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Performance of centrifugal

pump
CONTENTS
Table of figures 2

Objective 3

Introduction 3

Theory 4

Observed result 5

Sample calculation 10

Discussion of the result 11

Conclusion 11

References 12

Table of figures
Figure1: Schematic diagram of Centrifugal pump (Frank M White.2008) 4

Figure2. Experimental calculation for pump 1(30HZ) 5

Figure3. Operating characteristic curve of pump1 6

Figure4. Experimental calculation for pump 1(40HZ) 7

Figure5. Operating characteristic curve of pump1 7

Figure6. Experimental calculation for pump 1&2 in series (40HZ) 8

Figure7. Operating characteristic curve of pump1&2 in series arrangement 8

Figure8. Experimental calculation for pump 1&2 parallel (40HZ) 9

Figure9. Operating characteristic curve of pump1&2 in parallel arrangement 11


OBJECTIVE

1) To obtain a set of head vs discharge curves for a centrifugal pump operating at a range of
pump speeds, and to relate those parameters to pump efficiency.
2) To predict the head flow characteristic at one pump speed from those measured at
another.
3) To demonstrate the operating characteristics of two pumps running in a series pumping
installation
4) To demonstrate the operating characteristics conditions of two pumps
running in a parallel arrangement.
INTRODUCTION

Pump is a device which develops hydraulic energy from mechanical energy. This hydraulic
energy is acting in the form of pressure energy. So in a centrifugal pump mechanical energy is
converted to pressure energy by the help of centrifugal action which developed in the pump. In
this pump the flow is takes place as reversed inward radial flow. The flow in the centrifugal
pump will be radial outward direction. Forced vortex flow is the principle of centrifugal pump
which means that when a certain mass of liquid is rotated by an external torque, the rotating
liquid imparts some pressure rise. The pressure head which rises at any point of a rotating field is
directly proportional to the square of tangential velocity of the liquid at that point. (Bansal,2006)

Figure 1: Schematic diagram of Centrifugal pump (Frank M White.2008)

THEORY
Characteristic curves of this pump are plotted from number of tests which are used to predict
the behavior and performance of the pump when the pump is working under different volume
flow rate speed and head. The characteristic curves of centrifugal pumps are main characteristic
curve, operating characteristic curves and constant efficiency curves. The main characteristic
curve of a centrifugal pump composed of head, power and discharge to speed. If we keep speed
as constant, the variation of power, manometric head and efficiency with respect to discharge
gives the operating characteristic of centrifugal pump. For getting constant efficiency curve, head
vs discharge and efficiency vs discharge for different speed are used. The speed kept as constant.

(Yunus A Cengel et al,2006)


Observed results
PUMP1 (30Hz)

Pump Motor Motor Volu Pump Pump Overal


Desc: Orifice Water 1 1 1 me 1 1 l
press tempera Press efficie
ure ture ure speed power flow total power ncy
outpu
drop drop rate head t
Variabl
es: dpo Tw dpp1 n1 Pgr1 Qv Hd P Egr
[SPW1 [SPW3 [SSO1 [SWA1
] [STSI] ] ] ]
m^3/
Units: kPa deg C kPa Hz Watts s m Watts %
1:12:5 4.073 26.4386 21.01 29.75 195.8 7.89E 2.236 17.25 8.8089
8 923 9 135 085 964 -04 735 632 01
1:14:0 2.659 26.4924 30.10 30.45 175.8 6.38E 3.166 19.73 11.223
8 834 3 28 432 671 -04 476 926 96
1:14:2 2.440 26.4924 29.09 30.36 175.8 6.11E 3.063 18.29 10.401
8 987 3 264 639 671 -04 171 285 52
1:15:1 1.498 26.5461 31.71 29.89 151.9 4.79E 3.332 15.59 10.261
7 261 6 906 741 297 -04 643 017 44
1:15:5 0.875 26.5461 34.44 30.10 128.7 3.66E 3.611 12.91 10.032
8 388 6 65 259 25 -04 641 438 53
1:16:1 0.505 33.84 29.80 114.0 2.78E 3.549 9.640 8.4516
8 032 26.5999 04 948 694 -04 642 783 84
1:16:3 0.252 35.65 30.68 99.41 1.96E 3.735 7.174 7.2165
3 516 26.5999 869 881 378 -04 641 272 77
1:16:4 0.151 36.97 30.33 86.46 1.52E 3.869 5.757 6.6579
7 51 26.5999 19 708 8 -04 972 001 55
1:17:0 0.151 36.16 29.86 82.80 1.52E 3.787 5.634 6.8040
6 51 26.5999 377 81 411 -04 307 026 42

