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INTRODUCTION TO TECHNICAL ENGLISH

1. INTRODUCTION.....................................................................3

2. WHAT IS TECHNOLOGY ..........................................................3

2.1 Fields in technology .............................................................6

3. WHAT COUNTS AS TECHNOLOGY.............................................11

3.1 Technology as Objects..........................................................11

3.2 Technology as Knowledge .....................................................13

3.3 Technology as Activities........................................................14

3.4 Technology as a Process........................................................15

3.5 Technology as a Sociotechnical system....................................17

4. NATURE OF TECHNOLOGY.......................................................17

4.1 Science Vs. Technology.........................................................17

4.2 Design process in technology.................................................18

4.3 Technology requires making .................................................20

4.4 Technology is a multi-disciplinary activity ...............................21

4.5 Values in technology.............................................................22

4.6 Technology is socially shaped.................................................24

GLOSARIO................................................................................26

BIBLIOGRAFA..........................................................................31

FAVA - Formacin en Ambientes Virtuales de Aprendizaje SENA - Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje


INTRODUCTION TO TECHNICAL ENGLISH
Mapa conceptual

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Introduction to Technical English

1. INTRODUCTION

Technology is constantly changing to answer a series of modern challenges


and meet the needs of society. This means all specialists and other
professionals involved in its development require certain knowledge to
facilitate their performance; this includes communication skills which help
the appropriate understanding and interaction regarding technological
systems or processes.

Along this English section it will be found the basic language elements
needed in order to establish a common background of theory and language
skills seen in the first line competences. For this reason, the contents
learnt in this section are designed to complement the technical knowledge
in the development of this program at SENA. Therefore, all students should
recognize the importance of English language throughout the technical
competence, having in mind that language and communication skills are
a powerful tool in a globalized world allowing better professional and
personal opportunities.

2. WHAT IS TECHNOLOGY

Before approaching the definition of


technology it is required the identification
of background knowledge about the
topic. Then, start analyzing the following
questions as a brainstorm:

Question 1: How do you define technology?

Question 2: What are the benefits of using


technology products?

Question 3: What technologies do you know?

These questions provide with general


views regarding technology and its impact in society, now lets see some
situations about primitive technology:

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Introduction to Technical English

SITUATION 1:

Look at this primitive person, he lives


alone in the Stone Age

He is hungry and needs to find food but


the only tool he has is a spear and it is
broken; then, he needs to fix it quickly.

He doesnt have any more tools and his


only resources are Stones and wood.

What do you think he should do?


Sit down and cry
Wait for another person to help him
Make a different tool
Repair the tool plastic or metal
Use his tool as a model and make a new one (respuesta correcta)

You can see there is a problem that needs a solution, then, its time to
develop technology!

SITUATION 2:

Now, this person is not alone, he has a family and needs to find more food,
then, he notices that his tool
is too small and its difficult
to obtain enough food, so he
has a problem again.

Then, this people designed


the bow and arrow!

Technology Works for


different contexts in
different ways, and it is not
necessarily modern.

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Introduction to Technical English

R eflection: Any solution for a given problem can be seen as technology. This
involves people to apply their knowledge based on their experiences and
resources.

Thanks to this tool, the family could get food and solve their problem.

To understand what technology is students need recognizing how it works


in order to solve problems and help meeting peoples needs. Observe the
following diagram of technology process:

NEED SOLUTION

This diagram shows how technology starts with a need or problem, then during
the development process a solution can be obtained. Also, this is a cyclical
process because a solution might work for a specific need but the result can
create a new need or problem to be solved .

Definition of technology:

Technology is all the knowledge used to create tools, develop skills and
extract or collect materials. It is also the application of science to achieve
an objective or solve a problem.

Technology is the making usage and knowledge of tools, machines,


techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a
problem or perform a specific function.

R eflection: Is the extension of human capability to satisfy our wants or


needs

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Introduction to Technical English

2.1 Fields in technology

Developing solutions for the market and society requires the


use of various cross-sectional technologies and interdisciplinary
approaches. These have been concentrated in seven main technology
fields.

All the fields are connected to science and research that maintains and
result in innovations that provide large impacts to all sections of the
population from industry to academy around the world.

These fields correspond to the modern industry divisions and major


innovation areas; the combination of this fields might give place to new
fields to be explored, for example: Nanotechnology or Biomedicine. All of
them have shown rapid growth in the last 20 years.

