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Howard Wm. Pfeifer


Howard Wm. Pfeifer


P"blished Octaber, 1970


,JI]},' 1 '1'2

List 01 Illustrations vii

List al Maps IX



Morphology 3

Ecology , .. , .. ,. , lO

Distribution 1I

Acknowledgments 12

Taxonomy 14

Enumeration of the Species 114

Index to Specimens Studied 1I5

Appendix 128

Index to Latin N ames 133



Figure l. Alterations in A ristolochia jJringlei ftowers. 9

Figure 2. Aristolochia acontophylla. 20
Figure 3. Aristolochia cardianlha. 23
Figure 4. Arislolochia fa'elida. 25
Figure 5. A ristolochia monticoZa. 29
Figure 6. Aristolochia sinaloae. 31
Figure 7. A ristolochia karwinskii. 33
Figure 8. Arisloloc/a variifolia. 36
Figure 9. Aristolochia nelsonii. 39
Figure 10. A ristolochia lresmariae. 41
Figure 11. Aristolochia secunda. 42
Figure 12. Aristolochia buntingii. 45
Figure 13. Aristolochia conversiae. 48
Figure 14. A ristolochia 'mutabilis. 51
Figure 15. Aristolochia walsoni. 54
Figure 16. Aristolocllia micrantha. 57
Figure 17. Arislolochia erecta. 59
Figure 18. Aristolochia jJalmeri. 63
Figure 19. A ristolocllia flexuosa. 64
Figure 20. A ristolochia fJringlei. 67
Figure 2l. Aristolochia bracteosa. 71
Figure 22. Aristolochia islandica. 73
Figure 23. Aristolochia cordata. 75
Figure 24. Aristolochia whitei. 77
Fig'ure 25. Aristolochia versabilifolia. 79
Figure 26. Aristolochia socorroensis. 83
Figure 27. Aristolochia oaxacana. 85
Figure 28. Aristolochia brevijJes. 88
Figure 29. Aristolochia durangensis. 89
Figure 30. A ristolochia coryi. 91
Figure 31. Aristolochia jJOrphyroj,hylla. 95
Figure 32. A ristolochia pentandra. lOO
Figure 33. A ristolochia tequilana. 104
Figure 34. Aristolochia leretiflora. 107
Figure 35. A ristolochia wrightii. 109
Figure 36. Ar5tolochia nana. 113


Map 1. Generalized known distribution DE the pen-

tandrous species of Aristolochia. 5
Map 2. Collection site 01 Aristolochia acontophylla. 22
Map3. Collection si tes 01 Aristolochia cardiantha. 22
Map4. Collection sites 01 Aristolochia foetida. 28
Map5. Collection sites of Aristolochia monticola. 28
Map6. Collection sites 01 Aristolochia sinaloae. 34
Map7. Collection sites of Arlstolochia varifolia. 34
Map8. Collection sites of Aristolochia nelsonii. 40
Mapg. Collection site of Aristolochia tresmariae. 40
Map 10. Collection sites oE A ristolochia secunda. 44
Map 11. Collection site of Aristolochia buntingii. 44
Map 12. Colleetion stes of A ristolochia conversiae. 50
Map 13. Collection sites 01 Aristolochia mutabilis. 50
Map 14. Collection sites of Aristolochia watsoni. 56
Map 15. Collection site of Arislolochia mierantha. 56
Map 16. Collection sites of Aristolochia erecta. 60
Map 17. Collection site 01 Aristolochia palmeri. 60
Map 18. Collection sites 01 A ristolochia flexuosa. 66
Map 19. Collection sites 01 Aristolochia pringlei. 66
Map 20. Collection sites DE Aristolochia bracteosa. 70
Map 21. Collection site of Aristolochia islandica. 70
Map 22. Collection site of Aristolochia cordata. 76
Map 23. Collection site 01 Aristolochia whitei. 76
Map 24. Collection sites 01 Aristolochia versabilifolia. 80
Map 25. Collection site of Aristolochia socorroensis. 80
Map 26. Collection site of Aristolochia oaxacana. 86
Map 27. Collection sites 01 Aristolochia brevipes. 86
Map 28. Collection site of Aristolochia durangensis. 92
Map 29. Collection sites of Aristoloch~'a coryi. 92
Map 30. Collection sites 01 Aristolochia porphyrophyl-
la. 98
Map31. Collection sites 01 Aristolochia pentandra. 98
Map 32. Coll~tion sites of Aristolochia tequilana. 106
Map 33. Collction site 01 Aristolochia teretiflora. 106
Map 34. Collection sites 01 Aristolochia wrightii. 110
Map 35. Collection sites 01 Aristolochia nana. 110

largest genus in the Aristolochiaceae, At'isfolochia is
{ound throughout the tropical ancl warm temperate regioos
oE the worlcL It is represelted in the literature by more than

1000 specific epithets, incompletely representing an estimatecl

500 ay 600 species. The genus may be recognizcd by anyone with
the most cnrsory knowledge DE the distinctivc structure oE the
flowers. Probably they resemble Ceroj)egia flowers (Asclepiacla-
ccae) more tila n anything elsc. The structural details oE the floral
mechanisms providing foy out-crossing in Aristolochia ancl Cero-
pegia are quite similar but the showy part of the flowers DE Cero-
pegia is a radially symmetrical carolla, whereas in Arislolochia
flowers it is a bilaterally symmetrical and more complex calyx.
"\Nhen 1 bcgan my studies of the N orth American species 1
1 decided to defer stmly of a clearly defined group of Mexican
species with five st;mens which are probably unique in the genus.
Totaiing 35 at present, they are clealt with in this paper, bring-
ing tIle known vVcstcrn Hemisphere species north oE Panam
close to 100. The group considered here have been historically
calIed Aristolochia subsect. Pentandra,3 because of the presence
of only five stamens in the fiower.

Apart from the clescriptions of 13 species of Aristolochia collated
in Linnaeus's Species Planiarum\ the genus was ignored except
for isolated descriptions of new species, until Duchartre 5 pub-

lPfeifer, H. W. 1966. Revision 01 the North and Central American HexaTl-

dro1ls Species 01 A1'istolochia (AristoloclJiaceae). AnnaIs of I.he Missouri Bo-
tanical Carden 53:115-196.
2Duchartre, P. 1864. Aristolochiaceae, in A. de CandolIe, Prodromus syst.
natur. regni vegeto 15-l:421A98.
3Schmidt, O. C. 1935. Aristolochiaceae, in A. Engler & K. Prantl. Die Natilr-
licJun PIlam.enfamilien. ed. 2. 16b:204:242.
4rLinnaeus] Linnad, Caroli, 1753. Species Plantar1l1n, ed L 2:960-962. Hol-
5Duchartre, P. 1854. Tenlamen MetllOdicae Divisionis Generis Arislolochia
... Annales des Sciences NaturelIes. Paris. 54:2976, tab. 5 6- 6.
lished a synoptic aCCQunt of the genus in 1854. Ten years Iater
he published a definitive monographic study of the family for known nor greatly aid in identHying the great numbers of speci~
the De CandoI1e's PTOdromus.(j This stands, aIthough long out of mens available.
date, as the only comprehensive treatment of the whole famiJy, This paper does not propose several new subgeneric divi-
complete with descriptions of the genera and species, and with sions of the genus beeause 1 have little firsthand knowledge of
fun synonymy and citations of specimens. Duchartre recognized the other Asiatic, European and South American species; I be
]71 species in the genlls Aristolochia; 10 of those had pentamer. Jieve that to have been Schmidt's and Duehartre's pitfall. It
ous stamens. The only other treatment of the family is the ac. seems better to generalize only after mastering the specifics; only
count by atto c. Schmide in the seconcl edition of Engler and then can a formal and detai.led classification, elucidating the
Prantl's Die Natrlichen Pflanzenfamilien; as in most treatments evolution oi the species-groups and the genus, be written eor-
of angiosperm families in lhis great Gennan work, a comprehen. reetIy. I also believe that plants so easily recognizable and assign-
sive bibliography 1S cited. Schmidt proposecl a generic and sub- able to their genus as are the aristolochias should he maintained
generic classification which reRected thM of Duchartre, but in within the single genus; surely this is far more reasonable, con-
outline [orm amI partIy without formal taxonomic heirarchic siclering the clegrees oi difIeren ce among the other genera of the
classification. He proposed an extensive series of lesser subdivi. family. To circumscribe and define Aristolochia inclusively, with
SlOTIS beyond those of Duchartre; this was necessary because the the pentandrous species, is certainly the most consistent and
mllch greatcr num ber of species then known had become un. use fuI classification.
wieldy, amI many probably did not fit into the definitions and Furthermore, the general and detailed morphologicaI char
circumscriptions of the earlier sub-groups. This account, as well acteristics, which are important for identificaton purposes in
as several other papers which SchmidtS,9,10,1l,12,13,14- published on both the trimerous and the pentamerous species, show a sttiking
tropical American Aristolochia species in otherjournals, still did series of parallels; the only consistentIy different quality of the
llOt provide an accurate, convenient or workable subgeneric pentamerous species is the pentamerous nature of the androe-
framework which could be used with the numbers of species now cium and gynoecium of the flowers (i.e.) five 4-loculate stamens,
a five-Iobed stigma and a five-carpelIate ovary). If these latter
Duchartre, P. 1864. bid.
features are ignored, there is nothing which specifically divorees
1S chmidt, O. C. 1935. ibid. the plants of the pentamerous species from the trimerous ones.
8S chmidt, O. C. 1924. Aristolochiaceae. NotizbL Bol. Gart. Mus. Berlin- As a result, it is plain that the presence o[ fruits or fiower buds
Dahlem. 9: 136, 137.
are the minimal requirements for identification of the penta-
9S chmidt, O. C. 1927a. Aristolochiaceae. Ark. Botanik. 2IA-5:1, 2.
merous group; the presence of mature ftowers is essential in many
lOSchmidt, O. C. 1927b. Aristolochiaceae. NotizbL Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin. cases for accurate species determination.
Dahlem. 10: 196.
llSchmidt, O. C. 1927c. Beitriige zur Kenntnis der Aristolochiaceen l. Repert.
spec. nov. 23: 281299.
1.2Schmidt, O. e." 1929. Beitriige zur Kenntnis der Flora Westindiens lIl.
Repert. spec. nov. 27:101, 102. HABIT:-
13Schmidt, O. C. 1930. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Aristolochiaceen n. Repert. The pentamerous species are relatively diminutive plants
spec. nov. 27:292, 293. compared to the large woody lianas which most persons associate
14Schmidt, O. C. 1932. Beitriige zur Kenntnis der Aristolochiaceen lIl. Repert. with Aristolochia; all o( the species treated in this paper are
spec. nov. 30: 65-75. herbaceous perenniaIs. They have woody tap-roots which often
are Iarge, heavy and very deeply rooting. In most instan ces the

tapered roots resemble cork-covered, woody carrots ranging in
size from that of an ordinary lead pencil to 4 cm or more in
diameter and up to one meter in lcngth in older plants. The
stems, sprouting annualIy [rom the apex of the perennial raots,
sprawl along the ground. They rarely exceed two meters in
length and are usually quite sJender; the sprawling ones have
relatively closely-spaced lea ves. Sorne of the stems may twine, the
internodes then lengthening greatly. Many possess stems which
cIimb to heights of three or [our feet if they encounter support.
Flowers are either borne near the base of the stems at the ground
level in the crown o[ the plant, or in other species, on the later
gro:vth after twining has carried the stem sorne distance above
the surface of the ground. While no investigations have been
made, it seems likely that these two types o( flowering habit are
adapted to insect pollinators o[ different types.

The leaves are somewhat variable within each of the spe-
cies, although to a far greater clegree in sorne. It is probably this
lea variability which has been responsible for much of the cen-
fusien in species determination in the group; few persons, it
seems, have ever looked closely at the flowers. The lea ves are
clifficult, thereforc, to describe in general terms; they appear to
llave cliverged [ram a heart-shaped, cordate formo In extreme
cases they have become modified into linear leaves with sagit-
tate or hastate lobes at the base; nearly a11 of them sti11 reReet a
leaf fonu clearly derived from the palma te venation of the COf-
date-Ieaved precursor. Only one, Aristolochia erecta L., has truly
linear, grass-like lea ves.
AH of the heaH-shapecl-Ieaved species are found in south
western :rvrexico. These are referred to in the key as having leaves
consistently convex on the lateral margins. Those with hastate,
sagittate (lea ves consistently concave on the lateral margins) or
other derived forms are distributed in a satellite fashion ranging
as far northwarcl as New Mexico, Arizona and Texas, and east-
ward to Jamaica, Florida and the Bahamas. To the west they
occur in Sin aloa, Baja California and the Secorro Islands. These
distributions are illustrated in Map 1; they define the lateral or

rion of their insertion along the length of the peduncle-ovary
outer limits of distribution of the pentandrous species. On the axis is helpful if care is taken to measure only naturally-matured
map, each species is represented by a symbol; round if it pos- ftowering material. . .
sesses cordate Ieaves and square if the Ieaf shapes are the derived, The stem-like, inferior ovary often has a narrow constncted
variable forms. Known collection localities of the same species apex, forming an hypanthium which is pierced by a. fine, :ubular
are connected to its symboI by salid lines in the cordate-Ieaved stylar canal terminating in the center of the five Stlgmatl~ lob~s
group, and broken lines in the latter species. (The round and of the gynostemium. In sorne of the species tl~e hypanthmm. 15
square symbols themselves have been pIaced arbitrarily in what consistentIy bent in a sharp right angle. TI~ls fcature,. WhlCh
seemed to be the center of each known distributional range.) occurs in many trimerous species of Arislolochw as weIl, 1.5 prob-
These data strongly indicate that the pentandrous species abIy a response to resupina:ion o .the flowe~s, ~50t un!lke the
arose in Jalisco and Michoacn from cordate-Ieaved ancestors, helical twisting of the ovary In resupmate orchlds, and m many
becoming later rather widely disseminated concurrently with the other species of Aristolochia.
evoIution of the derived-type leaf forms in the younger species. Where the ovary and cal yx meet, the a pex of the ovary ma y
In the past, it has been customary for Ieaf blades shaped like have a pronounced fiange which usually is persistent in .the
the allegoric heart to be caIleel carda te. The term is so used here. fruit; when present, the right-angled flexure of the hy~antlllum
AdditionaIly, however, it has been used to describe the notched also is orten refiected in the fruit apex. Rarely, the outslde of the
base of such a leaf whether or not the whole leaf was truly en- utride (v.i.) base may possess a flange or a ring of ~nger-like
tirely "heart-shaped." The descriptions which follow distinguish projettions; also rarely, a constricted, tercle structure 15 formed
between both usages. Aristolochia leaves usually have a much (of the calyx and base of the gynostemium) at the base of the
deeper sinus at the base of the leaf than is expressed in the utride aboye the ovary-utricle joint. . '
ordinary use of the term "basally cordate." It is my hope that the To adequately describe the structure of the ?ecuhar,. van-
illustrations will lessen such problems of clescription in the spe- ously inflated and contorterl tubular calyx (penanth), l.t has
cies whose leaves are llot extremely variable. been necessary to adopt a relatively narrowly-defined. senes of
terms to refer to various po.rtions; these are explamed and
FLOWERS:- enumerated in acropetal order below.
AH of the flowers are borne in the axils of foliar leaves or At the apex of the hypanthium aboye the inferior ovary t~e
bracteoles, either solitary or in few-flowered, cymose to racemose tubular calyx swells into a large, inftMed, more or less OvOI~
dusters. The ftower pedundes (here construed to inelude the basal sweIling, calleel lhe utride. In aH o[ the ~embers of ~hlS
inferior ovary, pedicel, bracteole and pedunde) vary in length group of species, (but not in al! trimerous speClcs),. the ut~lCU
from species t species. Sorne are short, rigid and erect, with lar apex invagina tes into a short, pipe-lik: tube WlllCh proJ:ct~
ftowers appearing nearly sessile in the lea( axils. Others bear the backward into the lltricular cavity, not unhke an eel-trap devlce.
ftowers on long, filifonn pedundes as much as two decimeters this pipe.like, funnelform structllre is the syrinx. From the junc-
long; these o(ten continue to grow and elongate after fruit-set. ture of the syrinx base aneI the utricular apex, the calyx extends
Every pentamerous Aristolochia species has an inferior further, in an o(ten bent ancl constrictecl portion, called {he tube.
ovary. which is more or less subtended by a bracteole; the brac- The tube usually termina tes (either gradually or abrup~ly) by
teole is usual1y green and leaf-like, sessile and amplexicauI. Oc- ilaring out and splitting along its lower side, to form a wldened,
casionally these bracteoles are nearly as large as the leaves along
the main stem, but more oEten they are smalI and their shapes 15Pfeifer, H. W. 1966. loe. cit. pp. 120, 121.
furnish Iittle aid in distinguishing the speces; the relative loca-

relatively spreading limb which possesses a distinctive shape, the second, pollen is sheel. Changes occur in It.he s.hape of the
coloration, and ornamentation for each of the species. In this utricle (from tumescent~inflat~d to angular-cy~mdnc and el~n~
group, the limb of the calyx is orbicular, dorsally ligulate, or gatecl); in the position amI (hameter o( openw?" of t~e syrmx
divided into two or three lobes. (from axial and constricted to eccentric and flan~g, Iymg along
The chid basis for rhe species delimitations lies in the very the utricle wall) , as well as in the structural detatls ando posture
distinctive, detailed configurations of the calyx; its convolutions, o( the gynostemium (from sessile amI crown-shap~d ~lth er~ct
numbers of lobes of the limb, and their shape, vestiture or other t flaring, thin stigma-Iobes to stipitate and subelhpsOldal wlth
ornamentation, or lack of such, are of great importance. While incurved, swollen stigma-lobes) . These. change~, drawn from al-
sorne species are sufficientIy distinctive to permit identification terations in a single fresh flower kept m a mOIs~ chamber. over~
from vegetative characteristics, the key and the descriptions night, are illustrated in Figure 1. They closely mlrr~r detaIls ob-
demonstrate that most can be identified only by cIose examina~ served in numerous other flowers which have been dIssected from
tion and measurement of the detailed fea tu res of the matute cultivated flowering plants in the greenhouses.
As mentioned earlier, there are many trimerous species of
Aristolochia which have superficiaIIy similar flowers as welI as
the herbaceous perennial habit of the pentamerous species. Either
dissection of the utride to determine whether the gynostemium
is five-lobed, or an examination 01 an ovary cross-section is always
advisable to condusively distinguish the two groups froID Ofie
Flowers of such widely divergent forms (see illustrations)
must have had an evolutionary history intimately associated with
a high se1ectivity by insect pollinators. The pentamerous aristo-
10chias would be ideal for a study of plant speciation as it is
related to insect pollinators. So far as 1 know, nothing has been
done in this field beyond the early observational data on cuIti-
va,ted plants of Aristolochia species in Ceylon by Petch16.
The flowers of A ristolochia pringlei have been studied onto-
geneticalIy. Several facts of importance have become evident.
The flowers become geniculate late in their development, and 1,,"'~9"
are chiefly inftuenced by gravity in erecting the apex of the limb, FIGURE 1. Alterations in Aristolochia j)ringlei [lowers; first day,
without regard to the posture of the utricle and first part of the left, second day, right. A {un discussion is pTOvided in the text.
tube of the calyx. Therefore, while geniculate flowers are here a It has been customary for more than two hundred years,
species characteristic, the degree and sharpness of flexure may be since Jacquinl1 first described Aristolochia pentandra, '~o refer to
variable in flowers on the same planto The flowers are open for this group of species as the "pentandrous" aristolochIas_ Thele
two days; only on the first day are the stigmas receptive and on
. N 1760 Enumeratiot'"tlstematica
-,/ plantarum, quas
._ in insulis Cari-
16Petch, T. 1924. Notes on Aristolochia. Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Perideniya, bae vicinaque Americes Continente detexit novas, aut Jam ;gmtas emen-
Ceylon. 8:1-108.
davit. Lugduni Batavorum, Haak.

8 9
are five 4-loculate stamens distributed on the outside of the stig- sentatives o a long-lived, but somewhat weedy group. Probably
matic structure or gynostemium; each stamen is nearly complete- aU oC the pentamerollS species (if derived from large, woocly,
Iy adnate to the outside of one of the five stigmas and lacks any trimerous rain forest lianas) secondarily invade disturbed soils;
recognizable filament. that they arc actively undergoing speciation and extension of
A review of other materials in the family, seeking an ade- their rallge is likely.
quate explanation of the nature of the starnen, has been made. In the collection data [or Arislol"ochia buntingii, H. E.
The gynostemia of Thottea grandiflora, four species of "Apama," Moore and G. S. Bunting record a pH of 6.2 for the soil at the
Cour species oC Asarum (sensu lato), Saruma henryi and Holo- collection site.
stylis reniformis have been closely examined from preserved ma-
terials. In these very different genera of the family, the numbers CULTIVATION;-
of stamens differ, but each distinct, separate stamen (with fila- 1 have attemptecl culture of several o the pentamerous spe-
ment) is 4-Ioculate amI extrorse. 1 believe this adequately sup- cies in the greenhouses at the University oC Connecticut, but have
ports the contention that each tetrad oC locules or anther thecae [ound only three which grow at aH well (A. foetida, A. pringlei,
on dle gynostemium of Aristolochia rcpresents a single stamen. and A. bTrlcteoSa.). These have been grown from whole roots
One reads occasionaIly of an interpretation that true stig- collectecl in the field and returnecl to the Connecticut green-
mas of Aristolochia are absent, the stigmatic function having houses as quickly as possible. It is apparent that the plants are
been assumed by the connectivcs of the staminal filaments ls . 1 very susceptible to imecticide damage; malathion kills the foliagc
belicve the stigmatic lobes o[ An"stolochia gynostemia are fusions very quickly. Aphid infestations must be removed from the plants
of filaments amI styles; there is no reason to doubt that the stig- by hand; no other insccts have been seen on them in the green-
mas are truly stigmas, for the same comparative reasons citecl houses. Plants of the pentamerous species which we have grown,
above regarding the stamens. languish during our short winter days at Storrs (42 0 N. lat.) , but
a three-hour augmentation with 100-,vatt incandescent lights 18
inches aboye the plants during the ffiidclle of the night period
ECOLOGY eliminates that difficulty. So far, we have becn unsuccessful in
The pentamerous species of A!istolochia may bloom during any germinating seeds oI this group, although many trimerous spe-
month of the year at various localities and under varying condi- des are commonly propagated in our greenhouses in this way.
tions; most of the species are in bloom from July through Octo- AIso, we have never been successful in rooting cuttings of this
ber. group, although layering is successful in sorne o( the trimerous
WhiIe it is probably foolish to generalize regarding habitat
preferences for a group as widely distributed in Mexico as are
the pentamerous species, sorne collection labels offer detailecl
information of great value. AIso, 1 have hacl the opportunity to It is always a temptation to identify plants by comparisons with
do sorne fieId work on the group; live species were studied in the known distribution ranges. This may be utilized with sorne as-
states of Jalisco, l'vIichoacn and Mxico. They were all growing surance oE success in sorne of the trimerous species; Aristolochia
in association with Querclts species. The plants occurred in colo- californica or A. reticulata., for example. (The [ormer is restrict-
nies 01 (rom 5 to 25 or more individuals and seemed to be repre- ed to northern CaliCornia and is the sole representative of the
genus found on the west coast o( the contiguous United States.
lBAiry-Sbaw, H. K. 1966. Willis's Diclionar)' 01 the Flowering Plflnts and The latter 1S an upright herb restrictecl to a region in eastern
Ferns. pp. 89, 90. Cambridge Univ. Press. Texas, southern Arkansas and northern Louisiana.) The species

