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The Elasticity and Inertia of the medium play important role in the propagation

of wave. The elasticity brings the particle momentarily at rest in their extreme positions,

while inertia carries them across their equilibrium positions.

The phase difference between two neighbouring particles must depend on their

interaction (nature of bonding)

Transverse Wave - Only in solids (having rigidity), in liquids possible only on the

surface.

Longitudinal Wave

particles themselves.

Wave transmits energy and momentum.

y = a sin t

At present

y = a sin (t x/v) [for Harmonic wave]. In general, y = f (vt x)

= a sin 2 (t x/v)

= a sin 2v/(t x/v)

= a sin 2/(vt x)

t x)

= a sin 2/(

T

= a sin 2(t/T x/)

You need to mug up only this > y = A sin (t kx)

pressure Difference (pressure wave Ex. Sound Wave), c) E- Field or B-Field (EM Wave)

The 4 equations

y = A sin(t kx)

y = A sin(t + kx)

y = -A sin(t kx)

y = -A sin(t + kx)

Few Terms:

a) Amplitude, A

b) Time period, T

c) Frequency, f or ; = 2

d) Phase: In y = f (vt x), phase is vt x. For any point, this quantity is constant.

Putting vt x = constt, phase vel. or wave velocity is obtained by dx/dt = v

e) Wavelength, ; propagation constant, k = 2/

f) Particle velocity, dy/dt = A cos(t kx) = A2 cos(t kx),

g) maximum particle velocity = A

h) Wave speed Vw = = /k = In general dx/dt

i) particle acceleration, maximum particle acceleration

[IIT84] A transverse wave is given by y = yo sin 2(ft x/). The max. particle velocity

is equal to four times the wave velocity if _____ ( = yo/2)

of B, c) values of , k, d) speed of wave

[IIT screening 2004] A source of sound of frequency 600 Hz is placed inside water.

Speed of sound in water is 1500 m/s and in air is 300 m/s. The frequency of sound

recorded by on observer who is standing in air is _____ (600 Hz, as frequency does not

change from one medium to another)

[IIT2005, 2M] A harmonically moving transverse wave on a string has max. particle

velocity and acceleration of 3 m/s and 90 m/s2 respectively. Velocity of the wave is 20

m/s. Find the waveform. [Ans. y = (0.1) sin [(30 t + 1.5x + )]

Particle velocity, dy/dt = Aw cos(t kx) = A2f cos(t kx)

Slope, dy/dx = -Ak cos(t kx) = -2A/ cos(t kx)

dy/dx represents strain or compression. When dy/dx is positive a rarefaction takes place, when

dy/dx is negative a compression takes place.

So, particle velocity dy/dt = -V (dy/dx) = wave velocity x slope of displacement curve

2y 2 y

2

Differentiating twice we get V

t2 x2

Other Forms:

The general form of a wave travelling towards right is y = f (vt x)

The general form of a wave travelling towards left is y = f (vt + x)

So, general form of a progressive wave is y = f (vt x).

It has to be x + vt, x vt, vt + x, vt x. so (x vt)2 and (x vt) represent wave but x2

v2t2 does not. Also it has to be finite everywhere at all times. If it is in form of vt x ot

vt + x then its direction of propagation can be straightway made out.

Its differential forms are (means that if a function satisfies these conditions, then it

represents a wave):

y y

V

t x

y

2

2 y

2

V

t2 x2

Q. Which of the following represents one-dimensional wave equations?

a) y = 4 sin x cos vt, b) y = 9 sin 2x cos vt, c) y = x2 v2t2, d) y = 2x 5t

2y 2 2y

a) = - V y, = - y. Hence it represents a wave motion.

t2 x2

2y 2 2y

b) = - V y, = - 4y. Hence it does NOT represents a wave motion.

t2 x2

2y 2 y

2

c) = - 2V , = 2. Hence it does NOT represents a wave motion.

t2 x2

y y

d) = - 5, = 2. Hence it represents a wave motion with v = 5/2.

t x

0.8

[IIT99] y(x, t) = represents a non-periodic travelling pulse. What is the

(4 x 5t ) 2 5

velocity of the pulse and its direction of motion? What is the maximum displacement (or

amplitude) in this moving pulse? [1.25 m/s, -ve X-axis as it is of form x + vt, 0.16

m]Bring it in form of x + vt by taking 4 common.