Did you know? 10 Most Important Technological Advancements


that Changed the World (PDF)

2.1.1 Medical

All technologies are designed for a specific purpose, this means


the benefits can be observed in different areas in society. One
Medical
of the most important technological developments start with
the medical innovations which can not only improve our lives
can also save them.

Medical technology is also named health technology involves a large


variety of healthcare products used to diagnose, monitor or treat many
different medical conditions. The main objective of these innovations is to
help improving the human life.

In order to achieve this objective, technological innovations require


extensive research and the use of highly developed devices and services.

In some countries, medical technologies have been used widely to treat


difficult diseases and create new products as a result of research and
experimentation.

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Introduction to Technical English

Did you know? Developing countries like Colombia is in the top priority lines of
importance to assure peoples good being and sustainability. For this reason,
this field is in constant need for the development of better care services through
the use of technological systems

2.1.2 Agriculture

Agricultural technology is the tools, machines and services


offered to support agricultural activities. This is one of the
Agriculture
oldest types of technology, therefore, this has suffered vast
changes along the time; such improvements have changed
the ways people grow their crops and harvest.

The cotton Gin is a good example of how this has changed. In the 18th
century, cotton fibers were separated by hand or using very antiquated
technology. Because of the effectiveness of the new machinery and
processes, the cotton industry has grown to become a major textile raw
material.

Video : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HhXL2l8wyMI

The technology available is getting more complex and precise to perform


agricultural functions. One example of this is precision agriculture for
farm management with the objective of optimizing processes using high
technology devices such as GPS and specialized software.

2.1.3 Biotechnology

This technology is based on biology, then it includes


cellular and biomolecular processes to develop products Biotechnology
that can improve our lives and health of our planet.
This is not new in terms of handling microorganisms,
but new products are helping reducing environmental
problems with more efficient industrial manufacturing processes.

There are many products available for the public for areas like farming,
pest control, bio-refineries and Green technologies

The most recent advancements developed by the biotechnology industry


organization involve farming, fuels and health. They are developing some
projects like:

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Introduction to Technical English

Heal the World: This project manipulates genetic layouts to reduce


infectious diseases and save millions of lives.
Fuel the world: This project uses biological processes and microbes
for producing biofuels that might cut greenhouse gas emissions.
Feed the world: This project improves crop resistance to plagues by
using environmentally sustainable farming practices with benefits for
the products and the consumers.

Find more info: http://www.bio.org/articles/healing-fueling-feeding-how-


biotechnology-enriching-your-life

2.1.4 Energy Power

Technologies oriented to energy production are formed


by an interdisciplinary engineering science. The main
Energy Power objective of those technologies is to result in efficient,
safe, environmentally friendly and economical
extraction conversion, transportation, storage and
use of energy; looking forward for reducing negative
effects and impacts on humans or the environment.

This field has constituted one of the most important research lines in
recent times due to the extense need of large amounts of energy for
industrial or domestic purposes, having in mind the increasing population,
the environmental policies and regulations and the dramatic decrease of
non-renewable energy resources.

This is why the development of energy technologies has become a crucial


aspect of international interest for its economic and political influence.
Therefore, scientists and researchers have classified the energy sources
and processes into different branches:

Solar Power
Wind Power
Geothermal
Hidropower
Bioenergy
Thermal & chemical

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Introduction to Technical English

2.1.4 Construction

This technology covers the basic elements of structures Construction


and super-structures providing also basic services
like water, gas, electricity and drainage. This includes
industrial and commercial buildings.

This field specializes in design of constructions and the supply of innovative


products with maximum security and performance. In case of natural
disasters or catastrophic events, this technology aims to protect human
lives and provide with comfort as well as functionality and a comfortable
life style.

The results of construction research and innovations can create a large


impact for transforming cities and connect remote places by creating roads
or efficient water systems that improve quality of services, diminishing
diseases while increasing sanitation among others.

Most of the projects are run under governmental planning, which


establishes clear goals for infrastructure improvement reducing long
term costs; helping people having more opportunities for transportation,
housing and commerce. Some others help economic growth and are seen
as a priority in developing countries like Colombia.

2.1.5 Manufacturing
Manufacturing
This technology involves all tools that enable production
of manufactured goods, including the use of machinery
and industrial processes. The goal of these products is to
provide support the effort of individual workers and consequently benefit
the companies and the commerce.

