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SimSci

PRO/II 9.3
Urea Plant
Casebook

May 2014
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Case 5:
Urea Plant

ABSTRACT
This case book demonstrates the use of PRO/II in the simulation
of a chemicals processing plant manufacturing 1000 tons per day of
urea from ammonia and carbon dioxide. Urea is widely used as a
solid fertilizer, as a protein supplement for livestock, as well as a
feedstock for the manufacture of plastics and adhesives. The
process plant simulated here includes a reactor, an NH3 recovery
distillation column, and a series of crystallizers. SIMSCISM's NRTL
databank, along with urea/water solubility data, provide a good
simulation of the system's vapor-liquid and solid-liquid equilibria.
Urea growth and nucleation rate crystallization data obtained from
the literature are provided for the crystallizer units.

Feature Highlights
Solids-Handling Application
User-supplied Solubility Data
Stoichiometric Reactor Units
Filtering Centrifuge Units
Solids Dryer and Freezer Units
Crystallizer Units with User-supplied Nucleation and Growth
Rates

PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-1


Introduction
What is Urea?
Urea is a source of fixed nitrogen used primarily as a crop fertilizer
and as a protein food supplement for livestock. Urea is particularly
desirable for this use as it is readily soluble in water. A secondary
use for urea is as a feedstock for the manufacture of adhesives,
plastics and resins.
Urea is manufactured by the high pressure reaction of ammonia and
carbon dioxide to form ammonium carbamate, followed by the
decomposition of the carbamate to yield urea and water. With
recycle and a stoichiometric excess of feed components, about 99%
of the CO2 and NH3 is converted to urea. The major contaminant is
a dimer of urea called biuret (NH2CONHCONH2.H2O). The biuret
concentration should not exceed 0.2-0.3% when the urea is to be
used for feed supplements or as feedstock for plastics production.
For fertilizer use, the biuret content may be up to 1%.

Relevance
Urea has a maximum nitrogen content of 46% and, among major
nitrogenous fertilizers, is second only to ammonia. It also has the
highest nitrogen content of any solid fertilizer and can be easily
manufactured as granules. Worldwide, in 2002 a total of about 108
million metric tons (108Mt) of urea were produced in more than 70
countries. This production delivered about 51.4Mt of contained
nitrogen. China was the largest producer with about 28%, and all of
asia accounted for about 46% of the total. The United States
produced about 13%, or about 14Mt. Capacity in North America
and Western Europe is expected to decline due to fluctuating natural
gas prices. It is expected that production will continue to shift
toward world regions that have abundant natural gas, lower-cost
raw materials, and cheaper labor.

Routes to Urea
The production of urea may be divided into two separate parts:
Synthesis
Finishing
The synthesis loop produces a concentrated 70-80% urea solution.
The finishing step produces either granular urea or crystalline urea.
Spherical granules or flakes are formed by evaporation followed by

5-2 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


passing the molten solid product countercurrent to a flow of hot air
(known as prilling). Crystallization is used to produce virtually pure
crystalline urea. The type of finishing process determines the final
form of urea required (i.e., the biuret content, grain size, and
moisture content).
Once-through urea processes, now rare, were once common. In
these plants, unconverted ammonia would be recovered and
undergo downstream conversion to other ammonium compounds.
Nowadays, partial and total recycle processes are used, with total
recycle plants being more commonplace.
Two types of urea manufacturing process obtained from the open
literature are outlined below.
Table 5-1: Types of Urea Manufacturing Processes
Process Description Reference
Toyo Koatsu Total recycle process using medium operating Chao1 and
conditions (synthesis loop at 3500 psia, high Dente2
pressure decomposer at 325 psia, low pressure
decomposer at 25 psia). Produces prilled urea with
0.4 wt% biuret, and 0.3 wt% moisture.

Snamprogetti Total recycle process using mild operating Hydrocarbon


conditions (synthesis loop at 2500 psia, high Processing6
pressure decomposer at 260 psia, low pressure
decomposer at 65 psia).

In the United States, urea is produced mainly in the form of


spherical prills or granules between 20 and 50 US. mesh in size,
although the use of purer, crystalline urea is increasing rapidly.

Process Outline
The urea process described in this case book produces a crystalline
product, and is based on information obtained from Chao1 and
Dente2. The urea process presented is intended as a generalized
example of a urea flowsheet and does not represent any specific
licensed technology. The urea flowsheet presented here is based on
the plant described by Chao1 for the Toyo Koatsu process, which is
a total NH3 recycle process. The urea synthesis plant modeled here
is a partial NH3 recycle process. A schematic of the process is
shown in Figure 5-1.

PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-3


Figure 5-1: Urea Plant Schematic

U
r
e
a

i
s

f
o
r
med by reacting CO2 and NH3 at high temperature and high
pressure to form ammonium carbamate urea, and water:
3NH 2 COONH 4 + NH 2 COONH 4
8NH 3 + 4CO 2 (5-1)
+3H 2 O
This highly exothermic reaction goes almost to completion under
reactor conditions of about 365 F and 3515 psia. The reactor
product stream pressure is let down through a pressure control valve
on the exit of the reactor. The reactor exit stream then enters the
NH3 recovery column where recovered NH3 is recycled back to the
reactor. The bottoms of the NH3 recovery column then enter the
high pressure decomposer where a small fraction of the ammonium
carbamate is decomposed and excess NH3 is removed as a vapor
stream:
NH 2 COONH 4 NH 2 CONH 2 + H 2 O (5-2)
This equilibrium endothermic decomposition reaction does not go
to completion under normal reaction conditions of 302 F and 325

5-4 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


psia. The exiting liquid then enters the low pressure decomposer
where the majority of ammonium carbamate decomposes at 150 F
and 25 psia, and a mixed NH3/H2O vapor is removed as a vapor
stream. The liquid stream then enters a flash drum followed by an
evaporator where additional NH3/H2O is removed as a vapor. The
remaining liquid urea/H2O stream then enters the crystallization
section.
The crystallization scheme used involves the use of a vacuum,
forced recirculation configuration. This concentrates the solution to
supersaturation resulting in urea crystal formation. The first
crystallizer operates at 130 F and 1.5 psia, while the second
crystallizer operates at 130 F and 1.335 psia. Following each
crystallization stage is a centrifuge which separates the crystal
product from the mother liquor. The two stage crystallizer is then
followed by a dryer to remove<%0> most of the <%-2>remaining
water. This type of crystallization scheme requires significantly less
energy compared to atmospheric configurations.

Process Simulation
The complete input file for this simulation can be found in
Appendix 5-B. Selected portions of the input file are shown here.
For detailed explanations of the keywords used in the input file,
please refer to the PRO/II Keyword Manual, available from
Invensys.
KWM n appears beside some examples of keyword input. KWM indicates the
PRO/II Key Word Manual, Thermo indicates the PRO/II
Thermodynamic Data Input Manual, etc. n indicates the chapter
that provides detailed explanation of the keyword entries.

PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-5


Simulation Model
Figure 5-2 shows a block diagram of the simulation flowsheet.

Figure 5-2: Urea Plant Simulation Flowsheet

5-6 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


General Data
English units of measure are used throughout the simulation for
input and output report data. The density units are changed from the
default API gravity units to DENSITY units (lb/ft3). The
FLENGTH keyword is used to specify the fine length units of
microns. The MBAL keyword specifies that an overall mass
balance be reported in the final output.
KWM 5 DIMEN ENGLISH, XDEN=DENSITY, FLENGTH=MIC
PRINT RATE=W, STREAM=COMPONENT, MBAL

Component Data
All components except the intermediate, ammonium carbamate, are
in the SimSci databank. Ammonium carbamate is specified to be a
non-library component (using the NONLIB keyword). The particle
size distribution intervals for urea are given using the ATTRIBUTE
statement. The component urea is specified to exist in the vapor,
liquid, and solid phases using the PHASE statement.
KWM 6 COMPONENT DATA
LIBRARY 1, UREA / 2, WATER / 4, AMMONIA / 5, CO2 / &
6, N2 / 7, O2 / 8, H2, BANK=SIMSCI
NONLIBRARY 3, AMCA
PHASE VLS=1
ATTR COMP=1, PSD(MIC) 0, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000.

Literature data1,4 and the property estimation facilities of the


Thermodynamics Data Manager (TDM program) are used to obtain
physical property data for the intermediate compound ammonium
carbamate. A portion of the physical property data input for this
compound is shown below.
$ PRO/II physical property insert for:
$ Name: AMMONIUM CARBAMATE
$ Formula: CH6N2O2
$ Created: 08/24/93
$ Source: User File: urea
$
$ Thermo methods available for use:
$ Library
$ EOS Methods
$
PHASE VLS = 3
MW 3, 0.7807092E+02
SPGR 3, 1.2
ACENTRIC 3, 0.5942138E+00
TC(K) 3, 0.6590952E+03
PC(PA) 3, 0.6740707E+07
FORMATION(S,J/KG,MOLE) 3, -.6450466E+09, -.4480641E+09

PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-7


NMP(K) 3, 0.4061500E+03
HFUS(J/KG,MOLE) 3, 0.6903593E+08
VP(L,PA,K) CORR=20, LN, DATA= 3, &
0.4261500E+03, 0.3031500E+03, -.2929800E+02, -
.3908196E+04, &
0.9295685E+01, -.1620786E-04, 0.2000000E+01, 0.1162653E-
07

Thermodynamic Data
The NRTL liquid activity coefficient method is used to predict the
vapor-liquid equilibria, while the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation
of state is used to calculate the liquid and vapor phase entropies.
Transport properties are calculated using the LIBRARY method.
User-supplied solubility data are used to predict solid-liquid
solubilities.
KWM 8 THERMODYNAMIC DATA
METHOD SYSTEM=NRTL, ENTROPY(V)=SRK, ENTROPY(L)=SRK,
&
KVALUE(SLE)=SOLDATA, TRANSPORT=LIBRARY

