarorbundleofbars
aroundtheperimeterofthecolumncoreshallhavelateral
supportprovidedbythecornerofahooporbyaseismichook,
andthevalueofhx shallnotexceed200mm.(Fig.5).Pu shall
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section418 EarthquakeResistantStructures

Figure4.Confinementofrectangularcolumnofspecialmomentframe.Note:
h1 =plandimensionofcolumninoneoftwoorthogonaldirections;h2 =plandimension
ofcolumninotherorthogonaldirection;o =length,measuredfromjointfacealongaxis
ofmember,overwhichspecialtransversereinforcementmustbeprovided;s =centerto
centerspacingofitems,suchaslongitudinalreinforcement,transversereinforcement,
tendons,oranchors.1in.=25.4mm
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section418 EarthquakeResistantStructures

Figure5.Confinementofhighstrengthorhighlyaxiallyloadedrectangular
columnofspecialmomentframe.Note:db =nominaldiameterofbar,wire,or
prestressing strand;hx =maximumvalueofxi onallcolumnfacesgreaterthan
200mm.;xi =dimensionfromcenterlinetocenterlineoflaterallysupported
longitudinalbars.1in.=25.4mm.
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section418 EarthquakeResistantStructures
bethelargestvalueincompressionconsistentwithfactored
loadcombinationsincludingE.
where:
hx =maximumcentertocenterspacingoflongitudinalbars
laterallysupportedbycornersofcrosstiesorhooplegsaround
theperimeterofthecolumn.
Thechangefrompriorpracticeisthatinsteadofeveryother
longitudinalbarhavingtobesupportedbyacornerofatieora
crosstie,everylongitudinalbarwillhavetobesupportedwhen
eithertheaxialloadonacolumnishighorthecompressive
strengthofthecolumnconcreteishigh.
Theothernewrequirementforspecialmomentframecolumns
isinthefollowingsection:
418.7.5.4 Amountoftransversereinforcementshallbein
accordancewithTable418.7.5.4.
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section418 EarthquakeResistantStructuresTable418.7.5.4
TransverseReinforcement
Conditions ApplicableExpressions

0.30 g and
Greaterof(a) g
0.3 1 (a)
and(b)
70 MPa

forrectilinearhoop
0.09

(b)

0.30 g or
Greatestof(a),(b),and(c)
70 MPa
0.2

(c)

0.30 g and Greaterof g


(d)and(e) 0.45 1

70 MPa (d)

forspiralorcircularhoop
0.12

(e)

0.30 g or Greatestof
(d),(e),and(f)
0.35
70 MPa
(f)
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section418 EarthquakeResistantStructures
Table418.7.5.4Note:
Ach =crosssectionalareaofamembermeasuredtotheoutside
edgesoftransversereinforcement;Ag =grossareaofconcrete
section;forahollowsection,Ag istheareaoftheconcreteonlyand
doesnotincludetheareaofthevoid(s);Asb =areaoflongitudinal
reinforcementinshearwallboundaryelement;bc =crosssectional
dimensionofmembercoremeasuredtotheoutsideedgesofthe
transversereinforcementcomposingareaAsh ;fc '=specified
compressivestrengthofconcrete;fyt =specifiedyieldstrengthof
transversereinforcement;kf =concretestrengthfactor;
kn =confinementeffectivenessfactor;Pu =factoredaxialforce,tobe
takenaspositiveforcompressionandnegativefortension;
s =centertocenterspacingofitems,suchaslongitudinal
reinforcement,transversereinforcement,tendons,oranchors.
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section418 EarthquakeResistantStructures
Confinementrequirementsforcolumnsofspecialmoment
frames,andforcolumnsnot designatedaspartoftheseismic
forceresistingsysteminstructuresassignedtoseismiczone4
(similartoASCE710SeismicDesignCategoriesD,E,andF),
withhighaxialloadorhighconcretecompressivestrengthare
significantlydifferent.
Transversereinforcement Oneimportantnewrequirementfor
specialmomentframecolumnsareincludedinSubsections
418.7.5.2and418.7.5.4.Therearenewrestrictionsontheuse
ofheadedreinforcementtomakeuphoops.
Specialmomentframebeamcolumnjoints Forbeamcolumn
jointsofspecialmomentframes,clarificationofthe
developmentlengthofthebeamlongitudinalreinforcement
thatishooked,requirementsforjointswithheadedlongitudinal
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section418 EarthquakeResistantStructures
reinforcement,andrestrictionsonjointaspectratioarenew.
Forbeamcolumnjointsofspecialmomentframes,clarification
ofdevelopmentlengthofbeamlongitudinalreinforcementthat
ishooked,requirementsforjointswithheadedlongitudinal
reinforcement,andrestrictionsonjointaspectratioarenew.
Specialshearwalls Subsection418.10(equivalenttoACI318
14M14Section18.10,previouslyACI318M11Section21.9),
hasbeenextensivelyrevisedinviewoftheperformanceof
buildingsintheChileearthquakeof2010andtheChristchurch,
NewZealand,earthquakesof2011,aswellsasfullscale
reinforcedconcretebuildingtests.Intheseearthquakesand
laboratorytests,concretespallingandverticalreinforcement
bucklingwereattimesobservedatwallboundaries.
ForASTMA615Grade420barsusedaslongitudinal
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section418 EarthquakeResistantStructures
reinforcementinspecialmomentframesandspecialshear
walls,theNSCP7th Editionnowrequiresthesameminimum
elongationasASTMA706reinforcement.