FIGURE 2: Experimental calculation for pump1 (30HZ)


Operating Characteristic Curves
25

20

15
Efficiency vs Flow rate
10 Power VS Flowrate
Efficiency(%), Power(W) and Head(m)
Head Vs Flow rate
5

Discharge (m^3/s)

Figure3: Operating characteristic curve of pump1

PUMP1 (40Hz)

Pump Motor Motor Volu Pump Pump Overal


Desc: Orifice Water 1 1 1 me 1 1 l
pressu temperat Pressu efficie
re ure re speed power flow total power ncy
drop drop rate head output
Variabl
es: dpo Tw dpp1 n1 Pgr1 Qv Hd P Egr
[SPW1 [SPW3 [SSO1 [SWA1
] [STSI] ] ] ]
m^3/
Units: kPa deg C kPa Hz Watts s m Watts %
1:02:4 7.104 37.47 39.95 236.6 1.04E 3.920 39.94 16.875
7 114 25.84758 698 115 878 -03 599 245 58
1:04:1 4.898 47.37 40.12 215.4 8.65E 4.932 41.73 19.371
6 808 26.00879 656 701 372 -04 983 325 42
1:05:0 4.343 49.49 40.06 208.1 8.15E 5.149 41.02 19.712
8 274 26.06253 79 839 094 -04 923 387 64
1:06:1 3.568 54.04 40.15 189.3 7.38E 5.614 40.54 21.417
3 891 26.17 362 633 014 -04 793 411 75
1:07:0 2.508 56.26 40.03 175.6 6.19E 5.842 35.36 20.137
4 324 26.22374 598 908 229 -04 063 596 45
1:08:0 1.733 58.48 40.06 162.1 5.15E 6.069 30.54 18.834
2 942 26.33121 833 839 886 -04 334 82 99
1:08:4 1.212 60.30 40.09 146.5 4.30E 6.255 26.32 17.961
6 076 26.33121 663 771 559 -04 281 323 22
1:09:2 0.673 60.71 40.06 126.7 3.21E 6.296 19.74 15.579
4 376 26.38495 069 839 709 -04 603 979 12
1:09:5 0.286 61.41 40.44 110.8 2.09E 6.368 13.02 11.743
2 185 26.38495 78 944 94 -04 917 315 78
1:10:2 8.42E- 63.23 40.12 95.01 1.13E 6.554 7.269 7.6502
5 02 26.43869 609 701 71 -04 864 002 05
1:10:5 0.101 68.08 40.03 88.17 1.24E 7.052 8.566 9.7147
1 006 26.5999 487 908 782 -04 617 295 95

Figure4. Experimental calculation for pump1 (40HZ)

Operating Charachteristic curves


45
40
35
30
25
Power vs Flowrate
20
Head vs Flowrate
Efficiency(%),Power(W) and Head(m) 15
Efficiency vs flow rate
10
5
0

Discharge (m^3/s)

Figure5: Operating characteristic curve of pump1

From the result obtained from the graph plotted as the speed increases centrifugal pump head
increases. The graph shows the head of centrifugal pump decreases with increase in discharge.
The head obtained in the 40Hz pump speed for a particular discharge is less when the same pump
work under the speed of 30Hz. Efficiency curves shows that the value increases to maximum for
a particular discharge and then decreases. The power of the centrifugal pump also increases to
maximum and then decreases.