10 Il
M' Miller exammed . growt h an el pigmentatio
of pentandrous aristolochias, however, are known from relatively tasks: MISS . .' l'. M L Skog accompa med
few coIJections. Consequently, distributions are sketchy at best changes in tbe flowers oE ~. pH~g el,] r,s al A toelida)' Messrs.
1 l' 1961': (hscovenng p an .
and at time show apparent disjunctions that are difficult to ex- me in tb: fie ( J~ri:~ and M. Lefor have aided in 1ib~ary re-
plain except for this rcason; the apparent narrowly enclemic r
R. Garchne , B. g Y 1 b' ho have sent collectlOnS on
species are likcly to be shown to be far more widely distributed searches. The clu,rato~~o~ Il~t:n air~~e~ted are listed below.
after much further field work is done. This iIIustrates an obvious loan t me, am o w
criticaI need [or extensive colIecting, in Chiapas, Oaxaca, Guer- L1ST OF HERBARIA:-
rero, l'vIichoacn amI Jalisco. I-Icrbarium of the Komarov
Herbarium of the Arnold Ar LE
A Botanieal Institlltc of the
In the distribution maps supplied here, localities are plotted boretuffi . Acadcmy of: Sciences of the
Dr. L. 1. Nevlmg, Jr.
witIl sorne care; no dots have been put on the maps for coIlec- U.SS.R. . , k
Dr. L T. Vasslhczen o
B Botanisches Mllseurn
tions whose data do not permit a reasonable degree of accuracy.
MEXU Universidad Nacional All~
Dr. F. Butzin
Sorne collections studied are conseqllently unrepresented on the British Mllscllm t{noma de Mxico
BM Dr. A. Gmez-Pompa
maps (but are in the imlices to exsiccatae) when only generalized Dr. J. E. Dandy
Dr. W. T. Stearn Dr, R. Riba
geographic areas were cited; e.g., "Mexico," "au bord de l'Ocan Dr. O. N ageli
BOLO Universita di Bologna.
Pacifique," "Jalisco," "tanque colorado," "Texas." el cetera. ProL F. Bertossl MICH University of Miehigan
Dr. R, McVallgh
CON N University of Conneeticllt MissOllri Botanieal.Carden
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Dudley Hcrbarjum, Stanford MO Dr. w. LewIs
1 am grateful to many individuals who have aided me in various Dr. J. 1-1. Thornas NA U. S. National Arboretum
Dr. F. Meye r
ways in this project. Drs. L. Nevling, B. Schubert, R. Tryon and F
Field ?\fusenrn oI NaWTal Dr. T. Dudlcy
C. Wood, Mrs. L. Schwarten amI Mr. V. Marx, al! of Harvard History ..
Dr. L. O. Wlliams NY New York Rotanieal Carden
University, llave discussed various points with me and made Dr. G. Edwin Dr. H. Irwin
Dr. W. Bnrgcr Dr. G. prallee
availabJe their superb museum amI library [or my continuing
HerbarimTI Universitatis p :rvftlsum National d'Histoire
use; for this indispensable aid amI support 1 am truly grateflll. FI Naturclle
DI". A. Aubrvillc
In Mexico, Drs. Arturo Cmez-Pompa and Ramn Riba ancl Dr. R. Corti
Conservatoire et Jardn Bot PM &: Rancho Santa Ana notanic
their coIleagues llave been graciously helpful; they were responsi- G
anique RSA Carden
bIe for locating living pIants oE Aristolochia brevl:pes [or my Dr. C. E. B. Bonner Dr. R. Thornc
study. The National Science FoumIation, the University of Con- Cra)' Hcrbarium ve University of California at
GH Berkeley
necticllt Research Foundation and E. R. Sql1ibb & Son s, Ine. Dr. L. L Nevling. Jr.
Dr. Lincoln Constance
have generously supported my work in the field as well as aiding lnstitute of Jamail Dr. Robert OrndufI
IJ Mr. C. Proeto!"
me in other ways. Miss Mary M. Hubbanl of the Biological VS Smithsanian Institution
K Royal BOlanic Gardens Dr. Velva Rudd
Sciences Group at the University of Connecticut has prepared a11 Dr. C. Hubbard
Dr. J. Bren nan VT Pringle Herbarillm, Univer-
o[ the line Ilustratons [or the species. This work, which she has sity of Vermont
LA University of California al MI". F. Seymoll r
cheerfully done in acldition to her other duties, adds tremen- Los Angeles
dously t the value of the revision since in Aristolochia taxono- Or. M. Mathias Universit)' of Wisconsin
Dr. H. IHis
my, truly "one picture is worth a thousand words." My wife,
Ruth, has typed the manuscript and praofread it as weIl as ac- . l' t d by theiT amcial sym
companying me in the field cIuring the summer o[ 1966. Severa! (In the ndices to exsiccatae the herbana are (eslgna e
of rny graduate students have beeo employed t work on various bolso as listed above.)

a detailed drawing of the limb surface anel margi~ is supplied,
the location ancl relative size oE the enlar.gecl part IS marke~ ~~

INTRODUCTION:- the whole-fiower clrawing. Specimens WIllCh were emplo:e( . ~

. are recorded in the legends for the figures, tllls IS
In the folIowing account, standard procedures are followed eae11 (rawmg
the type collection in most cases.
in notation of synonyrns and descriptions. An ilIustration is pro-
vided [or every species, as welI as a distribution mar showing ARISTOLOCI-UA L., Sr. PI. 960.1753. (Type: A. rotunda L.) .10
(where this couId be specifically done) lhe Iocations of the col-
Iections cited; also geographically arranged lists of coIlections Lianas, rarely sprawling to upright perennial herbs, s~rubs
or trees. Leaves alterna te, petiolate, estlpul~te but an axlllalr
studied are aprended. In an elfon to aI10w others to understand y
my concept o the species through the specimens studied, twa . l b lIy remform leaf (pseuc o-
btlcl orten producmg a c asplng, raa( 1
kinds of Jists DE exsiccatae llave becn provided; the one at the , . 1 . bll,le en tire or 2- to 7-1obed, orten corda te, palm,ate y
clase o each species account as well as a cumulative one, alpha- slpue),. I < '11
. 1 often variable. Flowers aXI ary, so 1 ltary ,
or pmnate y veme(, ' 1
betical1y arranged by coJJector, at the end. In these a special . zygomorphic Cillyx gamosepalous, vanous Y
per [ ect e p l g y n O u s , ' l'
effort has beco made to cite holotypes (in italics) amI isotypes . Ot
In a ce
thence more or less conlracted, ultimately expanc mg
S 3 5 or 6 or
of the species ancI their synonyms. In type citations, furnished in into a 1- to 3-lobed limbo Corolla absent. tamens ,
tile taxonomic bibliographies, exclamaton points indicate sheets . 1 s o[ tl1ese the anthers sessile amI adnate lO the style
mu 1' Ip e . , . E' t'; or
criticaIIy stuclied by me. Sorne citations list other herbaria oE lobes 4-celled, dehiscing longitt1dinally. Ovary In enor, !)-
deposition but without exclamation points; these have becn G-Ioc~tlate; placentation axile, the ovules numerot~s, anatr~rr~~~
gleanecl [rom the literature or were listec:;l by me [rom loans Style lobes 3, 5 or 6, marginally connate, fleshy, wlth .coro 1
clealing with my earlier work on the North American hexandrous t subcapitate stigmatic lobes. Fruit a capsule, dell1sc~n~e va -
species, hut which have been unavailable [or the current study. vate or septifragal or a combination, acropetal or. ~tpeta ~
It has seemed desirable to cite photographs oE types by Seccls usually numerallS, triangular, more or ~ess vertlc.a YbCO~.
herbarium o[ origin as weH as the herbarium where the photo- . I ti e embryo rudlmentary m a un<_
pressed in 5 or 6 vertlca roWS, 1
graph is deposited, e.g., F ex Gl
ant endosperm.
The usual notations ex char. and ex ic. have been used to
indica te, where the type 'vas unavailable, that my understanding secl PENTANDRAE Duchr in DC. prod, 15-1:
f L sb
oE the taxon was clerivecl from the clescription or from the illus- 440.1864. (Lec'o'ype: A. pentandm Jocq.).
tration accompanying the description, respectively. 'Vhen ex ic. Einomeia Raf. Medie. FI. 1 :62. 1828. (Lectotype: A. pentandra
cit. has been employed, 1 am referring to pIates cited in bibli-
Jacq.) .
ographic citations by Linnaeus or certain other early workers,
. 1 l1erbs chiefly of Mexico. Stamem
. 5. Ovary
whose own descriptions were unaccompaniecl by their own pI ates, Peremua, . 1
ane! who had citecl other illustrations publishecl elsewhere. 1 do carpellate, 5.loculate. Fruit capsular, the deluscence septl raga -
not intencl to imply that the cted pIates are utilized ,ro the ex- marginicitlJ.l, basipetal.
elusion of the author's own description.
AII of the plates iI1ustrating the species imEcate the scale of
the drawings by a bar near each figure. The bar indica tes one the reader is refened
miIlimeter for dctails of the utricIe and gynostemium; ir indi- 19For listings of the cxtensive synonyms. o~ the genus,
to my earlicr work; Pfeifcr, H. W. 1966. bId.
cates one centimeter for the branch and flower drawings. Where

KEY TO THE SPEClES: 14. Calyx limb (lInnelform, subtnlncate, indistin~uishable
from the tube apex, ami not abrllptly spreadmg. ,:1
13. A. muta bilis
l. FIowers geniculate, the tube bent at Ieast 90, thus the 11mb re-
flexed toward or along the lltricle. 14. Calyx limb ova te, noticeably fla~ing, subsalverEonn, I!I'!
2. Axes of mature caIrces longcr than .3 cm. spreading from the tube apex, arlcally acute to acn-
3. Leaves narrow, sublinear, very much longer than wide, the minute. d 11,1
base with small hastate lobes, the central portion m'ver more 15. Leaves crispec1, .e., the margins irr~glllarly ""ave ,1
rhan 2 cm wide, usually rnuch less, its length exceeding 10 cm, anel lwisted, he blades abollt as Wlde as long (to .
lhe redundes not filifonu, lhe calyx Umb to .3 cm wide. abollt 2.5 cm long), basally hastatecordate. _.14. A. iVats.om
15. Leaves flat, the margin~ 51000th, the blades about
1. A. acontophylla
3. Leaves broad, abOllt as long as wide to 4 times longer than wide. 3 times longer Ihan wide (to about 5 cm long!,
btsally sagIttate ..___ ..... __ ._ ..... ___ ._...... __ ._._ ... _. 11).
, A. mlcrantlut
4. Pedundes long-Iiliform, elongating with developrnent of
fruit. 1. Flowers rectiJinear.'erect, in some the tube subarcuate, but bent les~
5. Lateral leaf-blade margins consistently convex, the blades than 90. h
heartshaped (corda te). 16. Leaves narrow, linear, never more than 1 cm wide, the lengt
6. Calyx 11mb 8 cm wide or mOre. . 2. A. cardiantfla lIsually exceeding 8 cm. .' r h 1
6. Calyx limb 3 cm wide or narrower. 3. A. foetida J7. Leaf bases narrowly cunea le, the calyx J~mb wllh 19 t-co
5. Lateral leaf-blade margins conC:lve, the blades tending to ored depressions, eath with a central papilla. 16 .. A. erecta
be hastate, the calyx limb 2 to 5 cm wide...... _. 4. A. monticola 17 1 eaf bases wilh linear, spreading, basal lolles, the calyx hmb 1 .
J 17. A. jJa men
4. Pedundes short, not [liforIO, not noticeably elongating in smooth, dark-spotted .. ---.. ----.. . .
fmit. 16. Leaves broad, ""ilh variously sinuous edges; If only 1 cm wIde,
7. Leaves sagittale, not appreciably variable in ontline, the thcn the length not excecding 2 cm.
lateral IOargins more or less straight, the calyx limb con. 18. Leaves subsessile, the lateral leaf-blade margins consistently
duplica te, V-shaped in crosssection. 5. A. sinaloae convex, the blades ovatecon1ate. - 18. A. flexuosa
7. Leaves hasta te lO cordate'lriangulate, the lateral margins IR. Leaves obviollSly petiolate.
concave, the outline varying On individual plants, the 19. Limb o[ ca1yx 3 times longer than lube of calyx or more.
calyx limb peltate'~preading, the tube at the center oE the 2() Mature caIyees more than B cm long, the lateral lea[.. .
abruptly opened limb. 'blade.margzns concave. 19. A. Imnglel
8. Calyx throat darker than the periphcral Iimb, the sur- 20. MalUre calyres \css than 4 cm long.
face glahrescent. 6. A. IWr1vinskii 21. Lateral lefbladc margins consislenlly convex to
8. Calyx throat paJer than the peripheraJ limbo traight the blades heart-shaped (conlate), ovate
9. Calyx Hmb apex acule, the Hmb surface sparsely ~r' tria~gulate.lanceolate. 20. A. bracteosa
short-fiIObriate. ___ 7. A. variifofia
Lateral leaf.blade margins concave, the blad~s .
9. Calyx limb apex wilh a long, linear appendage, the 2 I.
tenchng to . ,
be hasta!e. - . 21. A. Islandca
Iimb surface smooth, gJabrescent. 8. A. nelsonii
2. Axes oE mature caIyces shorter than 3 cm. 19. Limb o[ calyx less lhan 3 times longer than the ca1yx tube.
10. Lateral leafblac1e margins consistently convex, the blades 22. Mature calyees Icss than 30 mm long.
heartshaped. 23 Lateral leafhlade margins consistently convex, the
11. Annlllus present in calyx throat, lhe calyx limb ova te, . lllades hcartshaped (cordate). 22. A. cordala
apically acute. 23. Lateral lcaf-blade margins contave, the bladcs
12. Annulus pectinatefimbriate. 9. A. Iresmariae lending to be hnst:HC.
12. Annlllus a simple rim-like ringo 10. A. secunda 24 Flowers exccecling the lea ves, Ihe lotal floral
11. Annulus absent in calyx throat, lhe calyx Hmb pcltatc- . length much longcr (aboll~ twice) than .the
orbiculate in olltline, apically obluse .. _______ ._. ____ 11. A. bWllingii total leaf length, the calyx hmb smooth wlth ,.
10. Lateral leafblade margins slightly to ver)' markedly concave, in.
.. ______ 23. A. WIHIe/
the blades tending to be hasta te. 24. Flowers about equal loor shorter than the
13. I'cduncles long-filiform, thread-like, elongating after 00"" lcaves.
er is shed, often severalOowcred. 12. A. conversiae 2.r. Calyx limb with pcnpheral, d,rk, r.nsed
13. Peduncles short, comparativcly lhick, not noticeably don. maculac, lhe limb ahoul equal In lcnglh
gating in fruit, bearing a single fiower. to the tube. 24. A. versabilifolia

16 17
25. Calyx imil smooth within, Ihe throat 31. l'lanls only milllltely hairy, llOl colored lhereby; the calyx Jimb
darker, the limb abont t\Vice as long as minulely tuberculate only very near the apex, smooth clsewhere.
" the tu be. -,. ____ , 25 A . 35. A. nana
22. l>lature calyees more than 30 mm lon~. --.-.. ----.---... ---------. . . socorroenslS
26. Mature cnlyccs 30 to 45 mm long.
27. L<lteral lcafbladc margins mnsistently
heart-shaped. convex, the bladcs
28. ~~aves ver)' short-pctiolatc (ess than 7 mm long) the
acteoJes very small. borne at the very base of th~ pe- L ARISTOLOCHIA acontophyIla Pfeif., sp. nov., FrG. 2, Map 2.
(unde near the axil o[ [he sllutending leaf. 26 A .
28. Lc'H'cS 1Jet "ol l _ ---- . .oa,\(/{'{lIla Herbae perennes decumbentes. Folia lineari;, ad anguste
.'. J a e (more than JI) mm long), the bracteoles
"'o,n.~P1'''b'0'.IS, borne Ys to Y2 of the distatlce from axi! to Ianceolata, lobi cIuo basales hastati ad subsagittatos, apice longe-
ne e ase.
29. Bracteolcs up lo 10 mm long by 12 mm wide lhe acuminato, basi late cordato, petioli breves 4-10 mm longi, lami-
end ~f lhe ~alyx limb dark, lhe flowers s;nder nae ]0-]5 cm lat;,e, 0.5-1.0 cm longae, virides minute pubenilae
(maXlIllllm dlamcter 6 mm). '---
29. B
.... A. (reVljJeS
supra, subtllS paIlentes sparsim tomcntulosae. PseudostipuIae
racteoles ~arger Ihan 2tj mm long by J:) mm wicfe' nullae. Flores solitari in axillis basalibus, bracteolae subellipti-
Ihe ealyx ~ltnb dark perpherally, lhe (Jowers broa(i
(10 mm (hame-ter). _____ ___ _ . cae acuminatae, 5-7 mm longae, 1-2 mm latae, utriculus obovatus,
27 L . I -- - ----- -.---- 28. A. dUmlllie/lfiS
. 1 .at~la leaf-bl.ade margills mncave, the bladcs lending to be' . 11-15 mm longus, syrinx lata recta, 2 mm longa, 2 mm diametro,
l.Jstdte (o ~aglttate. tubus geniculatus, 12 mm longus, limbus peltato-orbiculatus in
30. Limb of . rile calyx 'lS 1 , cal)'x tllbe; the leaf
ates ,bOllt as long"
ong as t)e
.. ,_,
ambitu sine lobis, parciter infundibuliformis, arice infirmc mu-
3-lobed. ,s \\I(C, 1J.statdy and sllbcgually cronulato, basi emarginato, 3-4 cm longus, 2-3 cm atus, crassiler
30. Limb f ._-,-----,.----- ----"----.----.'-----.------ ---.. -----.-------.--- -----,,-- 29. A. coryi
o t le- ealyx 2 to 2Y2 times long'er lhan he cal x et minute pallidc pUllctatus in tuberculis humilibus. Columna
tuhe; the lca[ blades IIsually longer than wide, lhe m~(L 5-loba, humilo-coroniformis subsessilis, 4 mm alta, 3.5 mm lata,
an lobe aJways the- Jargest.
stamina 5, tetraloculata, sessls, ad libram aequilateralia. Cap-
31. Leaves narrow!y sagittate, the median ami basallobes
~ach lIslIa]!y nol 1110re han 1 l"tll wir!e, Ihe upper sulae ignoj-ac. HOLOTYPUS: A-fcVallgh 15668, MICH ("Near Km.
'illl:f.ace cOJ1lnlonIy. purple; the lateral margins and 228, ca. 20 miles cast-southeast of Manzanilla, Colima; racky
ha.~c oE the talyx Itlllb sparsc!y hirsute. hillside coverecl by clcciduous woodland dominated by Legumin-
1 . 30. A. jJorjJh)'ro/Jhy{/rr.
3 . Le,~es brOJd. SlIbconlare-hasate to hastately 3-Iob~d,
nosae; elevation ca. 50 m. Abundant. Flowers brown within,
US~l,l!l? more tJ~~m 2 cm uroad, green; Ihe calyx limb thickly and minutely pale-spottcd; center very clark-brown, un-
vely hnely pap1l1ate at the periphery. ___ . __ 31. A. pen!rlt/drrr. markccL"). Isotypus: MICH.
26. MOlture caIyees 45 to 70 mm long.
32. Lateral leaf-blacle margills consistt:nlJy convex, lhe l>lades
Sprawling hcrbaceous perenniaL Leavcs short-petiolate,
hearl-shapecl. linear to narrowly lanceolate with 2 hastate to subsagittate basal
33. Ca:yx.limb about 1
12 t!mes long-er than lhe calyx tube; lobes, long-acuminate at the apex, broadly cordate at the base,
thc lc,lves !lllleh exceedlJlK lhe I!owers and hiding t]em.
the petioles 4 to la mm long, the blades 10 to 15 cm long, 0.5 to
33. . 32. A. terlIilana
Calyx ]~b ,onl y abot!t 3/10 the Iength of the exceeding. ].0 cm broad, green, minutely puberulous above, beneath paJer,
Iy. long cal)x lllbe; lhe caves small amI sllOrt.petiolate
~lth the llowers em.crgent aboye them. _______ . __ 33. A. tere!ijlora
sparsely tomentulose. Flowers solitary in axiIs of basal lcaves of
32. Latelalleaf-blade margms concave, the blades lending be 'o shoots, pedundes bracteolate, the bracteoles subelliptic-acumi-
hasta te.
nate, 5 to 7 mm long, 1 to 2 mm wide, borne about midway be-
34. Plants.wi.lh tawny-yellow hairs; lhe calyx lmb pap!-
lose wlthm, execpt for the throat "4 A. wng
_____ ._.J . I Illj.. tween axil ancl utricle, the calyx sharply geniculate (180 0 ) .;.

An astonishingly distinct species, Aristolochia acontophylla
is known only [rom the type collection. Its outstanding features
are the lance-shaped lea ves, the peltate-orbiculate limb and geni-
culate posture of the calyx. As wiIl be noled [rom further dis-
cussion in this paper, this species is only one oE several recently
collected (1957) in southwestern Mexico; 1 believe the area is
certain to yield many more as new roads are built ane! access to
the interiors o[ the states o[ Michoacn, Guerrero and Oaxaca is
made easier.
Specimen Studied
IHcJ'augh, Roge1"S 15668, MICIl (2) (Type oE A. acontophylla

2. ARTSTOLOCHIA cardiantha Pfeif., sp. nov., FIG. 3, Map 3.

I-Ierbac perennes procumbentes. Petioli longi. Folia cordata,
apice acutato, basi cordato pro[untle, laminae 1020 cm longae,
1020 cm latae, virides rugosae scabri-strigosae supra, subtus
virides hirsutae secus venas praesertim. Pseudostipulae nullae.
Flores solitarii in axillis, in pedunculis Ion gis filiformis, bracteo-
be cordatae, 1.5 cm longae, 1 cm latae, utriculus ellipsoideus,
2 cm longus, 1.5 cm cliamctro, syrinx longetubulosa plus minusve
FIGURE 2. Aristolochia aconloJ)hylla. D mediconstricta, 7 mm longa, 2 mm diametro, tubus tubulosus
15668, the lype collection. rawn from McVaugh acute geniculatus, 3 cm longus, limbus latecordatus sine lobis,
apice longeacuminato, basi emarginatecordato, 10-13 cm longus,
brown ancl purple '1 7-9 cm latus, pagina subcarnoso-fimbriata demisso-tuberculata,
utric1e obovate 11' P " el-~pottedl' the hypanthium nat evident, the Iaux laevis, 2 cm lata. Columna 5-10ba coroniformis stipitata,
, to :J mm ong 6 t 9 l'
broad, straight, 2 mm long 2 JI" o. mm (tameter, syrinx 3 mm alta, 2 mm lata, stamina 5, tetraloculata, sessilis, 1.d libram
1 2 cm Ion tI l' '-' mm (lameter, the tube geniculate aequibteralia. Capsulae ignotae. HOLOTYPUS: Flinton 9096, US
. g, le 1mb pelt t b' 1 " '
shalJowly funnelf a C-or leu ate In outlme, unlobed, ("Locality: Puerta de Oro, 500 m.; District: Mina, Guerrero,
na te at the base, ~;n:~ :e:~\ mucronulate at the apex, emargi- Mxico; Date: 7-15-36; Habita,t: woods; Description: procumbent
minutel ale, ong, 2 to 3 cm wide, thickly and vine.") . Isotypi: GH, K, MO, NA.
dark b:a:~ -gunctate?ll Jow tubercIes, the throat plain, very Procumbent perennial herbs. Leaves Iong-petiolate, corda te,
high 35 mm' b ynolstemhIU~ low-coroniform, subsessile, 4 mm acute at the apex, deeply cordate at the base, the blades la to 20
, . roae, t e stlgm ' 1
laterall'l as 0, t le tetraloculate anthers 5 cm long, 10 to 20 cm broad, green, rugose, scabrous-strigose above,
< Y seSSI e on rIle stig . 1 b' .,
rocky hillsicIes in cIeciduous:~~~ll:n(~:: Fnuts not secn. Inhabits beneath green, hirsute, especially along the veins. Flowers solitary
in lcafaxils on long, filiform pedundes, bracteolate, the bracte-

ales corda te, 1.5 cm long, 1 cm wide, borne at Vs o[ the distance
from leafaxil to utricle base, the calyx sharply geniculate (180)
medium red, the hypanthium beaklike, bent sharply at 90, 3
mm long, the utricle ellipsoid, 2 cm long, 1.5 cm diameter, the
syrinx long-tubular, eccentric, samewhat medially constricted, 7
mm long, 2 mm diameter, the tube tubular, sharply gcniculate
(180), 3 cm long, the limb broadly cordate, unlobed, long-
acuminate at the apex, emarginate-cordatc at the base, 10 to 13
cm long, 7 to 9 cm wide, the sur[ace covered with fieshy sub-
fimbriate low tubercles exccpt far the 2 cm wide, smooth tluoal.