Section419:Concrete:DesignandDurabilityRequirements
Quiteafewchangeshavebeenmadeinconcretedurability
requirements,whicharenowlocatedinthisSection.
Inpreviouseditions(ACI31811),section5.1.5,says,Splitting
tensilestrengthtestsshallnotbeusedasabasisforfield
acceptanceofconcrete,andcommentarysectionR5.1.5have
beendeletedbecauseinthelatestedition(ACI318M14section
19.2.1.2)clearlysays,Thespecifiedcompressivestrengthshall
beusedformixtureproportioningin 26.4.3(NSCP426.4.3)and
fortestingandacceptanceofconcretein26.12.3(NSCP
426.12.3).
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section420:SteelReinforcementProperties,Durabilityand
Embedments
Thedefinitionofyieldstrengthofhighstrengthreinforcement
forGrade420(Grade60)inthisSectionisnow,forthefirst
time,thesameasthatinASTMspecifications,exceptforbars
withlessthan420MPa,theyieldstrengthshallbetakenasthe
stresscorrespondingtoastrainof0.35percent.
Deformedandplainstainlesssteelwireandweldedwire
conformingtoASTMA1022isnowpermittedtobeusedas
concretereinforcement.
Subsection420.2.2.5requiresDeformednonprestressed
longitudinalreinforcementresistingearthquakemoment,axial
force,orboth,inspecialmomentframes,specialstructural
walls,andallthecomponentsofspecialstructuralwalls
includingcouplingbeamsandwallpierstobeASTMA706
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section420:SteelReinforcementProperties,Durabilityand
Embedments
Grade420(Grade60),ASTM615Grade275(Grade40)or
Grade420(Grade60)reinforcementispermittediftwo
supplementaryrequirementsaremet,whicharealreadypartof
theASTMA706specification.Athirdsupplementary
requirementisnowaddedforASTMA615(Grade60)
reinforcementtobepermittedforuseinspecialmoment
frames,specialstructuralwalls.Theminimumelongationin200
mm(8)mustnowbethesameasthatASTMA615(Grade60)
reinforcement.
OneaspectoftheCodecompliancethattheAssociationof
StructuralEngineersofthePhilippinesiscautioningDesigners
andConstructorsalike,istheintroductionofASTM615Grade
520(Grade75)inthePhilippinemarket.Sincethiswasnot
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section420:SteelReinforcementProperties,Durabilityand
Embedments
coveredbypreviouseditionsoftheNSCPVol.1,itcreatesan
impressionofanunregulateduseofanewhighstrength
reinforcementgrade.
Toputitclearly,Subsection420.2.2.5,correspondingtoACI
318M14Section20.2.2.5,specifiestheuseofdeformednon
prestressed longitudinalreinforcementresistingearthquake
inducedmoment,axialforce,orboth,inspecialmoment
frames,specialstructuralwalls,andallcomponentsofspecial
structuralwalls,includingcouplingbeams,andwallpierswhich
shallbeinaccordancewith(a)or(b):
(a).ASTMA706M,Grade420
(b).ASTMA615M,Grade280
TherewasnomentionthatASTMA615M,Grade520,was
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section420:SteelReinforcementProperties,Durabilityand
Embedments
allowed,althoughtheuseofmicroalloyedhighstrength
reinforcementmaybeallowedinthefuturethroughthe
issuanceofanewASTMorupdatedstandard,andwithproper
validationbytheDepartmentofTradeandIndustrysBureauof
Standards.Itwillbeprematuretoallowits useforspecial
momentframes,specialstructural,andallcomponentsof
specialstructuralwalls,includingcouplingbeams,andwall
piersforBuildingslocatedinareasofhighseismicity(zone4).
ThesamerestrictionsindicatedinSubsection420.7.6,onthe
useofquenchedtemperedthermomechanicallytreated
(QT/TMT)reinforcingbarsinstructureslocatedinseismiczone