Solubility Data
With many inorganic systems, ideal solubility does not adequately
describe the solution behavior. For these cases solubility data can be
fitted to the following equation:

ln x i = A + B
---- + C ln T (5-3)
T
The above equation provides a good fit to much of the solubility
data reported in the literature. For systems containing more than
one solvent, the solubility of the solute in the multi component
solvent is calculated using the following relationship:

x i mix = xj xij ji (5-4)

j=1

where:
xj
x j = ------------------- ji (5-5)
N
x
j
j = 1

The solubility expression and the mixing rule described in the


above equations provide a great deal of flexibility in matching data

5-8 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


reported in the literature and obtained in the plant. Solubility data
for the urea/water solute/solvent pair are provided as shown below.
Thermo 7 KVALUE(SLE)
SOLUTE 1
SOLDATA(K) 1,2, 0., -1310.37, 0.533619

Stream Data
Feed Streams
Data for the ammonia feed stream and the carbon dioxide feed
stream are provided as shown below.
KWM 9.1 STREAM DATA
PROP STRM=1, TEMP=-28, PRES=320, COMP(W)=4,105049
PROP STRM=2, TEMP=100, PRES=300, COMP(W)=5,93408

Recycle Streams
The composition, temperature, and pressure of the recycle stream
from the NH3 recovery column are estimated initially for the first
run through the simulation.
$ INITIAL GUESS FOR TEAR STREAMS
$
KWM 9.1 PROP STRM=7, TEMP=126, PRES=320, COMP(W)=2, 0.5 / 4, 58667.0

Reaction Data
The stoichiometry of the two reactionsthe primary urea reaction
and the decomposition reaction<%-2>is provided in the Reaction
Data category of input.
KWM 10.8 RXDATA
RXSET ID=RST1
REACTION ID=RXC1
STOICHIOMETRY 4,-8 / 5,-4 / 1,3 / 2,3 / 3,1
$
$ DECOMPOSITION REACTION
$
RXSET ID=RST2
REACTION ID=RXC2
STOICHIOMETRY 3,-1 / 4,2 / 5,1

PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-9


Unit Operations
Urea Synthesis
As shown in Figure 5-2, fresh NH3 feed (stream 1) is mixed with
recycle NH3 (stream 7) from the NH3 recovery column (COL1).
The combined NH3 feed is raised to the operating pressure of
reactor RX1 of 3515 psia in pump P1. Fresh CO2 feed (stream 2) is
raised to the operating pressure of reactor RX1, 3516 psia, in
compressor COM1. The primary urea reaction occurs in a high
pressure, high temperature reactor. Reactor (RX1) is modeled as a
conversion reactor unit, with 100% conversion. This reactor uses
the reaction set RSTI previously defined in the Reaction Data
category of input.
Note that the heat of reaction may be optionally input for the urea
reaction. However, PRO/II can calculate the heat of reaction from
the heat of formation of the components if a value is not input.

KWM 14.2 CONREACTOR UID=RX1


FEED 3, 4 PRODUCT L=5
OPERATION ISOTHERMAL, PHASE=L, TEMP=365.
RXCALC MODEL=STOIC
RXSTOIC RXSET=RST1
REACTION RXC1
BASE COMPONENT=5
CONVERSION 1.0
High pressure reactor effluent is reduced in pressure to 320 psia
through a valve (VL1) before entry into the NH3 recovery column
(COL1). The column is simulated with the SHORTCUT column
model. The column product specifications are 65% of the NH3 are
recovered in the overhead product (stream 7), which is 99.995%
ammonia. A bubble condenser is used for the overhead product.

KWM 12.8 SHORTCUT UID=COL1


FEED 6
PRODUCT STREAM=7, PRES=320, PERCENT(W)=23
PRODUCT STREAM=8, PRES=325
SPEC STREAM=7, COMP=4, FRACTION(W), VALUE=.99995
SPEC STREAM=7, COMP=4, RATE(W), RATIO, &
STREAM=6, COMP=4, RATE(W), VALUE=0.65
CONDENSER TYPE=BUBBLE
EVALUATE MODEL=CONVENTIONAL, KEYL=4, KEYH=2, RRMIN=2.5
The bottoms product from column COL1 (stream 8) is then sent to
the high pressure and low pressure decomposers (RX2, RX3)
modeled as conversion reactors. Both reactors use reaction set

5-10 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


RST2 previously defined in the Reaction Data category of input. In
the high pressure (325 psia) reactor, 88% of the carbamate is
decomposed to urea under isothermal conditions at 302 F. An off
gas of CO2 and NH3 is generated in streams 9 and 12. In the low
pressure (25 psia) reactor, 99.95% of the remaining carbamate is
converted to urea at 252 F.
KWM 14.2 CONREACTOR UID=RX2
FEED 8
PRODUCT V=9, L=10
OPERATION ISOTHERMAL, PHASE=L, TEMP=302.
RXCALC MODEL=STOIC
RXSTOIC RXSET=RST2
REACTION RXC2
BASE COMPONENT=3
CONVERSION 0.88
$
$ HIGH PRESSURE DECOMPOSER BOTTOMS COOLER
$
KWM 11.1 FLASH UID=FL2
FEED 10
PRODUCT M=11
ISO TEMP=158, PRES=25
$
$ LOW PRESSURE DECOMPOSER
$
KWM 14.2 CONREACTOR UID=RX3
FEED 11
PRODUCT V=12, L=13
OPERATION ISOTHERMAL, PHASE=L, TEMP=252.
RXCALC MODEL=STOIC
RXSTOIC RXSET=RST2
REACTION RXC2
BASE COMPONENT=3
The reaction product stream 13 is then sent into a flash drum (FL3)
and evaporator (FL4), both modeled as flash units, where H2O and
NH3 are taken off as a vapor in streams 14 and 16.

Finishing
The bulk urea solution from the urea synthesis section is then sent
into the first stage (CR1) of a two stage vacuum evaporative
crystallization purification process. The crystallizer is operated at
130 F and 1.5 psia, and a design specification is made that 85% of
the urea in the feed crystallizes. Growth and crystal nucleation rate
data are provided using information obtained from the literature.
See the Kinetic Data section later in this case book for more
information on how these parameters were derived.

PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-11


Following the first crystallizer unit, the slurry is sent into a
centrifuge (CEN1) to separate the crystal product from the mother
liquor. The diameter of the centrifuge is specified to be 3 feet, and
operates at a speed of 1000 RPM.
KWM 15.6 CRYSTALLIZER UID=CR1, NAME=CSTAGE1
FEED 18
PRODUCTS OVHD=19, BTMS=20
PRINT CSD
OPERATION SOLUTE=1, SOLVENT=2, TEMP=130, PRES=1.5
DESIGN PFRAC=0.85
GROWTH KG=2.952E-8, GEXP=0.
NUCLEATION KB=8.7417, BEXP=-3.87, 0., -1.75, 0.
$
$ PUMP INTO FIRST CENTRIFUGE
$
KWM 11.2 PUMP UID=P3, NAME=PUMP3
FEED 20
PRODUCT L=21
OPERATION PRES=20
$
$ FIRST STAGE CENTRIFUGE
$
KWM 15.3 FCENTRIFUGE UID=CEN1, NAME=CENT1
FEED 21
PRODUCT FILTRATE=22, CAKE=23
RATING DIAMETER=3, RPM=1000
The mother liquor (stream 22) is then sent to the second stage
crystallizer (CR2) and centrifuge (CEN2). The second crystallizer
operates at the same temperature as the first, 130 F, but at a lower
pressure, 1.335 psia.
KWM 15.6 CRYSTALLIZER UID=CR2, NAME=CSTAGE2
FEED 22
PRODUCTS OVHD=24, BTMS=25
PRINT CSD
OPERATION SOLUTE=1, SOLVENT=2, TEMP=130, PRES=1.335
DESIGN PFRAC=0.95
GROWTH KG=2.952E-8, GEXP=0.
NUCLEATION KB=8.7417, BEXP=-3.87, 0., -1.75, 0.
$
$ PUMP INTO SECOND CENTRIFUGE
$
KWM 11.2 PUMP UID=P4, NAME=PUMP4
FEED 25
PRODUCT L=26
OPERATION PRES=20
$
$ SECOND STAGE CENTRIFUGE
$
KWM 15.3 FCENTRIFUGE UID=CEN2, NAME=CENT2

5-12 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


FEED 26
PRODUCT FILTRATE=27, CAKE=28
RATING DIAMETER=3, RPM=1000
Both crystal product streams 23 and 28 are then sent to a dryer
(DR1) where the final crystal product, containing 0.1% moisture by
weight, is produced (stream 30).
$
$ FINAL DRYING OF SOLID PRODUCT
$
KWM 15.1 DRYER UID=DR1, NAME=DRYER
FEED 23, 28
PRODUCT OVHD=29, BTMS=30
OPERATION PRES=15
DESIGN BTMS, MOISTURE(W)=0.001
Finally, the solid urea crystals from the dryer are cooled to 200 F
prior to prilling.
$MAKE SURE THAT ANY REMAINING UREA IS CONVERTED TO A SOLID
$PRIOR TO CONVERSION TO A GRANULAR PRODUCT
$
KWM 15.7 FREEZER UID=FRZ1, NAME=FREEZER
FEED 30
PRODUCT M=31
OPERATION TEMP=200., DP=0.
The prilling section of the urea flowsheet, which converts the urea
into a granular product, is not simulated in this case book.

Kinetic Data
It is important to accurately determine growth and nucleation
kinetic parameters. The article by Bennett3 is a good source of urea
crystallization data. The articles by Bennett3 and Perry4 provide
good discussions on calculation of crystallization kinetic
parameters from crystal size distribution data.
Crystal size distribution data obtained from the Bennett3 article for
sample number 192 are used to demonstrate how to calculate both
growth and nucleation rates. First, the crystal size distribution data
in Tyler screen size are converted to average particle diameter.