MAP 2. Collection site o Aristolochia acontophylla.

MAP 3. FIGURF: 3. Aristoloc!a rardiantlUl. Drawn from Hinton 9096,

Collection sites of Aristolochia cardiantha.
the type collection.

Gynostemium coroniform, stipitate, 3 mm high, 2 mm braad, the Procumbent perennial herbs. Leaves petiolate, broadly corda te,
stigrnas 5, the tetraloculate anthers 5, laterally sessile an the stig- rugose, obtuse at the apex, cordate at the base, the petioles 8 cm
matie lobes. Fruits not seen. Inhabits waoded slopes and maist long, the blades 14 cm long, 14 cm broa(~, J?Yeen, basally .red-
spotted, strigose above, beneath green, hlSpldulous, espe~lally
ColIections of ATistolochia plants with immature fiowers along the veins. Flowers solitary in leafaxlls. the long-fihform
have undoubtedly led to the eonfusion of A. cardiantha with A. pedundes bracteolate, the bracteoles cordate, 1.5 c~ long, .1.0
joetida. Both are quite similar vegetatively; only the mature cm wide, arising at 9/10 of the distanee from leafaxll to. utncle
fiowers are aclequate [or their differentiation. Aristolochia foe- base, the ealyx sharply geniculate, purpIe, spotted wlllte, the
tida has a calyx limb which Is narrowly rectangular or oblong, throat yellow, the hypanthial beak of the ovary bent at 90, the
while in A. cardiantha, the broadly cardate limb, beset with
warty tubercles lS extremely distinct. A glance at the illustratians
and a eamparison o[ 1imb measurements 01 mature ealyces will
elimina te any further doubts.
Specimens Studied:
McVaugh, Rogers 15836, MICH.
Hinton, George B. 6295, BM, K, NY.
Hinton, George B. 9096, GH, K, MO, NA, us (Type oi A.
cardiantha Pieif.).
Hinton, George B. 4354, GH.
3. ARISTOLOCHIA FOETIDA H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. PI. 2: 147,
1.114.1817. (ex ic.) FIG. 4, Map 4.
Aristolochia velutina Duchr. Ann. Sei. Nat. sr. 4, 2:39. 1854.
(Type: Sesse el Moci110 lec la, s.n., ex herb. Pavon proveniens,
I-Iowardia foetida (H.B.K.) Klotzseh, Monatsb. Acad. Berlin.
1859:619. 1859.
Aristolochia anguicida Pavon ex Duehr. in DC. Prod. 15-1: 443.
1864, non Jacq. (1762), nec Sieber ex Duchr. (1864). (Type:
Sess el Mocio lecta, s.n., ex herb. Pavon proveniens, FI!)
Aristolochia valentina Duchr. ex Jacks. Index Kew. 190. 1893,
sphalm. = A ristolochia velutina Duchr.
Arislolochia longiPes Watson, Prac. Amer. Acad. 22:447. 1887. FIGURE 4. Aristolochia foe/ida. Drawn from living material,
(Type: Palmer, Edward 139, GH!, NY, US (2) 1) . Pfeifer, 15 Jul)' 1966. collected southwest oE Sayula, Jalisco.

utr.iclc .ob~,~oid, 2 cm long, 1.5 cm diameter, the syrinx axial,
Pringle, Cyrus GlIernsey 5123, CH, VT; 8651, F. GH, MO,
cyItndnc, 3.:) cm long, 2.5 mm diameter, the tube U-shaped, Lent NY, POM, UC, US (3), VT; 8 Aug 1902, US; 29 July,
180~, 1.5 cm long, 0.75 cm dameter, the limb erect, basal1y sub- 15 Aug 1893, VT; 12 Del 1893, VT.
H uejoli tan-
orblClIlate thence narrowing imo lhe prolonged, ensiform apex, Diguet, M. 1.. s.n. (52??), MICH.
cor~ate at.the base, 10 cm long, 3.5 cm wide, finely stippled with Lake Chapala-
Barkley, F. A., C. 1.. Websler &- C. M. Rowell, Ir. 7657, USo
wlute paplllae, the throat deep maroon, marginalIy ringed with Rose, J. N. &- Jos. l-l. Painler 7651, NY, USo
a de~r white line, the innermost recess yellow. Gynostemium San Andres Ixtlan-
Pfeifer, H. W. 3153, CONN.
cOTOm[onn, short.stipitate, 5 mm high, 1, mm broac1, the stigmas San la Cruz rle los Flores-
5, the tetralocula~e anthers 5, laterally sessile on the stigmatic McVauglJ, Rogers 1632], MICH.
lobes. Mature frmts llot secn. Inhabits pastures, rocky hillsides Delling, L. E. 8465, MICH.
arrd open woocllands, in grass ar on rocks. MICIIOACAN;
. . C.aIle~ted frequently ane! wcll known, Arislolochia foetida Leavenworlh, William C. 449, CH.
IS dlstmglllshed by its rectangular.or oblong limb apex. One may LeavenwortlJ, WilIiam C. & H. Hoogstraal 1317, F, CH,
~e :onfu~ed only if its immature fiowers are compared with MICH, MO, NY.
slmllarly lmmature fiowers of A. cardiantha, q.v. Ghiesbreeht, M. 217, P.
Sereno Watson named Aristolochia longiPes to draw atten- Sess & Mociio 4413, F; 4415, F (2); 4423, F; s.n., ex herb. Pa-
van, FI (Type of A. ve[utina Duchr.; Type of A. fluguicida
tion to the filiform pedundes of the fiowers. It appears to me ravon ex Duchr.).
that there are several species of pentandrous aristolochias which
have sllch wiry anel long flower stems, which continue to elon- 4. ARISTOLOCHIA MONTICOLA Brandg. Univ. Calif. Pub!. Bol.
gate aCter fruit set; oIten they may be several-ilowered. This is in 6:357. 1916. (Type: Bmndegee s.n., Jan. 21, 1890, UC!) FIG. 5,
sharp contrast witil lhe more usual sorts whose pedundes do not Map 5.
clongale aIter lhe calyx is mature.
ATislolochia peninsularis Brandg. Univ. Calif. Pub!. Bol. 6:357.
Specimens Studied:- 1916. (Type: Bmndegee s.n., Sept. 29, 1890, UC!, F!)
Procumbent perennial herbs. Leaves petiolate, cordate to
Iguala- hastate, acute al the apex, broadly cordate at the base, the peti-
M~ore, Jr., H. E. & G. S. Bunting 8830, MICH, MO, ue. oles 1 to 6 cm long, the blae!es 5 to 14- cm long, 3 to 10 cm broad,
Pnngle, Cyrus Guernsey 9247, CH, VT; 13951 F GH
MICH, MO, US, VT. " , green sericeous above, beneath green, velutinous. Flowers soli-
~ose, ]. N., Jos. H. Painter & ]. S. Rose 9407, NY, USo tary in the leafaxils, the redundes filiform, bracteolate, the
Locahty Unknown_
Re/lO, B. P. 4965, USo bracteoles carda te, arising about 7/10 of the distance fram leaf
JAl.lSCO; axil to utricle base, the calyx geniculate, grecn amI purple, the
Atotonilco el Alto-
McVaugh, Rogers 17312, MICH.
hypanthial beak oC the ovary absent, the utric1e ellipsoid, 1.5 cm
Bahia de Navidad- ~ long, 1 cm diameter, the syrinx ecceritric, narrowed, 4 mm long,
McVaugh, Rogers 20904, MICH. 4 mm diameter, the tube bent 180 0 near the distal end, 2 cm
MeVaugh, Rogers &- H'alter N. Koelz 1739 MICH
Etzatlan- ' . long, 0.5 cm diameter, the limb ova te, peltate, acute at the apex,
Rose, J. N. &- Jos. N. Painter 7530 GH US shallowly emarginate at the base, 4 cm long, 2 to 5 cm wide,
Guaclalajara_ ' , .
Pa/mer, Edward 139, GH, NY, US (2) (Type oE A. IOllgipes closely covered with low tubercles and warts except at the throat
where surCace is smooth. Gynostemium obconic, stipitate, 6 mm

high, .3 mm broacl. the stigmas 5, the tetraloculate anthers 5,
laterally sessile on the stigmatic lobes. Fruits oblate, 11 mm long.
15 mm wide. dehiscence septifragal-marginicidal, the hypanthial
fruit apex absent. Seeds numerous, triangulate, 5 mm wide, 5
mm long. 1 mm thick. Inhabits arroyos under oaks and paIms.
The so[t-hairy parts amI large, warty, geniculate fiowers are
the most distinctive features of Aristolochia monticola.
Herbarium specimens oC T. S. Brandegee bear either numo
ber 507 or 508, without regard to the date of coIlection nor the

MAr 4. CoUection sites oE Arislolochia foetida.

FIGURF. 5. Arislolochia montiCO[Il. Drawn Crom Rrandegee 507

and ]ones 24460.
MAP 5. Collection sites oE Arislolochia monticola.
determination supplied by Brandegee (as applicable to either
Aristolochia monticola or A. peninsularis). Brandegee cites
neither number in his description, relying only on the date and
University oE California Herbarium number.
The species epithet, Aristolochia monticola~ appeared first
in the publication where both were described (page 357) ; 1 have
adoptecl it as the earliest name.

Specimens Stlldied:-
Cabo San Ltlcas-
Brandegee, Townshend Stitl 18 Mar 1892, VC.
San Bartolo--.
Wiggins, Ira L. 14750, CONN.
San Jase del C .. bo-
flrandegee, Townsflend Stilh 16 Sep 1890, GH; 29 Sep 1890,
F. VC (Typc of A. leninsularis Brandg.).
Jones, lHarctls E. 24499, NY, I)OM.
Todos Santos----
Janes, MaTcus E. 24460, F, LA. MO, NA, PO M, ve.
"Sierra de Laguna"-
flralldege~, Tr;wnshend Slith 21 Jan 1890, VC (Type oE A.
"//Ion/lcola Bnmdg.).

5. ARISTOLOCHIA SINALOAE Brandg. Univ. Calif. Pub!. Bot. 6:358.

1916. (Typc: Bmndegee s.n., Noti. 5, 1904, UC!) FIG. 6, Map 6.
Aristolochia queTcetonl~ll. Pub!. Field Mus. Nat. Hist.
Chicago, Bol. Ser. 17:239. 1937. (Type: Genlry 1872, F, MOl,
FIGURE 6. Aristalocllia silla/oae. Drawn from Penllel/ 19698 and
Aristolochia baiucensis Wiggins ami Rollins, Contrib. Dudley Gentry 5285.
Herb. Stan[ord Univ. 3:269, t. 61-1. 1943. (Type: Wiggins &
Rollins 419, DS, GH!, MOl, NYI)
aboya te, 8 mm long, 7 mm diameter, the syrinx eccentric, 2.5
Procumbent perennial herbs. Leaves short-petiolate, sagit- mm long, 3 mm diameter, .the tube merely arcuate or gradually
tate, obtuse at the apex, cordate-sagittate at the base, the petioles bent 180 0 , 1 cm long, 3 mm diameter, the limb lanceolate, ac~t~
7 to 12 mm long, the blades 4 to 6 cm long, 1 to 2.5 cm broad,
at the apex, emarginate at the base, 1.5 to 4 cm long: 0.8 t~ .
green, minutely puberlllous aboye, beneath green, hispidulous cm wide, maroon with dull yellow throat, covered wth st.ngose
especially along the veins. FIowers solitary in the leafaxils, the hairs. Gynostemium coroniform, short-stipitate, 3 mm hlgh, 2
pedundes bracteolate, the bracteoles small, triangulate, 3 to 4 mm broad, the stigmas 5, the tetraloclllate anthers 5, latcrally
mm long, 1 to 2 mm wide, arising at 1;2 o[ the distance from leaf
sessile on the stigmatic lobes. Fruits botllliform, 2 cm long, .12
axil to utride base, the calyx geniculate to arcuate, brownish mm wide, dehiscence septifragal-marginicidal, the hypanthtal
purpIe, the hypanthial beak of the ovary not evident, the utride

30 31
fr~it apex absent. Seeds numerous, bIack, ,triangulate 4 mm 6. ARISTOLOCHIA KARWINSKIl Duchr. in De. Proclo 15-1:442. 1864.
wIde, 5 mm ~ong, 1 mm thick. Inhabits oak forests. ' (Type: Karwinsky 712, LE (2) 1) FrG.7.
. The s,agIttate Ieaves are unlike any other pentandrous spe-
Procumbent perennial herbs, Leaves petiolate, triangulate-
aeles of Anstolochia. The flowers vary in clegree 01 ge mcu IatlOn
15 a response to stem postion. Most of the flowers on herbarium corda te to hastately subtrilobate, acute t acuminate at the ape x ,
s leets are. buds; the ~lants bloom from September through Janu- cordate at the base, the petioles 1 to 3 cm long, the blades 3 to
ary amI SIles quoted m descriptions seem likely to be under true 13 cm long, 2 t 7 cm broad, green, strigulose, tardily becoming
measurements o matuTe fiowers. glabrous above, beneath green, pilulose. Flowers solitary in the
" ,Dr. Ge?try recareIs that a decoction is made DE the rQots cE leafaxils or in axils oC reduced lea ves on much-branched lateral
Ansto. lochta quercetorum" and drunk for "rmp aCl
le" and asa branches, the pedundes bracteolate, the bracteoles corda te, to 2
I r '
was ~ ar sotes, reflectmg a similar use for many other species in cm long, to 1 cm wide, arising at Y2 of the distance {rom leafaxil
M eXlcan foIk medicine. to utricle base, the calyx geniculate, brownish-purple, the hy-
panthial beak oC the ovary not evident, the utricle narrowly ob-
Specimens Studed:-
conic, 1 cm long, 0.75 cm diameter, the syrinx eccentric, 2,5 mm
MEXICO: long, 3 mm diameter, the tube bent 180 0 , ]-shaped, about 1.5 cm
GlIasaremos_ long, about 4 mm diameter, the limb broadly ova te, acute at the
Gentr)', Howard Seott 1872, F, CH, MEXU, MO, S VC US apex, corda te to cmarginate at the base, to 4 cm long, to 3 cm
(l)pe oE A. qllcrcelorum StandL); 2155, MO.' , wide, decp purple with a smooth clark entrance t the throat.
~ I
Ortega, Jess G. 5392 US
"Sierra Tres Pieos"- ' .
Gentry, Howard Scott 5285 DS, F, CH, MICH, MO, NA,
NY, DC. '
"El Tacote"-
Ortega, Jess G. 5728, USo

Rran~egee, T01vnshend Stith 5 Nov 1904, ve (T e f A
" sln.a/oae Brandg.). YP o .
San Ignauo"-
S. Narvaez Montes, M. & Antonio E. Salazar]'J8 US
lerra Surtado"- -, .
Gentry, Howard Scotl 6564, l\nCH.
Rose-,]. N., P. C. Slandley & P. G. Russell 1"813 US
Ratuc- - , .
Wiggins, Ira L. & Reed C. Rollins 419, DS, CH, MQ, NY
(Type of A. balttcensis W. & R.).
San Bemard(}-
Pennell, Francis W. 19698, USo
Frr:lm,E 7. Arislolochia lra1'w;nsfi. Drawn from Korruinslty 712,
lhe typc calleetion.

32 33
Gynostemium columnar, stlpltate, 4.5 mm high, 1.5 mm broad,
the stigmas 5, the tetraloculate anthers 5, laterally sessile on the
stigmatic lobes. Fruits not secn.
The triangulatc-corrlate, somewhat dcltoicl leaves ancl the
comparatively large genicHlate fiowers are distinctive. Aristo-
!ochia Jwrw;nskii cliffers [rom A. vayiifolia in coloration of the
thro;lt o[ the flower (darker than the limb in A. harwinskii,
lighter in A. vayiifol(a) as well as distribution: A. variifolia is a
native o[ the Pacific Coast.
Acconling to L M. Johnston (Journ. Arnold Arb. 21:256.
1940), Karwinsky collected the type "during Chis] secand Mexi-
can expedition, in southwestern Tamaulipas and perhaps in the
region about Janmave, Palmillas and Santiaguillo where, in
1842 aml 1843, the major part of his collectian was obtained."
Karwinsky's collections (not seen by Johnston) cite "El Pantcuro
et ad Tanque colorado-Auricularia? Stapeloides (Ver) Apl.
._-~-\-'- 1843." These 10calities are too indefinite, but it appears certain
MAP 6.
the type was coIlected in 184-3 in Vera Cruz; no other specimens
Collection sites oE Aristoloc!la sinnloae.
o[ tIle species are known to me amI because of the inclefinite
------t,- nature of the type 10caIity, no distribution map is supplied.

Specimens Studied:-
Locality Unknown~
KarwirISh)l, W. F. van 712, LE (2) (Type of A. karwimhii
Duchr.); July 1842, LE.

7. ARISTOLOCHIA VARIIFOLIA Duchr. Ann. Sci. Nal. sr. 4. 2:65.

1854. (Type: Gnleolli 208, F ex GI, G!, KI, MO ex GI, PI) FrG.
8. Map 7.
An"stolochia jJU.rpusii Brandg. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bol. 6:52. 1916.
(Type: PllrjJ1ls 6826, FI, GH!, MO!, NYI, UCI, US!)

Procumbent perehniaI herbs. Leaves petiolate, corda,te to

sagittate-subtrilobate, acuminate at the apex, deeply cordate to
sagittate at the base, the petiales 1 to 2 cm long. the blades to 7
cm long to 4 cm broad, green, puberulous aboye, beneath green,
more fineIy puberulous. Flowers solitary in the leafaxils, the
MAP 7. Collection sites of Aristolochia variifolia. pedundes bracteolate, depressed, the bracteoles small, cordate, 3

mm long, 2 mm widc, arising at 1;2 to % of the distancc from lcaf The Galeotti collcction bears only the notation that it was
axil to utricle base, the calyx geniculate, brownish, the hypan- collectecl under palms on the Pacific Ocean shore in Oaxaca.
thial beak of the ovary not evident, the utricle ellipsoid, 12 mm Purpus' collection Is Chiapan, while aH others studied by me are
long, 5 mm diameter, the syrinx eccentric, the tube bent 180, from the coast of Guerrero. The plants have shaggy, variable,
gradually enlarging from 2 to 4 mm diameter, about 19 mm long, abundant leaves and are easily con[used vegetatively with Aristo-
the limb cordate-ovate, acute at the apex, emarginate at the base, lochia nelsonii. The calyx limb of the latter has a very long,
to 25 mm long, tO 15 mm wide, within velvety-brown, short- linear and tape-like appendage at the apex, while that of A.
fimbria te except within the prominently paler tIuoat. Gyn o- variifolia has merely an acute apex.
stemium columnar, stipitate, 4.5 mm high. 1.5 mm broad, the
Specimens Studied:-
stigmas 5, (he tetraloculate anthers 5, laterally sessile on the stig-
matic lobes. Fruits flot seen. MEXICO:
Sierra de Tonala-
Purpus, C. A. 6826, r, CH, MO, NY, ve, US (Type of A.
tmrpusii Brandg.).
Barkley, F. A., G. L Webster & Jolm B. Paxon 17M747, USo
Haenhe, Thaddaeus 1551, F.
Nre s.n., s.d., F.
Palmer, Edward 151, F, CH, K, MO, NY, ue, USo
Locality Unknown-
Galeotti, H. 208, F ex G, G, K, MO ex G, P (Type of A.
variifolia Duchr.).

8. ARISTOLOCHIA NELSONIl Eastwoocl, Proc. Amer. Acad. 44:604.

1909. (Type: Ne/son 2769, GH!, USI) Fre. 9, Map 8.

Procumbent perenniaI herbs. Leaves petiolate, lanceolate-

hastate to sagittate, acuminate at the apex, deeply cordate-auri-
eulate at the base, lhe petioles 1 to 2 en long, the blacles 4 to 16
cm long. 2 to 5 cm broad, green with some purple and white
along main veins, sparsely puberulous aboye, beneath green, sub-
villollS. Flowers soIitary in the lea[ axils, the pedundes bracteo-
late, the braeteoles corda te, to 1 cm long, to 7 mm wide, arising
at 8/10 o[ the clistance from leafaxil to utricle base, lhe calyx
genieuIate, purple and white, the hypanthial beak of the ovary
not evident, the utricle ellipsoid, 1 cm long, 6. mm diameter, the
syrinx subaxial, its free margin suberose, 2 mm long, 2 mm
di ame ter, the tu be bent 180 0 in an open V, 2 cm long. 0.5 crp
FIGURE 8. Arista/ada variifolia. Drawn from GaleoUi 208, thc
cliameter, the limb strongly erect, cordate basaIly, thence very
typc colleclion.
long-attenuate, linear at the erect apex, to ? cm long, to 2 cm

36 37
wide, smooth within. Gynostemium caroniform, low-stipitate, 3
mm high, 3.5 mm broad, the stigmas 5, the tetraloculate anthers
5, laterally sessilc on the stigmatic lobes. Fruits not seen. Inhabits
partIy shaded slopes at low elevations.
Unknown after its intial description by Alice Eastwood
from NeIson's collection of 1895, it was rediscavered by Keith
Roe, Eunice Roe aml Scott Mori (their no. 538, CONN!), oC the
University oC Wiscansin in JuIy, 1965. Their specimen has been
o great aid in describing the f10wers which are unIikely t be
con[usecl with others, because oE the long tape-like appendage at
the limb apex.

Specimens Studied:~
purpus, C. A. 75, US; 6946, UC; 9075, F, GH, MO, NY, VC,
US; 10075, NY, rOMo
Puerta Escondido--
Roe, Keith, ElInice Roe & Seoll Mori 538, CONN.
San Jernimo--
/I/elson, K IV. 2769, r.H, US (Type o A. lIe/sollii Eastw.).

9. ARISTOLOCHlA TR1~SMARIAE yerris, Contrib. Dudley Herb. 1:68.

(.2. 1927. (TYl'e: Fa,.;s 5689, US!, DS!, MO!) FIG. 10, Mal' 9.

Procumbent perennial herbs. Leaves short-petiolate, ova te-

cardate, obtuse at the apex, deeply carda te at the base, the peti-
FWURE 9. Aristolochia nrlSOllii. Drawn from Nelson 2769, lhe
oles 5 to ID mm long, the blades 4 to 7 cm long, 3.5 to 6 cm type collecLion.
broad, green, puberlllent aboye, beneath green, short pilase.
Flowers on short axilIary branches or solitary in the leafaxils,
the peduncles bracteolate, the bracteoles ova te, 1.5 t 2 mm long,
the stigmas 5, the tetraloculate anthers 5, laterally sessile on .the
3 mm wide, arising at 1/2 to 2/3 o( the distance from leaC axil
stigmatic Jobes. Fruits botulifonn, to 13 mm lo~g, 1 c~ wlde,
la utricle base, the calyx sharply geniculate, green and reddish
clehiscence septifragal-marginicidal, the hypant1llal frUlt. apex
purple, the hypanthial beak oE the ovary not evident, the utrcle
llot evident. Seeds numerous, black, triangulate, 3 mm wlde, 4
ellipsoid, 5 mm long, 3 mm diameter, the syrinx axial, 1 mm
mm long, l mm thick. Inhabits canyon floors. .
long, 1.5 mm diameter, the tube bent 180, about 5 mm long, 3
The interesting pectinate annulus, coupled wI~h the sm~ll
mm diameter, the limb ovate with a pectinate-fimbriate annulus geniculate f10wers adequately distinguish Aristolochza tresmanae
at the throatlimb margin, acute at the apex, carda te at the base,
from the somewhat similar A. conversiae, which lacks an annulus
7 mm long, abotIt 6 mm wide, smooth on the inner face. Gyno-
in ,the throat of the calyx of its fiowers.
stemium coronifonn, stipitate, 1.25 mm high, 1.25 mm broad,

.. - t-

,, o

MAP 8. ColIection sites of Aristolochia nelsonii.

