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Prepared by Checked by Approved by

Name/ A. K. Gupta, DGM(ES), PR (A. K. Sarkar) (C. S. Das)
Designation Sajid Ansar, CMNM(M&I) DGM(M&I) ED(M&I)
S. K. Srivastava, SESM(MR)
Devendra Kumar, SM(PDEC)


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1.1 This specification together with the data sheets and purchase
documents covers the minimum requirements to be met by the Seller
in the design, fabrication, inspection and testing of carbon and alloy
steel metal bellows type expansion joints.

1.2 The following codes, standards and specifications shall form part of
this specification, except as modified herein:

a) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Sections VIII and IX,
latest edition.
b) ASME Process Piping B31.3, (including Appendix X) latest
c) Standards of Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association
EJMA Standards, latest edition.
d) American Society of Testing and Materials ASTM Standards,
latest edition.
e) ASME Large Diameter Steel Flanges NPS 26 through NPS 60

1.3 This specification requires compliance with all applicable federal and
local laws and regulations, as well as rules, regulations and
standards of the appropriate ministry having jurisdiction.

1.4 All conflicts between the requirements of this specification, related

specifications, codes, standards, purchase documents and data
sheets shall be referred to the Buyer for clarification before
proceeding with the fabrication of the affected parts.


2.1 The Seller shall submit with the quotation all data required to
complete Buyers expansion joint data sheets, particularly dimensions
necessary to verify performance equations as per Paragraph 3.2

2.2 The Seller shall submit with the quotation information on the number,
size and thickness of the bellows, the material of all parts, the design
movements of the joint and the end-to-end dimensions for installation.
The Seller shall also submit the construction details specified on the
data sheets.


3.1 The Seller shall furnish the number of copies in the form specified on
the purchase documents for the following drawings and data reports
for installation, maintenance and record purposes only.
3.2 Certified outline drawings of the equipment. In addition to the
information required as above, these drawings shall show the Buyers
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job and requisition sheet numbers, the equipment item number, the
groove details of the ends of welding end joints, and the size and
location of all side connections on the joint. When temporary
positioning devices are furnished, the drawings shall contain
instructions as to the removal of such devices prior to field pressure

3.3 Copies of Manufacturers data report (complete or partial) and

facsimiles (photographs or pencil rubbings) of any required code

3.4 All drawings, lists and instructions shall be sent to the addresses
specified on the purchase documents.

3.5 Records as outlined below and fully identified with the specific
material they represent shall be available for examination by the
Buyer or his representative at the time of inspection. Certificates as
used herein mean certification by the material Supplier or, to the
extent his work or records permit, by the Seller.

3.6 Mill test report for primary pressure parts except pipe. Mill test
reports shall state the specification to which the material complies,
the heat or melt number, the test treatment (if any) and the results of
chemical analyses and physical tests. Certificates are acceptable for
heat treatment information missing on mill test reports.

3.7 Except as required by Subparagraph as above, certificates for

pressure and non-pressure part materials obtained from stock for
which mill test reports are not available and for bolting materials.

3.8 No records are required unless specified by code or the material

standard for pipe fittings and flanges provided they are made and
marked in accordance with an acceptable standard (such as ASME)
nor for pipe marked in accordance with the ASTM or ASME material
standard. Certificates are required when the markings are missing or
are removed during fabrication operation.

3.9 Welding procedures and the results of the welding procedure and
operator qualification tests.

3.10 Radiographic film for required radiographic tests and certificates for
the results of any required magnetic particle, fluid penetrant or other
methods of examination.

3.11 Charts or other records of required hydrostatic, pneumatic and other


3.12 Pyrometer charts or other detailed records of heat treatment

(postweld, normalizing, etc.).

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4.1 Expansion joint materials shall be specified on the data sheets and
shall conform to the requirements of the applicable code. All parts
requiring welding shall be of weldable quality.

4.2 Substitutions of materials for any parts or of different types of flanges

shall not be allowed without the Buyers prior written approval.

4.3 Seller shall purchase straight lengths of mill pipe to all the
requirements of the ASTM or the ASME specification and grade listed
on the data sheets and shall include any supplementary requirements
when such are specified on the data sheets.

4.4 Raised and flat face flanges shall be furnished with a stock, smooth,
spiral or concentric serrated gasket surface finish, as specified in the
purchase document.


5.1 Design Requirements

5.1.1 The Buyer will furnish data sheets specifying conditions of design and
in special cases showing the general arrangements of the expansion
joint assembly.

