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CHAPTER III

2. Is composed of discussions of facts and principles to which the present study is related. For
instance, if the present study deals with drug addiction, literature to be reviewed or surveyed
should be composed of materials that deal with drug addiction. RELATED LITERATURE

3. These materials are usually printed and found in books, encyclopedias, professional journals,
magazines, newspapers, and other publications. RELATED LITERATURE

4. RELATED LITERATURE

5. These materials are classified as 1. Local, if printed in the Philippines; and 2. Foreign, if
printed in other lands. RELATED LITERATURE

6. Studies, inquiries, or investigations already conducted to which the present proposed study is
relate or has some bearing or similarity. They are usually unpublished materials such as
manuscripts, theses, and dissertations. RELATED STUDIES

7. RELATED STUDIES

8. They may be classified as: 1. Local, if the inquiry was conducted in the Philippines; and 2.
Foreign, if conducted in foreign lands RELATED STUDIES

9. Importance, Purposes, and Functions of Related Literature and Studies

10. A survey or review of related literature and studies is very important because such reviewed
literature and studies serve as a foundation of the proposed study. This is because related
literature and studies guide the researcher in pursuing his research venture. Importance,
Purposes, and Functions of Related Literature and Studies

11. Reviewed literature and studies help or guide the researcher in the following ways:

12. 1. They help or guide the researcher in searching for or selecting a better research problem or
topic. By reviewing related materials, a replication of a similar problem may be found better than
the problem already chosen. Replication is the study of research problem already conducted but
in another place. Importance, Purposes, and Functions of Related Literature and Studies

13. 2. They help the investigator understand his topic for research better. Reviewing related
literature and studies may clarify vague points about his problem. Importance, Purposes, and
Functions of Related Literature and Studies

14. 3. They ensure that there will be no duplication of other studies. There is duplication if an
investigation already made is conducted again in the same locale using practically the same
respondents. This is avoided if a survey of related literature and studies be made first.
Importance, Purposes, and Functions of Related Literature and Studies
15. 4. They help and guide the researcher in locating more sources of related information. This is
because the bibliography of a study already conducted indicate references about similar studies.
Importance, Purposes, and Functions of Related Literature and Studies

16. 5. They help and guide the researcher in making his research design especially in: a. the
formulation of specific questions to be researched on; b. the formulation of assumptions and
hypotheses if there should be any; Importance, Purposes, and Functions of Related Literature and
Studies

17. c. the formulation of conceptual framework; Importance, Purposes, and Functions of Related
Literature and Studies

18. Conceptual Framework

19. d. the selection and application of the methods of research; e. the selection and application of
sampling techniques; Importance, Purposes, and Functions of Related Literature and Studies

20. f. the selection and/or preparation and validation of research instruments for gathering data;
g. the selection and application of statistical procedures; Importance, Purposes, and Functions of
Related Literature and Studies

21. h. The analysis, organization, presentation, and interpretation of data; i. The making of the
summary of implications for the whole study; j. The formulation of the summary of findings,
conclusions, and recommendation; and Importance, Purposes, and Functions of Related
Literature and Studies

22. 6. They help and guide the researcher in making comparison between his findings of other
researchers on similar studies with the end in view of formulating generalization or principles
which are the contributions of the study to fund of knowledge. Importance, Purposes, and
Functions of Related Literature and Studies

23. Characteristics of Related Literature and Studies

24. There are certain characteristics of related materials that make them of true value. Among
these characteristics are:

25. 1. The surveyed materials must be as recent as possible. This is important because of the
rapid social, economic, scientific, and technological change. Findings several years ago may be
of little value today because of the fast changing life style of the people. Characteristics of
Related Literature and Studies

26. There are exception, however. Treatises that deal on universals or things of more or less
permanent nature may be still be good today. There are mathematical laws and formulas and
statistical procedures that had been formulated a long, long time ago which are being use today
with very, very little improvement. This is also true with natural and physical laws. Books on
these, though written a long time ago, are still being cited today.

27. Another exception is when a comparison or contrast is to be made between the conditions of
today and those of a remote past, say ten or twenty years ago. Naturally, literature and studies
about that remote past have to be surveyed and reviewed.