Table 5-2: Tyler Screen Sizes


Screen Length Average Diameter
Range range (mm) (mm)
14-20 1.168-0.833 1.000
20-28 0.833-0.589 0.711

PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-13


Table 5-2: Tyler Screen Sizes
Screen Length Average Diameter
Range range (mm) (mm)
28-35 0.589-0.417 0.503
35-48 0.417-0.295 0.356
48-65 0.295-0.208 0.251
65-100 0.208-0.147 0.178

Next the cumulative screen collection data must be converted into


actual weight percent for each interval range.
Table 5-3: Screen Collection Data
Avg Diameter, Screen Weight
Dav (mm) Accumulation Percent
1.000 4.4 4.4
0.711 18.8 14.4
0.503 43.0 24.2
0.356 74.6 31.6
0.251 90.1 15.5
0.178 97.5 7.4
-0.178 100.0 2.5

The number density (nL) as defined here is the number of crystals in


a specified size range up to size L per liter of volume. The formal
definition for n is:
N
nL = lim -------- (5-6)
where: l 0 L

N = number of crystals retained on the screen in the


specified size range
L = difference between the screen size of the retaining sieve
and its immediate predecessor.
As an example, the number density for screen size 14-20 (n20) is
calculated directly using the following slurry properties and the
above screen data.
Slurry density, MT = 450. g/L

5-14 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


Crystal density, rc = 1.335 g/cm3 = 1.335x10-3 g/mm3
Retention time, t = 3.38 h
L = 1.168-0.833 = 0.335 mm
Crystal volume, Vc = Dav3
Now, nL is given by:
M T x wt
n L = -------------------
- (5-7)
c V c L
where:
xwt = weight fraction retained on screen
So for example, the number of crystals / mm L
450 0.044
n 20 = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 44273 (5-8)
3
1.335 10 1.168 0.833 1.0
ln(n20) = 10.698
Similar calculations for the other screen sizes yield the following
table.

Table 5-4: Crystal Number Density


Avg Diameter, Number Density
Dav (mm) ln(n)
(n)
0.178 72492960 18.099
0.251 37958350 17.452
0.356 19346070 16.778
0.503 3726570 15.131
0.711 553490 13.224
1.000 44773 10.698

A plot of the natural log of number density versus the average


particle diameter is known as a Population Density Plot. An
example is shown in) as shown in Figure 3.
The intercept of this plot, n0, is known as the nuclei population
density. When using the following relationships, both the nucleation
and growth rates are calculated.
D av 0
ln n = -----------
- + ln n
Gt
0
B = Gn (5-9)

PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-15


where:
Dav= average crystal diameter
G= growth rate over the time interval t
t= crystallizer time interval
n0= number density of crystal nuclei
B = nucleation rate

Figure 5-3: Population Density Plot

From Figure 5-3, the intercept is 19.78 and the slope is -9.13. The
following calculations then are performed.
Since Dav= 1 mm and slope = -Dav/Gt
It follows that: Slope = -1/Gt = -9.13

5-16 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


Therefore:
G = 1/(-9.13)(3.38) = 0.0324 mm/h
The growth rate calculated using equation Equation 5-9 is:
B = (0.0324) * exp(19.78) = 12.65x106 crystals / L-h
The nuclei number density is also given by:
0 k i1
n = Kb MT G (5-10)
where:
Kb = a constant
i, k = exponents (constants)
Table 5-5 lists a group of samples reported by Bennettt3 that
characterizes observed growth and nucleation rates.

Table 5-5: Growth Versus Nucleation Rate

Sample No. ln(n0) G ln G


191 18.18 0.0330 -3.41
192 19.71 0.0338 -3-39
193 18.70 0.0317 -3.45
194 20.51 0.0200 -3.91

Using the natural logarithms of growth vs. nuclei number, densities


are plotted as shown in Figure 5-4. Using the following expression
and the resulting slope of the plot, the exponent for the power law
nucleation rate equation is determined. Calculation of the i
exponent assumes the slurry density (MT) is constant.

PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-17


Figure 5-4: Growth vs. Nucleation Rate

The slope (-2.75) of the plot shown in Figure 5-4 yields a value of
-1.75 for the exponent i. The nucleation rate, B, then is obtained
from Equation 5-11 as:
k 1.75
B = Kb MT G (5-11)

Similar data at constant growth rate is required to calculate the k


exponent in the final form of the nucleation equation. For urea
crystallization, a value of -3.87 is recommended for the k exponent
by Bennett3. In addition, a value of -1.66 is recommended for the i
exponent, compared to -1.75 calculated here. The paper by Garside
and Shaw5 is a recommended source of nucleation and growth
kinetic data. The following is the final recommended form of the
nucleation equation as reported by Garside and Shaw5.
3.87 1.66
B = 0.548M T G (5-12)

The units of the nucleation rate, B, are Number of crystals/L-s. The


constants of this equation must be converted to be consistent with
input units (refer to Table 4.1 of the PRO/II Keyword Input Manual
for default dimensional units). The following summarizes the

5-18 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


default dimensional units used in the growth and nucleation
expressions.
PRO/II Growth Rate Expression:
G exp onent
G = K a SSRATIO (5-13)

Term Units
G velocity
Kg, constant velocity
SSRATIO, supersaturation dimensionless

PRO/II Nucleation Rate Expression


i j K 1
B = K b M T SSRATIO G RPM (5-14)

Term Units
B No. / [(time) (liquid volume)]
Kb, constant No. / [(time) (liquid volume)]
MT liquid density
RPM revolutions per minute
The GEXPONENT term in Equation 5-13 is set to zero. The
following are converted growth and nucleation rates.
0.0324mm m ft h
G = K a = -------------------------- ---------------------- 3.28 ---- -------------- (5-15)
h 1000mm m 3600s
8 ft
= 2.952 10 ----
s

6 number of crystals L
B = 12.65 10 ----------------------------------------------- 28.32 -----3-
L-h ft
(5-16)
number of crystals-
8
= 3.582 10 ----------------------------------------------
3
ft h
Next, the Kb constant in the nucleation expression, Equation 5-14,
must be converted to be consistent with input units in the following
manner.
3 i
i g i i g 0.0624262lb ft
M T --- = M T --- -----------------------------------------
L L gL
(5-17)
lb i
M T -----3-
i i
= 0.0624262

ft
PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-19
i m k k m 3.28ft k k ft k
G ---- = G ---- -------------- = 3.28 G ----
k
(5-18)
s s m s

No No L s
K b ------------ = K b ------------ 28.32 -----3- 3600 ---
L s L s h
ft (5-19)
3
= 101952K b Number of crystals/ft h

Now, using equation (13):

3.87 1.66 3.87 1.66


B = 0.548 101952 0.0624262 3.28 M T G
3.87 1.66
= 8.7417 M T G
(5-20)
where units of measure are:
B (Number of crystals/ft3-h)
G (ft/s)Ncx = abbreviation for number of crystals
MT (lb/ft3)
This newly formulated equation can now be tested to check that it
fits the published nucleation rate data using the reported slurry
density of 450 g/L and calculated growth rate of 2.952x10-8 ft/s.
3 3.87
g N cx ft 8 1.66
B = 8.74172 450 --- 0.0624262 ------------------- 2.952 10
L g L (5-21)
7 Number of crystals
= 6.842289 10 ---------------------------------------------
-
3
ft h

There is a large deviation in nucleation rate compared to the value


of 3.582x108 number of crystals/ft3-h calculated from the published
data. However, if the calculated growth rate exponent of -1.75 is
used in place of the suggested value of -1.66, the nucleation rate is
calculated to be 3.258x108 number of crystals/ft3-h. This value
compares closely with the value calculated from the data. The final
form of growth and nucleation rate equations used in this simulation
then are: 8
G = 2.952 10
(5-22)
3.87 1.75
B = 8.741M T G

5-20 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


Technical Results
The overall mass balance for the partial NH3 recycle urea plant is
summarized in the output report of the simulation:
OVERALL PLANT MASS BALANCE

------------------ LB/HR ------------------ PERCENT


COMPONENT FEED +REACTION -PRODUCT =DEVIATION DEV
--------------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- -------
1 UREA 0.00 95598.21 95598.21 0.00 0.00
2 WATER 0.00 28677.21 28677.21 0.00 0.00
3 AMCA 0.00 3542.12 3542.55 -0.43 -0.01
4 AMMONIA 105049.00 -55764.79 49269.20 15.01 0.03
5 CO2 93408.00 -72052.75 21355.25 0.00 0.00
6 N2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
7 O2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
8 H2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

TOTAL 198457.00 0.00 198442.42 14.58 0.01

Conclusion
The 1000 tons/day urea process discussed in this case book
demonstrates the use of many chemicals and solids capabilities in
PRO/II. This example also highlights those features of PRO/II that
make it easy to incorporate available literature data.

Output Results
The keyword input file appears in Appendix 5-A. Appendix 5-B is a
listing of selected results. These include the urea reactor RX1 and
the decomposers RX2 and RX3, the filtering centrifuge units CEN1
and CEN2, the dryer DR1, the crystallizers CR1 and CR2, the
solids freezer FRZ1, and stream weight component rates for
selected streams.

PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-21


References
1. Chao, George Tsei-Yu, Urea: Its Properties and Manufacture,
Chao's Institute, 1967.
2. Dente, M., S. Pierucci, A. Sogaro, G. Carloni, E. Rigolli, Simulation
Program For Urea Plants, Comput. Chem. Eng. Vol 12, No. 5, pp.
389-400, 1988.
3. Bennett, R.C., M. VanBuren, Commercial Urea Crystallization,
Crystallization From Solutions and Melts, Chem. Eng. Prog. Symp.
Ser., No. 95(7), Vol. 65, 1969.
4. Perry, R.H., D. Green, Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook,
Sixth Edition, pp. 19-32 - 19-33, McGraw Hill, 1984.
5. Garside, J., M.B. Shah, Crystallization Kinetics From MSMPR
Crystallizers, Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., Vol 19, No 4, pp.
509-514, 1980.
6. Hydrocarbon Processing, Nov. 1985, pp. 172.
7. Austin, G.T., Shreve's Chemical Process Industries, Fifth Edition,
pp.311-13, McGraw-Hill, 1984.
The following are additional sources of information related to using
PRO/II with solids and electrolytes:
8. Goldfarb, S., J. Coon, J. Tanger, K.M. Ng, C.F. Chu, Crystallization
Process Optimization Using PRO/II, Presented at: November 1990
AIChE Meeting.
9. Goldfarb, S., J. Coon, J. Tanger, A. Harvey, Rigorous Simulation of
Aqueous Electrolyte Flowsheets With Special Emphasis on Solids
Processing Capabilities, Presented at: Fourth International
Symposium on Process Systems Engineering (PSE 91).
10. Goldfarb, S., Continuous Sugar Crystallization Process With
Applications in the Agri-Chemical Industry, Presented at: August
1993 AIChE Meeting.

5-22 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


Appendix 5-A: Input Data File
The keyword input file for this example is UreaPlnt.inp. It normally
is installed with the PRO/II Casebook manual in the folder:
%ProIIInstall%\Manual\Casebook\Inputs\

where %ProIIInstall% represents the root directory where PRO/II is


installed. The following is a listing of that keyword input file.
$ UREA PLANT FLOWSHEET
$
TITLE PROJ=CaseBook, PROBLEM=UreaPlant, USER=SimSci,
DATE=Apr_2010
DIMEN ENGLISH, XDEN=DENSITY, FLENGTH=MIC
PRINT RATE=W, STREAM=COMPONENT, MBAL
CALCULATION TRIALS=50
TOLERANCE STREAM=0.001
$
COMPONENT DATA
LIBRARY 1, UREA / 2, WATER / 4, AMMONIA / 5, CO2 / 6, N2 / &
7, O2 / 8, H2, BANK=SIMSCI
NONLIBRARY 3, AMCA
PHASE VLS=1
ATTR COMP=1, PSD(MIC) 0, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000.
$
$ Fill in missing data for UREA and AMMONIUM CARBAMATE from the Thermo-
dynamic Data Manager.
$
$ PRO/II physical property insert for:
$ Name: UREA
$ Formula: CH4N2O
$ Created: 05/10/95
$ Source: User File: urea
$
ACENTRIC 1, 0.5973908E+00
SURFACE(L,N/M,K) CORR= 1, DATA= 1, 0.5000000E+03, &
0.2000000E+03, 0.1565836E+00, -.2684714E-03, &
0.1951699E-07, 0.9796545E-10, -.1376130E-12, &
0.1206885E-15
VISC(V,PAS,K) CORR= 1, DATA= 1, 0.5000000E+03, &
0.2000000E+03, -.1111774E-05, 0.2164776E-07, &
0.2485747E-14, -.8143611E-17, 0.1319303E-19, &
-.8382776E-23
VISC(L,PAS,K) CORR=20, DATA= 1, 0.5000000E+03, &
0.2000000E+03, -.1761028E+03, 0.1244212E+05, &
0.2315481E+02, 0.0000000E+00, 0.0000000E+00, &
0.0000000E+00
COND(V,W/MK,K) CORR= 1, DATA= 1, 0.5000000E+03, &
0.2500000E+03, -.1894533E-01, 0.7768554E-04, &

PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-23


-.8991741E-11, 0.2449163E-13, -.3284755E-16, &
0.1733994E-19
COND(L,W/MK,K) CORR= 1, DATA= 1, 0.5000000E+03, &
0.2000000E+03, 0.2532868E+00, -.1769604E-03, &
-.1309749E-06, 0.0000000E+00, 0.0000000E+00, &
0.0000000E+00
$
$ PRO/II physical property insert for:
$ Name: AMMONIUM CARBAMATE
$ Formula: CH6N2O2
$ Created: 05/10/95
$ Source: User File: urea
$
$ Thermo methods available for use:
$ Library
$ EOS Methods
$
PHASE VLS = 3
MW 3, 0.7807092E+02
SPGR 3, 1.2
ACENTRIC 3, 0.5942138E+00
TC(K) 3, 0.6590952E+03
PC(PA) 3, 0.6740707E+07
FORMATION(S,J/KG,MOLE) 3, -.6450466E+09, -.4480641E+09
NMP(K) 3, 0.4061500E+03
HFUS(J/KG,MOLE) 3, 0.6903593E+08
VP(L,PA,K) CORR=20, LN, DATA= 3, 0.4261500E+03, &
0.3031500E+03, -.2929800E+02, -.3908196E+04, &
0.9295685E+01, -.1620786E-04, 0.2000000E+01, &
0.1162653E-07
LATENT(J/KG,K,MOLE) CORR= 1, DATA= 3, 0.6000000E+03, &
0.4000000E+03, 0.5178937E+09, -.4814254E+07, &
0.2047703E+05, -.4408357E+02, 0.4744715E-01, &
-.2057343E-04
VISC(L,PAS,K) CORR=20, DATA= 3, 0.5000000E+03, &
0.2500000E+03, -.4705848E+02, 0.4595930E+04, &
0.4787454E+01, 0.0000000E+00, 0.0000000E+00, &
0.0000000E+00
SURFACE(L,N/M,K) CORR= 1, DATA= 3, 0.5000000E+03, &
0.2000000E+03, 0.8006542E-02, -.1452831E-04, &
0.2243716E-10, 0.9652577E-11, -.1462233E-13, &
0.1190758E-16
ENTH(L,J/KG,K,MOLE) CORR=1, DATA= 3, 0.2955000E+03, &
0.1255000E+02, -.1765825E+08, -.6685015E+04, &
0.3085568E+03, -.1735744E+00, -.1174778E-08, &
0.1799982E-11
ENTH(V,J/KG,K,MOLE) CORR=1, DATA= 3, 0.1500000E+04, &
0.1500000E+03, 0.9131459E+08, 0.2351811E+05, &
0.7600609E+02, 0.7937258E-02, -.2484022E-04, &
0.7275022E-08
DENS(L,KG/M3,K,MOLE) CORR=1, DATA=3, 0.4775945E+03, &
0.3664834E+03, 0.2375940E+02, -.4553412E-01, &
0.1678109E-03, -.4529840E-06, 0.6004568E-09, &

5-24 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


-.3358131E-12
VISC(V,PAS,K) CORR= 1, DATA= 3, 0.5000000E+03, &
0.2000000E+03, -.1917443E+00, 0.3993549E-02, &
0.3461876E-09, -.1233446E-11, 0.2128086E-14, &
-.1416680E-17
COND(V,W/MK,K) CORR= 1, DATA= 3, 0.5000000E+03, &
0.2500000E+03, -.1232028E+00, 0.1417707E-02, &
-.6673806E-05, 0.1653591E-07, -.2039134E-10, &
0.1002095E-13
COND(L,W/MK,K) CORR= 1, DATA= 3, 0.5000000E+03, &
0.2000000E+03, 0.2532868E+00, -.1769604E-03, &
-.1309749E-06, 0.0000000E+00, 0.0000000E+00, &
0.0000000E+00
CP(S,J/KG,K,MOLE) CORR=1, DATA= 3, 0.4731500E+03, &
0.2931500E+03, 0.9867493E+06, -.1073353E+05, &
0.4725547E+02, -.8751843E-01, 0.5856834E-04, &
0.0000000E+00
DENS(S,KG/M3,K,MOLE) CORR=1, DATA=3, 0.2931500E+03,&
0.2931500E+03, 0.2222994E+02, 0.0000000E+00, &
0.0000000E+00, 0.0000000E+00, 0.0000000E+00, &
0.0000000E+00
SVTB 3, -.1348239E+02
SLTB 3, 0.9952457E+02
SLTM 3, 0.1659695E+02
HVTB 3, -.1246233E+02
HLTB 3, 0.4591732E+05
HLTM 3, 0.8994148E+04
$
THERMODYNAMIC DATA
METHOD SYSTEM=NRTL, ENTROPY(V)=SRK, ENTROPY(L)=SRK, &
KVALUE(SLE)=SOLDATA, TRANSPORT=LIBRARY
KVALUE(SLE)
SOLUTE 1
SOLDATA(K) 1,2, 0., -1310.37, 0.533619
$
STREAM DATA
PROP STRM=1, TEMP=-28, PRES=320, COMP(W)=4,105049
PROP STRM=2, TEMP=100, PRES=300, COMP(W)=5,93408
$
$ INITIAL GUESS FOR TEAR STREAMS
$
PROP STRM=7, TEMP=126, PRES=320, COMP(W)=2,0.5 / 4,58667.
NAME 1, NH3FD / 2, CO2FD / 9, DECGS1 / 12, DECGS2 / &
14, FLGS1 /16, FLGS2 /19, CRYGS1 / 24, CRYGS2 / &
29, DRYGS /31, UREAPROD
$
$ REACTION DATA
$
RXDATA
$
$ MAIN UREA REACTION
$
RXSET ID=RST1

PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-25


REACTION ID=RXC1
STOICHIOMETRY 4,-8 / 5,-4 / 1,3 / 2,3 / 3,1
$
$ DECOMPOSITION REACTION
$
RXSET ID=RST2
REACTION ID=RXC2
STOICHIOMETRY 3,-1 / 4,2 / 5,1
$
UNIT OPERATIONS
$
$ CO2 COMPRESSOR
$
COMPRESSOR UID=COM1
FEED 2
PRODUCT V=4
OPERATION PRES=3516, EFF=75
COOLER ACDP=1, ACTOUT=100
$
$ NH3 RECYCLE & FEED PUMP
$
PUMP UID=P1
FEED 1, 7
PRODUCT L=3
OPERATION PRES=3515
$
$ HIGH PRESSURE REACTOR
$
CONREACTOR UID=RX1
FEED 3, 4
PRODUCT L=5
OPERATION ISOTHERMAL, PHASE=L, TEMP=365.
RXCALC MODEL=STOIC
RXSTOIC RXSET=RST1
REACTION RXC1
BASE COMPONENT=5
CONVERSION 1.0
$
$ PRESSURE REDUCTION VALVE
$
VALVE UID=VL1
FEED 5
PRODUCT M=6
OPER PRES=320
$
$ AMMONIA SEPARATOR
$
SHORTCUT UID=COL1
FEED 6
PRODUCT STREAM=7, PRES=320, PERCENT(W)=23
PRODUCT STREAM=8, PRES=325
SPEC STREAM=7, COMP=4 , FRACTION(W), VALUE=.99995
SPEC STREAM=7, COMP=4 , RATE(W), RATIO, &

5-26 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


STREAM=6, COMP=4, RATE(W), VALUE=0.65
CONDENSER TYPE=BUBBLE
EVALUATE MODEL=CONVENTIONAL, KEYL=4, KEYH=2, RRMIN=2.5
$
$ HIGH PRESSURE DECOMPOSER
$
CONREACTOR UID=RX2
FEED 8
PRODUCT V=9, L=10
OPERATION ISOTHERMAL, PHASE=L, TEMP=302.
RXCALC MODEL=STOIC
RXSTOIC RXSET=RST2
REACTION RXC2
BASE COMPONENT=3
CONVERSION 0.88
$
$ HIGH PRESSURE DECOMPOSER BOTTOMS COOLER
$
FLASH UID=FL2
FEED 10
PRODUCT M=11
ISO TEMP=158, PRES=25
$
$ LOW PRESSURE DECOMPOSER
$
CONREACTOR UID=RX3
FEED 11
PRODUCT V=12, L=13
OPERATION ISOTHERMAL, PHASE=L, TEMP=252.
RXCALC MODEL=STOIC
RXSTOIC RXSET=RST2
REACTION RXC2
BASE COMPONENT=3
CONVERSION 0.9995
$
$ FLASH DRUM
$
FLASH UID=FL3
FEED 13
PRODUCT V=14, L=15
ISO TEMP=250, PRES=15
$
$ EVAPORATOR
$
FLASH UID=FL4
FEED 15
PRODUCT V=16, L=17
TPSPEC TEMP=230
SPEC STREAM=17, FRAC(W), COMP=4, VALUE=0.001

PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-27


$
$ PUMP INTO FIRST CRYSTALLIZER
$
PUMP UID=P2, NAME=PUMP2
FEED 17
PRODUCT L=18
OPERATION PRES=20
$
$ FIRST STAGE CRYSTALLIZER
$
CRYSTALLIZER UID=CR1, NAME=CSTAGE1
FEED 18
PRODUCTS OVHD=19, BTMS=20
PRINT CSD
OPERATION SOLUTE=1, SOLVENT=2, TEMP=130, PRES=1.5
DESIGN PFRAC=0.85
GROWTH KG=2.952E-8, GEXP=0.
NUCLEATION KB=8.7417, BEXP=-3.87, 0., -1.75, 0.
$
$ PUMP INTO FIRST CENTRIFUGE
$
PUMP UID=P3, NAME=PUMP3
FEED 20
PRODUCT L=21
OPERATION PRES=20
$
$ FIRST STAGE CENTRIFUGE
$
FCENTRIFUGE UID=CEN1, NAME=CENT1
FEED 21
PRODUCT FILTRATE=22, CAKE=23
RATING DIAMETER=3, RPM=1000
$
$ SECOND STAGE CRYSTALLIZER
$
CRYSTALLIZER UID=CR2, NAME=CSTAGE2
FEED 22
PRODUCTS OVHD=24, BTMS=25
PRINT CSD
OPERATION SOLUTE=1, SOLVENT=2, TEMP=130, PRES=1.335
DESIGN PFRAC=0.95
GROWTH KG=2.952E-8, GEXP=0.
NUCLEATION KB=8.7417, BEXP=-3.87, 0., -1.75, 0.
$
$ PUMP INTO SECOND CENTRIFUGE
$
PUMP UID=P4, NAME=PUMP4
FEED 25
PRODUCT L=26
OPERATION PRES=20

5-28 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


$
$ SECOND STAGE CENTRIFUGE
$
FCENTRIFUGE UID=CEN2, NAME=CENT2
FEED 26
PRODUCT FILTRATE=27, CAKE=28
RATING DIAMETER=3, RPM=1000
$
$ FINAL DRYING OF SOLID PRODUCT
$
DRYER UID=DR1, NAME=DRYER
FEED 23, 28
PRODUCT OVHD=29, BTMS=30
OPERATION PRES=15
DESIGN BTMS, MOISTURE(W)=0.001
$
$ ENSURE ANY REMAINING UREA IS CONVERTED TO A SOLID
$
FREEZER UID=FRZ1, NAME=FREEZER
FEED 30
PRODUCT M=31
OPERATION TEMP=200., DP=0.
$
END

PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-29


Appendix 5-B: Output Report File
Selected PRO/II output is shown below. The output selected
highlights solids capabilities.
SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-4
PROJECT CaseBook PRO/II VERSION 9.3 ELEC V7.0
PROBLEM UreaPlant OUTPUT SimSci
PLANT MATERIAL BALANCE Apr_2010
==============================================================================
FEED STREAMS: 1 2
PRODUCT STREAMS: 9 12 14
16 19 24
29 31 27

OVERALL PLANT MOLAR BALANCE


---------------- LB-MOL/HR ---------------- PERCENT
COMPONENT FEED +REACTION -PRODUCT =DEVIATION DEV
--------------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- -------
1 UREA 0.000 1591.827 1591.827 0.000 0.00
2 WATER 0.000 1591.827 1591.827 0.000 0.00
3 AMCA 0.000 45.371 45.376 -0.006 -0.01
4 AMMONIA 6168.265 -3274.396 2892.988 0.881 0.03
5 CO2 2122.436 -1637.198 485.239 0.000 0.00
6 N2 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.00
7 O2 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.00
8 H2 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.00

TOTAL 8290.701 -1682.568 6607.257 0.876 0.01

OVERALL PLANT MASS BALANCE


------------------ LB/HR ------------------ PERCENT
COMPONENT FEED +REACTION -PRODUCT =DEVIATION DEV
--------------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- -------
1 UREA 0.00 95598.21 95598.21 0.00 0.00
2 WATER 0.00 28677.21 28677.21 0.00 0.00
3 AMCA 0.00 3542.12 3542.55 -0.43 -0.01
4 AMMONIA 105049.00 -55764.79 49269.20 15.01 0.03
5 CO2 93408.00 -72052.75 21355.25 0.00 0.00
6 N2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
7 O2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
8 H2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

TOTAL 198457.00 0.00 198442.42 14.58 0.01

5-30 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-13
PROJECT CaseBook PRO/II VERSION 9.3 ELEC V7.0
PROBLEM UreaPlant OUTPUT SimSci
FILTERING CENTRIFUGE SUMMARY Apr_2010
==============================================================================

UNIT 14, 'CEN1', 'CENT1'

Feeds 21

Products Liquid 22
Mixed 23

Type of Operation Rating

Operating Conditions

Temperature, F 130.0609
Pressure, PSIA 20.0000
Average Particle Diameter, MIC 648.4185
Average Solid Density, LB/FT3 83.3434
Total Solid Feed Mass Flow Rate, LB/HR 6.429E+04
Surface tension, DYNE/CM 69.3608
Volume Flow Rate of Filtrate, FT3/HR 589.9697
Particle Sphericity 0.7500

Physical Configuration

Bowl Diameter, FT 3.0000


Radius of Liquid Surface / Radius of Bowl 0.7380
Radius of Cake / Radius of Bowl 0.7900
Height of Bowl / Radius of Bowl 0.9545
RPM 1000.0000
Basket Height, FT 1.4317
Selected Bowl Radius, FT 1.5000
Centrifuge Type Not Specified

Cake Properties

Mass Fraction of Solid in Cake 0.9523


Cake Thickness, MIC 9.601E+04
Cake Resistance, FT/LB 2.976E+06
Filter Medium Resistance, 1/FT 6.096E+05
Porosity if Cake 0.4500

PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-31


SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-14
PROJECT CaseBook PRO/II VERSION 9.3 ELEC V7.0
PROBLEM UreaPlant OUTPUT SimSci
FILTERING CENTRIFUGE SUMMARY Apr_2010
==============================================================================

UNIT 17, 'CEN2', 'CENT2'

Feeds 26

Products Liquid 27
Mixed 28

Type of Operation Rating

Operating Conditions

Temperature, F 130.0768
Pressure, PSIA 20.0000
Average Particle Diameter, MIC 567.6160
Average Solid Density, LB/FT3 83.3434
Total Solid Feed Mass Flow Rate, LB/HR 1.576E+04
Surface tension, DYNE/CM 69.4362
Volume Flow Rate of Filtrate, FT3/HR 257.6413
Particle Sphericity 0.7500

Physical Configuration

Bowl Diameter, FT 3.0000


Radius of Liquid Surface / Radius of Bowl 0.7380
Radius of Cake / Radius of Bowl 0.7900
Height of Bowl / Radius of Bowl 0.9545
RPM 1000.0000
Basket Height, FT 1.4317
Selected Bowl Radius, FT 1.5000
Centrifuge Type Not Specified

Cake Properties

Mass Fraction of Solid in Cake 0.9482


Cake Thickness, MIC 9.601E+04
Cake Resistance, FT/LB 2.976E+06
Filter Medium Resistance, 1/FT 6.096E+05
Porosity if Cake 0.4500

5-32 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-15
PROJECT CaseBook PRO/II VERSION 9.3 ELEC V7.0
PROBLEM UreaPlant OUTPUT SimSci
DRYER SUMMARY Apr_2010
==============================================================================

UNIT 18, 'DR1', 'DRYER'

Feeds 23 28

Products Vapor 29
Mixed 30
TEMPERATURE, DEG F 369.532
PRESSURE, PSIA 15.000
PRESSURE DROP, PSI 5.000
MOLE FRAC VAPOR 0.04528
MOLE FRAC TOTAL LIQUID 0.03534
MOLE FRAC H/C LIQUID 0.03534
MOLE FRAC FREE WATER 0.00000
MOLE FRAC MW SOLID 0.91937
MOISTURE CONTENT 9.99999E-04
DUTY, MM BTU/HR 10.55778
DRYER OPERATION MOISTURE-P

PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-33


SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-16
PROJECT CaseBook PRO/II VERSION 9.3 ELEC V7.0
PROBLEM UreaPlant OUTPUT SimSci
CRYSTALLIZER SUMMARY Apr_2010
==============================================================================
UNIT 12, 'CR1', 'CSTAGE1'
Feeds 18
Products Vapor 19
Mixed 20
OPERATING CONDITIONS
TEMPERATURE, F 130.00
PRESSURE, PSIA 1.50
HEAT EXCHANGER DUTY, MM BTU/HR -11.9173
VOLUME, FT3 10745.9867
RESIDENCE TIME, HR 7.6394
CRYSTAL PRODUCTION RATE, LB/HR 64294.794
TEMPERATURE CHANGE IN HEAT EXCHANGER, F N/A
SLURRY RECIRCULATION RATE, FT3/HR N/A
AGITATOR RPM 100.000

CRYSTALLIZER DATA
CRYSTAL COMPONENT 1 UREA
SUPERSATURATION 5.9605E-10
CRYSTAL SHAPE FACTOR 1.000

SLURRY PROPERTIES
FEED SLURRY LIQUID VOLUME FRACTION 1.000
FEED SLURRY VOLUMETRIC RATE, FT3/HR 1494.103
PRODUCT SLURRY LIQUID VOLUME FRACTION 0.452
PRODUCT SLURRY VOLUMETRIC RATE, FT3/HR 1406.645
PRODUCT SLURRY MAGMA DENSITY, LB/FT3 45.708

KINETICS DATA
GROWTH RATE, FT/SEC 2.9520E-08
NUCLEATION RATE, NUMBER/HR/FT3 4.9515E+07

PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION


---- NUMBER DENSITY ----
------- DIAMETER, MIC -------- --- WT FRAC ---- /MIC/FT3
RANGE AVERAGE FEED PRODUCT FEED PRODUCT
------------------ ---------- ------- ------- ----------- -----------
0.000 - 20.00 10.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000E+00 6.6295E+05
20.00 - 50.00 35.00 0.0000 0.0001 0.0000E+00 5.9924E+05
50.00 - 100.0 75.00 0.0000 0.0012 0.0000E+00 5.0980E+05
100.0 - 200.0 150.0 0.0000 0.0136 0.0000E+00 3.7651E+05
200.0 - 500.0 350.0 0.0000 0.2314 0.0000E+00 1.6779E+05
0.500 - 1.000 E+03 0.750 E+03 0.0000 0.7537 0.0000E+00 3.3323E+04

5-34 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-18
PROJECT CaseBook PRO/II VERSION 9.3 ELEC V7.0
PROBLEM UreaPlant OUTPUT SimSci
CRYSTALLIZER SUMMARY Apr_2010
==============================================================================

UNIT 15, 'CR2', 'CSTAGE2'

Feeds 22

Products Vapor 24
Mixed 25

OPERATING CONDITIONS

TEMPERATURE, F 130.00
PRESSURE, PSIA 1.34
HEAT EXCHANGER DUTY, MM BTU/HR 5.5558
VOLUME, FT3 2318.0340
RESIDENCE TIME, HR 5.0517
CRYSTAL PRODUCTION RATE, LB/HR 15763.480
TEMPERATURE CHANGE IN HEAT EXCHANGER, F N/A
SLURRY RECIRCULATION RATE, FT3/HR N/A
AGITATOR RPM 100.000

CRYSTALLIZER DATA

CRYSTAL COMPONENT 1 UREA


SUPERSATURATION 1.7764E-17
CRYSTAL SHAPE FACTOR 1.000

SLURRY PROPERTIES

FEED SLURRY LIQUID VOLUME FRACTION 1.000


FEED SLURRY VOLUMETRIC RATE, FT3/HR 589.970
PRODUCT SLURRY LIQUID VOLUME FRACTION 0.588
PRODUCT SLURRY VOLUMETRIC RATE, FT3/HR 458.865
PRODUCT SLURRY MAGMA DENSITY, LB/FT3 34.353

KINETICS DATA

GROWTH RATE, FT/SEC 2.9520E-08


NUCLEATION RATE, NUMBER/HR/FT3 1.4952E+08

PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-35


SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-19
PROJECT CaseBook PRO/II VERSION 9.3 ELEC V7.0
PROBLEM UreaPlant OUTPUT SimSci
CRYSTALLIZER SUMMARY Apr_2010
==============================================================================

UNIT 15, 'CR2', 'CSTAGE2' (Cont)

PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION


---- NUMBER DENSITY ----
------- DIAMETER, MIC -------- --- WT FRAC ---- /MIC/FT3
RANGE AVERAGE FEED PRODUCT FEED PRODUCT
------------------ ---------- ------- ------- ----------- -----------
0.000 - 20.00 10.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000E+00 2.5525E+06
20.00 - 50.00 35.00 0.0000 0.0003 0.0000E+00 2.1909E+06
50.00 - 100.0 75.00 0.0000 0.0035 0.0000E+00 1.7158E+06
100.0 - 200.0 150.0 0.0000 0.0353 0.0000E+00 1.0849E+06
200.0 - 500.0 350.0 0.0000 0.3966 0.0000E+00 3.1958E+05
0.500 - 1.000 E+03 0.750 E+03 0.0000 0.5643 0.0000E+00 2.7730E+04

SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-20


PROJECT CaseBook PRO/II VERSION 9.3 ELEC V7.0
PROBLEM UreaPlant OUTPUT SimSci
MELTER/FREEZER SUMMARY Apr_2010
==============================================================================
UNIT 19, 'FRZ1', 'FREEZER'
Feeds 30

Products Mixed 31

OPERATING CONDITIONS

TEMPERATURE, F 200.00
PRESSURE, PSIA 15.00
PRESSURE DROP, PSI 0.00
DUTY, MM BTU/HR -7.0614
MOLE FRAC VAPOR 0.0000
MOLE FRAC TOTAL LIQUID 0.0032
MOLE FRAC MW SOLID 0.9968

MELTING/FREEZING DATA
DUTY NMP
COMPONENTS FROZEN FRACTION MM BTU/HR F
--------------------- -------- ----------- -------
1 UREA 1.0000 -0.2976 270.86

5-36 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-21
PROJECT CaseBook PRO/II VERSION 9.3 ELEC V7.0
PROBLEM UreaPlant OUTPUT SimSci
CONVERSION REACTOR SUMMARY Apr_2010
==============================================================================
UNIT 3, 'RX1'
OPERATING CONDITIONS
REACTOR TYPE ISOTHERMAL REACTOR
DUTY, MM BTU/HR -34.7104
TOTAL HEAT OF REACTION AT 77.00 F, MM BTU/HR -38.0197

INLET OUTLET
----------- -----------
FEED 3
4
LIQUID PRODUCT 5
TEMPERATURE, F 60.14 365.00
PRESSURE, PSIA 3515.0000 3515.0000

REACTION DATA
--------- RATES, LB-MOL/HR ---------- FRACTION
COMPONENT FEED CHANGE PRODUCT CONVERTED
------------------ ----------- ----------- ----------- -----------
1 UREA 5.38249E-24 1591.8273 1591.8273
2 WATER 4.33234E-05 1591.8273 1591.8273
3 AMCA 1.7863 530.6091 532.3954
4 AMMONIA 9718.5395 -4244.8727 5473.6667 0.4368
5 CO2 2122.4364 -2122.4364 0.0000 1.0000

TOTAL 11842.7622 -2653.0455 9189.7167

LB-MOL/HR FRACTION
BASE COMPONENT REACTION CONVERTED CONVERTED(1)
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------------
5 CO2 1 2122.4364 1.0000
(1) FRACTION CONVERTED BASED ON AMOUNT IN FEED

REACTOR MASS BALANCE


----------- Rates, LB/HR ------------ Fraction
Component Feed Change Product Converted
-------------------- ----------- ----------- ----------- -----------
1 UREA 3.23249E-22 95598.2077 95598.2077
2 WATER 7.80483E-04 28677.2137 28677.2145
3 AMCA 139.4570 41425.1400 41564.5970
4 AMMONIA 165512.1650 -72292.5579 93219.6071 0.4368
5 CO2 93408.0000 -93408.0000 0.0000 1.0000
TOTAL 259059.6228 0.0000 259059.6263

PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-37


SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-22
PROJECT CaseBook PRO/II VERSION 9.3 ELEC V7.0
PROBLEM UreaPlant OUTPUT SimSci
CONVERSION REACTOR SUMMARY Apr_2010
==============================================================================
UNIT 6, 'RX2'
OPERATING CONDITIONS
REACTOR TYPE ISOTHERMAL REACTOR
DUTY, MM BTU/HR 63.1751
TOTAL HEAT OF REACTION AT 77.00 F, MM BTU/HR 32.0677
INLET OUTLET
----------- -----------
FEED 8
VAPOR PRODUCT 9
LIQUID PRODUCT 10
TEMPERATURE, F 233.07 302.00
PRESSURE, PSIA 325.0000 325.0000