Series Pump Operation


From the result obtained from the graph of centrifugal pump with a speed of 40Hz, the head will
be double if the pump connected in series. For each discharge considered in the graph the head
will be twice of the head plotted in the operating characteristic curve. The maximum head will be
around 12m and minimum would be 8m.

Orific Volu Serie Serie Serie Serie


Desc: e Water me s s s s
press temper powe powe pump
ure ature flow total r r s
outpu efficie
drop rate head t input ncy
Varia
bles: dpo Tw Qv Ht Pt Pgr Egr
[SPW
1] [STSI]
m^3
Units: kPa deg C /s m Watts Watts %
2:26:0 8.248 28.8031 1.12 5.417 59.45 489.2 12.15
2 853 3 E-03 718 08 526 135
2:27:2 7.238 29.0180 1.05 7.185 73.86 467.7 15.79
4 789 7 E-03 713 647 577 161
2:28:2 5.420 29.2330 9.10 8.953 79.64 435.0 18.30
7 674 2 E-04 709 787 269 873
2:29:4 4.090 29.3942 7.91 10.29 79.57 398.6 19.96
0 757 3 E-04 78 761 321 267
2:30:5 2.777 29.5554 6.52 10.56 67.29 373.9 17.99
4 675 5 E-04 978 552 619 529
2:31:4 2.474 29.6629 6.15 11.41 68.61 352.4 19.46
9 656 2 E-04 784 53 67 715
2:32:3 1.868 5.35 12.00 62.70 320.9 19.53
1 618 29.7704 E-04 735 28 575 617
2:34:1 1.144 29.9316 4.18 12.27 50.17 299.7 16.74
3 739 1 E-04 625 627 069 178
2:34:4 0.538 29.9853 2.87 13.09 36.71 236.6 15.51
6 701 4 E-04 328 148 878 051
2:35:2 0.319 30.0390 2.21 12.61 27.26 213.4 12.76
2 854 8 E-04 754 025 832 928
2:35:5 0.151 30.2002 1.52 14.23 21.16 176.8 11.96
4 51 9 E-04 093 084 442 581
Figure6. Experimental calculation for pump 1&2 in series (40HZ)

From the graph the net head during a series operation is the summation of individual head
obtained. As a sample output consider volume flow rate of 6 E^(-4) (m^3/s) The head obtained
for series operation is 11.5m .The output we obtained in the single graph under 40Hz operation at
this particular flow rate is around 6 meters which give a meter head of around 12 when
connected in series. Thus the both results are matching with negligible errors.

Head vs Discharge (Series)


16

14

12

10
Pump 1
8 pump 2
Head,m
Pump 1 & Pump 2 Series
6

0
0.00E+00 5.00E-04 1.00E-03 1.50E-03

Discharge,m^3/s

Figure7: Operating characteristic curve ofpump1&2 in series

Parallel Pump Operation


From the result obtained from the graph of centrifugal pump with a speed of 40Hz, the discharge
will be double if the pump connected in parallel for a constant head. For each head considered in
the graph the discharge will be twice of the discharge plotted in the operating characteristic
curve. The discharge will be around 16 E^(-4) (m^3/s) at a constant head 5 m, provided parallel
connection of the same pumps.