28. 2. Materials reviewed must be objective and unbiased. Some materials are extremely or
subtly one sided, either political, or religious, etc. Comparison with these materials cannot be
made logically and validity. Distorted generalizations may result. Characteristics of Related
Literature and Studies

29. 3. Materials surveyed must be relevant to the study. Only materials that have some bearing or
similarity to the research problem at hand should be reviewed. Characteristics of Related
Literature and Studies

30. 4. Surveyed materials must have been based upon genuinely original and true facts or data to
make them valid and reliable. There are cases where fictitious data are supplied just to complete
a research report (thesis or dissertation). Of course, this kind of deception is hard to detect and to
prove. Thus, this is a real problem to honest researchers. Characteristics of Related Literature and
Studies

31. 5. Reviewed materials must not be few or too many. They must only be sufficient enough to
give insight into the research problem or to indicate the nature of the present investigation. The
may also depend upon the availability of related materials. Characteristics of Related Literature
and Studies

32. Sometimes there is a paucity of such materials. Ordinarily, form ten to fifteen related
materials re needed for a master`s thesis and from fifteen to twenty-five for a doctoral
dissertation depending their availability, as well as their depth and length of discussions.

33. For an undergraduate thesis, from five to ten may do. The numbers, however, are only
suggestive and not imperative nor mandatory. These are only the average numbers observed from
theses and dissertation surveyed by this author.

34. Sources of Related Literature and Studies

35. The sources of related literature and studies may include the following:

36. 1. Book, encyclopedias, almanacs, and other similar references. 2. Articles published in
professional journals, magazines, periodicals, newspapers, and other publications. Sources of
Related Literature and Studies
37. 3. Manuscripts, monographs, memoirs, speeches, letters, and diaries. 4. Unpublished theses
and dissertations. 5. The Constitution, and laws and statues of the land. Sources of Related
Literature and Studies

38. 6. Bulletins, circulars, and orders emanating from government offices and departments,
especially from the Office of the President of the Philippines and the Department of Education,
Culture and Sports. Sources of Related Literature and Studies

39. 7. Records from schools, public and private, especially reports of their activities. 8. Reports
from seminars educational or otherwise. Sources of Related Literature and Studies

40. 9. Official reports of all kinds, educational, social, economic, scientific, technological,
political, etc. from the government and other entities. Sources of Related Literature and Studies

41. Where to Locate the Sources of Related Literature and Studies

42. Generally, the sources of related literature and studies are located in the following places:
Where to Locate the Sources of Related Literature and Studies

43. 1. Libraries, either government, school, or private libraries. 2. Government and private
offices. Where to Locate the Sources of Related Literature and Studies

44. 3. The National Library 4. The Library of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports.
Where to Locate the Sources of Related Literature and Studies

45. The last two are especially rich depositories of related materials, particularly unpublished
master`s theses and doctoral dissertations.

46. More way to go, god bless to us!

HISTORICAL RESEARCH

HISTORICAL RESEARCH DESCRIBES WHAT OCCURRED IN THE PAST AND THEN MAKES A
CRITICAL INQUIRY INTO THE TRUTH OF WHAT OCCURRED.
MUST BE INTERPRETATIVE, THAT IS, IT DESCRIBES THE PRESENT SITUATION IN TERMS
OF PAST EVENTS.

HISTORY A USUALLY CHRONOLOGICAL RECORD OF EVENTS, AS OF THE LIFE OR


DEVELOPMENT OF A PEOPLE OR INSTITUTION, OFTEN INCLUDING AN EXPLANATION OF
OR COMMENTARY ON THOSE EVENTS

HISTORY HAS A THREE-FOLD PURPOSE: GIVING US THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE PAST, A


BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE PRESENT, AND A MEANS OF PREDICTING THE
FUTURE FOUR MAJOR ACTIVITIES IN HISTORICAL RESEARCH A. CHOOSING AND
DEFINING THE PROBLEM
B. COLLECTING THE DATA
C. CRITICALLY ANALYZING THE DATA
D. WRITING THE RESEARCH REPORT SOURCES FOR COLLECTION OF HISTORICAL DATA 1.
WRITTEN SOURCES
2. ORALLY TRANSMITTED MATERIALS
3. ARTISTIC PRODUCTION
4. TAPE RECORDINGS
5. RELICS AND REMAINS PRIMARY SOURCES THE ONLY SOLID BASES OF HISTORICAL
WORK, ARE THE ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS OR REMAINS, AND THE FIRST WITNESSES TO A
FACT. SECONDARY SOURCES ALL WRITINGS BY PEOPLE WHO HAVE NEVER EXPERIENCED
NOR OBSERVED PERSONALLY THE OBJECTS AND HAVE BASED THEIR WRITINGS UPON
INFORMATION GATHERED FROM THOSE WHO HAVE KNOWLEDGE OF THE EVENTS TWO
KINDS OF CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL DATA EXTERNAL CRITICISM IS USED TO
DETERMINE THE AUTHENTICITY OR GENUINENESS OF A HISTORICAL DOCUMENT.
CONSIDERED ARE THE FACTORS THAT MAY HAVE INFLUENCED THE PRODUCTION OF THE
DOCUMENT SUCH AS AUTHORSHIP, TIME, PLACE, AND WHAT PART OF THE DOCUMENT
IS TRUE TO THE ORIGINAL. AUXILIARY SCIENCES THAT HELP IN DETERMINING
AUTHENTICITY OF A DOCUMENT 1. EPIGRAPHY STUDY OF INSCRIPTIONS
2. DIPLOMATICS SCIENCE OF CHARTERS
3. PALEOGRAPHY STUDY OF WRITING
4. PHILOLOGY - STUDY OF LANGUAGE IN WRITTEN HISTORICAL SOURCES
5. ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, AND PREHISTORY SCIENCE OF REMAINS
6. CHEMISTRY - SCIENCE OF PROPERTIES OF MATTER PURPOSES OF EXTERNAL
CRITICISM THE PURPOSE OF EXTERNAL CRITICISM, UTILIZING THE AUXILIARY SCIENCES
MENTIONED, IS TO DETECT THE FF:
1. FORGERIES AND HOAXES
2. AUTHORSHIP, TIME AND FILIATION OF DOCUMENTS
3. INCORRECT BORROWINGS
4. INVENTIONS AND DISTORTIONS

INTERNAL CRITICISM IS THE PROCESS OF DETERMINING THE TRUE MEANING AND VALUE
OF STATEMENTS CONTAINED IN A DOCUMENT. IT IS POSITIVE, IF EFFORTS ARE MADE TO
DISCOVER THE TRUE MEANING OF THE CONTENTS OF A DOCUMENT; IT IS NEGATIVE IF
EFFORTS ARE EXERTED IN FINDING REASONS FOR DISBELIEVING THE CONTENTS OF THE
DOCUMENT

PRINCIPLES OF INTERNAL CRITICISM

1. DO NOT READ INTO EARLIER DOCUMENTS THE CONCEPTIONS OF LATER TIMES


2. DO NOT JUDGE AN AUTHOR IGNORANT OF CERTAIN EVENTS
3. UNDERESTIMATING/ OVERESTIMATING A SOURCE
4. A TRUE SOURCE MAY ESTABLISH THE EXISTENCE OF AN IDEA
5. IDENTICAL ERRORS PROVE THE DEPENDENCE OF SOURCES ON EACH OTHER 6. IF
WITNESS CONTRADICT EACH OTHER, ONE OR THE OTHER MAY BE TRUE, BUT BOTH
MAY BE IN ERROR.
7. WITNESSES WHO REPORT THE SAME CENTRAL FACT AND ALSO MANY PERIPHERAL
MATTERS IN A CASUAL WAY MAY BE ACCEPTED FOR THE POINTS OF THEIR
AGREEMENT.
8. OFFICIAL TESTIMONY MUST BE COMPARED WITH UNOFFICIAL TESTIMONY
WHENEVER POSSIBLE, FOR NEITHER ONE NOR THE OTHER IS SUFFICIENT.
9. A DOCUMENT MAY PROVIDE COMPETEND AND DEPENDABLE EVIDENCE ON
CERTAIN POINT.

GUIDELINES OF EFFECTIVE WRITING IN HISTORICAL RESEARCH


1. MASTERY OF MATERIALS
2. WORKING OUTLINE
3. PROGRESSION
4. EMPHASIS ON MAJOR ELEMENTS
5. ART OF NARRATION
6. DRAMATIZATION, RHETORIC AND STYLE

DEFICIENCIES IN HISTORICAL RESEARCH


1. A RESEARCH AREA IS SELECTED IN WHICH SUFFICIENT EVIDENCE IS NOT
AVAILABLE TO CONDUCT A WORTHWHILE STUDY
2. EXCESSIVE USE OF SECONDARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION IS FOUND IN
STUDIES NOT DEALING WITH RECENT ACTIVITIES
3. ATTEMPTS TO WORK ON A BROAD DEFINED PROBLEM
4. HISTORICAL DATA ARE POORLY EVALUATED
5. PERSONAL BIAS TENDS TO INFLUENCE THE RESEARCH PROCEDURES
6. THE FACTS ARE NOT SYNTHESIZED INTO MEANINGFUL GENERALIZATIONS

CHARACTERISTICS OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH


1. OBSERVATIONS IN HISTORICAL RESEARCH CANNOT BE REPEATED IN THE
SAME MANNER AS IN LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS AND DESCRIPTIVE
SURVEYS.
2. THE RESEARCHER MUST FIND SATISFACTION IN SPENDING VAST AMOUNTS
OF TIME IN THE LIBRARY AND IN PURSUING MINUTE DETAILS IN RELATION TO
THE TOPIC.
3. HISTORICAL PROJECT IS USUALLY CONDUCTED BY ONE PERSON.
4. A HYPOTHESIS IS NOT ALWAYS NECESSARY IN HISTORICAL RESEARCH;
INFERENCES ARE MADE MORE OFTEN FROM INFORMATION GATHERED.
5. THE WRITING STYLE OF THE WRITTEN REPORT TENDS TO BE MORE
FLEXIBLE.
6. DATA ARE OFTEN IDEAS, CONCEPTS, AND OPINIONS AND HENCE,
CONCLUSIONS, GENERALIZATIONS ETC. BECOME SUBJECTIVE.

1. A STUDY OF THE PAST MAKES PEOPLE UNDERSTAND THE PRESENT


BETTER, ESPECIALLY THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRESENT.
2. HISTORICAL INFORMATION SERVES AS A PRELIMINARY TO REFORM.
MISTAKES OF THE PAST MAY BE AVOIDED IF WE HAVE A KNOWLEDGE OF
THEM.
3. PEOPLE BECOME MORE OPEN TO CHANGE IF THEY ARE WELL INFORMED
ABOUT THE PAST.
4. PEOPLE ARE MOTIVATED TO RESPECT THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PEOPLE
OF THE PAST TO THE PRESENT STATE OF THINGS. IMPORTANCE OF
HISTORICAL RESEARCH WHEN TO USE HISTORICAL RESEARCH IT MAY BE
UTILIZED WHEN IT IS DESIRE TO WRITE A HISTORY OF ANY OF THE FF.:

1. ANY GEOGRAPHICAL AREA OR PLACE


2. ANY INSTITUTION
3. ANY IMPORTANT HISTORICAL EVENT 1-3. HISTORY HAS A THREE-FOLD
PURPOSE: GIVING US THE 1. ____________OF THE PAST, A BETTER 2. __________
OF THE PRESENT, AND A MEANS OF 3. _______________
THE FUTURE
4.A USUALLY CHRONOLOGICAL RECORD OF EVENTS, AS OF THE LIFE OR
DEVELOPMENT OF A PEOPLE OR INSTITUTION, OFTEN INCLUDING AN
EXPLANATION OF OR COMMENTARY ON THOSE EVENTS.
5. DESCRIBES WHAT OCCURRED IN THE PAST AND THEN MAKES A CRITICAL
INQUIRY INTO THE TRUTH OF WHAT OCCURRED.
6. USED TO DETERMINE THE AUTHENTICITY OR GENUINENESS OF A
HISTORICAL DOCUMENT.
7. THE PROCESS OF DETERMINING THE TRUE MEANING AND VALUE OF
STATEMENTS CONTAINED IN A DOCUMENT.
8. EFFORTS ARE MADE TO DISCOVER THE TRUE MEANING OF THE CONTENTS
OF A DOCUMENT
9. EFFORTS ARE EXERTED IN FINDING REASONS FOR DISBELIEVING THE
CONTENTS OF THE DOCUMENT
10. ARE ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS OR REMAINS, THE FIRST WITNESSES TO A
FACT
1. KNOWLEDGE
2. UNDERSTANDING
3. PREDICTING
4. HISTORY
5. HISTORICAL RESEARCH
6. EXTERNAL CRITICISM
7. INTERNAL CRITICISM
8. POSITIVE (INTERNAL CRITICISM)
9. NEGATIVE (INTERNAL CRITICISM)
10. PRIMARY SOURCES