5.1.2 The following design requirement shall apply:

a) The specified offset and rotation movements shall be available

on each side of the joint centerline.

b) The specified axial, offset and rotation movements shall be

available simultaneously.

c) The hinge pins or hinged joints shall be provided with lubrication

grooves, a lubrication fitting and a device for locking the pin in

d) Hinged joints shall be provided with a pointer and a scale

graduated in degrees to indicate the angular movement.

e) Internal sleeves and external shields shall be provided when

required by the data sheets. All internal sleeves shall be
constructed so as to have minimum clearances between the
sleeve and the bellows. Internal sleeve shall be attached to the
upstream end. When joint is to be installed in the vertical and
the flow is up, Seller shall provide two diameter drain holes
180 apart at low point of sleeve.

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f) Limit stops and temporary positioning devices, when required,
shall be designed so as not to interfere with the installation or
removal of the joint from the piping system.

g) Expansion joints assemblies weighing more than 500 lb. shall be

provided with lifting lugs. If more than one lug is furnished each
lug shall be designed to carry the entire weight of the assembly.

h) The connections of bellows attached by welding to spool pieces

or flanges shall be designed so as to minimize bending or
thermal stresses in the attachment weld.

i) Tie rods, gimbals, and other pressure retaining attachments

shall be designed per EJMA standards and ASME B31.3 code.

5.1.3 The bellows thickness before forming shall not be less than 0.063 in.
(1.6 mm).

5.1.4 Bellows shall be limited to U type and shall be of single layer

construction, unless otherwise specified in the data sheets.

5.2 Design Life

5.2.1 The design life (Nc) in cycles as specified in the data sheets, shall be
ten times the anticipated cycles during the life of the unit but not less
than 100 cycles and not more than 100,000 cycles.

5.2.2 The design of the bellows shall be in accordance with the

requirements of ASME B31.3 using the stress formulas shown in
EJMA standards.

5.3 Bellows Stability

5.3.1 Bellows stability shall be verified in accordance with EJMA standards.


6.1 Unless another code, rule or regulation is specified, the fabrication

and heat treatment of all parts except bellows shall be in accordance
with ASME B31.3 and the requirements of this specification.

6.2 Bellows shall be formed from seamless tubing or longitudinally butt

welded cylinders. The finished longitudinal welds shall be of the same
thickness and same surface finish as the parent material.
Circumferentially welded seams shall be prohibited.

6.3 Expansion joints shall have all welds exposed to the flowing fluid
ground flush and smooth.

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6.4 Nickel and nickel copper alloy materials shall not be cut by oxygen or
electric arc processes.

6.5 All cold formed austenitic stainless steel bellows shall be

manufactured from L grade or stabilized grade, supplied in the fully
solution annealed condition.

6.6 For bellows fabricated of stabilized grades of stainless steel (321 or

347) the bellows element shall be given after forming, a stabilizing
heat treatment at 1650F - 1700F for an one hour hold time and
cooled in air.

6.7 Subsequent to this heat treatment, the bellows may be assembled in

the expansion joint assembly and may undergo a conventional
postweld heat treatment as per Paragraph 4.1 above.

6.8 The welding procedures and Welders shall be qualified to Section IX

of the ASME code for all pressure contained welds. The Welders
shall be qualified for the alloys welded.

6.9 The welding process, weld joint details, brand and type of electrodes,
preheat and postheat treatment, if any, used in the welding procedure
qualification tests shall also be used for all production welding.

6.10 Dimensional tolerances shall be in accordance with EJMA standards.


7.1 General

7.1.1 Inspection, pressure tests, and repairs shall be in accordance with

the applicable code except as modified below.

7.2 Inspection

7.2.1 In addition to any required code inspection, all fabrication and

material shall be subject to inspection by a representative of the

7.2.2 All butt welded joints shall be 100% radiographed per ASME Section

7.2.3 All other welds shall be examined 100% by the magnetic particle or
liquid penetrant methods. The examination and evaluation shall be in
accordance with Appendix 6 or 8 respectively of Section VIII Division
1 of the ASME code. Any surface irregularities which interfere with
the liquid penetrant examination shall be removed by grinding,
machining or wash blending with a tungsten inert gas (TIG) torch.
When the surface examined is of austenitic steel or nickel iron
chromium alloy materials having a design metal temperature above

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7500F, the liquid penetrant materials shall be tested for sulphur

7.2.4 When welds produced under a given welding procedure prove

consistently defective, suitable revisions shall be made to the

7.3 Testing

7.3.1 The complete expansion joint assembly shall be hydrostatically tested

in accordance with the ASME B31.3. Tie rods and other pressure
retaining attachments shall be tested along with the joint. The test
pressure shall be held constant for a minimum of one hour.