FICURF. 10. Arislnlocllia fre~mariae. Drawn from Ferris 5689,

tlle l ype collection.

Specimerls Sttldied:-
Maria Madre, Tres Marias Islands--
Ferris, Roxana S. 5689, DS, MO, US (Type of A. tresmariae
Mason, Herbert L.n88, F, GH, USo
10. ARISTOLOCHIA secunda Pfeif., sp. nov.} FIG. 11, Map 10.
Herbae perennes procumbentes. Folia brevipetiolata, cor-
MAP 9. Collection site of Arislolochia tresmariae. data ad subtriangulata, apice obtuso, basi penitus cordata, petioli

40 41
c~r~a 6 mm longi, laminae 1.5-3 mm longae, 15-22 mm latae,
vlndes puberulae supra, sub tus virides, hirsutulae. Flores axil- na multa, nigra, triangulata, 4 mm lata, 5 mm longa, 1 mm
larii solitarii, pedunculi depressi bracteolati, bracteola ovata, 3 crassa. HOLOTYPUS: Mueller & Mueller 1014, F ("Sierra Madre
m~ Janga, ~ mm .lata, a axilla faIii subtendi ad utriculum calycis Oriental, Nuevo Len; fiats and foothills be10w Pablillo, about
basls Y2 (hstantlae. portatae, calyx subgeniculatus (ca. 900) 15 miles SW oE Galeana. Commonly scattered on grassy slapes.
abr.upte f1exl1~, atrovlOlaceus, rostro hypanthii minuto, apiculato, Flowers cleep purplish red") . Isotypi: GH, MICH.
ut.nculus oVOIdeus, 5 mm longus, 3 mm diametro, syrinx excen- Procumbent perennial herbs. Leaves short-petiolate, cordate
tnca, 2 mm longa, 2 mm diametro, tubus 90 flexus, circa 6 mm to subtriangulate, abtuse at the apex, deeply cordate at the base,
Iongus, 3 mm diametro, limbus avatus, apice acuto, basi cordata, the petioles about 6 mm long, the blades 1.5 to 3 cm long, 15 to
S mm longus, 4 mm !atus, iI]. pagina interna laevi, in fauce an- 22 mm broad, green, puberulous aboye, beneath green, hirsutu-
nulo simplici praesenti. Columna brevi-stipitata, 2 mm alta, 1 lous. Flowers solitary in the leafaxils, the pedundes depressed,
m~ lata, stamina 5, tetraloculate, sessilis, ad libram acquilater. bracteolate, the bracteoles ova te, 3 mm long, 3 mm wide, arising
a~la. C~psula batulifonnis, 1.5-2.0 cm langa, 1.0-1.5 cm lata, de- at Yz o the distan ce from leafaxil to utride base, the calyx sub-
luscentIa septifraga marginicidali, apice hypanthio absens. Semi- geniculate, sharply uent about 90, dark purple, the hypanthial
beak of the ovary minute, apiculate, the utricIe ovoid, 5 mm long,
3 mm diameter, the syrinx eccentric, 2 mm long, 2 mm diameter,
the tu be bent 90, about 6 mm long, 3 mm diameter, the limb
ova te, acute at the apex, cordate at the base, 8 mm long, 4 mm
wide, the interior of the limb smooth, a simple ringlike annulus
present at the throat. Gynostemium columnar, short.stipitate, 2
mm high, 1 mm1;road, the stigrnas 5, the tetraloculate anthers 5,
laterally sessile n the stigmatic lobes. Fruits botuliorm, 1.5 to
2 cm long, LO t L5 cm wide, dehiscence septifragal-marginicidal,
the hypanthial ruit apex not evident. Seeds numerous, black,
triangulate, 4 mm wide, 5 mm long, 1 mm thick. Inhabits grassy
slopes and arroyo margins.
This very distinctive species is recognizable by the smalI
fiowers, whose subgeniculate bend and rirnlike annulus are out-
standing. It is related only to the more southern and western
An"stolochia conversiae and A. tresmariae. They possess, respec-
tively, no annulus or a conspicuous, pectinate one.

Specimens Sludied:-
Turner, B. L. & A. M. Powelll068, WlS.
Fl{;URE J 1. A rislolochia .'inunda. Drawn from j}Iuefler & Muel- Pablillo---
In 101-1, the type colleclion. Mueller, C. H. & M. T. Mueller 1014, F, CH, MICH (Type
of A. secunda Pfeif.).
Pennell, Fruncs W. 16998, F, MICH, NY, USo
Ripley, H. D. & R. C. Barneby 13584, NY.

11. ARISTOLOCHIA buntingii PfeiE., sp. nov., FIG. 12, Map 11.

Herbae perennes serpentes. Folia petiolata, cordata, apice

obtuso, basi penitus cordata, petioli 1 cm longi, laminae 4~7 cm
longae, 46 cm latae, viridcs rugosae puberulae secus venae pri-
mariae purpuratae supra, sub tus palIen tes subtiliter strigosae
praesertim secus venac. Flores solitarii, in axillis foliorum supero-
rum vel in axillis foliorum deminutorum in racemis laxissibus

MAP 10. ColIection sitcs of Arislolochia secunda.

FIC-URE 12. Arislolochia ll1mlingii. Dfawn from MOMe & BU111

illg 8773, the lypc mllcction.
MAl' 11. Collection site of Aristolochia buntingii.

44 45
ex axilIis foliorum infernorum, pedunculi bracteolati, bracteola The peltate limb of the calyx on a gcniculate, very small
cordata, 4 mm longa, 5 mm lata, a axilla folii subtend ad utri- flower is adequate distinction (or this most curious planto The
culum calycis hasis 2/3 distantiae portatae, calyx geniculatus fine anel minute fimbriae which cover the interior limb surface
(90), rufus vens abbids, rostro, hypanthii absenti, utriculus are also quite uniqllc in their quantity and size.
obovatus, 9 mm longlls, 6 mm diametro, syrinx angllstata, parum
Specimen Studied:-
excentrica, 2.75 mm longa, 1.25 mm diametro, tubus saltem 900
f1exus, circa 1 cm longus, limbus peltato-orbculatlls, nonlobus, MEXICO:
infllndibuliformis non profundlls, apice obtuso, basi parum
retusa, 2 cm longus, 1.25 cm latus, fimbriis parvulis 0.5 mm Moore, Ir., H. E. & G. S. Blttlting 8773, MO, DC (Type of
longis dense velatis praeter faucem laevem. Columna subcolum- A. bllnlingii })feif.).
naris, stipitata, 4 mm alta, 2 mm lata, stamina 5, tetraloclllata,
12. ARISTOLOCHIA conversiae Pfeif., sp. nov., FIG. 13, Map 12.
sessilis, ad libram aeqllilateralia. Capsulae ignotae. HOLOTYPUS:
Moore 6- Bnnting 8773, MO ("Slope in oak woods (pH 6.2) Herbae perennes procumbentes. Folia amplitudine admo-
8.6 miles from Arteaga Uust beyond km. ISO) on road to Playa dum variabilia, petiolata, (ere cordata ad hastate, apice plerum-
Azul, aIt. ca. 750 m, Michoacn, Mexico. T'railing vine. Lvs que obtuso sed varianti, basi late cordato-auriculata, petioli 3-30
rugose, 5 primary veins purple-tinted. Flowers maraon inside, mm longi'ia"inae 0.7-9.0 cm longae, 0.7-6.0 cm latae, vrides,
veins whitish on outside. 11 Sept. 1961"). Isotypus: VC. valde sparsi tomentulosae supra, subtllS subdilute virides, to-
Trailing perennial herbs. Leaves petiolate, corda te, obtuse mentulosa praesertim secus venae. Flores solitarii in axillis
a-t the apex, deeply cordate at the base, the retioles 1 cm long, foliorum superorum vel in axillis foliorum deminutorum in
the blades 4 to 7 cm long, 4 to 6 cm broad, green, the primary ramis filiformibus axillaribus racemosis lateralibus, pedunculi
veins purpIe, rugose, puberulent aboye, beneath somewhat paler, filiformes bracteolati, bracteola sessilis, cordata, 1-3 mm longa,
finely strigose especially along the veins. Flowers solitary, either 0.5-3.0 mm lata, a axilla folii subtendi ad utriculum calycis basis
in axils of llppcr leaves, or in axils oI redllced leaves or in very 9/10 distantiae portatae, caIyx geniculatlls (90), rufus, rostro
loose ratemes from the lower leafaxi1s, pedundes bracteolate, hypanthii non evidenti sed flexo, utriculus ovoideus, 5-6 mm
the bracteoles cordate, 4 mm long, 3 mm wide, borne 2/3 of the longus, 2-3 mm diametro, syrinx axialis, l mm longa, 1.5 mm
distance [rom the subtending leafaxil to the base of the utricle diametro, tubus mediinflatus, flexus 90, 4 mm longus, 2 mm
oI the calyx, the calyx geniculate (90), maraon with whitish diametro ad centrllm, limbus ova tus, nonlobatus, peltatus, apice
veins, the hypanthium not evident, the utricle obovate, 9 mm aCllminato, basi emarginata, 4-5 mm longus, 3-4 mm la tus, in
long, 6 mm diameter, the syrinx narrowed, slightly eccentric, pagina interna laevi. Columna columnaris vel urceolata stipita-
2.75 mm long, 1.25 mm diameter, the .tube bent at least to a right tissima, 2.5 mm alta, 1.1 mm lata, stamina 5, tetraloclllata, ses-
angle, about I cm long, the limb peltate-orbiculate, unlobed, silis, ad libram aequilateralia. Capsulae ignotae. HOLOTYPUS:
shallowly funnelform, obtuse at the apex, slightly retuse at the Converse s.n., Jan 1961, CON N ("Below Valle de Bravo along
base, 2 cm long, 1.25 cm wide, densely covered with very small roadsides, Mexico Sta te, Mexico") . Isotypus: MO.
fimbriae each 0.5 mm long, except in the smooth throat. Gyno- Procumbent perennial herbs. Leaves very variable in size,
stemium subcolumnar, stipitate, 4 mm high, 2 mm broad, the petiolate, nearly cordate to hasta te, variable but o(ten obtuse at
stigmas 5, the tetraloculate anthers 5, lateral1y sessile on the stig- the apex, broadly corda.te-aurculate at the base, the petioles 3
matic lobes. Frui.ts not seen. Inhabits slopes in oak woods (soil mm to 3 cm long, the blades 0.7 to 9.0 cm long, 0.7 to 6.0 cm
pH 6.2). bread, green, very sparsely tomentulose aboye, beneath slightly

axial, 1 mm long, 1.5 mm diameter, the tube medially inflated,
bent at a right angle, 4 mm long, 2 mm diameter at center, the
limb ova te, unlobed, peltate, acuminate at the apex, emarginate
at the base, 4 to 5 mm long, 3 to 4 mm wide, smooth. Gynostemi-
um columnar to urceolate, strongly stipitate, 2.5 mm high, 1.1
mm braacl, the stigmas 5, the tetraloculate anthers 5, 1aterally
sessile on the stigmatic lobes. Fruits not seen. Inhabits hillsides
and roadcuts.
This new species of Aristolochia was recognized Iargely
through the efforts of Mrs. Olivia Converse. Residing a part of
the year in Valle de Bravo, Mxico, ancl an interested student of
the local flora there, she generously sent dried and living ma-
terial of this plant for identification. It is unique beca use the
Oowers, and the plant to a lesser degree, are quite small; the
former are only about fi millimeters tall and the latter not much
more than 2 or 3 dfFci eters across.
Flowers smila in overall configuration to Aristolochia con-
.oersiae are seen i A. tresmariae and A. secunda, but both of
these have annuli in the throat of the calyx tube, while that o
A. conversiae is smooth. The leaves o A. conversiae are nearly
always somewhat concave Iaterally, amI requently show transi-
tions to a subtrilobate-hastate condition on the same plant.

Specimens Studied:-
FIGtJRE 13. Aristolochia conversiae. Drawn fmm Converse, Jan Converse, Olivia L. A1tg 1962, MO.
1961, the type collcction. Temascaltcpec-
Hinton, George B. 4309, BM, NY, US; 4707, BM; 8110, GH,
Valle de BravO----
Converse, Olivia L. Jan 1961, CONN, MO (Type of A.
conversiae Pfeif.).
paler green, tamentulase especially along the veins. Flowers soli-
tary either in axils o( upper leaves or in axiIs of reclucecl leaves 13. ARISTOLOCHIA mutabilis Pfeif., sp. noV., FIG. 14, Map 13.
on filiform axillary racemase lateral branches, the filiform pe-
dundes bracteolate, the braoteoles sessile, corclate, 1 to 3 mm Herbae perennes procumbentes ad volubiles. Folia petiolata,
long, 0.5 to 3.0 mm wide, arising at 9/JO o[ the clistance from leaf ambitu variabilissimi, e linearibus cum lobis basalibus sagittatis
axil to utric~e base, the calyx geniculate (90), brown-maroon, duobus ad cordatos, apice plerumque acuminato, basi plerumque
the. hypant!ual beak of the ovary not very eviclent but bent, the late corclata, petioli 6-20 mm longi, laminae 2-10 cm longae,
utnde oVOld, 5 to 6 mm long, 2 to .3 mm diameter, the syrinx 0.3-6.0 cm latae, virides, subtiliter strigosae supra, sub tus sub-

dilute virides, subtiliter hirsutae, praesertim secus venae. Flores
----/_----- !--
( 'e" axilIarii solitarii ad aliquot in axillis foliorum superorum, pe~
dunculi bracteolati, bracteola cordata, 7 mm longa, 4 mm lata,
, O a axilb folii subtendi ad utriculum calycis basis 2/3 distantiae
~'-~-\, portatae, calyx geniculatus (90), atrovirens et ruber, rostro
hypanthii absenti utriculus oblacrimiformis, 11 mm longus, 7

'vIAl' 12. Colkction sites of Aristolochia conuersiae.



" J I
~', '\ I
o/~" -/e J

, "

FIGUR1, 14. Ar'lolochia mutabilis Drawn from Leavenworlh &
I-loogslraal 1196, {he type coIlection; the lcar profiles at the bot-
tom, partly from Leavenworlh 449.
MAl' 13. Collection sites of Aristolochia mutabilis. I

50 51
mm diametra, syrinx parum excentrica, angustata, 2 mm longa. Specimens Studied:-
2 mm diametra, tubus geniculatus (90) in centra contractus, MEXICO:
1.5 cm longus, 4-3 mm diametro, limbus infundibuliformis, non- Petatln-
elongatus, subtruncatus, apice abrupte acuminato vel acutato Langlasse, E. 721, K.
basi emarginata, 1.5 cm longus, 1.0 cm la tus, intra laevis praeter
pilos aliquot dispersos. Columna c01umnaris, stipitata, 3.5 mm Leave1lwvrlh, William C. 449, F.
alta, 1.5 mm lata, sta.mina 5, tetraloculata, sessilis, ad libram LeavetJworth, Wilfiam C. &- H. Hoogstraal 1496, F, CH,
MO (Type of A. mulabilis Pfcif.).
aequilateralia. Capsulae ignotae. HOLOTYPUS: LeavenwoTth &
Hoogslmal 1496, F ('Common vine with dark green and red 14. ARISTOLOCHJA WATSONI Wooton & Standl. Contrib. U.S.
flowers prostrate or climbing on shrubs, arid slopes aboye Apat- Nat!. Herb. 16:117. 1913. (Based upon A. breviPes Benth. var.
zing.in, Tandtaro regiorr, Michoacn, Mexico; with scattered acuminaia Watson) FIG. 15, Map 14.
trees; elev. 2000, Aug. 13, 1941"). Isotypi: GR, MO. Arisiolochia breviPes Benth. varo acuminaia Watson, Prac. Amer.
Procumbent to tip-twining perennial herbs. Leaves petiolate, Acad. 18:148. 1883, ryon A. acuminata Lam. 1783. (Type:
very variable in outline, from linear with 2 sagittate basal lobes Palmer, Edward 118)( GH!, NAI, VSI)
to cordate, mostly acuminate at the apex, mostly broadly cordate ATistolochia lassa ]phnston, ]ourn. Arnold Arb. 21:255. 1940.
at the base, the petioles 6 to 20 mm long, the blades 2 to 10 cm (Type: Palmer, Edward 187, FI, GH!, MOl, NYI, S, Ve! VSI)
long, 0.3 to 6.0 cm broad, green, finely strigase aboye, beneath
valer green, finely hirsute, especially along the veins. Flowers Procumbent perennial herbs. Leaves petiolate, hastate-auric
solitary to few in the upper leafaxils, the pedundes bracteolate, uJate to subcordate, the margins crisped, acuminate at the apex,
the bracteoles corda te, 7 mm long, 4 mm wide, arising at 2/3 of braadly corda te at the base, the petioles 3 to 6 mm long, the
the distance from leafaxil to utricle base, the calyx geniculate blades 1.2 to 2.4 cm long, 1.0 to 1.5 cm broad, green, finely
(90) , dark green and red, the hypanthial beak of the ovary not puberulent aboye, beneath brownish, tomentulose especially
evident, the utricle oblacrimiform, 11 mm long, 7 mm diameter, along the vens. Flowers solitary in axils of upper leaves, the
the syrinx slightly eccentric, narrowed, 2 mm long, 2 mm diam- pedundes bracteolate, the bracteoles triangulate, 5 mm long, 3
eter, the tube conlracted at its center, geniculate (90), 1.5 011 mm wide, arising at Y2 of the distance from leafaxil to utricIe
long, 4 to 3 mm cliamNer, the limb funnelfonn, not elongatecl, base, the calyx geniculate (90), mar~on and yeUow, the hy-
subtruncate, abruptly acuminate to acute at the apex, emargi- panthial beak of the ovary not eviclent, the utricle obovate, 6
nate at the base, 1.5 cm long, 1.0 cm wide, smooth withiri except mm long, 3.5 mm di ame ter, the syrinx funnelform, eccentric, 2
Ior few scattered hairs. Gynostemium columnar, stipitate, 3.5 mm long, 2 mm diameter, the tube basally gibbous. bent at a
mm high, 1.5 mm broacl, the stigmas 5, the tetraloculate anthers right angle, 2 to 3.5 mm long, 0.25 mm diameter, the limb un~
5, laterally sessile on Lhe stigmatic lobes. Fruits not seen. Inhabits lobed, ovate, pelta te, acuminate at the apex, retuse at the base,
arid woodland slopes. 1.0 cm long, 0.5 cm wide, smooth within. Gynostemium ovoid to
The very variable leaves, illustrated wirh several examples columnar, stipitate, 2.5 mm high, 1.25 mm broacl, the stigmas 5,
in the accompanying plate, are a recurrent property of the the tetraloculate anthers 5, laterally sessile on the stigmatic
pentandrous aristolochias; it is possibly nowhere as marked as lobes. Fruts obovoid, 1.5 cm lohg, 1.2 cm wide, dehiscence septi-
in Aristolochia mttlabilis. The flower, with the subtruncate limb fragal-marginicidal, the huir apex retuseIy depressed. Seeds nu-
arising {rom the tube without any cIear regon or Une of de- merous, flattened, triangulate. 4 mm wide, 3.5 mm long, 1 mm
markation, is clistinctive. thick. Inhabits bottom lands.

52 53
cleterminecl as A. j)orj)hyrophylla Pfeifer.
The smalI geniculate flowers, lheir plain limbs and the
small, crisped leaves are the distinguishing features of the true
Aristolochia watsoni.

Specimens Studied:-
Arsfue, G. 3458, MO, P, USo
Pafmer, Edwanl 187, F, CH, MO, NA, NY, S, ue, US (Type
of A. lassa Johnston); llS3, GH, NA, US (Type oE A.
watsoni Wooton & Stand!.; Type oE A. brclIipes Benth,
val'. acuminata Walson).

Purjm , C. A. Ailg 1903, De (sterile).

15. ARISTOLOCHlA MICRANTHA Duchr. Ann. Sci. Nat. sr. 4. 2:35.

t.5. 1854. (Type: BeTlandie,. 203, G (2) 1, MOl, P (2) 1, USI) FIG.
FrCURE 15. Arislolochia watsoni. Drawn from Palmer 187. 16, Map 15.

Einorneia berlal1dieri Klotlsch, Monalsb. Acad. Berlin. 1859:606.

In 1883, Sereno 'Vatson described a variety of Aristalochia 1859. (Type: Berlandier 203, G (2) 1, MOl, P (2) 1, USI)
brevipes Benth. which he caIled acuminata. Wooton and Stand-
ley in 1913 reached othe conclusion it deserved specific rank, but Procumbent perennial herbs. Leaves petiolate, cordate to
were unable to use A. acuminata for Lamarck had named an sagittate, acute at the apex, deeply carda te at the base, the peti-

Asiatic A. acuminaia in 1783. Wooton and Standley named the oles 1 cm long, the blades 3 to 5 cm long, 1 to 2 cm broad, green,
new species A. watsoni based upan the same type, Palmer 1183. strigulose abave, beneath green, strigulose. Flowers smal1, soli-

W~tson originally cited several other specimens to amplify his tary in tile leafaxils, the pedundes bracteolate, the bracteoles
bnef description; aIl, induding Palmer's collection, have come triangulate, vcry small, 2 mm long, 1 mm wide, arising at 1/3 of
to be known as A. watsoni. the distance from leafaxil to utricle base, the calyx geniculate,
. 1. M .. ]ohnston described, in 1940, still another species, maroon (?), the hypanthial beak of the ovary not evident, the
Anstolochw lassa, whose type is Palmef 187. Now it has elevel- utricle obovoid, 0.5 cm long, 0.3 cm diameter, the syrinx eccen-
oped that bath Palmer collections, numbers 187 ancl 1183, are tric, narrowed, 2 mm long, 2.5 mm diameter, the tube bent 180 0 ,
the same species; thus they are properIy referred t A. watsoni. gibbous, 1 cm long, lo 0.5 cm diameter, the limb ovate, acute at
Unfortunately, the correct identity of this species is not the com- lhe apex, cordate at the base, 1 cm long, 0.5 cm witle, marginally
monly understood orre, aneI the host o specimens labellecl and sticky with very fine papillate surface, smooth medially. Gyno-
unclerstoocl to be A. watsoni in many herbaria, as well as several stemillm columnar, narrowly stipitate, 2.7 cm high, 1.3 mm
of those originally citecl by 'Vatsan in 1883, must now be re- broad, the stigmas 5, the tetraloculate anthers 5, Jaterally sessile
011 the stigmatic lobes. Fruits oblate, 0.75 cm long, 1.0 cm wide,

54 55
dehiscence septifragal~marginicidal, the hypanthial fruit apex
nat evident. Seeds numerous, black, triangulate, 4 mm wide, 4
mm long, 1 mm thiek. Habitat preferences unknown.
The very small geniculate ftowers o( A ristolochia micrantha
in combinatian with the sagittate leaves are adequate to dis-
tinguish the species [rom the western A. conversiae and its rela-
tives. Arisiolochia micrantha is known only from two collections
in the v~c~ity o[ Tampico, Tamaulipas; the type, collected by
Berlandier in 1827 and Eclward Palmer's 226, collected in 1910.
A Liebmann collection (lOO, US!) may be doubtlully assigned
The pIate supplied by puchartre, illustrating Aristolochia

MAP 14. Collection sites of Aristolochia watsoni.

o "
" ,

, o


FIGURE 16. Aristolochia micrantha. Drawn from palmer 226.

MAP 15. Collection site oC Aristolochia micrantha.

56 57
micral1tha is drawn rom an immature flower bucl; the present
ilIustration, not taken [ram the type material, shows the mature
flowers from the only specimen in which they are avalable,
Palmer 226.