The industrial sector needs to effectively and efficiently transform raw


materials into more complex and diverse quality products that can make
modern life possible. Additionally, the development of this technology
with productive tools provide positive effects on the economic growth of
the countries and improves all commercial systems from agriculture to
transportation and home appliances.

Many of those machinery and processes are related to computed aided

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Introduction to Technical English

manufacturing thanks to automation and computerized systems; this


includes all steps of manufacturing from design to assembly lines.

Did you know? China is one of the most powerful manufacturing countries. Try
to see the origin of some of the items you hold at home, how many are there
made in China? You will be surprised!

2.1.6 Information & Communication


Technology (ICT)
Information &
This technology is widely known as ICT for short. It Communication
refers to all technological elements that provide access Technology (ICT)
to information through the use of telecommunication
services and resources. It is linked to information
technology (IT), this includes Internet, Wireless networks or any other
means of communication.

Compared to other technology fields, this is the most widely developed in


recent years, because of its use and importance for the different sectors;
for example, people can communicate and transmit information in real time
reducing the need of travelling from place to place. Also, this has helped
the monitoring all industrial processes from production to marketing for
providing assertive planning and execution of management plans. Then,
ICT has become one of the most important fields in technology for the
globalized world.

SENA orients its students to be part of this crucial development to support


companies of all ranges. Therefore, has designed the program ADSI known
in the ICT field as Software Development. This is immersed into the ICT
field as described in the following diagram:

Comunications technologies
Information Technologies
Software Development
Information Systems

All students of ADSI (Software Development) should be prepared to answer to


the new challenges of developing countries by increasing the development of

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Introduction to Technical English

new technologies and software innovation in the productive sector of Colombia.

The result of their research projects will help managers in decision making
processes by using applications that encompass most needs of the companies
with specialized software known as Information System applications.

3. WHAT COUNTS AS TECHNOLOGY

Throughout the twentieth century the uses of the term have increased to
the point where it now encompasses a number of classes of technology:

3.1 Technology as Objects

The most evident result of technology development


is a physical object, this might be as simple as a
tool or as complex as an automatic device.

The evolution of technology suggests that these


objects have evolved into three different stages
as follows:

Tools: The first technological stage of technological evolution, this


provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task, and
must be powered by human or animal effort.

Machines: The second stage is a tool consisting in one or more parts that
generally uses energy to perform an intended action. These components
are used to transmit or modify force looking for a specific function or
useful work.

Machines can be divided into simple or complex and are usually powered
by mechanical, chemical, thermal or electrical energy.

Devices: These objects are the result of the tools and machines
development. In such evolution, this is the third and final stage in which
people obtained devices is called Automation. A more complex definitions
describes a devices as a machine that removes the element of human
control with control systems and information technologies to optimize
productivity in the production of goods and delivery of services.

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Introduction to Technical English

This devices can also be divided into:

- Automatic
- Semi-automatic

Trafic ligth
Automatic

Cell phone
Semi-automatic

ATM (automatic Teller Machine) Digital Watch


Semi-Automatic Automatic
In Computing devices are known as Peripherals and they are divided into
three types:

INPUT SOME EXAMPLES

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Introduction to Technical English

OUTPUT

STORAGE

R eflection: Technological evolution causes political, social and environmental


changes. There is a direct correlation between development of technology
and changes in history.

Technology allows humans to conquer their world; this causes evolution


as cultures, ideas, people, but physical landscapes are destroyed. Also,
technology allows humans to thrive and become more successful in their
own society.

3.2 Technology as Knowledge

The know-how behind any technological innovation

What is KNOW-HOW?

This is nowadays one of the most important sources of knowledge and


innovation; in fact, it is all skills and knowledge that combined are the body
of knowledge for example: formulas, instruction, patterns, specifications
and manufacturing practices or concepts that determine HOW a product
is designed and developed until it is released to the public.

Think of PATENTS as a good example of Know-how. All you need is


creativity and having a good IDEA!

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Introduction to Technical English

Other examples of know-how can be a design, formulae or source code


in the case of software. Lets see a good example of know-how and its
importance:

Watch the videos

1. Coca Cola Recipe: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=44PeZr43jv4

2. INNOVATION Watch the video and get to know that are the results
of technology as Know-how:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Uh1KxcpWz0

3.3 Technology as Activities

What people do, their skills, methods, procedures


or routines.