4forGrade420reinforcement,shallalsobeappliedtoGrade
520,unlessproveninsubsequentstudiesandtests.
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section422:SectionalStrength
ThefollowingarethechangesinSection422:
Forprestressed members,anewequationforthenominalaxial
strengthatzeroeccentricityhasbeenintroducedinSubsection
422.4.2.3.
NewSubsection422.4.3.1,whichrequiresthatthenominal
axialtensilestrengthofanonprestressed,composite,or
prestressed member,nottobetakengreaterthanthe
maximumnominalaxialtensilestrengthofmember.
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section425:ReinforcementDetails
TwochangesshowninTable7(partofTable425.3.2)aremade
toeliminatethedifferencesbetweentherequiredtailextension
ofa90degreeor135 degreestandardhook,subjecttoa
minimumof75mm(3).
Mechanicalorweldedspliceswithstrengthsbelow125%ofthe
yieldstrengthofthesplicedreinforcingbarsarenolonger
permitted.Theassociatedstaggerrequirementshavebeen
deleted.Thusthereisnolongeraneedtospecifyfull
mechanicalorfullweldedsplices.
Chapter4 CONCRETE
Section426:ConstructionDocumentsandInspection
Inthissection,theuserwillprobablyrequiresometimetoget
usedto,itstartswiththefollowing:
426.1.1ThisSubsectionaddresses(a)through(c):
(a)Designinformationthatthelicenseddesignprofessional
shallspecifyintheconstructiondocuments,
(b)Compliancerequirementsthatthelicenseddesign
professionalshallspecifyintheconstructiondocuments,
(c)Inspectionrequirementsthatthelicenseddesign
professionalshallspecifyintheconstructiondocuments,
Thus,constructionandinspectionrequirementshavebeen
consolidated,andtheyarenowrelatedtoconstruction
documents.Theconstructionrequirementsaredesignated
eitherasdesigninformationorcompliancerequirements.
Thesearelargelyexistingmaterialthathasbeenrearranged.
Chapter4 CONCRETE
TheinspectionrequirementsinSubsection426.13aretaken
fromChapter17ofthe2015InternationalBuildingCode (IBC)
andwerepreviouslynotpartofACI318.
ProvisionsinACI31811andearliereditions,whichexplained
basicstatisticalconsiderationsinmixtureproportioning,areno
longerfoundinACI31814.Instead,ACI30110,Specifications
forStructuralConcrete,isreferenced.
Chapter4 CONCRETE
ThesearesomeotherchangesinthemakeupofNSCP20157th
Editionthatshouldbenoted:
1.TherearetwonewSections:Section404,StructuralSystem
RequirementsandSection412,Diaphragms.
2.Section422,StructuralPlainConcrete,nowSection414.
3.Section423,AnchoringtoConcrete,isnowSection417,with
nosignificantchanges. 4.Section421,EarthquakeResistant
Structures,nowSection418.
5.Section427,StrutandTieModelsisnowSection423,with
nosignificantchanges.
6.Section420,StrengthEvaluationofExistingStructures,is
nowSection427.
7.Section419,ShellsandFoldedPlates,isnowSection428.8.
8.Section424,AlternativeDesignMethod,nowSection429,is
adaptedfromearliereditionsoftheNSCP.
Chapter4 CONCRETE
9.Section425,AlternativeProvisionsforReinforcedand
Prestressed ConcreteFlexuralandCompressionMembers,and
Section426,AlternativeLoadandStrengthReductionFactors,
havebeendiscontinued.
10.Ontheotherhand,Section416,PrecastConcrete,and
Section418,Prestressed Concrete,nolongerexistasseparate
entities. TheprovisionsoftheseSectionsarenowspreadover
severalofthenewSections.
Subsection418.18,Requirementsforposttensioningducts
andgroutinghavealsobeenremovedasbeingoutdated.The
Commentarynowprovidesspecificationguidance.

ENDOFPART1:
CHAPTER4,STRUCTURALCONCRETE
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