Orific Volu Confi


Desc: e Water me Total Total Total Total g.
press tempera efficie parall
ure ture flow head power power ncy el (P)
outpu
drop rate t input or
singl
e (S)
Variabl
es: dpo Tw Qv Hd P Pgr Egr
[SPW
1] [STSI]
Units: kPa deg C m?/s m Watts Watts %
1:35:5 24.29 27.7283 1.93 4.644 87.47 451.8 19.35
0 203 8 E-03 474 337 808 762 -1
1:36:3 19.15 27.8358 1.71 5.282 88.35 423.7 20.84
6 754 6 E-03 657 471 909 866 -1
1:37:0 15.47 27.9433 1.54 5.614 84.38 400.5 21.06
2 081 3 E-03 69 976 862 656 -1
1:37:1 11.90 27.9433 1.35 6.017 79.33 370.5 21.40
3 192 3 E-03 715 183 423 966 -1
1:37:2 7.440 27.9970 1.07 6.338 66.06 337.3 19.58
3 801 7 E-03 028 501 229 509 -1
1:37:3 4.629 27.9970 8.41 6.721 55.26 294.0 18.79
3 458 7 E-04 959 732 889 272 -1
1:37:5 2.794 28.0508 6.54 6.350 40.56 260.3 15.57
3 509 1 E-04 398 591 81 944 -1
1:38:0 1.952 28.0508 5.46 6.349 33.90 249.1 13.60
7 79 1 E-04 792 742 451 951 -1
1:38:3 0.875 28.1045 3.66 6.620 23.67 220.3 10.74
1 388 4 E-04 652 057 224 36 -1
1:38:5 0.168 28.2120 1.60 7.228 11.33 176.5 6.417
0 344 2 E-04 323 297 999 314 -1
Figure8. Experimental calculation for pump 1&2 parallel (40HZ)
Head vs Discharge (Parallel)
8
7
6
5
Pumps parallel
Head,m 4
Pump 1
3
2
1
0
0.00E+00 1.00E-03 2.00E-03 3.00E-03

Discharge ,m^3/s

Figure9: Operating characteristic curve of pump1&2 in parallel

When comparing it with the parallel result the pump discharge for parallel case the result shows
that at 5 m head the discharge is 18 E^(-4) (m^3/s) . It came to the conclusion that when a
centrifugal pumps operating in parallel arrangement the net discharge is the summation of
discharges of individual pump.

Sample calculation

Motor power =195.8964W

Pressure drop =21.01135Kpa

Motor speed =29.75085Hz

Volume flow rate =7.89E-04 m^3/s

Overall Efficiency () = Pump power output /motor power*100

=195.8964/17.25632 =8.808901%

Pump Total Head (Hd) =Pump 1 pressure drop/g

=21.01135Kpa/1000/9.8 = 2.236m
Pump 1 power output =*Qv*g*Hd

=1000*7.89E-04*9.8*2.236=17.25632W

Discussion of the results

1) It is found that the head increases with speed of the pump for a particular flow rate. The
head curve has a maximum value when the discharge is zero. Therefore the head obtained
at 40Hz is more than the head obtained at 30Hz. Operating characteristic curve gives
increasing efficiency with the discharge and it is maximum at one point of discharge and
then decreases. And this maximum value increases with the speed of the pump. Thereby
this value is more at 40Hz than at 30 Hz.
2) As described above the head curve shifts to higher value when the speed of the pump
increase and vice versa.
3) When two pumps working in series arrangement it develop high head compared to single
pump arrangement. The total head obtained by this series arrangement will be the
summation of individual head obtained one at a time. Thereby knowing the characteristic
curve for a single pump operating at a speed gives the prediction of the same pumps
working in series arrangement. Such that the total head will be twice the value of the
head obtained in the characteristic curve.
4) When two pumps working in parallel arrangement it develop high discharge compared to
single pump. The total discharge obtained by this parallel arrangement will be the
summation of individual discharge obtained one at a time. Thereby knowing the
characteristic curve for a single pump operating at a speed gives the prediction of the
same pumps working in parallel arrangement. Such that the total discharge will be twice
the value of the discharge obtained in the characteristic curve.

Conclusion
Operating characteristic curves are plotted from the result obtained in the lab experiment.
During this test speed kept as constant and calculated the results as efficiency, power and
head. It is found out from the experiment the head decreases with discharge of
centrifugal pump. The head increases for increased rpm for a particular discharge. It has
been noted that the parallel combination of centrifugal pipes give the double discharge
that of single pump operation. And the head obtained from the series combination of
pumps also twice the head obtained from a single pump taken one at a time.

References
Dr.R.K Bansal, 2006, Fluid mechanics and hydraulic machines, ninth edition,
Laxmi Publications (P) LTD, New Delhi.
Frank M White, 2008, Fluid mechanics, fourth edition, Tata McGraw-Hill
Education, New Delhi.
Yunus A Cengel, 2006, Fluid mechanics fundamental and application, Tata
McGraw-Hill Education, New Delhi.