Q. If at t=0 a travelling pulse is described as y = 6 / (x2 + 3), what will be the amplitude

and wave function representing the pulse at time t, if the pulse is propagating along

positive x axis with speed 4 m/s? [6/3 = 2 m, y = 6 / [(x - 4t)2 + 3]

Q. If y = 3 / (2x + 3t)2 determine the wave velocity and its direction of propagation.

[1.5 m/s, towards ve x-axis as it is of form x + vt]

Q. y = ln (x + vt) and y = 1 / (x + vt) do not represent wave as they are not finite for all

values of x and t.

B) Speed of mechanical waves

for transverse waves (on a String), v = (T/) [Derivation on pg. 307, HCV1]

Diagram of sonometer experiment

T might have to be found (ex acc sys in sono expt)

T might be diff at diff pt (vertical string with mass)

Instead of Mg, it might be P pulling it

for longitudinal waves

v = (E/) . For waves passing through solids and liquids, E = B,

for 1-D (waves in a rod) E = Y

P

For gases v = (Newtons formula)

P

Laplaces correction, v =

[IIT96] The extension in a string obeying Hookes law is x. The speed of the transverse

wave in the stretched string is v. if the extension in the string is increased to 1.5x, the

speed of the transverse wave will be ____ (1.22 v)

RT

Effect of temperature using PV = nRT, V =

M

Effect of Pressure If T is constant, then velocity is independent of Pressure

Effect of Humidity The presence of moisture in air decreases the density of air. So

velocity of sound in moist air is more than V in dry air.

Effect of frequency No effect

[IIT 1984, 6M] A uniform rope of length 12 m and mass 6 kg hangs vertically from a rigid support. A block

of mass 2 kg is attached to the free end of the rope. A transverse pulse of wavelength 0.06 m is produced at

the lower end of the rope. What is the wavelength of the pulse when it reaches the top of the rope? [Ans.

0.12 m]

Energy, Intensity, Power transmitted along the string by a sine wave: Covered later

For a cylindrical source I 1/r

C) Interference of Waves

First we discuss, superposition of two waves, moving in the same direction, differing in

phase by .

y1 = A1 sin (t kx)

y2 = A2 sin [(t kx) + ]

The result is that the interference of two waves gives rise to another wave of

Amplitude R = A12 A2 2 2 A1 A2 cos

R is max. when = 0, 2 , 4 In general, =2n where n = 0, 1, 2, 3

& the maximum value of R is, Rmax = A1 + A2

R is min. when = , 3 , 5 In general, =(2n-1) where n = 1, 2, 3

& the minimum value of R is, Rmin = A1 A2

Q. If Rmax / Rmin is given, find ratio A1/A2

As Intensity I = kA2 , so the same questions can be asked in terms of I1 and I2 also.

Reflection and Transmision

[NOTE wave gets reflected from BOTH denser as well as rarer medium. Proof Total

Internal Reflection. Actually at the INTERFACE, both reflection and transmission

occurs. How much of which one occurs depends!]

Rarer Denser

y = Ai sin (t x/v1) y = At sin (t x/v2)

Reflected wave

y = -Ar sin (t + x/v1)

INTERFACE

Denser Rarer

Reflected wave, Ar

NOTE Phase change of occurs only when reflection occurs from a denser medium

In case of a string Rarer medium might mean a thin string, and a denser medium mean

a thick string.

Also reflection from a very-very dense medium might be reflection from a fixed end (the

wall to which the string is fixed acts as the denser medium). Reflection from a very-very

rarer end might mean a free end.

V2 V1 2V2

Ar = Ai At = Ai

V2 V1 V2 V1

In case of sound, a closed end of a pipe corresponds to fixed end of a string, an open end

of pipe corresponds to free end of a string.

Let us now consider superposition of two waves moving in opposite directions, either

reflected from a denser medium or from a rarer medium. Lets also assume that the

amplitude of incident and reflected wave remain the same (A)

y2 = - A sin(t - kx) y2 = A sin(t - kx)

Ex. Wave on a guitar string Ex. Holding string in hand

Here y represents the resulting displacement due to two waves, of a particle at x, at time t

It is an SHM of amplitude 2A sin(kx) or of 2A cos(kx) [Amplitude depending on position

x of the particle] Proof the motion of particle at sin(kx) = 1 is y = - 2A cos(t)

Case 1 (Reflection from a free end) y = (2A cos kx)(sin t)

This is SHM [Single sine function in time] The term 2A cos kx represents the amplitude.