SjJecimens Studied:-
Berlandier 203, G (2), MO, P (2), US (Type of A. micranfha
DllChr.; Type of Einomeia berlandieri Klotzsch).
Palmer, Edtvard 226, F, GH, K, MO, NY, USo
ebmmJn 100, USo

16. ARISTOLOCHTA ERECTA L. Sp. PI. cel. 2. 1362. 1763. (Baseel

upon Aristolochia /oliis lanceolatis sessilibus subhirsutis, caule
erecto floribus solitm'iis longissimis Miller, Carel. Dict. eel. 7. no.
12. 1759; Type: Hous!oun S.n., BMI, A ex BMI, NY ex BMI)
Fre. 17, Map 16.
Aristolochia Tepens Miller, Carel. Dict. ed. 8. no. 12. 1768. (Type:
Housloun s.n., BM.', A ex BM1, NY ex BM1) ;':
ATislolochia longifloTa Engelm. & Cray, Bastan Journ. Nat. Rist.
5:259. 1845. (Type: Lindheimer 298, April-July 1844, GHI,
MOl, RSA!, non numo 298, 1847-48 1)
ATistalochia langifolia., auett. sphalm., non Roxb. (1832), nee FIGURE 17. Arisloloc!da encta. Drawn from Palmer 11520.
Champ. ex Benth. (1854), nec Sess & Mocio (1896), nec
Hauman (1923).

Erect to sprawling perennial herbs. Leaves short-petiolate, triangulate, long~acuminate at the apex, shallowly subcordate at
linear to very narrowly triangulate, long-acuminate at the apex, the base, 8 cm long, 1 cm wide near the base, essentially smooth
narrowIy cunea te at the base, the petioles more or less 5 mm long, within, except [or light~colored depressions in the medial limb
the blades 10 to 15 cm long, 5 to 10 mm broad, green, glabres- arca, each with a central papilla, coarsely hairy in the throat.
cent aboye, beneath paler green, glabrescent. Flowers solitary in Gynostemium narrow, columnar, stipitate, 5 mm high, 2 mm
leaE axils, the pedundes bracteolate, the bracteoles very narrowly broad, the stigmas 5, the tetraloculate anthers 5, laterally sessile
trian gula te, 12 mm long, 2 mm wide, arising at 1;2 of the distance on the stigmatic lobes. Fruits botuliform, 2.5 cm long, 1.5 cm
[rom leafaxil to utricle base, the calyx rectilinear, dark purple wide, dehiscence septi[ragal-marginicidal, the hypanthial Eruit
with lighter spots, the hypanthial beak oE the ovary not evident, apex absent. Seeds numeroUs, black, fiat, triangulate, 5 mm wide,
the utride obconic, the syrinx eccentric, broad and shallow, 15 5 mm long, 1 mm thick. Inhabits chaparral fiats, riverbanks and
mm long, 8 mm diameter, the tube rectilnear to somewhat hillsides.
arcuate, 25 mm long, 4 mm diameter, the limb narrowly long~ ATistolochia aeeta has leaves which resemble no other spe-

58 59
eies in the genus; the fiowers are very long and hidden in the
The type locality oC the Houstoun specimen is "Vera Cruz~"
no modern collections of Arisiolochia erecia are known as far
south as the present state boundary. However, in the mid-1750's
and earlier, much o[ the western shore of the Gulf of Mexico
was referred to as Vera Cruz, and it seems reasonable to assume
our plant was coIlectcd in the northern part. The specific 10-
cality is unknown to me. ('

Specimens Studied:-
Marsh, Ernrst G. 11, GH.
Piedras Negras------.
KenoyeT & Crum 2506, A.

MAP l6. ColJection sites of Aristoloehia erecta. Rexar Co.-
Cro/h, B. H. A. 216, GH; 223, GH; 237, CH.
Palmer, Emesl ). 11629, MO, POM, ue.
, , ,. .
, ParJu, Hal B., Jr. 2919, F .
Dewitt Co.-
, Tharp, B. C. 6 JlIl1942, DS, GH, MO, NY, VC.
Duval Co.-
eroll, Mary lI. 124, MICH, NY.
CiJlespie Co.-
lIra}', W. L. 287, USo
Goliad CO.-
Thnrj), B. C. 3367, USo
Gonzales CO.-
Car)', V. L. 8259, CH.
Hidalgo CO.-
Runyon, Robert 1696, USo
Jim Wel!s Ca.-
COT)', V. L. 28165, CH.
Kleherg CO.-
Reed, C. 193, NY.
Sinclair, ]. F. swnmer 1940, GR.
Real CO.-
RewTehon,]. 1583, F, MO. NY, US (2).
Travis Ca.-
Hall, Elihu May 1872, F, MO.
Uvalde CO.-
l'almer, Emesl J. 11520, MO, VC; 13540, MO.
Reverchon, ]. 128, CH.
Val verde Co.-
MAP 17. Collection site of Aristaloehia palmeri. PalmeT, Emesl J. 11359, MO.

Waller Co.-
Thurozv, F. S. 8, USo
Webb CO.-
Reverc}on,]. 3674, CH, MO, NY, USo
Santos, M. & William L. McCar! 60 MICH
Wilson Co.- ' .
Parlls. Hal B., Ir. 2641, MO.
Zapata Co.-
Claver, Elzada U. 751, MI CH.
Locality Unknown-
HmJard V. 5.11., USo
Headle)', Fruti/ 11. s.n., USo
Lilldheimer, F. 298, (1844), CH, MO, RSA (Type oE A.
longiflora Engclm. & Cray); 298 (1847~1848), CH (2),
P, US (2); Ocl 1847, MO.
Martindale, Isaac C. herb. s.n., NA.
ThurQ1v, F. S. s.n., US
Wilkinson, E. H. 171, MO.
Wright, Charles S.I1.) 1863, CH, NY.
Ilollsloun, Wilfiam s.n., A es fiM, Bkr, NY ex BM (Type
of A. erecta L.; ~ype of A. repens Miller).
Pnrry, C. C.,]. M. Btgelaw, Chas. Wrighl 6' A. SchoU, Mexi-
can BOllndary Survey 1103, NY, USo
Schott, Arlhllr 65, F; Aug 1852, F, NY.

17. ARISTOLOCHIA PALMERI Watson, Prac. Amer. Acad. 22:447.

1887. (Type: Palmer, Edward 180, GH!, US (2)!) FIG. 18,
Mal' 17.

Subcreet percnnial herbs. Leaves petiolate, linear, with two

linear sagittate to hastate basallobes, long-aeuminate at the apex,
broadly cortbte at the base, the petioles 1 cm long, the blades to
lO cm long, the median portian of the blades to 7 mm broad
FICURE 18. Aristolochia palmeri. Drawn from Palmer 180, the
green, glabreseent aboye, beneath green, finely puberulous: type collection.
Flowers solitary in the leafaxils, the peduncles bracteolatc, the
braeteoles laneeolate, to 15 mm long, to 4 mm wide, arising in
the lea[ axil with the base of the peduncle, the ea1rx rectilinear, canie, stipitate, 3.5 mm high, 1.25 mm broad, the stigmas 5, the
orange-maroon with deep purple-black spots, the hypanthial beak tetraloculate anthers 5, laterally sessile on the stigmatic lobes.
oC the ovary not evident, the utricle narrowly obconic, 9 mm Fruits short-botuliforrn, 1.5 cm long, 12 mm wide, dehiseence
I~ng, 6 mm diameter, the syrinx eecentrie, 1.5 mm long, 2 mm septifragal-marginicidal, the hypanthial fruit apex absent. Seeds
chameter, the tube straight, 1.5 cm long, 3 mm dameter, the limb numerous, blaek, triangulate, 3 mm wide, 3 mm long, 1 mm
narrowly lanceolate, peItate near the base, vcry long-acuminate thiek. Inhabits dry, raeky hillsides.
at the apex, rounded to slightly emarginate at the base, to 8 cm Related to An'stolochia erecta~ A. palrneri is [ounel furthcr
long, to 1 cm wide, the interior smooth, although heavily dark- southward; the basally-Iobed leaves and flowers Iacking the papil.
spotted in the Iower wicler portion. Gynostemium narrowly ob- late depressions founel on the limb of A. erecta are adequate to

62 63

~istinguish ~ctween them. Aristolochia palmeTi is known only 18. ARISTOLOCHIA FLEXUOSA Duchr. Ann. Sci. Nat. sr. 4. 2:36.
!rom the regron around Guadalajara arreI along the nearby Ri 1854, (Type: G/iesbregh' 216, PI) FIG, 19, Map 18,
Blanco, where Palmer colIected it in 1886.
Specimens Studied:- Procllmbent to twining perennial herbs. Leaves essentially
sessile, ova te, acute at the apex, conlate at the base, the petioles
JALISCO; 2 to 4 mm long, the blades 2,5 to 13,0 cm long, 1.5 to 7,0 cm
Guadalajara- broacl, green, puberulent aboye, beneath green, tomentulose.
Palmer, Edward 180, GH, US (2) (Type of A. palmeri Flowers solitary in lea[ axiIs, the peduncles bracteolate, the
P1"ingfe, Cyrus GueTtlSey 1 Oel 1891, VT; 21 Od 1903, VT. bracteoles narrowly triangulate, 8 mm long, ~.5nm wide, arising
Rose,]. N. r!:t Jos. H. Painler 7466, NY, USo
at Y2 of the clistance from leafaxil to utri le base, the calyx
rectilinear, grcenish yellow with fine red Ji s on limb, ,the hy-
panthial beak oE the ovary small, erect, apiculate, the utricle
obovate, somewhat gibbous dorsally, 8 mm long, 5 mm diameter,
the syrinx cccentric, 2 mm long, 1 mm diameter, the tube slight-
Iy arcuate, 1.25 cm long, 0.5 cm diameter, the limb narrowly
triangulate, unlobed, acute at the apex, corda te at the base, 3
cm long, 1 cm wide, finely rugulose on the interior surface. Gyno-
stemium coronifonn, subsessile, 1.5 mm high, 1.25 mm broad,
the stigmas 5, the tetraloculate anthers 5, lateraIly sessile on the
stigmatic lobes. Fruits not seen. Inhabits moist slopes in brushy
For more than 120 years, ATistolochia flexuosa was known
only from the type, collectecl at Apatzingn in 1841 (?) by Ghies-
breght. Another station at Cascada la Tzarracua was discovered

. .' .'. ',. I.
,\ in 1966. The subsessile leaves amI long internodes of A. flexuosa
i ':,
are very distinctive; the late-appearing nowers with their incon-
spicuous greenish coloration may be the reason it has becn over-
lookecl for so long.

Specimcns Studied:-
Ghiesbreght, M. 216, P (Type of A. flexuosa Duchr.).
Cascada la Tzadracua-
Pffer, H. W. 32370, CONN.

FICORE 19. Arisloforhia fle:-:uosa. Drawn from living material, 19. ARISTOLOCHIA J>RINGLEI Rose, U.S.n.A. Contrib. Natl. Herb.
Pfeifer 3237a. 8:23, 1903. (Type: Palmer, Edward 278, Gl'JI, MOl, NYI, US
(2) 1) FIG, 20, Map 19,

64 65
FIGURE 20. Arist%r/ja j)ringlei. Drawn from living material,
MAP lB. Collection sites oC Arisfolochia flexuosa. Pfeifer 3205.

Arislolochia longecaudala Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 447.

1887, non Mast. (1875). (Type: Polmer, Er1ward 278, ,ide
Aslolochia longecaudata "Vatson var. virescens Greenman,
Proc. Amer. Acad. 32:297. 1897. (Type: Pringle 6383, GH (2) 1,
MOl, MEXU, NYI, S, US (2)!, VT!, FI, ue!)

Twining perennial herbs. Leaves petiolate, sagittate to has-

tate, acute al the apex, deeply cordate-sagittate at the base, the
petioles 1.5 cm long, the blades to 10 cm long, to 6 cm broad,
green, puberulous above, beneath green, tomentulose. Flowers
solitary in the leafaxils, the pedundes bracteolate, the bracte-
oles triangulate, 15 mm long, 6 mm wide, arising at Y2 or more
o[ the distance [rom lea E axil to utride base, the calyx rectilinear,
yellowish with brown spots, the hypanthial beak of the ovary not
evident, the utricle obovoid, ] cm long. 7 mm diameter, the
syrinx eccentric, 3 mm long, 3 mm diameter, the tube straight to
MAP 19. Collection sites of Aristolochia pringlei.
somewhat arcuate, 1.5 cm long, 4 mm diameter, the limb nar-

66 67
rowly lanceolate, long-acuminate at the apex, peltate and the Uruapan-
margin reflexed at the base, 6 mm long, to 2 cm wide, the inter- Leavenworth, Williarn C. 6- H. Hoogslraal 1009, ....
Localily Unknown-
nal surface smooth, spotted with a yellow throat. Gynostemium Iltis, I-1ugh H., Roberl KoejJpen 6- Franft Illis 375, CONN.
coroniform, becoming stipitate, 3 mm high, 2 mm broad, the MORELOS;
stigmas 5, the tetraloculate anthers 5, laterally sessile on the Pringle, Cyrus Guernsey 9676, F, CH, MO, US, VT.
stigmatic lobes. Fruits botuliform, 3 cm long, 15 mm wide, de- Cucrnavaca-
Pringfe, Cyrus Guernsey 6383, F, GH (2), MEXV, MO, NY,
hiscence septifragal-margnicidal, the hypanthial fruit apex ab- S, VC, US (2), VT (Type oE A. longecaudata Walson
sent. Seeds lluffierous, black, trianguIate, 4 mm wide, 4 mm long, vaL virescells Greenman); 13181, F, GH, MICH, MO,
1 mm thick. Inhabits rocky hillsides under oaks and disturbed
soils. Ixtlan-
This is the most frequently colJectccl mainland pentamerous Mexia, Ynes 766, VC, USo
AristolochiaJ although it is not camman. Aristolochia pringlei is Sesse & Moriio 4409, }'.
easily recagnizcd by the combinatan oE sagittate lea ves and
crect, large, greenish-yellaw flowers with small brown dots an the 20. ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEOSA Dllchr. Ann. Sci. Nat. sr. 4. 2:37.
limb; the f10wers are pralificaUy produced. 1854. (Baseel upon A. rotunda in herb. Deless. Sess & M ocio
Greenman based his varietal name tlpon degree of vestiture; lecta, GI, F ex GI, MO ex GI) FIc. 21, Map 20.
it is not possiblc to dslingush this difIerence when aH cal1ectians
are compared. In Rose's original publication, Palmer 287 is citecl; Aristolochin guadalajnt'alln 'Vatson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 448.
this is a typographical error. The correct number is 278. This 1887. (Type: Palmer, Edward 27, GHI, MO!, US (2) 1, NY,
species is currently represented in the living plant collections of MEXU)
tlle Univcrsity of Connecticut.
Aristolochia rotunda Sess et Mocio, Fl. Mexic. eel. 2. 209. 1894, ;1
Specimens Studied:- non L. (1753), non Georgi (1797), non Bov ex Duchr.
MEXICO: (1864). (Type: Sess et Maci']a s.n., GI, MO ex GI, F ex GI)
Cuan tla-
Procumbent perennial herbs. Leaves short-petiolate, ovate
Kunlze, Otto 23543, NY (2). to triangulate-Ianceolate, acute to obtuse at the apex, deeply cor-
Gnadalajara- date at the base, the petioles 3 to 5 mm long, the blades 2.5 to
Barkle)', jI'red A., John B. Paxon 6- Chester M. Rowell, Ir.
7515, USo 10.0 cm long, 2.0 to 5.0 cm broad, green with purple shadings
Pnlmer, Edwnrd 278, GH, .MO, NY, US (2) (Type oE A. along the veins, minutely arreI sparsely puberulous LO subvelu-
longecaudala Watson; Type oE A. pringlei Rose).
P.ringle, Cyrus Gllernsey 4425, F, GH, MO, NY, ve, US tinolls above, beneath grcen to purple, finely tomentulose. Flow-
(2), VT; 11156, F, GH, MICH, MO, NY, US (2), VT. ers solitary in the axils of tlle upper leaves, the pedundes bracte-
Diguet, M. L. 1 Mar 1913, MICH (2). oJate, the bracteoles lanceolate, 7' to 25 mm long, 5 to 12 mm
Quililla- wide, borne l/3 of the distan ce [rom lea( axil to utride base,
Pfeifer, Howard W. 3205, CONN.
Tequila- the calyx rectilinear, 4 to 6 cm long, brown, the hypanthium not
Mcl'augh, Rogers 18639, MICH. evident, the utricle obovoid, 5 t 12 mm long, 4 to 6 mm diam~
Rose, ]. N. 4764, USo
eter, the syrinx narrowed, eccentric, 2 mm long, 3 mm diameter,
Parculin- the tube columnar, erect, 1 cm long, 0.5 cm diameter, the limb
Eggler, Willis A. 28, USo
ovate to Ianceolate, unlobed, acute at the apex, cordate at the

68 69
.~' base, 3 to 4 cm long, 1.0 to 2.5 cm wicle, thickly and minutely
" '
coverecl with low tubercles except the throat plain, brown. Gyno-
, , stemillm low-coroniform, stipitate, 35 mm high, 3.0 mm broac!,
/ ,
1.. _ , __ _
the stigmas 5, tIle teraloculate anthers 5, laterally sessile on the
~, ~ stigmatic lo bes. Fruits botuliform, 2 to 3 cm long, 1.0 to 1.5 cm
wic1e, deIliscence septifragaI-marganicidal, the hypanthial apex
straight. Seeds numcrous, black, fiat, triangulate to cardate, 4
\ mm wide, 5 mm long, 1 mm thick. Inhabits oak-pine forests,
rocky hillsides.
Cornmanly known as Aristolochia gundalajarana, A. brac-
teosa is distinctive for the ereet leaf and flower~bearing habit;
this second trait is not clearly represented in the illustration
supplied due to laek 01' spaec. The brown flowers, nearly equal
in length to mature lcaves and the tuberculate limb surface are
a unique combination.

MAP 20. Collection sites of Aristolochia bracteosa.

FIC.URE 21. Arlo[oc/ia bracteosa. Drawn from Feddema 2155.

MAP 21. Collection site of Aristolochia islandica.

70 71

Specimens Studied:-
Debeau.>:, O. 97, P.
Palmer, Edward 27, CH, MEXU. MO, NY (2). US (2) (Type
of A. guadalajarana Watson).
Pringle, Cyrus Guemsey 3714, F, CH, MO, NY, ve, US
(2), VT; 19 Nov ]889, VT; 12 Allg 1902, USo
Rose,]. N. 6- Waller Hougll 4801, NY, USo
Puente San Pedro---
k!cVaugh, Rogers 18122, MICH (2).
Fedrlema, Charles 2155, MICH.
RUdowski, ]erzy 17471, MICH.
McVaugh, Rogers 15251, MICH.
McVallgrl, Roger; 16386, MICH (2).
Sess & Moc/l0 s.n. "prope Xorulluffi 1842." G, F ex G,
MO ex G (Type oC A. rotunda Ses~e & Mociio; Type of F!GtJJtr<_ 22. Arislofochia islandica. Drawn [mm Mason & Hanna
A. bracteosa Duchr.); 4414, F. 14585, the lypc collection.

21. ARISTOLOCHIA islandica Pfeif., sp. nov.) FIG. 22, Map 21.
triangulata, 4 mm lata, 4 mm longa, 0.75 mm crassa. HOLOTyPUS:
Herbae perennes procumbentes. Folia petiolata, hasta te- Mason and Harma 14585, ve ("North end of slanc1 where ash
trilobata, margine valele crispatis, apice acuminato, basi penitus has been removed by erosion amI old soil amI surface is exposed
corclato-hastata, petioli usque ad 2 cm longi, laminae usque ad leaving a pavemcnt oE pyroclastics interspersed with soil; San
!1 cm longae, usque ad 4.5 cm latae, virides, glaberae supra, sub- Benedicto Island, Revillagigeclo Islands, Mexico; 17 November
tus virides, glaberae. Flores axillarii, solitarii in apice fructus 1953"). Isotypi: K, US, MO, LA.
longe persistentes, pedunculi bracteolati, bracteola Ianceolata, Procumbent perennial herbs. Leaves petiolate, hastately
ad 5 mm longa, ad 2 mm lata, ab subaxilla folii subtendi ex- trilobate, margins markedly crisped, acuminate at the apex,
orienti, calyx rectilinearis, f1avovirens, rostro hypanthii absenti, deeply conlate-hastate at the base, the petioles to 2 cm long, the
utriculus subcolllmnaris, 6 mm longus, 3 mm diametro, syrinx blades to 5 cm long, to 4.5 cm broad, green, glabrous aboye, be-
subaxialis, 1.5 mm longa, 2 mm diametro, tubus rectus, erectus, neath green, glabrous. Flowers solitary in the leafaxils, long-
0.6 cm longus, 2 mm diametro, limbus angustissime lanceolatus, persistent on rhe [ruit apex, the redundes bracteolate, the brac-
apicc longeacuminato, basi subpeltata, cordata no profunda, ad tea les lancealare, to 5 mm long, to 2 mm wide, arising near rhe
2 cm longus, ad 1 mm latus, sine proprietibus perspcuis in pagina base oL the redunde in rhe subtending leafaxil, the calyx recti-
interna. Columna coroniformo-columnaris, stipitata, 2.5 mm alta, linear, greenish yellow, the hypanthial beak oE the ovary Dot
1.25 mm lata, stamina 5, tetraloculata, sessilis al libram aequi- evident, the utricle subcolumnar, 6 mm long, 3 mm diameter,
lateralia. Capsula botuliformis, 1.5 cm longa, 1.5 cm lata, de- the syrinx subaxial, 1.5 mm long, 2 mm diameter, the tube
hiscentia septifraga marginicidali, apice hypanthio absens, sed straight, erect, 0.6 cm long, 2 mm diameter, the limb very nar-
perianthio persisten ti, caudatiformi. Semi na multa, infuscata, rowly lanceolate, long-acuminate at the apex, shallowly cordate,

72 73
subpeltate al the base, to 2 cm long, to 4 mm wide, without t evident the utricle narrowly
distinguishing features withi.n. Gynostemium eoroniform.colum. hyp<tnthial beak al the ovary no l' ter' the syrinx short-[un-
., 6 m long 4 mm (lame , .
nar, stipitate, 2.5 mm hlgh, 1.25 mm broad, the stigmas 5, the obcol1le, :J to .m l'
1 mm long 2 mm ( mmeter, the tube eylindnc,
tetraloeulate anthers 5, laterally sessile on the stigmatic lobes. nelform, eccentnc, " l" t the lmb strikingly
6 m long 25 mm (l<lme er,
Fruits botllliform, 1.5 cm long, 1.5 cm wide, dehiscence septi. slightlyarcuate, ) ID " . 1 te about 1 cm long,
3-lobecl, the median lobe ?ance~lat~,~'1p~~~l a[o~ming the cordate
fragal-marginicidaI, the hypanthiaI frllit apex absent, but the
tIle 2 lateral lobes elliptle, ul1ltec aS<l3 y m wid~ the interior
perianth persisting as a taiI-like appendage. Seeds numerous, . 1 1 b r, mm Iong m ,
dark brown, triangulate, 4 mm wide, 4 mm long, 0.75 mm thiek. base o[ the lImo, cae 1 a e:J e 'a Ion lhe margins, Cyno-
Inhabits slopes where original soil is exposecl by erosion oL ash surface of the limb une\'enl~ rugu~:u hi l~ 1 mm broad, the
deposits from recent eruptions. stemium columnar, subsesslle, 2 g 1'1 '1 on the stig-
, r, the tetralocu Iate an tI1
ers S,< latera y seSSl e I l'
The glabrous. crispecl leaves and persistent perianth on the stlgm<lS :J, . I r about 20 mm ong, :J
. b F its bowhform-co umna , < 1
apex of the [ruit (a character praetically unknown in the genus), malle lo es. 'ru . 1 . . id al the hypantlua
mm wide, dehisecnce septtfraga -margm~~t li~ht brown, 3 mm
are the most distinetive characteristics found in this unique spe- [ruit apex nat eviclent. Seeds numero~s, k'
cies endemic to Isla San Benedicto o[ the Revillagigedo Arehi- 1 r, m thiek HabItat un nown.
pelago, See the extended discussion fol1owing the description of wide, 5 mm long, .:J m . II t' on A ristolochia cordata
Astolochia socorroensis. Known only {rom the type ~o ee 1 '1 1 b of the calyx
is distinetive because o the cunous latera o es
Aristolochia islandica survivecl the eruption of 1952 on San

Specimens Studied:-
San Benedicto--
flnrltelew, p, E. 169, DS, F, CH, MO, NY, I)OM (2), UC, USo i
Calrquist, Sherwin 339, RSA.
Mnson, Herberl L. 1680, CH, K.
Mason, Herbert L. & C. D. Hanna 14585, R, LA, MO, VC,
US (Type of A. islandica Pfeif.),

22, ARISTOLOCHIA CORDATA Eastwood, Proc. Amcr. AC<td. 44:603

\909. (Type: Palmer, Edward 43/, De!, GH!, NY!, FI, MO!,
DSI,) Fre. 23, Map 22.