Software development requires some specific


activities to develop along the ADSI course, these
are the activities all students are expected to do
along the learning process:

ACTIVITIES FOR ALL COMPETENCES ACTIVITIES FOR THE PROJECT


Researching Analyzing
Innovating Designing
Managing Developing
Demonstrating Testing
Improving Maintaining
Ilustracin 7 Technological Activities

The activities mentioned in the chart correspond to GERUNDS. These words


are formed by the combination of a VERB + ing. The gerund always has
the same function as a noun, to understand the grammar and functions
read the following examples:

I like sleeping (dormir)


You love studying (estudiar)

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Introduction to Technical English

We love swimming (nadar)


They dont like drinking (beber)

Software development activities:

Testing & Checking Quality

Identifying, Analizing,
Designing, Developing,
Implementing

For creating my project I need to start analyzing. Next, I have to learn designing,
later, I practice the coding and software developing. Finally, I make corrections
or testing, and conclude with maintaining the software product.

3.4 Technology as a Process

Begins with a need and ends with a solution.


Observe the following diagram that includes all
the activities to develop technology. The process
consists of three steps:

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Introduction to Technical English

Exploring &

1 Defining the task

Generating &
Developing Ideas

Producing
solutions

Each step requires the identification of the Need, identify the key factors,
understand the implications and possible effects, evaluate possible
opportunities. Next, it is necessary to execute technological practices
or activities (Ilustration 7 Technological Activities) in order to plan the
solution.

All processes need complimentary activities to verify the effectiveness


of the solution. The three most important are: Planning, Managing and
Evaluating.

EXAMPLE OF PROCESS AS TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION:

Cars changed the way people lived, worked, and travelled; however, most
people dont notice that the process of manufacturing automobiles has
also a large impact on industry.

The creation of the assembly line by Henry Ford at his Highland Park
plant, introduced on December 1st, 1913, revolutionized the automobile
industry and the concept of manufacturing worldwide, this is innovation
through PROCESS.

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Introduction to Technical English

3.5 Technology as a Sociotechnical system

A simple definition of a socio-technical


system is the manufacture and use
of objects involving people and other
objects in combination.

Many authors of technology theory


establish that socio-technical systems
help improving interaction between technology and society. This term
started during the Second World War in order to identify the complex
structures participating in the interaction with technological products.

Socio-technical systems refer to the relations of people and technical


aspects of organizational structure and processes. This includes not only
tools as devices but also knowledge and procedures oriented to improve
productivity and wellbeing.

This is the new innovation!

For example:

Kids dont need paper and crayons to express


themselves, they have tablets!

To understand what involves new developments


of socio-technical systems, read the article: Real
Cyborg

4. NATURE OF TECHNOLOGY

Technology has a number of distinct characteristics:

4.1 Science Vs. Technology

There is a relationship between science and Science vs Technology


technology. Technology is marked by different
purposes, different processes a different relationship to established
knowledge and a particular relationship to specific contexts of activity.

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The explicit purpose of technology is the change in the environment is and


not, the understanding of nature as is the case with science. The following
chart contains all aspects required to understand the differences between
science and technology:

Aspect Science Technology


Motto: Science is knowing Technology is doing
Mission: The search for a theory The search for solving
or cause. problems and creating
new processes.
Result : Making statements Activities, processes
and products.
Evaluation Methods: Analysis, generalization Analysis and synthesis
and creation of theories of design.
Focus: Focuses on Focuses on the change
understanding of of the environment to
nature solve problems.
Development Methods: Discovery (controlled Design, invention,
by experimentation) production

Technological solutions are not right or wrong, verifiable or falsifiable,


they are more or less effective from different points of view.

4.2 Design process in technology

At the center of technology there is design.


Then, design is also the very core of
engineering is affirmed by the requirement
that all degree engineering courses should
involve design. The design process in
technology is a sequential process which Design process in Technology
begins with the perception of a need,
continues with the formulation of a specification, the generation of ideas
and a final solution, and ends with an evaluation of the solution.

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Perception of the need: Requires analysis of the problem and identification of concerns to be solved.

Formulation of specifications: Any solution is determined by certain aspects that delimitate what is
needed of how solutions should be implemented. These aspects are known as: Requirements

Generation of ideas: The possible solutions for the given problem.