1. All points do not have the same amplitude. The value of amplitude ranges from 0 to

2A. In general, amplitude , A = 2A cos(kx)

2. There are some points (some values of x) for which cos kx is zero. For these points, y

= 0, whatever be the value of t. (So these points never move. These are the points whose

amplitudes are zero). These are called nodes. So the positions of nodes are obtained by

putting cos kx = 0.

3. There are points (some values of x) for which cos kx = 1. For these points amplitudes

are maximum (equal to 2A). These are called anti-nodes.

4. There are times when sin t = 0. At these times, y = 0 for any value of x. So all points

pass through the mean position together.

5. There are times when sin t = 1. The displacements of all particles at these times

depends on their position and is equal to their amplitudes. So, all particles reach their

extreme positions together.

6. All particles between two nodes, move in the same direction. After that (on the two

sides of a node) the particles move in different directions.

stationary wave such that x = 0 is a node. The equation for the other wave is _____

Now, let us learn how to draw standing waves.

[Then we will calculate their frequencies]

Rules for drawing standing waves

Rule 1 A Fixed end has to be a Node.

Rule 2 Between two Nodes, there must be an anti-node, and vice-versa.

Rule 3 A free end has to be an anti-node.

1st Harmonic OR

Fundamental Note

2nd Harmonic OR

1st Overtone

other end is free

3rd Harmonic OR

1st overtone

2nd overtone

1st Harmonic OR

Fundamental Note

2nd Harmonic OR

1st Overtone

Let us now calculate the frequencies of various modes drawn above for string.

Result

If both ends are free, OR if Both ends are fixed (i.e Both Ends are similar)

Fundamental note, 0 = v/2L

And all Harmonics are present. (2nd harmonic means 2 x 0,

3rd harmonic mean 3 x 0 etc.

Harmonic mean that multiple of fundamental frequency ex. 7th harmonic is 7 x 0

As All harmonics are present, so the 1st overtone is the 2nd harmonic, the 2nd overtone is

the 3rd harmonic etc.

Fundamental note, 0 = v/4L

And only ODD Harmonics are present. (i.e. 3rd, 5th, 7th etc.)

As only ODD harmonics are present, so the 1st overtone is the 3rd harmonic, the 2nd

overtone is the 5th harmonic etc.

[OVERTONE means the next possible standing wave]

For a rod fixed in between, the ends will always be anti-nodes, and the fixed point in

between will be a node.

For sound waves, instead of displacement, we talk of pressure difference. The discussion

is exactly the same except that nodes and anti-nodes interchange their positions.

In case of Resonance with Sound waves in organ pipes, there are only two cases

Both Ends open [Open Organ Pipe] or One End Closed [Closed Organ Pipe]

An open end is a Displacement Anti-Node [pressure node]

For each open end e = 0.6r.

for a closed pipe, L L + e

for an open pipe, L L + 2e

same direction)

If there are two sources of frequencies n1 and n2, then number of Beats

n = | n1 n2 |

It means that n times in a second that there will be waxing and waning of sound.

It is also referred to as Beat Frequency.

Loading a tuning fork: Frequency of tuning fork decreases

[IIT81] A cylindrical tube, open at both ends, has a fundamental frequency f in air. The

tube is dipped vertically in water so that half of its length is in water. The fundamental

frequency of the air column is now ____ (f)

[IIT86] A tube closed at one end and containing air produces the fundamental note of

frequency 512 Hz. If the tube is opened at both ends the fundamental frequency that can

be excited (in Hz) is _____ (1024 Hz)

[IIT88] An organ pipe P1 closed at one end vibrating in its first harmonic and another

pipe P2 open at both ends vibrating in its third harmonic are in resonance with a given

tuning fork. The ratio of length of P1 and P2 is ______ (1/6)

[IIT95] An object of specific gravity is hung from a thin steel wire. The fundamental

frequency for transverse standing waves in the wire is 300Hz. The object is immersed in

water so that half of its volume is submerged. The new fundamental frequency in Hz is

2 1 1/ 2

____ {300 [ ] }

2

[IIT96] An open pipe is suddenly closed at one end with the result that the frequency of

third harmonic of the closed pipe is found to be higher by 100 Hz than the fundamental

frequency of the open pipe. The fundamental frequency of the open pipe is __ (200Hz)

[IIT98] A string of length 0.4m and mass 10-2 kg is tightly clamped at its ends. The

tension in the string is 1.6 N. Identical wave pulses are produced at one end at equal

intervals of time t. The minimum value of t which allows constructive interference

between successive pulses is _____ (0.10 s)

[IIT2000] Two vibrating strings of the same material but of lengths L and 2L have radii

2r and r respectively. They are stretched under the same tension. Both the strings vibrate

in their fundamental mode. The one of length L with frequency 1 and the other with

frequency 2. The ratio of 1/ 2 is ____ (1)

[IIT2002] A sonometer wire resonates with a given tuning fork forming standing waves

with five antinodes between the two bridges when a mass of 9 kg is suspended from the

wire. When this mass is replaced by mass M, the wire resonates with the same tuning

fork forming three antinodes for the same position of bridges. The value of M is __(25kg)

[IIT2006] A massless rod is suspended by two identical strings AB and CD of equal

length. A block of mass m is suspended from point O such that BO is equal to x.

Further it is observed that the frequency of 1st harmonic (fundamental frequency) in AB

is equal to 2nd harmonic frequency in CD. Then the length BO is Ans. L/5

A C

B O D

x L-x

m

[IIT2008]

The pressure wave in detail: Let us consider two cross sections of area A at x and x+x.

If they travel different distances in time t then compression or rarefaction takes place.

Lets say plane1 travels distance y, then dy/dx represents rate of change of displacement

with distance. So the displacement of plane2 is y +(dy/dx) x.

The change in volume between the planes can be shown to be (dy/dx) Ax.

Volume strain = change in volume / Initial volume = [(dy/dx) Ax] / [Ax] = dy/dx

As the wave has created a volume strain in air between the planes, so there is variation of

pressure too. From B = stress / strain = -p / (dy/dx) where p is excess pressure, change

in pressure (or excess pressure), p = -B (dy/dx)

dy/dx also represents the slope of the displacement wave. Hence in pressure wave

(longitudinal wave) the slope of displacement curve dy/dx measures pressure change

(compression or rarefaction) at that point. When dy/dx is negative, p is positive

(compression); when dy/dx is positive, p is negative (rarefaction)

If p is the instantaneous change in pressure at point x, then

p = -B(dy/dx) = (-B) [-2/] A cos 2/( vwt x)

2 Vw 2 A

= (-Vw2) [-2/] A cos 2/( vwt x) = cos 2/( vwt x)

= po cos 2/( vwt x),

2 Vw 2 A

where po = = 2 A Vw represents the pressure amplitude.

The pressure wave is 90o out of phase with displacement wave i.e. when displacement at

a point is zero, the pressure change is maximum and vice-versa.

By measuring dy/dx at different points x on a displacement curve, the corresponding

values of p = -V2 (dy/dx) can be obtained. Then a curve may be plotted between p and

x. This would be the pressure curve.

Potential Energy per unit volume = (1/4)2A2

Total Energy per unit volume (Energy Density) = (1/2)2A2 = 22 2 A2

Energy Current or Wave Intensity : All progressive waves transmit energy. The energy

flowing per second per unit area perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation is

called Energy flux or Energy current or Wave Intensity.

As the wave travels distance Vw per second, so

po 2

Wave Intensity, I = Energy density x wave velocity = 2 A Vw =

2 2 2

2 Vw

[IIT2001] The ends of a stretched wire of length L are fixed at x=0 and x=L. In one

experiment the displacement of the wire is y1 = A sin (x/L)sin(wt) and the energy is E1

and in the other is y2 = A sin (2x/L)sin(2wt) and energy is E2. Then____ (E2 = 4E1)

{VSound Vmedium } Vobserver

Apparent Actual [ ]

Doppler Effect:

{VSound Vmedium } VSource

Rules

1. Towards => Apparent frequency increases; Away => App. frequency decreases

2. Source comes in denominator, Observer comes in numerator

3. When moving perpendicular, take component of velocity along/away the line

joining source and observer. Whenever you get component of velocity along or

away, then Doppler effect will be there.

4. Dealing with reflection cases: Treat it as a case of reflection from mirror with wall

being the mirror. Now the image will act as source of sound.

5. If reflection takes from a moving car etc then it is equivalent to :

S (v=0) v

S(v = v) S (v = v)

Questions on Dopplers effect

1. [2005, 2M] An observer standing on a railway crossing receives frequency of 2.2

kHz and 1.8 kHz when the train approaches and recedes from the observer. Find

the velocity of the train. Vsound = 330 m/s. [Ans. 30 m/s]

2. [IIT2003, 2M]

3. [1981, 4M] A source of sound of frequency 256 Hz is moving rapidly towards a

wall with a velocity of 5 m/s. How many beats per second will be heard by the

observer on source itself if Vsound = 330 m/s? [Ans. 7.87 Hz]

4. [1997, 5M] A band playing music at a frequency f is moving towards a wall at a

speed Vb. A motorist is following the band with a speed Vm. If V is the speed of

sound, obtain expression for the beat frequency heard by the motorist.

2V f (V Vm )

[Ans. b 2 ]

(V Vb2 )

5. [1996, 3M] A whistle emitting sound of frequency 440 Hz is tied to a string of

length 1.5 m and rotated with an angular velocity of 20 rad/s in the horizontal

plane. Calculate the range of frequencies heard by an observer stationed at a large

distance from the whistle? Vsound = 330 m/s. [403.3 Hz to 484 Hz]

6. [1990, 7M] A source of sound is moving in a circle of r = 3 m with w = 10 rad/s.

A sound detector located far away from the source is executing linear SHM along

the line BD (see figure) with amplitude BC = CD = 6m. The frequency of

oscillation of the detector is 5/ per sec. The source is at A when the detector is at

B. If source frequency is 340 Hz, find the maximum and minimum frequencies

recorded by the detector. Vsound = 340 m/s. [Ans. 438.7 Hz, 257.3 Hz]

6m 6m

A B C D

r=3m

7. [2001, 10M] A boat is traveling in a river with a speed of 10 m/s along the stream

flowing with a speed of 2 m/s. From this boat a sound transmitter is lowered into

the river through a rigid support. The wavelength of sound emitted from the

transmitter inside water is 14.45 mm. Assume attenuation to be negligible.

a) What will be the frequency detected by a receiver kept inside the river

downstream? [Ans. 1.0069x105 Hz]

b) The transmitter and the receiver are now pulled up into air. The air is

blowing with a speed of 5 m/s in the direction opposite to stream.

Determine the frequency of sound detected by the receiver? [Ans.

1.0304x105 Hz]

(Temperature of air and water = 200C; Density of water = 103 kg/m3. Bwater =

2.088x109 Pa; Gas constant, R = 8.31 J/mol-K; Mean molecular mass of air =

28.8x10-3 kg/mol; CP / CV for air = 1.4)

8. [1988, 5M]A train is approaching a hill at a speed of 40 km/hr sounds a whistle of

frequency 580 Hz when it is at a distance of 1 km from a hill. A wind with a

speed of 40 km/hr is blowing in the direction of motion of the train. Find

a) The frequency of the whistle as heard by an observer on the hill,

b) the distance from the hill at which the echo from the hill is heard by the

driver and its frequency. Vsound = 1200 km/hr.

[Ans. a) 599.33 Hz, b) 0.935 km, 621.43 Hz]

9. [1986, 8M] Two tuning forks with natural frequencies of 340 Hz each move

relative to a stationary observer. One fork moves away from the observer, while

the other moves towards him at the same speed. The observer hears beats of

frequency 3 Hz. Find the speed of the tuning fork. [Ans. 1.5 m/s]

10. [1983, 6M] A sonometer wire under tension of 64 N vibrating in its fundamental

mode is in resonance with a vibrating tuning fork. The vibrating portion of the

sonometer wire has a length of 10 cm and a mass of 1 g. The vibrating tuning fork

is now moved away from the vibrating wire with a constant speed and an observer

standing near the sonometer hears one beat per second. Calculate the speed with

which the tuning fork is moved if the speed of sound = 300 m/s. [Ans. 0.075 m/s]

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