Procumbent perennial herbs. Leaves short-petiolate, triangu-

late to ova te, obtuse at the apex, broadly cordate at the base, the
petioles 7 to 10 mm long, the blades 2,5 to 4.0 cm long, 2 to 3 cm
broad, green, sericeous aboye, beneath paler green, sericeous,
especialIy along the veins. Flowers solitary in leafaxils, the
pedundes bracteolate, the bracteoles broadly triangulate, 5 to 7
mm long, 5 to 9 mm wide, arising at Y2 of the distance from leaf l'!CURE 23. Aristolochia cordnla. Drawn from P a1mer
431 , the
axil to utride base, the calyx rectilinear, purple and yellow, the type collection.

74 75
limb, which resemble blinders of a horse or ear-flaps. It flowers
abundantly; the pecluncles are depressed and recurvec1, thus
bearing the blooms at the soil surface. This is not clearly repre-
sented in the plateo

SjJecimcll Siudied:-
Palmer, Edward 43', F, CH, MO, NY, UC, US (Typc of
A. cordata Easlwood).

23. ARISTOLOCHIA WHITEI ]ohnston, Joutn. Arnold Arb. 21:254.

1940. (Type: While 2469, GH', MEXU) FIG. 24, Map 23.
Procumbent perennial herbs. Leaves short-petiolate, triangll-
late-conbte to hasta te, acuminate at the apex, deeply cardate at

MAP 22. Collection site oC Aristolochia cordata.

FIGURE 24. Arisloloc/ia wlli/. Drawn frOm White 2469, the
type collection.

76 77
the base, the pedales to 5 mm long, the blades to 2.5 cm long, to
1.5 cm broacl, greeo, purple-splotched on the basal veins, pu-
berulent abuve, beneath green, rigitl-pilose on the nerves. Flow-
ers solitary in the lea E axils, the pcdmicles bracteolate, the brac-
teoles corda te, accrescent, 5 to 10 mm long, 5 mm wide, arising
below % o[ the distance [rom leafaxil to utricle base, the calyx
rectilinear, greenish, the hypanthial Leak oC the ovary Dot evi-
dent, the utricle obconic, 5 mm long, .3 mm diameter, the syrinx
eccentric, 1.5 mm long, 2.5 mm diameter, the tube straight, 8 mm
long, 2.5 mm diarneter, the limb short-triangulate, not spreading,
acnte at the apcx, roumled at the base, to 1 cm long, to 4 mm
wide, smooth within, paje, the throat dark. Gynostemium col-
umnar, stipitate, 2.5 mm high, 1.5 mm broad, the stigmas 5, the
tetraloculate anthers 5, Iaterally sessilc on the stigmatic lobes.
l\!fature rruit not seen. Habitat prcfcrences unknown; grows at
5700 feet elevation.
Known positively only from the type collection, Aristolochirt FIC.URE 25. Aristolochia versalJilifolia. Drawn from Parry &
whitei is distinctivc beca use of the small Oowers with abbreviated Pafmer 766, lhe type collection.
incurved calyx limos. ]ohnston, in his discussion (q.v.) mentions
;s unique the purple-pigmentecl blotch at the base of the leaf glabrescentes supra, subtus viri(~es, tomentulosae. Flores axillarii
bIades. Many o[ the pentantlrous species show this feature; ha'\\'- solitarii, pedllncllli bracteolatl, bracteola cord,~ta, ad .5 mm
evcr, it is USU<llly eviclent only in fresh materiaL longam, atl 3 mm lalam, a axilla folii subtcncl! ~~l utr.lCulum
There are nUlllerous sterile collections from the central calycis basis l/3-Y2 distantiae portatae, calyx rect!means, pur-
highlands of northern Mcxico, which are cliflicult to assign to pureus, rostro hypanthii absenti, utricullls ObovOllleus, 7 m.m
any species. It is likely that flowcring specimens coIlected in -rhe
longus, 5 mm thametro,. ..
synnx aXIa lIS, 2 mm .
longa ' 3_ mm dIa-
fnture will allgment out scanty knowIedge of Aristoloclzirt whitei. metro, tubus rectus, 1 cm longus, 3 mm dIametro, hmbus tn-
angula tus, apice acuminato, ~asi subc?nlata acl 1 cm longl~s,. ad
SjJecnen Studicd:- 6 mm latlts margine macuhs elevatls fuscato, faux palhehor,
MEXICO: e . ub.
maculata, mJculis atropurpurels. Columna CorOlll orma, s..
ChihllahLla~ stIplt a t a, 2 mm <
alta, 2 mm lata ' stamina. tetraloculata, sesslhs,
5, ' 12
lVllile, ,~/ei)}f'TI S. 2169, GH, 1.fEXU (Type oE A. rvJit acl libram acquilateralia. Capsula botuhformls, 9 mm longa, .
johnston). . . 1 a li , 'apice hypantluo
mm lata, dehiscentia septi(raga margwlcll
24. ARISTOLOCI-fIA versabilifolia PfeiL, sp. nou.) FIG. 25, Mar 24. absens. Semina multa, nigra, triangulata, 5 mm lata, 5 m~ lo~ga
1 mm crassa. HOLOTYPUS: Parry. & Palmer 76~, US \ Ce~ ~
Herbae perennes procumbentes. Folia brevipetiolata, cor- Mexican Flora, chieily in the reglOn of San LUlS PotOSI, 22 .
data ad pcranguste hastata vd auriculato-sagittata, apice obtuso lal., altitude 6,000-8,000 It.; 1878"). Isotypi; F (2), MO (3), GH,
ad acmninatum, basi penitus cordata, petioli 3-7 mm longi, NA.
laminae 1.0-2.5 cm longae, 1-2 cm latae, virides, puberulae,

78 79
Procumbent perennial herbs. Leaves short-petialate, cordate
to very narrowly hastate or auriculate-sagittate, obtuse to acumi-
na te at the apex, deeply cordate at the base, the petioles 3 to 7
mm long, the blades l to 2.5 cm long, 1 to 2 cm broad, green,
puberulent, glabrescent above, beneath green, tomentulose.
Flowers solitary in the leal axils, the pedundes bracteolate, the
bracteoles cardate, to 5 mm long, to 3 mm wide, arising at 1/3
to Y2 of the distance from leal axil to utricle base, the calyx
rectilinear, purple, the hypanthial beak of the ovary not evident,
the utricle obovoid, 7 mm long, 5 mm diameter, the syri nx axial,
2 mm long, 3 mm diameter, the tube straight, 1 cm long. 3 mm
diameter, the limb triangulate, acuminate at the apex, subcor-
date at the base, to 1 cm long, to 6 mm wicle, the edge dark with
raised macula e, the throat paler, spotted purple. Gynostemium
coroniform, substipita,te, 2 mm high, 2 mm broad, the stigmas 5,
the tetraloculate anthers 5, lateraUy sessile on the stigmatic lobes.
Fruits oblate, 9 mm long, 12 mm wide, dehiscence septifragal-
margniciclal, tlle hypanthial fruit apex not evident. Seecls nu-
MAP 24. Collection sites of Arislolochia versabilifolia.
merous, black, triangulate, 5 mm wide, 5 mm long, l mm thick.
Inhabits rocky calcareous (?-Pringle) soils.
About the only constant features o[ Aristolochia versabili~
folia lie in its flowers. The leaves are astonishingly variable, al-
though uniformly small and numerous on the small pla nts . The
species is clase to A. whitei, which has a plain limb, whereas
here lhe prominent rim al: flat~toppecl warts is even visible on
the dried fiowers.
_' ~ ;"1
\ I/
" Specimens Studied:-
, '
Purpus, C. A. 428, VC, VS; Ju11905, POM, VC.
- - - - - - --le--+----r- Tula-
Pringle, Cyrus Guemsey 6103, F, GH, MO, NY, ue, US
(2). VT.

Pri71gle, Cyrtls Guernsey 5742, CH.
Locality Unknown-
Purpus, C. A. 2717, F, CH, MO, ue, US.
MAP 25. CollcGtion si te of Aristolochia socorroensis. Schumann, Waltler 1250, F. P, USo

QUERETARO; somewhat paler, densely hirsutulous. Flowers solitary in the leaf
Quertaro......... axils, the pedundes bracteoIate, the brateoles lanceolate, to 3
Rose, ]. N. & ]. S. Rose 11147, USo mm long, to 1.5 mm wide, arising at the subtending leafaxil,
San Luis Po!os- the calyx rectilinear, green specklee! with brown within, the
Parry, C. C. & Edward Pallller 766, F (2), GH, MO (3), NA, hypanthial beak of the ovary not evident, the utricle ellipsoid, to
US (Type of A. versnbilifolia l'feif.). 5 mm long, to 3 mm di<1meter, the syrinx eccentric, 1.25 mm long,
Scha[Jner,]. G. 47, CH, NY; 307, F, MICH, NY, USo
ZACATECAS; 2 mm diameter, tIle tube straight, 6 mm long, 1.5 mm diameter,
Guadalupe- the limb narrowly lanceolate, acute at the apex, corda te, sub
Dressler, Robert L. 282, MO.
Val paraso-
pelta te at the base, to 12 mm long, to 4 mm wide, without clis-
McVaugh, Rogers 17682, MICH. tinguishing [eatures within, Gynostemium coroniform, stipitate,
2.5 mm high, 1 mm broad, the stigmas 5, the tetraloculate anthers
25. ARISTOLOCHIA socorroensis Pfeif., sp. nov., FIC, 26, Map 25. 5, laterally sessile 011 the stigmatic Jobes. Fruits bat.liform, to
2.75 cm long, to 1.75 cm wide, dehiscence septi[ragal-marginici-
Herbae perennes procumbentes. Folia petiolata, hasta te-
dal, the hypanthi,d fruit apex not evident. Seeds numerous, black,
trilobata, margine laevigatis, apice acuto, basi penitus corclata,
triangulate, 5 mm wide, 5 mm long, 1 mm thick. Inhabits rocky
petioli 1 cm longi, laminae usque ad 5 cm longae, usque ad 4- cm
sea-cliffs behind beaches.
latae, virides, regulatim et persiste strigulosae supra, sub tus ali-
There are two distinct species of Aristolochia inhabiting the
quantum palIen tes, dense hirsutulae. Flores axillarii solitarii,
Revillagigedo Islands, Each is limited t a single isle; A. socor-
pedunculi bractcolati, bracteola lanceolata, ad 3 mm longam,
mens to Socorro Island, amI A, islandica to San Benedicto
ad 1.5 latam, ab axilla folii subtend exorienti, calyx rectilinearis,
Island. They differ [rom one another in flower shape, hypan.
virie!is, maculis [uscis intrinseclls, rostro hypanthii absenti,
utriculus ellipsoidcus, ad 5 mm longus, ae! 3 mm diametro,
syrinx excentrica, 1.25 mm langa, 2 mm diametro, tubus rectus,
6 mm longus, J.5 mm diametro, limbus anguste Iancelatus, apice
acuto, cordato, basi subpeltata, ad 12 mm longus, ad 4 mm latos,
sine proprietibus perspicuis in pagina interna. Columna coroni-
forma, stipitata, 2,5 mm alta, 1 mm lata, stamina 5, tetraloculata,
sessilis, ad libram acquilateralia. Capsula botuliformis, ad 2.75
cm langa, ad 1.75 cm lata, dehiscentia septifraga marginiciclali,
apice hypanthio absens. Semina multa, nigra, triangulata, 5 mm
latJ., 5 mm longa, 1 .mm crassa. HOLOTYPUS: Aloran 5910, DS
("Vicnity o[ Academy Bay, Socorro Island, Mexico, near 18
50~' N., llo056!Y4-' W., elevation ca, 15 m.; root carrotlike, to 2
dm long ancI 4 cm thick; colony near elige of sea cliIF, 17 lVIarch
1957"). Isotypi: RSA. ve.
Procumbent perennial herbs, Leaves petiolate, hastately
trilobate, margins smooth, acute at the apex, deeply conlate at
FIGURE: 26. Arislolochia socorroensis. Drawn from Moran 5910,
rhe base, the pedoles 1 cm long, the blades to 5 cm long, to 4 cm the type collection,
broad, green, regularly amI persistently strigulose aboye, beneath

82 83
thial "connection" width, pubescence, leaf margms and calyx mm high, 1 mm braad, the stigmas 5, the tetraloculate anthers
persistency on the fruit apex. 5, latetally sessile on the stigmatic Jobes.- Fruits oblate, 1 cm long,
ThllS Arislolochia socorroensis has thicker amI shorter flow- 1.2 cm wide, dehiscence septifragal-marginicidal, the hypanthial
ers, a narrow hypanthial apex, marked hairiness contrasted to [ruit apex absent. Seeds numerous, black, 3 mm wide, 3 mm long,
none in the other species, smooth to very slightly crisped leaf 1 mm thick. Habitat preferences unknown.
margins contrasted to very noticeable crisping in the other, and The nearly sessile lcaves, the very small bracts borne in the
a caducous calyx following pollination, contrastecl to long-per- axils o[ the sllbtending ]eaves amI the plain flowers are the dis-
sistent caTices (amI very unusually so, in the genus) in A, tinctive features of A ristolochia oaXQcana.
islandica, The type 10cality was given by Miss Eastwood as "Clajiaco."
Galcotti's hanclwriting leaves much to be desired, but 1 feel the
correct spelling o[ the locality may be "Tlajiaco;" nevertheless,
Specimens Studied:-
1 cannot fine! ir in any source o[ geographic names. The distribu-
tion map shows only Conzatti's collections at Nochixtlan.
Socorro Island- Specirnel1s Sturlied:-
Ant/ony, A. rv. Mar-June 1897, VC.
Rnr/elew, F. E. 193, DS, MO, NY (2), rOr..I, VC, USo 1JEXICO:
Howell, .Jolm Tlwmns MM, DS, F, GH, K, MO, NY, USo OAXACA;
Mason, Herberl L. & (;. D. Hmlna J.l627, VC. Nochixtl:m-
MOratl, Reid 59]0, DS, RSA, ue (Type o[ A. socorroensis COl1wtti, C. JO, CONN, CH, lJ; 1838, F, VT; 23, Juu 1907,
Pfcif.). WIS.
T01!lIlSellrl, C. H. Mar 1889, USo Locality Unknown-
Caleotti, H. 214, CH, NY, ue, US (Type of A. oaxacana
26. ARISTOLOCHIA OAXACANA Eastwood, Prac. Amer. Acad. 44:
603. 1909. (Type: Ca/eoll; 214, CH', NYI, vel, VS!) FIG. 27,
Mal' 26.

Procumbent perennial herbs. Leaves very short-petioJa.te,

ovate lO triangulate, acute to obtuse at the apex, cordate at the
base, the petioles 3 mm long, the blades to 4 cm long, to 2 cm
braacl, green with SOITle red pigmentation, subvelntinous aboye,
bcneath green, tawny hispidulous. Flowers solitary in the leaf
axils, the pedundes bra.cteolate, the bracteoles very small, to 1.5
mm long, to 1 mm wide, arising in the leafaxil at the base of
the pedunde, the calyx rectilinear, brownish, the hypanthial
beak of the ovary not eviclent, the utride narrowly obconic, 6
mm long, 4 mm diameter, lhe syrinx eccentric, membranous, 2
mm long, 2 mm diameter, the tu be straight, 1 cm long, 3 mm
cliameter, the limb short, triangulate, narrow, acute at the apex,
shallowIy cordate at the base, to 1.5 cm long, to 0.5 cm wide, the
oaxacana. Drawn (rom ConzaUi 10.
interior smooth. Gynostemium narraw, columnar, stipitate, 3.5

--'-- -------'-
c' 27. ARISTOLOCHIA BREVIPES Benth. PI. Hartweg. 15. 1839. (Type:
Hm-tweg 85, K, GHI, PI, NYI, F ex KI) FIG. 28, Map 27.

Einomeia bievipes (Benth.) Klotzsch, Monatsb. Acad. Berlin.

1859:606. 1859.
Aristolochia subclausa Watson, Proe. Amer. Acad. 20:372. 1885.
(Type: Duges, s.n., Aug. 1884, GH 1)

Procllmbent perenniaI herbs. Leaves petiolate, broadly tri-

anglllate to corda te, obtuse at the apex, broaclIy cordate at the
base, the blades 2 to 4- cm long, 2 to 4- cm broad, green amI
pllberulolls above, beneath paler and tomentulose, especially
along the veins. Flowers solitary in the axils oC the upper leaves,
the pedundes bracteolate, the bracteoles cordate, 6 to 10 mm
long, 7 to 12 mm wide, borne at about the center o( the distance
(rom lea[ axil to utricle base, the calyx rectilinear, brown with
ColIection site of A.ristolochia oaxucana. lighter throat, the hypanthium not evident, the utricle obovate,
6 mm long, 4 mm diameter, the syrinx narrowed, eccentric, 1.2
mm long, 2 mm cliameter, the tube columnar, erect, 1 cm long
merging into the ]imb, which is ligulate, unlobecl, obtuse to re-
tuse at the apex, very slghtly cordate at the base, J.5 lO 2.0 cm
long, 4 to 6 mm wicle, the throat pale, spotted with brown, the
distal haH of the limb dark brown, coverec1 with low tubercles.
Gynostemium coroniform, substipitate, 2.5 mm high, 2 mm
broad, the stigmas 5, the tetraloculate anthers 5, laterally sessile
on the stigmatic lobes. Fruits short-botuliform, ].8 cm long, 1.3
cm wide, dehiscence septifragal~marginicidal, the hypanthial
apex straight. Seeds numerous, black, fiat, 4- mm wide, 4 mm long,
1 mm thick. Chiefiy inhabits soil pockets in lava beds.
An examination of herbarium specimens will quickly dem-
onstrate that most oC the Mexican herbaceous aristolochias were
formerIy identified as Aristolochia. breviPes Bentham; careful
comparisons with the type specimen clearly shows that the true
A. brevijJes grows only in the Java fields in and around Mexico
Ciry. The confusion has been compouncled further because it has
a1so been the custom to name the true A. brevipes, A. subclausa
MAl' 27. CoHection siles of Aristolochia brevipes. Watson, which is a synonym.

Arsene, G. 1907, US; 20 ]un 1911, NY (2).
Nieolas, F. 5890, F, MO, NY, P, USo
Sessc & Modiio 4408, F.

28. ARISTOLOCHIA durangensis Pfeif., sp. nov.~ FIG. 29, Map 28.

Probabiliter herbae perennes procumbentes. Folia petiolata,

rugosa, cordata, apice acuto acl acuminatum, basi late cordata,
petioli 2 cm longi, laminae 8-9 cm longae, 6-7 cm latae, virides,

FWliRE 28. Aristolochia brevijJcs. Drawn from living material,
Pfeifer 3237.

S/Jecim.ens Studied:-
Hartwe[!. 85, 11 ex K, CH, K, NY, P (Type of A. breviPes
Salm.ar, F. s.n., s.d., USo
UlIgs, A. Aug 1884, GH (Type of A. sube/mISa Watson).
Locality Unknown-
Sa/azur, F. 24 Juf), 1913, USo
Burllley, Fred A., C. 1,. Websler & Chester M. Rowell, r.
7317, MICH, USo
Lyonllet, E, 514 CH, MO, NY, USo
PJeifer, H. W. 3237, eONN.
Pringle, Cyrus Guernsey 7209, CH, US; 8458, F (2), CH, FIGURE 29. Aristoloehia durangellsis. Drawn from Rose 2333,
MO, NY, I'OM, ue, US (3), VT; 13182, F, CH, MICH, Ihe type coIlection.
MO, us, VT.

88 89
subtiler strigosae supra, sub tus virides sericeae praesertim secus Specimen Studied:-
venae. Flores axillarii solitarii, pedunculi bracteolati, bracteola MEXICO:
ampla, cordata, 2.5-3.0 cm longa, 1.5-2.5 cm lata, a axilla folii
Locality Unknown-
subtenui ad utriculum calycis basis circa 1/3 distantiae portatae, Rose,]. N. 2333, US (Type of A. durangensis Pfeif,).
calyx subarcuatus, subfuscus maculis purpureis, rostro .hyp.anthii
manifesto, flexo (90), utriculus obovodeus, 1 cm longus, 8 mm 29. ARISTOLOCHIA CORYI Johnston, Journ. Arnold Arb, 21 :256.
diametro, syrinx subaxialis, infundibuliformis, 3 mm longa, 4 1940, (Type: C01'y 8491, GHI) FIG, 30, Map 29,
mm diametra, tubus parum arcuatus (circa 30), 1.5 cm longus,
6 mm diametro, limbus non loba tus l.anceolatoovatus, apice Procumbent perennial herbs. Leaves petiolate, subcorclate,
acuto, basi emarginato-cordata, 2 cm longus, l cm latus, in pagina but mostly hastate-auriculately 3-lobed, the margin somewhat
interna laevi, praeter maculas peripherales submarginales ele- crispecl, obtuse to acuminate at the apex, broadly cordate-auricu-
vatas fuscatas. Columna coroniformis, stipitata, 4 mm alta, 3 mm late at the base, the petioles 1.5 to 2.0 cm long, the blades 3 te
lata, stamina 5, tetraloculata, sessilis, ad libram aequilateralia. 5 cm long, 3 to 5 cm broad, green, sparsely puberulous aboye,
Capsulae ignotae. HOLOTYPUS: Rose 2333~ US ("coIlected in the beneath pale brownish-green, puberulous. Flowers solitary in the
State 01 Durango, August 16, 1897"), axils of the upper lea ves, the pedundes bracteolate, the bracte-
Probably procumbent perennial herbs. Leaves peolate, oles subcordate, 5 mm long, 4 mm wide, arising at Y2 of the
rugose, corclate, acute to acuminate at the apex, broadly corda te dstance [rom leafaxil to utricle base, the calyx graduaIly arcu-
at the base, the pelioles 2 cm long, the blades 8 to 9 cm long, ate-geniculate (90), maroon-spotted, the hypanthial beak of the
6 to 7 cm broad, green, finely strigose above, beneath green, ovary barely evident, straight, the utric1e abovate, 8 mm long,
6 mm diameter. the syrinx eccentric, funnelform, 2 mm long, 3
sericeous especialIy aIong the veins. Flowers solitary in the leaf
mm di ame ter, the tube arcuate, gradually bent (90), 1.5 cm
axils, the pedundes hracteolate, the bracteoles large, cardate,
2.5 to 3.0 cm long, 1.5_to 2.6 cm wide, arising at about 1/3 of the
distance from lea( axil to utricIe base, the calyx subarcuate,
brownish with purple spots, the hypanthial beak of the ovary
obvious, bent at 90, the utricle obovoid, l cm long, 8 mm diam-
eter, the syrinx subaxial, funnelform, 3 mm long, 4 mm diameter,
the tube slightly arcuate (about 30), 1.5 cm long, 6 mm diam~
eter, the limb unJobed, lanceolate-ovate, acute at the apex,
emarginale-curdate at the base, 2 cm long, 1 cm wide, smooth
within exccpt for a peripheral margin oE raised, dark maculae.
Gynostemium coroniform, stipitate, 4 mm high, 3 mm broad, the
stigm~lS 5, the tetraloculate anthers 5, laterally sessile on the
stigmatic lobes. Fruits not scen. Habitat unknown.
Vegetatively resembJing Aristolochia cardiantha and A.
toetidfl~ aH with large, hairy, cardate lea ves, the flowers of the
three species (including A. durangensis) could scarcely be more
clistinct. ATistolochia durangensis has smallcr blooms than the 1~1c.tRll 30. Aristolochia coryi. Drawn from Cory 18740.
other two, with a markedly smalIer limbo Known only from the
70-year-old type collection.


long, 3 mm diameter, the limb very broadly elliptic, unlobed,

obtuse to acute at the apex, emarginate-cordate at the base, 1.5
to 2.0 cm long, 1.5 cm wide, smooth within. Gynostemium obo-
void-coroniform, subsessile, 2.25 mm high, 1.7 mm broad, the
stigmas 5, the tetraloculate anthers 5, laterally sessile on the
stigmatic lobes. Fruits botuliform, 12 mm long. 10 to 13 mm
wide, dehiscence septifragal-marginicidal. the fruit apex retusely
depressed. Seeds numerous, ftattened, black, triangulate, 6 mm
,, wide, 5 mm long. 1 mm thiek. Inhabits stony prairies, dry ledges,
, rack crevices and clefts, limestone hills, arroyos and river bot-
The flower profile is very distinctive, with its long, arcuate
tube and the sublunate laterallobes of the calyx limb; matching
its Texan distribution with these features insures its correct
identification. The collections studied were commonly mixed
with branches of Aristolochia wrightii Seem. As noted by Johns-
ton, however, the linear flowers o( A. wrightii are very different
( from those of A. coryi.
MAP 28. CoIleClion site of Aristolochia durangensis.