Final Solution: The option that better answer to the requirements and provides a viable solution

Evaluation of the solution: This step evaluates the selected option and identifies the possible effects
of implementing such solution.

Example: Look at the following example and analyze how important is the
design process to solve a problem or meet the needs of any person.

Lucy is going to the supermarket near home with her son and his dog, but
she doesnt have much time and she is worried about her sons safety
because he is a very hyperactive boy.

She is designing a plan to cross the street safely, quickly and easily.

Look at the design process in the following pictures:

1. Perception of a need

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Introduction to Technical English

2. Final solution

3. Evaluation of the solution

Safe?
Quick?
Easy?

4.3 Technology requires making

The motivating factor behind all technological


activity is the desire to fulfil a need. For this reason
all designs should be made and proved using a
prototype, batch or any type of three-dimensional
or computer model; additionally, if the design
Technology requires making shows to have a good result in the practical field,
so it is legitimately evaluated to make the solution
have a real purpose and provide the expected effects on the situation or
system.

The preliminary activities listed below can be functional or non-functional


according to how close is the result to the real product.

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Introduction to Technical English

MAKING DESCRIPTION
ACTIVITIES
Prototype A first or preliminary form from which other
forms are developed or copied.
Batch A command to queue jobs for later execution

3D-Model Is the process of developing a mathematical


representation of any three-dimensional surface
of object via specialized software.
Sketch A drawing or other composition that is not
intended as a finished work, but a preliminary
exploration
Outline A document summary, in list format. A general
plan showing essential features but no detail.
Mock-up Is a scale or full-size model of a design or
device, used for teaching, demonstration, design
evaluation, promotion, and other purposes.

A mockup is a prototype if it provides at least


part of the functionality of a system and enables
testing of a design.

4.4 Technology is a multi-disciplinary activity

Design and production in technology


involve co-operation between different
people, for example designers,
engineers and scientists, also may
involve technologists for performing
many functions. Technology is a multi-disciplinary activity

Such team work needs to cooperate by working with others, operating


within budgets, persuading decision makers, communicating to clients
and working to deadlines, etc.

Working as a team requires all members to communicate efficiently and


be organized.

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Introduction to Technical English

SENA encourages its students to work as a team and develop productive


projects along their studies. Therefore, they improve their sense of
responsibility and proactive attitudes as well as communication and
tolerance.

Benefits of Teamwork

Problem solving: All member has a role and contributes with a


different perspective which might result in better decisions, products or
services.
Accomplish tasks faster: When people work together they can
perform many tasks at the same time, therefore jobs are done in less
time.
Healthy competition: This usually motivates people to improve
their performance and help others going one step forward.
Developing relationships: A team characterizes for creating
constant interaction between its members. When the team feels
correlated the tasks can be more satisfactory, but in conflictive cases
communication is the clue.
Increasing unique qualities: Team work can offer good
opportunities for some members to share their knowledge, skills or any
particular ability which can be useful for being productive, providing
support to other members of the group.

4.5 Values in technology

Technology is formed by values at every point.


People make value decisions all the time and they
may depend not only on the specific design criteria
or economic judgments but also in relation to the
Values in technology
particular benefits of a particular solution in ethical
terms.

The value is the mental estimation a consumer makes of a product. Is the


relationship between the consumers perceived benefits in relation to the
perceived costs of receiving these benefits.

Example: Two costumers are looking for a new cell phone, they have
different criteria for selecting the item to buy, observe on the table their
values for making decisions:

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Price
Design Quality

Size or
Variety Quality

Value

Durability Realiability

Expected Service
Value Level
Ease of
Use

Jacks values Rachels values


Speed Design
Capacity Size
Support Accessories
Durability Compatibility
Quality Ease of use

Based on the values they describe, the options for each customer vary
dramatically then, the real value of the product is not the price but how
the product meet their needs and expectations.

There is a formula to determine the real value of a product, it is described


as the relationship between the values offered and the cost.

Value: Benefit
Cost

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4.6 Technology is socially shaped

Technological enterprises are determined not


only by advances in knowledge but also by the
identification of needs, and of course social
interests.

Technology is socially shaped Technology is shaped by society, by consumer choice.