REACTION DATA
--------- RATES, LB-MOL/HR ---------- FRACTION
COMPONENT FEED CHANGE PRODUCT CONVERTED
------------------ ----------- ----------- ----------- -----------
1 UREA 1591.8272 0.0000 1591.8272
2 WATER 1591.8272 0.0000 1591.8272
3 AMCA 530.6146 -466.9409 63.6738 0.8800
4 AMMONIA 1922.5107 933.8817 2856.3924
5 CO2 0.0000 466.9409 466.9409
TOTAL 5636.7797 933.8817 6570.6614

LB-MOL/HR FRACTION
BASE COMPONENT REACTION CONVERTED CONVERTED(1)
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------------
3 AMCA 1 466.9409 0.8800
(1) FRACTION CONVERTED BASED ON AMOUNT IN FEED

REACTOR MASS BALANCE


----------- Rates, LB/HR ------------ Fraction
Component Feed Change Product Converted
-------------------- ----------- ----------- ----------- -----------
1 UREA 95598.2050 0.0000 95598.2050
2 WATER 28677.2129 0.0000 28677.2129
3 AMCA 41425.5706 -36454.5021 4971.0685 0.8800
4 AMMONIA 32741.4323 15904.5281 48645.9604
5 CO2 0.0000 20549.9736 20549.9736

TOTAL 198442.4209 0.0000 198442.4204

5-38 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-23
PROJECT CaseBook PRO/II VERSION 9.3 ELEC V7.0
PROBLEM UreaPlant OUTPUT SimSci
CONVERSION REACTOR SUMMARY Apr_2010
==============================================================================
UNIT 8, 'RX3'
OPERATING CONDITIONS
REACTOR TYPE ISOTHERMAL REACTOR
DUTY, MM BTU/HR 17.7914
TOTAL HEAT OF REACTION AT 77.00 F, MM BTU/HR 1.2566

INLET OUTLET
----------- -----------
FEED 11
VAPOR PRODUCT 12
LIQUID PRODUCT 13
TEMPERATURE, F 158.00 252.00
PRESSURE, PSIA 25.0000 25.0000

REACTION DATA
--------- RATES, LB-MOL/HR ---------- FRACTION
COMPONENT FEED CHANGE PRODUCT CONVERTED
------------------ ----------- ----------- ----------- -----------
1 UREA 1591.7928 0.0000 1591.7928
2 WATER 1385.2013 0.0000 1385.2013
3 AMCA 18.3068 -18.2977 9.15342E-03 0.9995
4 AMMONIA 619.4463 36.5954 656.0417
5 CO2 23.1057 18.2977 41.4034
TOTAL 3637.8529 36.5954 3674.4483
LB-MOL/HR FRACTION
BASE COMPONENT REACTION CONVERTED CONVERTED(1)
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------------
3 AMCA 1 18.2977 0.9995
(1) FRACTION CONVERTED BASED ON AMOUNT IN FEED

REACTOR MASS BALANCE

----------- Rates, LB/HR ------------ Fraction


Component Feed Change Product Converted
-------------------- ----------- ----------- ----------- -----------
1 UREA 95596.1349 0.0000 95596.1349
2 WATER 24954.7892 0.0000 24954.7892
3 AMCA 1429.2311 -1428.5165 0.7146 0.9995
4 AMMONIA 10549.5170 623.2394 11172.7564
5 CO2 1016.8772 805.2771 1822.1543

TOTAL 133546.5494 0.0000 133546.5494

PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-39


SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-24
PROJECT CaseBook PRO/II VERSION 9.3 ELEC V7.0
PROBLEM UreaPlant OUTPUT SimSci
STREAM WEIGHT COMPONENT RATES Apr_2010
==============================================================================

STREAM ID 1 2 3 4
NAME NH3FD CO2FD
PHASE LIQUID VAPOR LIQUID LIQUID
THERMO ID NRTL01 NRTL01 NRTL01 NRTL01

FLUID RATES, LB/HR


1 UREA 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
2 WATER 0.0000 0.0000 7.8048E-04 0.0000
3 AMCA 0.0000 0.0000 139.4570 0.0000
4 AMMONIA 105049.0000 0.0000 165512.1650 0.0000
5 CO2 0.0000 93408.0000 0.0000 93408.0000
6 N2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
7 O2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
8 H2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL FLUID, LB/HR 105049.0000 93408.0000 165651.6228 93408.0000

MW SOLID RATES, LB/HR


1 UREA 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
2 WATER 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
3 AMCA 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
4 AMMONIA 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
5 CO2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
6 N2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
7 O2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL MW SOLID, LB/HR 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

TOTAL RATE, LB/HR 105049.0000 93408.0000 165651.6228 93408.0000

TEMPERATURE, F -28.0000 100.0000 44.6511 100.0000


PRESSURE, PSIA 320.0000 300.0000 3515.0000 3515.0000
ENTHALPY, MM BTU/HR -6.7624 4.7133 2.2745 4.7133
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 17.0306 44.0098 17.0418 44.0098
WEIGHT FRAC VAPOR 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000
WEIGHT FRAC LIQUID 1.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000
WEIGHT FRAC MW SOLID 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

5-40 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-25
PROJECT CaseBook PRO/II VERSION 9.3 ELEC V7.0
PROBLEM UreaPlant OUTPUT SimSci
STREAM WEIGHT COMPONENT RATES Apr_2010
==============================================================================

STREAM ID 5 6 7 8
NAME
PHASE LIQUID MIXED LIQUID LIQUID
THERMO ID NRTL01 NRTL01 NRTL01 NRTL01

FLUID RATES, LB/HR


1 UREA 95598.2077 95598.2077 0.0000 95598.2050
2 WATER 28677.2145 28677.2145 7.7806E-04 28677.2129
3 AMCA 41564.5970 41564.5970 139.0253 41425.5706
4 AMMONIA 93219.6071 93219.6071 60478.1766 32741.4323
5 CO2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
6 N2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
7 O2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
8 H2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL FLUID, LB/HR 259059.6263 259059.6263 60617.2026 198442.4209

MW SOLID RATES, LB/HR


1 UREA 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
2 WATER 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
3 AMCA 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
4 AMMONIA 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
5 CO2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
6 N2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
7 O2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL MW SOLID, LB/HR 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

TOTAL RATE, LB/HR 259059.6263 259059.6263 60617.2026 198442.4209

TEMPERATURE, F 365.0000 292.4821 127.9653 233.0678


PRESSURE, PSIA 3515.0000 320.0000 320.0000 325.0000
ENTHALPY, MM BTU/HR 77.4783 77.4783 6.5832 26.9806
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 28.1902 28.1902 17.0612 35.2049
WEIGHT FRAC VAPOR 0.0000 0.4585 0.0000 0.0000
WEIGHT FRAC LIQUID 1.0000 0.5415 1.0000 1.0000
WEIGHT FRAC MW SOLID 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-41


SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-26
PROJECT CaseBook PRO/II VERSION 9.3 ELEC V7.0
PROBLEM UreaPlant OUTPUT SimSci
STREAM WEIGHT COMPONENT RATES Apr_2010
==============================================================================

STREAM ID 9 10 11 12
NAME DECGS1 DECGS2
PHASE VAPOR LIQUID MIXED VAPOR
THERMO ID NRTL01 NRTL01 NRTL01 NRTL01

FLUID RATES, LB/HR


1 UREA 2.0701 95596.1349 95596.1349 2.4577
2 WATER 3722.4238 24954.7892 24954.7892 8909.5732
3 AMCA 3541.8374 1429.2311 1429.2311 0.6093
4 AMMONIA 38096.4434 10549.5170 10549.5170 10493.9902
5 CO2 19533.0964 1016.8772 1016.8772 1802.8394
6 N2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
7 O2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
8 H2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL FLUID, LB/HR 64895.8710 133546.5494 133546.5494 21209.4698

MW SOLID RATES, LB/HR


1 UREA 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
2 WATER 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
3 AMCA 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
4 AMMONIA 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
5 CO2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
6 N2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
7 O2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL MW SOLID, LB/HR 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

TOTAL RATE, LB/HR 64895.8710 133546.5494 133546.5494 21209.4698

TEMPERATURE, F 302.0000 302.0000 158.0000 252.0000


PRESSURE, PSIA 325.0000 325.0000 25.0000 25.0000
ENTHALPY, MM BTU/HR 25.0732 24.0578 13.5648 15.9134
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 22.1276 36.7103 36.7103 18.4149
WEIGHT FRAC VAPOR 1.0000 0.0000 0.0565 1.0000
WEIGHT FRAC LIQUID 0.0000 1.0000 0.9435 0.0000
WEIGHT FRAC MW SOLID 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

5-42 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-27
PROJECT CaseBook PRO/II VERSION 9.3 ELEC V7.0
PROBLEM UreaPlant OUTPUT SimSci
STREAM WEIGHT COMPONENT RATES Apr_2010
==============================================================================

STREAM ID 13 14 15 16
NAME FLGS1 FLGS2
PHASE LIQUID VAPOR LIQUID VAPOR
THERMO ID NRTL01 NRTL01 NRTL01 NRTL01

FLUID RATES, LB/HR


1 UREA 95593.6772 0.2755 95593.4017 0.0973
2 WATER 16045.2159 989.5365 15055.6794 512.6611
3 AMCA 0.1053 0.0422 0.0632 0.0153
4 AMMONIA 678.7662 441.1092 237.6570 127.4104
5 CO2 19.3149 17.7209 1.5940 1.4026
6 N2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
7 O2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
8 H2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL FLUID, LB/HR 112337.0796 1448.6843 110888.3952 641.5867