Specimens Studied:-
Hrewster CO.-
Palmer, Ernesl ].34225, MO, US.
Sperry, Omer E. 561, US; 1376, UC, US; T1208, GR, UC;
1812, GH; 1892, GR, US .

Crockett CO.-
RevercJon,]. 1582, F, MO (2).
Edwards Co.-
Cory, v. L. 8491, eH (Type of A. coryi Johnston).
Kinney CO.-
Wright, Charles 1700, MO, NY.
Maverick Co.-
Wriglit, Charles s.n. 1848, GH.
Mitchell CO.-
Palmer, Emes! ]. 13774, MO, US, WIS.
Pecos Co.-
Cory, V. L. 18740, GH.
TIJarp, B. C. 3368, US; 43-535, F, MO, NY, ue.
Warnock, Barlon H. 46146, F, GH.
Tom Creen Co.-
Tweedy, Frank 34, US.
Travis Co.-
MAl' 29. Colleclion sites of Arislolochia coryi. Buchley, S. B. s.n. 1882, NY.

Valverde CO.-
Palmer, Ernest]. 13581, HO, US, WIS.
Hlright, Charles 567, DS, 11, CH, NY, UC, US; 1700, BM,
GH (2), US (2).
Locality Unknown_
Hall> Elihu (ex herb.) S.TI. 1863, F,
Leroy, P. V. s.n. 1866, NY.
Reverchon, ]. 129, CH.

30. ARISTOLOCHIA porphyrophyll. Plel'l" '1

. J. nov., FIG. 31 ,
Map 30.

He~bae per~nnes procumbentes. Folia petiolata, subsagit-

tata, apl~e acu~llnato, basi penitus cordata, petioli usque ad I
cm.longl, mecllOlobus lamina usque acl 8 cm longus, apicum
basdoborum, 5 cm distantium uterque 1 cm latus, vulgo puro
p~~atae praesertim secus marginem, puberulae supra, sub tus
vlndes fulvo.tomentulosae, praesertim secus venae. Flores axil.
FIGURE 31. Aristolochia porphyrot)hylfa. Drawn from Goodding
larii solitarii, pedunculi bracteolati, bracteola lanceolata, ad 6 1279, the type collection.
mm longam, ad 3 mm latam, a axilla folii sub ten da ad utriculum
calycis basis 1/3 distantiae portatae, calyx rectilinearis, subpur-
pureus fauce aurantiaca, rostro hypanthii absenti, utriculus tomentulose, especially along the veins. Flowers solitary in the
leafaxils, the pedundes bracteolate, the bracteoles lanceolate, i
obovoideus, 7 mm longus, 5 mm cliametro, syrinx excentrica, !
angustata, 1.5 mm longa, 1.5 mm diametro, tubus parum arcu- to 6 mm long, to 3 mm wide, arising at 1/3 of the distance from I

atus, 1 cm longus, 3 mm diametro, limbus lanceolatus habens leafaxil to utricle hase, the calyx rectilinear, purplish with an
area U-conforma tus scabridiusculus, jam glaber, apice acuminato, orange t1uoal, the hypanthial beak of the ovary not evident, the
basi parum arcuata, acl 2 cm Iongus, ad 6 mm latus, lineis macu. utricle obovoid, 7 mm long, 5 mm diameter, the syrinx eccentric,
lae atropurpureae sparsim maculatis. Columna coroniforma, narrowed, 1.5 mm long, 1.5 mm dameter, the tube slightly arcu
stipitata, 2.5 mm alta, 1.8 mm lata, stamina 5, tetraloculata, ses- late, l cm long, 3 mm diameter, the limb lanceolate with a U
silis, ad libram aequilateralis. Capsula botuliformis, 1.5 cm longa, shaped scabrous area, soon glabrous, acuminate at the apex,
1.2 cm lata, dehiscentia septifraga marginiciclali, apice hypanthio slightly cordate at the base, to 2 cm long, lo 6 mm wide, sparsely
absens. Semi na multa, nigra, triangulata, 4 mm lata, 3.5 mm marked with lines oC dark purple spots. Gynostemium coroni-
long.a, 1 mm crassa. HOLOTYPUS: Goodding 1279~ US, ("Rocky form, stipitate, 2.5 mm high, 1.8 mm broad, the stigmas 5, the
creVlces; Boyle's, San Francisco River, Arizona; August 5, 1912"). tetraloculate anthers 5, laterally sessile on th~ stigmatic lobes.
Isotypus: NY. Fruits botuliform, 1.5 cm long, 1.2 cm widc, dehiscence septi
fragal-marginicidal, the hypanthial fruit apex absent. Seeds nu
~rocumbent perennial herbs. Leaves petiolate, subsagittate, merous, black, triangulate, 4 mm wide, 3.5 mm long, 1 mm thick.
acummate at the apex, deeply corda te al the base, the petioles Inhabits rocky slopes and alluvial "ftats."
-to I cm long, the median lobe of the blade to 8 cm long, the tips The plants here described are the "Arislolochia watsoni" of
of the basal lo bes 5 cm apart, about 1 cm wide, commonly purple other authors. The true A. watsoni Wooton & Standl. is found
especially marginally. puberulent aboye, beneath green, tawny- much farther casto and has geniculate ftowers that are much

smaller. A ~ull discussion of sorne difficulties connected with the LOCALlTV VNKNOWN;
JJrandegee, TownslJend 8titll 21 Mar 1889, VC.
~ccurate asslgnment.of.the .epithet A. walsoni may be found with P1IrjJUs, C. A. 4, DS, F, VC. USo
ItS own fonual descnptlOll In this papero Sesse & Modo 4419, r.
Wrig/ll, Charles 1701, CH (2), MO, NY (2), VC, USo
o1ris~olochia porphyrophylla is a common herb, and dis-
tmctlve l~. its purplish, hasta te leaves, and the comparatively
Iarge rectdmear fiowers.
Cach se Co.-
Darrow, R. A., F W. Coutd, W. S. PhilliPs & L M. Pult1.
Specimens Studied:- 1358, UC.
Linsle)', E. C. & M. A. Cazier 12, VC.
MEXICO: Mearns, Edgar A. 1087, US.
Parish, W. [l. 249, DS, F; 2 May 1884, NY; 5 May 1884, MO,
NY, VC (2), VS (2).
Bahia las Animas- Pringle, Cynls Guernsey Apr 1881, F, eH, NA, US, VT.
]ohnstoll, l. M. 3503 GH VS
Col/om, i\Jrs. Rose E. 30 Aug 19J.1, MICH, MO; 22, Jun
Puerto Escondid~ 1938, NA.
Carter, Annetta 4349 MO VC Eas/wood, Alice 16897, F; 17152, F .
C U'lnS, G. N., T. H. "Kearney &-. ]. H. Kempton 243 VS
.o Nelson, Aven & Ruth A. Nelson 1991, MO.
Gen~ry, Howard Scott 3767, GH, MO, VC. ,. Publes, R. H. 11500, CH, NY.
San XavIer-
Greenlee Co.-
. Carter, Annelta &- Roxana Ferris 3868 MO UC Davidsoll, A. 450, CH, NY, UC.
SIerra de Ciganta- ' , . Coodding, L. N. 1279, NY, US (Type af A. porp1Jyrophylla
Wiggins, Ira L. 15543 DS PfeiL).
Acaponeta- Graham Co.-
Gilman, M. F.14, DS, F, MO, NA, NY.
Rose, ]. N. 1430, NY, US. Maguire, Bassett 107M, F, CH; 10949, CH.
Fuerte- Maricopa Co.-
Pub/es, R. H. 11605, VS.
Rose. ]. N., P. C. Standley & P. C. Russell 13460, NY, USo Peebles, R. H., T. H. Kearney & G. J. Harrison 51JO, LA.
Pima Co.-
Rose,/- N., P. C. Stalldtey &- P. G. Russell14765 US Clark, Ora M. 10999, CH, WIS.
Isla Tachlchilte- ' . Could, F. W. 6' H. S. Haskell 3218, NY.
G.entry, Howard Scott 7125, DS, F, CH, MICH NY UC US GriffitllS, David 3926, USo
Rosano-- ' , , .
Jones, Marcus E. 19 Aug 1903, PO M; 20 Aug 1903, POMo
Rose, ]. N., P. C. Standley 6' P. G. Russell 14554 Lemmon; J. C. 272, CH, VC; 3058, CH; Apr 1881, BM, US;
NY, US (2). ' F, GH. Sep 1881, VC; Aug 1883, POMo
San Blas- Loomis, H. F. & C. J. King 3267, USo
Rose,]. N., P. C. 5tandley 6' P. G. Russdl 13354 US Pringle, Cyrus Cuernsey 15963, MO; 8 May 1884, lo', NA,
NY (2), US (3), VT.
Alamos- Shreve, Forrest 8148, MICH.
Gentry, Howard Scott 2999, F, CH, MO, Uc. TlJornber, 28 Aut; 1902, VC.
Palmer, Edward 329, VS. Toumey,]. W. 15 Apr 1894, NY, VC.
Rose,]. N., P. C. Stalldley &- P. G. Russell12893 NY US Wooton, E. O. 14 ]uly 19]1, USo
Cuayrnas-- ' , .
Pinal Ca.-
Palt;ter, Edward 174, F, CH, NY, US (2). Beckett, R. E. 11075, F.
HermOSlllo-- Iones, MarC1s E. 27 Aug 1903, POMo
Wiggins, Ira L. 6' Reed C. Rollins 297 DS Nelson, Aven & Ruth A. Nelson 1758, MO, NY.
Magdalena- ' . pu'les, R. H. & T. H. Keamey 8756, F, POMo
Kennedy, P. B. 7067, UC. Santa Cruz CO.-
San })edro-- flrandegee, Townshend Stith May 1892, UC.
Hartman, C. V. 872, CH, MO NY VC US Kearney, T. H. & R. H. publes 14814, GH, POMo
Locality Vnknown- ",. Pub/es, R. H., T. H. Keamey & G. J. Harrison 5627, USo
White, StePhen S. 643, MICH. Stalmach 256, USo

96 97

Yaramai Co.-
Toumey, J. W. 269, USo
Locality Unknown-
Collom, Mrs. Rose E. 310, USo
GOII/d, Frank W. 3726, RSA.
Gn'ljiths, David 2062, NY.
Griljilhs, David &].]. Thomber 201, NY, USo
Harrisoll, G.]. & T. H. Kearney 7691, MICH.
Lemmon, ]. G. Sep 1881, UC.
Meams, Edgar A. 697, USo
Nelson, Aven & Ruth A. Nelsoll 1856, GH, UC.
Shreve, Forrest 4913, MICH.
Whitehead, ]. 1223, MICH.

31. ARISTOLOCHIA PENTANDRA Jacq. Enum. Syst. PI. 30. 1762.

(ex ehar.) FIG. 32, Map 3l.
Aristolochia conterta Miller, Gard. Dict. ed. 8. n. 11. 1768. (ex
Aristoloehia hastata H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. PI. 2:148, t. 116.
1817, non Nutt. (1818), nee Jack (1822), nee Jacq. (sphalm.
MAP 30. Collection sites of Aristolochia porPhyroPhyUa.
= Jack) ex Klotzsch (1859). (ex ie.)
Einomeia pentandra (Jacq.) Ra!' Med. FL 1:62. 1828.
Einomeia braeteata RaL FL Tellur. 4:98. 1836. (ex ehar.)
Einomeia hastata (H.B.R.) Klotzsch, Monatsb. Acad. Berlin.
1859:625. t. 2. 1859. ;:
Aristolochia pentandra Jacq. varo hastata (H.B.K.) Duchr. in ':'ij
De. Prodr. 15-1:440. 1864. .1

Aristolochia racemosa Brandg. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 6:363. ,:;"

1917. (Type: Purpus 5333, FI GHI, MOl, NYI, UC', US!) I

An'stolochia marshii Standl. Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Chicago.

Bo'_ Ser. 17:238. 1937. (Type: Marsh 10, F!)
Twining perennial herbs. Leaves petiolate, su bcordate to
~I\ hastately 3-lobed, acute to acuminate at the apex, when present
the 2 basal hastate lobes ova te, obtuse, the basal leaf sinus broad-
._\ Iy and deeply corda te, the petioles 2.5 cm long, the bIades to 8
cm long, to 7 cm broad, green, glabrous to strigulose above, be-
I neath green, glabrous to finely hirsute, especially along the veins.
Flowers solitary in the leafaxils, the pedundes bracteolate, the
MAP 31. Collection sites of Arislolochia j)entandra. bracteoles narrowly lanceolate, 5 mm long, 2 mm wide, arising at

5, laterally sessile on the stigmatic lobes. Fruits subspheric to
botuliform, about 15 mm diameter, dehiscence septi[ragal-mar-
giniciclal, the hypanthial fruit apex not evident. Seeus numerous,
brown, 5 mm wide, 5 mm long, 1 mm thick. Inhabits valleys,
canyons and floodplains on the mainland and in sand, on lime-
stone amI disturbed areas in, the islands.
The elucidation of Phillip Miller's names in Arisiolochia
is a difficult and continuing problem. He has proposed Arista-

1 rfj lochia conterla, describing it with "leaves carda te, petioled; stem
climbing: flowers axillary, crowdeQ.." The type was collectecl in

New Spain, from "Campeachy" (now Campeche, Mexico), and
is said to grow 3 or 4 feet tallo There is no specimen in the
British Museum bearing this name, and since it is llot a Rous-
toun plant, there seems to be littIe el se to do than inelude it as
a questionable synonym here. It is llot possible to sta te with cer-
tainty that it is pentandrous, but te judge from the distribution

and height stated, it is likely synonymous with A. pcntandra
In its remarkable plasticity in leaf shape Aristolochia pen-
tandm is similar to the variability seen in several other pentan-

drous species. The flower, with a relativeIy smooth limb, is
uninteresting and plain; asicle from these rather negative dis-
tinctions, it is the only pentandrous spe'cies with a Caribbean
distribution. The inclusion of A. racem.osa amI A. marshii as
synonyms is problematical, but they are not distinctive in mor-
FIGUlm 32. Aristolochia tJenlandra. Drawn fmm Pringle 13804
(Hower and detail at llpper right), Purplls 5333 (center branch
phology~ their only claim to specific status would have to be
and gynostcmium dissection) and Howard & Howard 10034 (the based upon their mainland distribution, which 1 feel is inade-
leaf below and at right).

1!10 of the di~tance from leaE axil to utricle base, the calyx recti- Specimens Studied:-
h~ear, browmsl~ maraon, . the hypanthial beak of the ovary not BAHAMA ISLANDS:
eVl~lent, the ntncle ObOVOld, 0.75 cm long, 0.5 cm diameter, the 1hace, L K. J. 2000, F, NY.
synnx eccentric, narrowed, 2 mm long, 2 mm diameter, the tube ANDROS lSLAND;
Bruce, L. K. J. 6697, F, NY; 6740, F, NY.
straight, 1 cm long, 0.25 cm diameter, the limb narrowly tri- Northrup, Jolm l. & Afice R. Northmp 385, F, GH, NY.
angulate to sllbovate, acuminate at the apex, cordate-notched EU:UTHF.RA ISLAND;
Brilton, Eliz.abeth G. 6391, F, CH, NY, USo
at t~le base,. 2',5 cm long. 0.75 cm wide, smooth to very finely GRAND BAIiAMA 'IsLAND;
paplll~,te wlthm, Gynostemium coroniform, short-stipitate, 2.75 Bruce, L. K. J. 3534, F (2), NY (2), USo
Britton, Nathalliel Lord & C. F. Millspaugh 2500, F (2),
mm hlgh. 1.25 mm broad, the stigmas 5, the tetraloculate anthers NY, USo

100 101
LONG ISLAI'W; Zacualpan-
Brittoll, Nathalliel Lord & C. F. Millspaugh 6257, F, NY, USo Purplls, C. A. 5333, F, CH, MO, NY, UC, US (Type of A.
NEW PROVWJcNCE; racemOja Brandg.).
Wilsan, P. 84N, F, MO, NY. YUCATAN;
NORTI! Ro,uNl; Izamal-
]-]owa/'d, Richard A. & E. S. FIot!iard 1003", A, CH, NY, Gaumer, G. F. 441, F, CH, K, NY, US, WIS.
ve, USo Mida-
W,\TLlNC. IS~.AN[) (SAN SAI"VADOR): Schott, Artflllr 426B, F (3).
Bnllan, Na/ha/lie! Lord & C. F. MilIspuug/l 6214, F, NY, USo LOCALlTY UNKNOWN;
CURA; Gray, A. May 1885, CH.
Gregg, ]osiah 778, MO; 26 May 1887, NY.
Schott, Artflllr 839, F; 28 Aj)r 1855, F; Sep 1855, F.
Seso5 & Mocill0 4275, F; 4418, F.
Hilc/Jcock, A. S. 1520 MM 1906, F.
Ra/er 1815, NY.
Elrmal1, E. L J 16], NY.
Lei, Rm. 5660, NY; 77518, NY. Dade CO.-
Playa de MarianG- Garber, George 1129a, CH, NY, US (2); MarMay 1877, F,
Len, 11m. 4?70 NY GH, NA, USo
MATANZAS; -,. Elliot's Key-
Matanzas- Fennell,.l. L. 1046, NA, UC.
PoelJjig s.n., MO. Small, John Kunkel & G. V. Nash 223, NY (2).
PII'AR DEf" Rlo; Pumpkin Key-
Carien tes Bav- Small, .lolm Kunhel & C. A. Mosier 5674, MO., NY.
Brillan, Nafhaniel Lord &]. F,'Cawef! 9908, NY, USo Soldier's Key-
Briltan, Nathaniel Lord 335, F, NY.
Small, Jolm Kunkel & J. ]. Carter 3141, NY; 6 Jan 1909,
Sagm, Ram~n de la s.n., P.
Wrighl, Charles 2610" CH, MO. CH, USo
Upper Met:lcumbe Key-
JAMAICk Small, Jolm Kunhel 3912, NY.
SMNT ANl\"S PARl.m; Locality Unknown-
Ocho R,ios- Chapman, A. W. 33, US; o5.n.18891 F, CH, US (2).
Preciar, Ccorge R. 9561, A, MO. Garber, George s.n., US (2).
Small, Jolm Kunkel & G. K. Small 4634, NY.
Nelson, George 18, GH; 39, GH, US (2). Hidalgo CO.-
Fleetwood, Raymond J. 8182, CONN.
Muzqui7._ 32. ARISTOLOCHIA TEQUILANA Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 22:447.
Mars{, Emest G. 10, F (Type of A. mars}ii Stand!.); 1143, 1887. (Type: Palmer, Edward 413, GH!, MEXU, MOl, NY (2) 1,
F, GH.
N (lEVO LEON; USI) Fre. 33, Map 32.
M1';elfer, C. H. & M. T. Mlleller 311, F, CH. Procumbent perennial herbs. Leaves petiolate, essentially
Pnngle, CyTUo5 Gllernsey 2268, GH; 13804, GH (2), MICH,
MO, US, VT; 7 Sep 1902, USo corclate-sagittate, somewhat variable, acuminate at the apex,
OAXACA; deeply cordate ,It the base, the petioles 2 cm long, the blades to
Matllda, E. 585, MICH, USo 10 cm long, to 6 cm broad, green, puberulous above, beneath
QUINTANA Roo; green, pilulose, especially along the veins. Flowers solitary in the
Localit y Unknown-
Lundell, C. L. & Amelia A. Lundell 7753, MIel-l, USo
leafaxils, the redundes bracteolate, the bracteoles small, cor-
VERA CRUZ; date, to 5 mm long, to 4- mm wide, arising at Y2 (to 2/3) of the
Holmes, C. M. S.I1. 1929, NY.
distance [ram lea[ axil to utricle base, the calyx rectilinear, dark

maroon, the hypanthial beak of the ovary absent, the utricle Distinctive features inelude the pilose hairness and the dark eye
ovoid, 1 cm long, 7 mm diameter, the syrinx eccentric, 2 mm of the rectilinear ventricase flowers. Aristolochia tequilana is im-
long, 3 mm di ame ter, the tu be straight, pasally ventricose, broad, possible to identify with certainty without mature ftowers, like
0.75 cm, thence n3.rrowing to 3 mm diameter, 1.5 cm long, the many other aristolochias.
limb broadly Ianceolate-cordate, acute at the apex, sagittate-
cordate at the base, to 2.5 cm long, to 1.5 cm wide, marked with Specimens Studicd:-
dark maroon veins on a cream-colored background, the throat MEXICO:
very heavily marked, thus nearly black. Gynostemium columnar, Amlan-
stipitate, 3 mm high, 1.5 mm broad, the stigmas 5, the tetra- Mcr'augh, Rogers ]4]93, MICH (2).
loculate anthers 5, lateraIly sessile on the sagittate Jobes. Fruits Tequi!a-
Palmer, Edward 413, GH, MEXU, MO, NY (2), US (Type
oblate, to 1 cm long, to 13 mm wide, dehiscence septifragal- af A. leqllilalla Watsan); Allg-SejJ 1886, USo
marginicidal, the hypanthial Lruit apex absent. Seeds numerous, NYARIT;
dark brown, triangulate, 6 mm wide, 5 mm long, 1.5 mm thick. Fee/dema, el/arles 271, MICH (2). !

McVallgh, Rogers & Walter N. Koeh 753, MICH (2).