All inventions that have changed our lives for good are to be mentioned
as the result of a technological outcome. Then, there it comes many
scientists and inventors that combine pure analysis, experimentations
and knowledge to shape the world we have today. These inventions need
to be mentioned and they all have in common that are part of a class of
technology seen earlier:

Objects
Know-how
Activities
Process
Socio-technical system

Thanks to all these innovations we have now cars, computers, internet,


roads, vaccines, mass production, plastic, social networks and human
genome among others. Despite of their good intentions to help humans,
they have also affected our way of life in some other ways like diminishing
human contact and creating dependence on cars or cell phones. This is
why the last and not least characteristic of technology is that even if it is
not intended, it is here to change society in ways we cannot measure now
but that lead us to the future and determine our present.

All effects cannot be judged under one criteria only, as every innovation
has to be seen under the eyes of history.

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Check out some examples of innovations that have changed the


world:

10 Inventions That Changed the World in Ways We Didnt Expect

http://io9.com/5951267/10-inventions-that-changed-the-world-in-ways-we-
didnt-expect

10 Inventions That Changed the World

http://www.geniusstuff.com/blog/list/10-inventions-changed-world/#page=10

11 Innovations That Changed History

http://www.history.com/news/history-lists/11-innovations-that-changed-
history

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GLOSARIO

Collins Concise English Dictionary HarperCollins Publishers:


WORD DEFINITION TRANSLATION
Achieve to bring to a successful conclu- lograr, alcanzar
sion; accomplish
Advantage benefit or profit ventaja
Amounts extent; quantity; supply monto,cantidad
Antiquated aged; ancient anticuado
Approaches the act of coming towards or
drawing close or closer
a close approxi-
mation
Assertive confident and direct in clai- assertivo, certero
ming ones rights or putting
forward ones views
Available obtainable or accessible; ca- disponible
pable of being made use of; at
hand
Become to come to be; develop or grow llegar a ser, con-
into vertirse en,
Branches a subdivision or subsidiary rama, division
section of something larger or
more complex
Budgets an itemized summary of expec- presupuesto
ted income and expenditure of
a country, company, etc, over
a specified period, usually a
financial year
Changes to make or become different cambios
Core the central, innermost, or most nucleo, centro
essential part of something
Cotton fibers a natural or synthetic filament fibras de algodn
that may be spun into yarn
Crafts skill or ability, esp in handiwork manualidades
Crops the produce of cultivated plants cultivos, campos
cultivados

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Delivery the act of delivering or distri- envio, distribucion


buting goods, mail, etc
Develop to elaborate or work out in de- desarrollar
tail, to come or bring to a later
or more advanced or expanded
stage
Developing coun- countries in constant devlop- paises en via de
tries ment or in the way of improve- desarrollo
ment
Devices a machine or tool used for a dispositivos
specific task
Diseases any impairment of normal phy- enfermedades
siological function affecting all
or part of an organism
Effectively productive of or capable of pro- efectivamente
ducing a result
Efficiently functioning or producing effec- eficientemente
tively and with the least waste
of effort; competent
Engineering the profession of applying ingenieria
scientific principles to the de-
sign, construction, and mainte-
nance of engines, cars, machi-
nes, etc
Enough sufficient to answer a need, suficiente
demand, supposition, or requi-
rement; adequate
Environment external conditions or su- relacionado con el
rroundings, esp those in which medio ambiente,
people live or work entorno
Fields an area of human activity,a campo, area
limited or marked off area
Fix to make or become firm, sta- arreglar, corregir
ble, or secure
Goods possessions and personal pro- productos,
perty
Green technolo- technologies intented to pro- tecnologias ver-
gies tect the environment or dimi- des, ecologicas
nish negative effects

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FAVA - Formacin en Ambientes Virtuales de Aprendizaje SENA - Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje
Introduction to Technical English

Grow to increase in size or develop, crecer, plantar


to produce (plants) by con-
trolling or encouraging their
growth
Harvest the gathering of a ripened crop cosechar
Healthcare actions and services provided cuidado de la sa-
for improving human health lud
Improve to make or become better in mejorar
quality
Information Sys- software solution dsigned to sistema de infor-
tem meet the needs of a particular macion
customer, looks for improving
management processes.
Knowledge the facts, feelings or expe- conocimiento
riences known by a person or
group of people
Layouts plano, disposicion
Machinery machines, machine parts, or maquinaria
machine systems collectively
Machines an assembly of interconnected maquina
components arranged to trans-
mit or modify force in order to
perform useful work
Manufacturing to process or make (a product) manufactura
from a raw material, esp as
a large-scale operation using
machinery
Marketing the provision of goods or servi- mercadeo
ces to meet customer or con-
sumer needs
Methods a way of proceeding or doing metodo
something, esp a systematic or
regular one
Microbes any microscopic organism, esp microbios
a disease-causing bacterium
Needs to require or be required of necesidades
necessity
Notices the act of perceiving; observa- darse cuenta
tion; attention