MW SOLID RATES, LB/HR


1 UREA 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
2 WATER 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
3 AMCA 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
4 AMMONIA 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
5 CO2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
6 N2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
7 O2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL MW SOLID, LB/HR 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

TOTAL RATE, LB/HR 112337.0796 1448.6843 110888.3952 641.5867

TEMPERATURE, F 252.0000 250.0000 250.0000 230.0000


PRESSURE, PSIA 25.0000 15.0000 15.0000 8.7834
ENTHALPY, MM BTU/HR 13.8352 1.3812 13.3529 0.6619
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 44.5306 17.8329 45.4190 17.8357
WEIGHT FRAC VAPOR 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.0000
WEIGHT FRAC LIQUID 1.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000
WEIGHT FRAC MW SOLID 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-43


SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-28
PROJECT CaseBook PRO/II VERSION 9.3 ELEC V7.0
PROBLEM UreaPlant OUTPUT SimSci
STREAM WEIGHT COMPONENT RATES Apr_2010
==============================================================================

STREAM ID 17 18 19 20
NAME CRYGS1
PHASE LIQUID LIQUID VAPOR MIXED
THERMO ID NRTL01 NRTL01 NRTL01 NRTL01

FLUID RATES, LB/HR


1 UREA 95593.3044 95593.3044 3.6000E-03 31298.5069
2 WATER 14543.0183 14543.0183 629.8924 13913.1259
3 AMCA 0.0479 0.0479 9.0884E-03 0.0388
4 AMMONIA 110.2466 110.2466 78.2450 32.0015
5 CO2 0.1914 0.1914 0.1862 5.2651E-03
6 N2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
7 O2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
8 H2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL FLUID, LB/HR 110246.8085 110246.8085 708.3363 45243.6784

MW SOLID RATES, LB/HR


1 UREA 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 64294.7938
2 WATER 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
3 AMCA 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
4 AMMONIA 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
5 CO2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
6 N2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
7 O2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL MW SOLID, LB/HR 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 64294.7938

TOTAL RATE, LB/HR 110246.8085 110246.8085 708.3363 109538.4722

TEMPERATURE, F 230.0000 230.0511 130.0000 130.0000


PRESSURE, PSIA 8.7834 20.0000 1.5000 1.5000
ENTHALPY, MM BTU/HR 11.9853 11.9884 0.7478 -0.6767
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 45.8314 45.8314 17.9039 46.2984
WEIGHT FRAC VAPOR 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000
WEIGHT FRAC LIQUID 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.4130
WEIGHT FRAC MW SOLID 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.5870

5-44 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-29
PROJECT CaseBook PRO/II VERSION 9.3 ELEC V7.0
PROBLEM UreaPlant OUTPUT SimSci
STREAM WEIGHT COMPONENT RATES Apr_2010
==============================================================================

STREAM ID 21 22 23 24
NAME CRYGS2
PHASE MIXED LIQUID MIXED VAPOR
THERMO ID NRTL01 NRTL01 NRTL01 NRTL01

FLUID RATES, LB/HR


1 UREA 31298.5069 29069.4643 2229.0426 0.0399
2 WATER 13913.1259 12922.2495 990.8763 7003.5393
3 AMCA 0.0388 0.0360 2.7628E-03 0.0310
4 AMMONIA 32.0015 29.7224 2.2791 29.2626
5 CO2 5.2651E-03 4.8901E-03 3.7497E-04 4.8848E-03
6 N2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
7 O2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
8 H2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL FLUID, LB/HR 45243.6784 42021.4772 3222.2012 7032.8776

MW SOLID RATES, LB/HR


1 UREA 64294.7938 0.0000 64294.7938 0.0000
2 WATER 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
3 AMCA 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
4 AMMONIA 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
5 CO2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
6 N2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
7 O2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL MW SOLID, LB/HR 64294.7938 0.0000 64294.7938 0.0000

TOTAL RATE, LB/HR 109538.4722 42021.4772 67516.9950 7032.8776

TEMPERATURE, F 130.0609 130.0609 130.0609 130.0000


PRESSURE, PSIA 20.0000 20.0000 20.0000 1.3350
ENTHALPY, MM BTU/HR -0.6734 2.6376 -3.3109 7.8496
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 46.2984 34.9282 58.0622 18.0111
WEIGHT FRAC VAPOR 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000
WEIGHT FRAC LIQUID 0.4130 1.0000 0.0477 0.0000
WEIGHT FRAC MW SOLID 0.5870 0.0000 0.9523 0.0000

PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-45


SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-30
PROJECT CaseBook PRO/II VERSION 9.3 ELEC V7.0
PROBLEM UreaPlant OUTPUT SimSci
STREAM WEIGHT COMPONENT RATES Apr_2010
==============================================================================

STREAM ID 25 26 27 28
NAME
PHASE MIXED MIXED LIQUID MIXED
THERMO ID NRTL01 NRTL01 NRTL01 NRTL01

FLUID RATES, LB/HR


1 UREA 13305.9443 13305.9443 12709.6529 596.2914
2 WATER 5918.7102 5918.7102 5653.4697 265.2405
3 AMCA 5.0685E-03 5.0685E-03 4.8413E-03 2.2714E-04
4 AMMONIA 0.4598 0.4598 0.4392 0.0206
5 CO2 5.2985E-06 5.2985E-06 5.0611E-06 2.3745E-07
6 N2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
7 O2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
8 H2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL FLUID, LB/HR 19225.1195 19225.1195 18363.5667 861.5528

MW SOLID RATES, LB/HR


1 UREA 15763.4801 15763.4801 0.0000 15763.4801
2 WATER 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
3 AMCA 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
4 AMMONIA 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
5 CO2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
6 N2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
7 O2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL MW SOLID, LB/HR 15763.4801 15763.4801 0.0000 15763.4801

TOTAL RATE, LB/HR 34988.5996 34988.5996 18363.5667 16625.0329

TEMPERATURE, F 130.0000 130.0768 130.0768 130.0768


PRESSURE, PSIA 1.3350 20.0000 20.0000 20.0000
ENTHALPY, MM BTU/HR 0.3437 0.3451 1.1523 -0.8072
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 43.0572 43.0572 34.9468 57.8998
WEIGHT FRAC VAPOR 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
WEIGHT FRAC LIQUID 0.5495 0.5495 1.0000 0.0518
WEIGHT FRAC MW SOLID 0.4505 0.4505 0.0000 0.9482

5-46 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-31
PROJECT CaseBook PRO/II VERSION 9.3 ELEC V7.0
PROBLEM UreaPlant OUTPUT SimSci
STREAM WEIGHT COMPONENT RATES Apr_2010
==============================================================================

STREAM ID 29 30 31
NAME DRYGS UREAPROD
PHASE VAPOR MIXED MIXED
THERMO ID NRTL01 NRTL01 NRTL01

FLUID RATES, LB/HR


1 UREA 14.6664 2810.6676 0.0000
2 WATER 1176.0587 80.0582 80.0582
3 AMCA 2.9791E-03 1.0834E-05 1.0834E-05
4 AMMONIA 2.2917 7.9784E-03 7.9784E-03
5 CO2 3.7480E-04 4.1472E-07 4.1472E-07
6 N2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
7 O2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
8 H2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL FLUID, LB/HR 1193.0202 2890.7338 80.0662

MW SOLID RATES, LB/HR


1 UREA 0.0000 80058.2739 82868.9415
2 WATER 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
3 AMCA 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
4 AMMONIA 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
5 CO2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
6 N2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
7 O2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL MW SOLID, LB/HR 0.0000 80058.2739 82868.9415

TOTAL RATE, LB/HR 1193.0202 82949.0077 82949.0077

TEMPERATURE, F 369.5322 369.5322 200.0000


PRESSURE, PSIA 15.0000 15.0000 15.0000
ENTHALPY, MM BTU/HR 1.4214 5.0183 -2.0431
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 18.1697 59.9207 59.9207
WEIGHT FRAC VAPOR 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000
WEIGHT FRAC LIQUID 0.0000 0.0348 9.6525E-04
WEIGHT FRAC MW SOLID 0.0000 0.9652 0.9990

PRO/II Case Book Urea Plant 5-47


SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-32
PROJECT CaseBook PRO/II VERSION 9.3 ELEC V7.0
PROBLEM UreaPlant OUTPUT SimSci
SOLID ATTRIBUTES Apr_2010
==============================================================================

STREAM ID 20 21 23 25
NAME
PHASE MIXED MIXED MIXED MIXED
THERMO ID NRTL01 NRTL01 NRTL01 NRTL01

1 UREA
PSD, MIC
0.000 - 20.00 1.422E-06 1.422E-06 1.422E-06 4.925E-06
20.00 - 50.00 8.265E-05 8.265E-05 8.265E-05 2.719E-04
50.00 - 100.0 1.153E-03 1.153E-03 1.153E-03 3.492E-03
100.0 - 200.0 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0353
200.0 - 500.0 0.2314 0.2314 0.2314 0.3966
0.500 - 1.000 E+03 0.7537 0.7537 0.7537 0.5643

STREAM ID 26 28 30 31
NAME UREAPROD
PHASE MIXED MIXED MIXED MIXED
THERMO ID NRTL01 NRTL01 NRTL01 NRTL01

1 UREA
PSD, MIC
0.000 - 20.00 4.925E-06 4.925E-06 2.112E-06 2.112E-06
20.00 - 50.00 2.719E-04 2.719E-04 1.199E-04 1.199E-04
50.00 - 100.0 3.492E-03 3.492E-03 1.614E-03 1.614E-03
100.0 - 200.0 0.0353 0.0353 0.0179 0.0179
200.0 - 500.0 0.3966 0.3966 0.2639 0.2639
0.500 - 1.000 E+03 0.5643 0.5643 0.7164 0.7164

5-48 Urea Plant March 5, 2014


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