7.3.2 The test water shall not be detrimental to the equipment or materials.
When the test system includes items of austenitic materials only
clean potable water shall be used. Expansion joints with austenitic or
straight chromium steel materials shall be drained immediately after
test and dried by blowing with air.

7.4 Repairs

7.4.1 All defects requiring repair shall be corrected in accordance with the
applicable code.


8.1 Cleaning

8.2 On completion of fabrication and prior to shipment, the Seller shall

clean the inside and outside of completed joint assemblies of all loose
scale, dirt, sand, weld spatter, cutting, chips, etc., by any suitable
means. The assembly shall then be blown out with compressed air
and the inside of the assembly inspected for cleanliness. All open
ends shall be suitably closed to prevent the entrance of foreign matter
after cleaning and during shipment.

8.3 Painting

8.3.1 Expansion joints (except bellows elements) on completion of

inspection and testing shall be painted with 2 coats of synthetic
enamel/ aluminium paint/ silicon paint suitable to withstand operating
temperature of bellow. All pressure welds in expansion joints (except
bellows elements) that have not been shop pressure tested shall be
kept free of paint by taping the welds after completing the required
surface preparation. The tapes shall be left in place after the painting
operation is completed.

8.3.2 All weld bevels on the ends of carbon or ferritic alloy steel piping
components that are to be welded by others shall be coated on the

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inside and outside for a distance of 3 in. from the end of the
component with Deoxaluminite (Special Chemicals Corporation) or

8.3.3 All exposed gasket surfaces shall be coated with an easily removable
protective coating, such as Rust-Veto No. 342 (Houghton Fluid
Technology & Service Worldwide) or equal.


9.1 The Seller shall attach a metal nameplate of corrosion resistant

material to the expansion joint, bearing the following information:

Purchase order
Tag (item) number
Manufacturers name
Type and size of expansion joint
Design pressure and temperature
Design movements
Maximum allowable test pressure

9.2 The expansion joint shall be plainly marked in white paint with the
item number and an engraved arrow indicating the direction of line

9.3 Impression stamping on bellows material shall not be used.

9.4 The Seller shall provide temporary positioning devices for holding the
joint in the required installation position during shipment and erection.
The device shall be of metal and may be in the form of tie rods or any
other suitable construction. The devices shall be painted fluorescent
red and tagged with instructions for their adjustment or removal prior
to field pressure testing of the piping system.

9.5 Joint shall be protected against damage during shipment. All

threaded connections shall be plugged with steel plugs.

9.6 Each item crate, box, bag, etc., shall, in addition to the address, be
durably marked with the Buyers complete purchase order number.
Containers shall be marked to show the contents thereof.

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Sl. Description Details Remarks

1. Code no.
2. Manufacturers type number
3. Quantity
4. Unit weight Kg *
5. Standards or requirements EJMA
6. Line no. or Location
7. Installation (Vertical/ Horizontal)
8. Fluid
9. Operating/ design pressure Kg/cm2(g)

10. Vacuum Kg/cm2(g)

11. Test pressure Kg/cm2(g)
12. Operating/ design temperature C
13. Installation temperature C

14. Type of expansion joint (Axial/

15. Construction (Single Ply/ Multi *
16. Nominal diameter of pipe MM
17. Assembly Length (Max. length MM
available for installation) (BL)
18. Material
19. Wall thickness MM *
20. Corrosion Allowance (For MM
Metallic parts)
21. Max. Width MM *
Expansion Joint

22. Absorption capacity for axial MM

23. Absorption capacity for Lateral MM
24. Absorption capacity for Angular MM
25. Spring rate axial (Max.) N/MM
26. Spring rate lateral (Max.) N/ MM
27. Spring rate Angular (Max.) N/ MM
28. Effective Area CM2 *
29. Internal sleeve/ material Yes/ No
30. External Cover Yes/ No
31. Drain Nozzle Yes/ No
32. Cold Spring Yes/ No
33. Painting of Elements (For Yes/ No
metallic parts)

34. Flanged connection to din/


ANSI BS and Fl. Facing


35. Quantity of flanges


36. PN
37. DN Inch

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38. Socket welding end
39. Butt welding end : OD X Wall MM/ Inch
40. Quantity of Butt Welding ends
41. Material
42. Standard for butt welding end
43. Threaded end

44. Inspection: Third Party


1. * To be specified by manufacturer.
2. Tie rods should be designed for pressure thrust.
3. The inner nut & outer nut of limit rod should have gap of 10 mm & 0 mm
respectively for movement of bellow.

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