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FAVA - Formacin en Ambientes Virtuales de Aprendizaje SENA - Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje
Introduction to Technical English

Perform to carry out or do realizar, llevar a


cabo
Population all the persons inhabiting a poblacion
country, city, or other specified
place
Purpose the reason for which anything proposito
is done, created, or exists
Raw material material on which a particular materia prima
manufacturing process is ca-
rried out
Requirement something demanded or impo- requerimientos
sed as an obligation
Resource a source of economic wealth, recurso
esp of a country (mineral, land,
labour, etc) or business enter-
prise (capital, equipment, per-
sonnel, etc)
Skill special ability in a task, sport, habilidades
etc, esp ability acquired by
training
Software Develo- is the development of a soft- desarrollo de soft-
pment ware product,includes all that ware
is involved between the con-
ception of the desired software
through to the final manifesta-
tion of the software.
Spear a weapon consisting of a long lanza
shaft with a sharp pointed end
of metal, stone, or wood that
may be thrown or thrust
Storage the act of storing or the state
of being stored;
space or area re-
served for storing
Support to provide the necessities of life apoyo, soporte
for, to give strength to; main-
tain
Surface the exterior face of an object superficie
or one such face

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FAVA - Formacin en Ambientes Virtuales de Aprendizaje SENA - Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje
Introduction to Technical English

Sustainable capable of being sustained sostenibilidad,


sostenible
System a group or combination of in- sistema
terrelated, interdependent, or
interacting elements forming a
collective entity; a methodical
or coordinated assemblage of
parts, facts, concepts, etc
Technique a practical method, skill, or art tcnicas
applied to a particular task
Tool an implement, such as a ham- herramienta
mer, saw, or spade, that is
used by hand, anything used
as a means of performing an
operation or achieving an end
Understand to know and comprehend the comprender
nature or meaning,
Ways a manner, method, or means; formas, maneras
a route or direction

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FAVA - Formacin en Ambientes Virtuales de Aprendizaje SENA - Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje
BIBLIOGRAFA

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Bloomfield, Masse. (1995). The automated society. Masefield Books,1995.

D.M. Clark (2005). Human redundancy in complex, hazardous systems:


A theoretical framework.

Darby, G. (1961). What is a simple machine? Chicago: Benec Press

Donald A. MacKenzie et al.,(1999). Introductory Essay in The Social


Shaping of Technology, 2nd ed. Buckingham, England: Open University
Press.

Hongbin Zha (2006). Interactive Technologies and Sociotechnical Systems:


12th International Conference, VSMM 2006, Xian, China, October 1820,
2006, Proceedings.

Kenyon B. De Greene (1973). Sociotechnical systems: factors in analysis,


design, and management.

Lovitt, William (1977). The Question Concerning Technology. The


Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays. Harper Torchbooks.

Rhodes, Richard. (2000). Visions of Technology: A Century of Vital Debate


about Machines, Systems, and the Human World. Simon & Schuste.

Walpole, B. (1987). Fun with science: Movement. New York: Warwick


Press.

West, Michael (2012). Effective Teamwork: Practical Lessons from


Organizational Research. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: BPS Blackwell.

Wright, R.T. (2008). Technology. Goodheart-Wilcox Company, 5th edition

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FAVA - Formacin en Ambientes Virtuales de Aprendizaje SENA - Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje
Control de documento
Construccin Objeto de Aprendizaje
INTRODUCTION TO TECHNICAL ENGLISH
Desarrollador de contenido Margarita Araque
Experto temtico
Asesor pedaggico Claudia Milena Hernndez Naranjo
Rafael Neftal Lizcano Reyes

Produccin Multimedia Luis Fernando Botero Mendoza


Martha Lucia Chavz
Programadores Roberto Chajin Ortiz
Lder expertos temticos Ana Yaqueline Chavarro Parra
Lder lnea de produccin Santiago Lozada Garcs

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FAVA - Formacin en Ambientes Virtuales de Aprendizaje SENA - Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje