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# THE DEVELOPMENT OF SKEWNESS CORRECTION

## FACTOR OF BRIDGE SYSTEM

First Author1, Second Author2 ... and Nth Authorn

## First-Nth Department, First-Nth University/Affiliation, Address Including Country Name

1
first.author@university.edu; 2second.author@university.edu; nnth.author@university.edu

ABSTRACT

Most skewed bridges are treated as the right bridge where the effect of skew angle to the
bridge responses is neglected. In this study, the skewed bridge of continuous span is used to
analyzed the bridge deck using finite element method. The bridge responses of skewed bridge
are compared to the bridge responses of the right bridge and the results are presented in this
paper. The bridge is modelled using Space Gass 12 software. The variation of bridge skew
angle is studied for maximum longitudinal bending moment, maximum longitudinal shear
force and maximum longitudinal displacement. It is observed that the bridge responses for
maximum longitudinal bending moment decreases as the skew angle increases. The pattern of
the bridge responses also similar with the maximum longitudinal shear force and maximum
displacement where as the skew angle increases the bridge responses decreases. The
skewness correction factor is determined by comparing the analysis of skew bridge with the
right bridge for each skew angle

Keywords: skewed bridge; skew angle; finite element method; Space Gass 12; bridge
responses.

INTRODUCTION

## Bridge structures are a complex engineering work which consists of superstructure,

substructure and foundation. Bridge superstructure referred all parts of the bridge over the
bearing that consists of bridge deck and parapet (OBrien et al., 2014).

Bridge decks that are not orthogonal to the traffic direction are called as skewed bridge decks.
Skew bridge decks also can be defined as the angle between centreline of the bridge with the
normal (Kar et al., 2012: Sindhu et al., 2013). Nowadays, the demanding of the skewed bridge
deck are considerably increases due to topography of the site, the rising of the urban area, the
safety requirement for the traffic where the design of the bridge must be as far as possible in
straight line and etc. The slab of skewed bridge decks are generally more complicated in
analysis, design and detailing and therefore the tendency for the designer to avoid skewed
bridge deck structure.

The present of skew on the bridge structure cause the analysis of the bridge facing difficulties.
Bridge with small skew angle usually analysed based on the right bridge (non-skewed bridge).
The assumption are practically considered safe to ignore the skew angle (Kar et al., 2012) if
the angle less than 20o. However, bridges with larger skewed deck generally have effect on
the bridge responses.
Figure 1: Skew Bridge

METHODOLOGY

This study will be modelled continuous bridge using bridge at Jalan Batu Gajah -Gopeng,
Perak. The slab and beam of the bridge will be modelled by the Space Gass 12 software. The
thickness of the slab is 250 mm while the width is 16.3m and 76 m length of the span. The
bridge consists of three spans, from abutment to pier 12.5 m, from pier to pier 45 m and from
pier to abutment 18.5 m. The I-beam will be modelled. Concrete bridge with grade 40 will be
used for the deck and beam. The following data are to be used in this study.

## Self-weight is simply calculate based on product of dimension of structural elements and

material density. The density of reinforced concrete is taken as 25kN/m3. For the bridge
Highway Bridge. There are two cases of loading that will be considered in this study,
for case 1 is loading of HA UDL + KEL and case 2 is HA + 45 unit HB. The selection
of this loading based on the selection from JKR for the Bridge Jalan Batu Gajah
-Gopeng, Perak. HA UDL will be applied at longitudinal member as a uniformly
specified in BD 37/01. Figure 2 show the distribution of the loading case 1 while Figure
3 illustrated bridge live load for case 2. For one unit of HB loading will be taken 10 kN
per axel

## Modeling The Bridge

The bridge modelling and analysis will be performing using Space Gass 12. The continuous
bridge is modelled for right bridge, bridge with skew 15o, 30o, 45o and 60o of skew
angle. Then, the effect of the skew angle to the beam responses are observed and
compared with the normal bridge as the references structure.

## RESULT AND ANALYSIS

The comparison of the right bridge with the skewed bridge with skew angle of 15o, 30o, 45o
and 60o will be considered. The bridge loading will be analyze based on two case of
bridge live load which is case 1 is HA UDL + KEL and case 2 is HA + 45 units HB
according to BD 37/01.
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