Inhabits. moist ravines, sIopes and hollows, under oaks.
The leaL margins oC ATistolochia tequilana may be Iaterally
33. ARISTOLOCHIA teretifloraPfeif., sp. nov., FIG. 34, Map 33.
slightly concave as wen as convex in the ordinary cordiform type.
Herbae perennes procumbentes. Folia brevipetiolata, cor-
data, apice obtuso, basi penitus cordata, petioli 5 mm longi,
laminae usque ad 2 cm longae, usque ad 17 mm latae, vi.ride~:
puberulae supra, sub tus virides, sparsim pilosae. Flores axlllarll
solitarii, pedunculi bracteolati, bracteola lanceolata, 4 mm longa,
3 mm lata, a axilla folii subtendi ad utriculum calycis basis
circa 112 distantiae portatae, calyx rectilinearis, subpurpureus,
rostro 'hypanthii absenti, utriculus ellipsoideus, ad 8 mm Iongus,
ad 4 mm diametro, syrinx axialis, 2 mm longa, 2 mm diametro,
wbus longissimus, tubulosus, erectus, circa 3 cm longus, 2-3 mm
diametro, transiens gradam ad limbum brevem triangulatum
non expansum ;lpice acuto, basi indistincte cordata, acl 1 c~
longus, ad 8 mm latus, in pagina interna laevi. Columna corOTIl-
forma, subsessilis, 2.3 mm alta, 2 mm lata, stamina 5, tetralocu-
lata, sessilis, ad libram aequilateralia. Capsula oblata, ad 7 mm
longa, ad la mm lata, dehiscentia septifraga marginicidali, apice
hypanth.io absens. Semina multa, nigra, triangulata, 5 mm lata,
5 mm longa, 1 mm crassa. HOLOTYPUS: ConzaUi 2223~ F ("Cerro
San Antonio, Frujano (?), 1650 mts, Estado de Oaxaca, .Junio
27, 1908").
FIGURE 33. Arislolochia tequilann. Drawn from Palmer, Aug-
Se!) 1886. Procumbent perennial herbs. Leaves short-petiolate, cordate,
obtuse at the apex, deeply cardate at the base, the petioles 5 mm

104 105
long, the blades to 2 cm long, to 17 mm braad, green, puberu-
lent aboye, beneath green, sparsely pilase. Flowers solitary in the
lea[ axils, the pedundes bracteolatc, the bracteoles Ianceolate,
4 mm long, 3 mm wicle, arising about Y2 oE the distance from
\ lcafaxil to utricJe base, the calyx rectilinear, purplish, the hy-
panthial beak of the ovary not evident, the utriele ellipsoid, to 8
mm long, to 4 mm diameter, the syrinx axial, 2 mm long, 2 mm
di ame ter, the tube extremely long, tubular. creet, about 3 cm
long, 2 to 3 mm cliameter, passing insensibly into the short, not
flared, triangulate limb, acute at the apex, indistinctly cordate
al the base, to 1 cm long, to 8 mm wide, smooth within. Gyno-
stemium coroniform, subsessile, 2.3 mm high, 2 mm broad, the
stigmas 5, the tetraloculate anthers 5, laterally sessile on the stig-
matic lobes. Fruits oblate, to 7 mm long, to 10 mm wide, de-
hiscence septi[ragnl-marginiciclal, the hypanthial [ruit apex ab-
sent. Seeds numerous, black, triangulate, 5 mm wide, 5 mm long,
1 mm thick. Habitat preferenccs unknown.
MAP 32. Collection sites of Aristolochia tequilana.



FWURE 34. Arislolochia teretitlora. Drawn from Cont.atti 2223,
MAP 33. CoIlection site of Arislolochia lereliflora. the collection.

No one coulcl mistake the trumpet-like flowers of Aristo-
lochin teretiflora for any other species; it resembles no other
known to me. Un[ortunately, it is known only fram the type
Specimen Studied:-
. Conzatti, C. 222J, F (Type of A. teretiflora PfeiL).

31. ARISTOLOCHIA WRJGHTIJ Seem. Bot. Voy. Herald 331. t. 72.

1856. (Lectotype: Seem,nnn 2175, BM!, fide Johnston in Journ.
Arnold Arb. 21:253. 1940.) (ex ic.) FIG. 35, Map 34.

Aristolochia brevipes Benth, varo wrightii (Seem.) Duchr. in De.

Prod. 15-1 :441. 1864.

Arislolochia wrightii Seem. var. fexana Johnston, Journ. Arnold

Arb. 21 :254. 1940. (Type: ]ohnston 7986, GH.')
FJr.UR~ 3!. Aristol()cllia wrightii. Drawn from Stewart 1925.
Procumbent perennial herbs. Leaves petiolate, cordate to
usuaIly hastately trilobate, obtuse to acute at the apex, deeply
corda te at the base, tI1e petioles 1 to 2.5 cm long, the blades 1.5 black, triangulate, 5 mm Wl( . 1e, 4 mm 1o ng , 1 mm thick. Inhabits
to 3.5 cm long, 2 to 4 cm broad, paJe yelIow-green, tawny velu- rocky slopes and arroyos. 1 h b
tnom aboye, beneath paJer green, copiously tawny veJutinous The conspicuous yellowish hairs on aU pa~ts: an~ t e ~u -
to hirsutulous along the velns. Flowers solitary in the lea[ axils, equa II y"al,r,culate-Iobcd"
, <
(Johnston) leaves chstmgmsh
the pedundes bracteolate, the bracteoles lanceoIate, 6 mm long, 1 hia wrig1l.lii. Johnston devoted sorne attentlOn to t l::se pan s
3 mm \vide, arising at Y4 o[ the distance frorn IcaE axil to utricle oc began to danfy
amI . some o f t 1le speCles..
. He has .explamed sorne
base, the calyx rectilinear, deep purple, the hypanthial beak of of the clifficulties involved in interpretmg speCles based upon
the ovary not evident, the utricle ellipsoic1, to 7 mm long, to 4 mixecl anu aggregate collections. .
mm c1iameter, the syrinx axial, narrowed, 2 mm long, 1.6 mm Seeman described his plant wlth 6 stamens; the plate sup-
diameter, the tube straight, 1.5 cm long, 3 mm diameter, the plied by him shows 5, as is correcto
limb lanceolate, acuminatc at the apex, shallowly cordate at the
base, to 3.5 cm long, to 9 mm wide, papillose on the interior Specimens Studied:-
surface except for the smooth throat. Gynostemium columnar, ~1EXICO:
stipitate, 3 mm high, 2 mm broad, the stigmas 5, the tetralocu- ClIlHUAHUA;

late anthers 5, Iaterally sessile on the stigmatic lobes. Fruits Chihuahua-

LnSueur, Hnrde 601, F, GH; ~03J F' NA NY (2), RSA,
spheroid, about 12 mm diameter, dehiscence septifragal-margini- Pri71g1e, Cyrus Guerllsey 9, F (2), CH , ,
cid al, the hypanthial fruit apex not evident. Seecls numerous, US (2), VT.

108 109
Stewart, Roberl M. 800, CH.
Janos- '1
White, StePhen S. 1088, MICH.
Jos del ]lrog-reso---
Slewart, RoiJerl M. 2329, CH.
LeSuwr, Harde 602, F, CH, MO, VC; 7 Aug 1936) LA, 1I
Parral~ i
Collins, G. N. & J. H, Kemjton lJ, USo
]o/mston, lvan M, 8099, CH (2): 8114, CH.
Santa EuJalia-
Stcwart, Robert ,\1, 2107, CH.
Locality Unknown-
Pringle, Cyrus Guemsey Apr 1885, F.
Stewart, Robert M. 2385, CH.
Zingg, Robert Al, A19, F.
BOlder o[ Chihuahua, laL 2R"33'-
.'ltewart, Ro/Jert M. 150, CH.
]olmston, lvan M. & c. ., Mueller 1262, CH,
Cruces- "1
Collection sites of Aristoloc/ja wrightii. ]olmsI01I, lvan M: 7986, OH (Type of A. wrightii Seem. vaL
lexana Johnston). I
jolmstol1, lvau M, & c. Il. MueUer 232, CH; 292, CH. I
SlewaTt, Robal M. 228, CH; 325, GH; 574, GH; 633, CH;
1925, CH; 2689, CH.
El Coyote- I
johnslon, lvan .M. & c, Il. Mueller 1407, GH.
PlIrjJUs, e, A. 4545, UC, :i
San Jos.........
]olmslol1, lvan M. & c. H. Mu.eller 1001, CH. '1
San Lazalo-
Mue/ler ,C. H. 3044, eH, MICH, NA, VC.
Sierra Mojada-
jone, Marc1lS E. 52, DS, MO, POM (2), USo
.'ltewart, Rober! H, 1045, GH.
Sierra San Antonio-
]o/msloll, lan .M. & C. H. Mueller 902, CH.
Purjms, C. A, 1057, F, CH, MO, NY, POM, VC.
jo/mslOll, h!Gn Al. 7746, CH.
Palmer, Edward 314, F, CH (2), MO (2), NY, ue, US (2).
Water/all, U. T. & c, s, Wallis 13318, USo
Centr)', HOUlard Seott 6948, F, CH, MICH, NY.
MAP 35. Mapuni-
Collection siles oi Aristolochia nana, Pa/mer, EdnJard 540, F, CH, MO (2), NY, VC, VS.

110 111
Tepchuancs--- shallowly cordate-notched at the base, to 4 cm long, to 8 mm
Pafmer, Edward 328, USo
LOCAUTY UNKNOWN' wide, minute1y tuberculate only nen the apex. Gynostemium
')' e: ".'
Par"'" 'c
T M. Bigelow, Chus. Wri ht & A. Sehott, eolumnar, short-stipitate, 3 mm high, 1.5 mm broad, the stigmas
Mexlcan Roundary Surve)' 1104, DS, N~ US 5, the tetraloculate anthers 5, laterally sessile on the stigmatic
lobes. Mature fruits not seen. Inhabits limes tone hillsides.
LUna Ca.- The narraw, reetilinear fiowers with propartionately long
TreXAS; RijJle}', H. D. & R. e. B arne/Jy 2486, CH. limb ancl tube and small lcaves adequately clistinguish Aristo-
Brewster Co.- lochia nana {rom other species.
StJen)', Omer E. 607, US (2). Watson eited two collections after describing Aristolochia
Cnlbcrson Co.-
Waterfall, U. T. 5095 ' GH ,MO; 5105, GH (2), '10, NY. nana, Duges_ s.n. and Pringle 3630. Unfortunately {or the neees-
H tiC1spct 11 Co.- " sity of establishing a lectotype, the Gray Herbarium has both the
JTlalerfaU, U. T. 4690, CH, MO, NY; 5160, CH; 6239, CH,
MO. Dugs and Pringle material mountecl on one sheet without mark-
JerI Davis eo.- ing which portian of the speeimens be10ng to which label. In
Car)', V.l:. /381, GH; 17538, GH.
P?lmer',Emesl;. 32105, MO; 34485 CH' 34 I
the Pringle Herbarium at the University of Vermont, there is a
1 r,/ley, S. M. & F, S. Earle 171 BM', ' 498, N\. specimen o Pringle 3630 mounted on a single sheet. For the sake
lf.'/e:.;alld K lH & M e "'1' ' d' F, GH, MO, NY (2), US
nI" ,.. ' . . niegan 410 GH . of simplicity, the Vermont sheet is named lectotype, the Gray
. ,nght, Charles 568, F, GH (2) NY' .
PresHllO Co.- ' . Herbarium material relegated to the status of syntype and iso-
I-I~tJ(wd V. Del 1883, US (2).
e, 1961, US; 2132 GH
Hl.nclde)', L
syntype or the Dugs aml Pringle material respectively, although
H fV .
Ripley De&. &
Hmch/c)' I I1 I
R caron b arnock 16875, RSA. ue US there is no way to tell thero apart.
Locality U~k~m~n- . ,. ame y 1099, NY. ' .
Neallf'Y, G. C. s.n 1887 US
Seetnml'l!, BerlllOld 2175, RM (L
Seem.). ectotype of A. wrightii

35. ARISTOLOCHlA NANA Watson, Proc. Amer Acad .

(Lectotype: P"ingle 3630, VT', GH!) FIC. Ma; 36, :~,.145. 1891.

Procumbent perennial herbs Leav .

corda te to hasta le acute to bt' < es srnall, petlOlate, sub-
, < o use at the apex deepl d
a t the base, the petioles 6 to 10 1 1<, y cor ate
long 9 to 19 b 1 mm ong, t le blades 12 to 20 mm
,, - mm roa( green . 1 l'
green. more densel min'u~el '. mInute y llrsute aboye, beneath
'1 -1 .Y Y 11lrsute. Flowers solitary in the 1 f
aXl s,1 t le pec1unc1es
mm r::
. ' . a e,
t th e b raeteales triangulate toea9
ong, to CJ mm wlde ansing t 1/5 f l ' '
axil to utricle b _}' a. . o t le dlstance from leaf
~eak 01 [he ova;~~b:~~t~a:l;: ~~~:~~~n~~~v~~;r~e:n~\~~~a~tl1ial
( lame ter, the syrinx subaxial 2 mm Ion 3' . ' mm
tube straight ]7 mm 10 i
d' g, .7 mm (hameter, the FICURE 36. Aristolochia nana. Drawn (mm Pringle 3630, the
triangulate, bareIy nare~g, e ~ml lame ter, . the limb narrowly type collection.
, ree, ong-aeurnmate at the apex,

112 113
Specimens Sludied:-
IxmifJuilpan- Collections utilized in preparing this account are listed below,
Rose,]. N., Jos. H . P amter & ]. S. Rose 8933, CH. USo
arranged alphabetically by collector. Herbaria of deposition (as
Cuadalc\zar_ ar as known to me) are indicated by the usual symbols. My
Dugs, A. s.rl. 1833, CH.
determination o each collection is indicatecl by an abbreviation
Locality Unknown-
of the correct species epithet consisting of its first five letters.
prill~~I~~(l C~;~lL~O~)~ernsey 3630, GH, VT (Lcctotype of A.
Types are identified by a simple phrase; the holotype is desig-
PurjJlls, C. A. 5023, ve. nated by an herbarium-o-deposition symbol in italic type.

Anthony, A. W.
Mar-Jun 1897 socor UC
1907 brevi
3458 watso MO, 1', US
1. A. aconlophylla Pfeif. 20 Jun 1911 brevi NY (2)
19. A. jJTinglei Rose
2. A. earrlian/ha Pfeif. Baker
20. A. b'racteosa Duchr. 1815 penta NY
3. A. [Del ida }-LB.K.
21. A. islandica Pfcif. nerkelew, F. E.
1. A. monlicola llrandg. 169 is/an DS, F, GH, MO, NY, POM (2), ve, VS
22. A. corda/a Eastwood 193 socor DS, MO, NY (2), POM, ve, VS
5. A. sinaloae llrandg.
23. A. whitei Johnst. Barkley, Frcd A., John B. Paxson &: Chester M. Rowell, Jr.
6. A. harwinshii DLlChr.
, 21. A. versabilifofia Pfef. 7515 jJring VS
7. A. varii/ofia Duchr. Barklcy, Fred A., G. L. Webster &: John B. Paxson
25. A. socorroensis Pfeif. 17m747 (larii US
8. A. nelsonii Eastwood 26. A. omcacana Eastwood Barkley, Fred A., G. L. Webster &: Chestcr M. Rowell, Jr.
9. A. l1'esmariae Fcrris 27. A. b-eoij)es Renth. 7317 brevi MICH, US
lO. A. s('('unda Pfd. 7657 [oeti US
28. A. durangensis Pfeif. Beckett, R. E.
ll. A. bW!lingii Pfcif. 29. A. COJyi Johnst. 11075 porPh F
12. A. cO'/lversiae Pfeif. 30. A. Bcrlandier
j!arJ) h)'1"O/)h Yf1a Pfef. 203 micra G (2), MO, P (2), US
13. A. mulabilis Pfeif. 31. A. penlandra Jacg. Type of A. micran/ha Duchr.
f4.. A. <valsani '-\Toa ton & Slandl. Type of Einomeia berlandieri K10tzsch
32. A. tequifana Watson
15. A. micrantha Duchr. Brace, L. J. K.
33. A. tereti[fora Pfeif. 2000 jJenta F, NY
16. A. erecta L. 3534 penta Ji (2), NY (2), US
34. A. wrighi Seem.
6697 penta F, NY
17. A. jJalmeri 'Vatsan 35. A. nana Watson 6740 penta Ji, NY
lR. A. flexuosa Duchr. Brandegcc, Townshend Stith
21 Mar 1889 J!OrPll ve
21 Jan 1890 /nonti UC
Type of A. montico/a Brandg.
16 Sep 1890 /nonti GH
29 Sep 1890 monti r, UC
Type of A. peninsufaris Br.mdg.
18 Mar 1892 monti VC
May 1892 j!Orpll VC
5 Nov 1904 sinal UC
Type of A. sina/oae Brandg.

114 115
DaITow, R. A., F. W. Gould, W. S. Phillips & L. M. Pultz
Bray, W. L. 1358 porpl! ve
287 eral US Davidson, A.
Britton, Elizabeth G. 450 porph GH, NY, ve
. 6391 penta F, GH, NY, US
Bnttan, Nathanid Lord Debea\IX, o
97 bract P
335 l Jellta F, NY
Detling, L. E.
Brittoo, Nathanicl Lord & J. I-I. Cowcll 8465 foeti MICH
9908 jJenta NY, US
Brinon, Nalhaniel Lord &: C. F. Millsp'augh Diguet. M. L.
foeti MICH
2500 j)enta F (2), NY, US 527 (?)
1 Mar 1913 jJring MICH (2)
6214 jwnta F, NY, VS
6257 penta F, NY, US Drcssler, Robert L.
282 versa MO
Buckley, S. B.
1882 cor)'i NY Dugcs, A.
1883 nana GH
Carlquist, Shcrwin eH
islall Aug 1884 brevi
339 RSA
Carter, Annetta
Type of A. subdausa Watson
4349 JJMjJh MO, VC Eastwoou, Alice
16897 jJOrph F
Carter, Annetla &: Roxana Ferris porPh F
3868 jJorph MO, VC 17152
Chapman, A. W. Eggler, WiUis A.
jJring US
33 penta US 28
1889? jJetltn F, GH, US (2) Ekman, E. L.
jJellta NY
Clark, Ora M. Il61
10999 jJorph GH, WIS Feddema, Charles
tequi MICH (2)
Clover, Elzada 274 MICH
2155 brncl
751 erecl !\fICH
Collins, G. N. &: J. H. Kempton Fennell, J. L. NA, VC
1046 jJenta
11 tvrigh US
Collins, G. N., T. H. Kearney &: J. J-I. Kempton Fcrris, Roxana S.
5689 tresm DS, MO, US
243 jJOrph US Type o[ A. tresmariae Fems
CoUom, Mrs, Rose E.
310 Fleetwood, Raymonu J.
porPh US 8182 ,jJe11ta CONN
30 Aug 1934 jwrjJ} MICH, MO
22 Jun 1938 porPIl NA Galeotti, H. F ex G, G, K, Mo ex G, P
208 varii
Converse, Olivia L. Type of A. variifolia Duchr.
Jan 1961 eOllve CONN, MO oaxac CH, NY, UC, US
Type of A. conveniae Pfeif. 214
Type oE A. oaxacmw EasLwood
Aug 1962 conve MO
Conzatti, C. Garber, Gcorge CH, NY, uS (2)
1129a jJwta
10 on.xac CONN, CH, IJ
MarMay 1877 pcnta r,GH, NA, US
1838 oaxac F, VT 1)('11ta US (2)
2223 teret F s.n.
Type of A. tereli/lora PfdE. Gaumer, G. F. F, GH, K, NY, VS, WIS
23 Jun 1907 oaxae WIS 441
Cory, V. L. Gentry, Howarc1 Scott
1872 sinal F, CH, MEXU, MO, S, ue, US
1381 wrigh GH Type oE A. quereetomm StandL
8259 erect GH
2455 sinal MO
8491 eor'Vi GH porjJ} F, GH, MO, ve
Type of A. co'r)'i Johnston 2999
17538 wrigh GH 3767 porPh C H, !\f0, ve
sillal DS, F, GH, MICH, MO, NA, NY, VC
18740 co1') l i GH 5285
6564 sin al MICH
28465 ereet GH t/1righ 1", CH, MICH, NY
Croft, Mary B. 6948 jlorph DS, Y, CH, MICH, NY, VS ve,
124 ereet MICH, NY 7125

Ghiesbreght, M. Hitchcock, A. S.
p 15-20 Mar 1906 penta F
216 flexu
Type of A, flexuosa Duchr, Holmes, C. M.
p 1929 penta NY
217 foeti
Gilman, M. F. Houstoun, WilJiam
s.n, ereel A ex HM, BM, NY ex BM
44 porPh DS, 1', MO, NA, NY
Goodding, L. N. Type oE A. erecta L.
1279 porPIt NY, US Type oE A. repens Miller
Type of A. porJ)hyroPhylla Pfeif. Howard, Richard A. &: E. S. Howard
10034 penta A, eH, NY, VC, US
Could, Frank W.
3726 JJorph RSA Howell, 1011n Thomas
8404 socor DS, F, CH, K, MO, NY, US
Gould, Frank W. &: H. S. Haskell
3218 lItis, Hugh I-I., Robert Koeppen &: Frank Ilti~
porph NY 375 pring eONN
Gray, A.
May 1885 penla GH Johnston, Ivan M.
3503 porph GH, US
Cregg, 10siah
7746 wrigh GH
71 ? MO wrigh eH
778 penla MO 7986
Type oE A. wrightii Seem, var. texana 1ohnslon
26 May 1887 penta NY wrigh GH (2)
Griffiths, David 8099
2062 8114 wrigh GH
porj)! NY
3926 porPh US Johnston, Ivan M. &: C. H. Mucller
232 wrigh GH
Grilfiths, David & J. J. Thornher
201 porPh NY, US 292 wrigh GH
Groth, n. H. A. 902 wrigh GH
216 e-ect eH 100l wrigh GH
erect 1262 wrigh GH
223 eH wrigh GH
237 erecl GH 1407
Haenke, Thaddaeus 1ones, Marcus E.
wrigh DS, MO, POM (2), US
1551 varii F 52 F, LA, MO, NA, POM, ue
Hall, Elihu 24460 monti
24499 ?nonli NY, POM
1863 coryi l' POM
May 1872 ~rect F, MO 19 AlIg 1903 porPh
20 AlIg 1903 tJorph POM
Harrison, C. 1. &: T. H. Kearney POM
7961 porj)h MICH 27 Aug 1903 porPh
Hartman, C. v. Kanvinsky, W. F. van
712 Jwnvi LE (2)
872 CH, MO, NY, VC, VS
Harlweg Type of A. karwinskii Duchr.
85 brevi F ex K, CH, K, NY, P 1u1 1842 karwi LE
Type of A. brnJij)cs Benth. Kearney, T. H. &: R. H. Peebles
Havard, V. 14814 porPIl CH, POM
Oa 1883 wrigh us (2) Kcnncdy, P. n.
s.n. eral US 7067 porPh uc
Headley, Frank B. Kenoyer &: Crum
2506 erat A
s.n. ereel US
Hinckley, L. C. Kuntze, Otto
1961 wrigh VS 23543 pring NY (2)
2132 wrigh GH Langlass, E.
721 mulab K
Hinckley, L. C. &: Barton H. Warnock
46875 wrigh RSA VC VS Leavenworth, William e,
Hinton, George B. ' , 449 foeti GH
4309 conve HM, NY, VS 449 mulab F
(N .B. There is a discrepancy in sheets oE #449.)
4354 cardi CH
4707 conve BM Leavenworth, William C. &: H. Hoogstraal
6295 cardi BM, K, NY 1009 pring F
1317 foeti F, GH, MICH, MO, NY
8110 conve CH, US
9096 mrdi CH, K, MO, NY, US 1496 mutab F, GH, MO
Type of A. cardiantha PEeH. Type of A. muta[ilis Pfeif.

118 119
, '


Lernmon, J. G. McVaugh, Rogers

272 porPh GH, ve 14193 tequi MICH (2)
3058 porPIl GH 15251 /JTact MICH
Apr 1881 l)orph BM, US 15668 acont MICH (2)
Sep 1881 porPh ue Type of A. aconloPhylla l'feif.
Aug 1883 porph POM 15836 cardi MICH
Len, Bro. 16321 foeti MICH
4270 renta NY 16386 bract MICH (2)
5660 penta NY 17312 foeti MICH
77518 j)enta NY 17682 versa MICH
18122 bract MICH (2)
Leroy, P. V. 18639 jJring MICH
1866 cor)'i NY 20904 foeti MICH
LeSueur, Harde McVaugh, Rogers & WaHer N. Koelz
601 tvrigh F, GH 753 tequi MICH (2)
602 tvrigh f, CH, MO, VC 1739 foeti MICH
603 tvrigh F Mearns, Edgar A.
7 Aug 1936 tvrigh LA, MO, VC 697 jJorp" us
Licbmann J.o87 jwrph us
100 m,jcra US Mexla, Ynes
Lindhcimer, 11. 766 jJring UC, VS
298 (1844) creel CH, MO, RSA Moore, H. E., Jr. & G. S. Bunting
Type of A. longiflom Engelm. & Cray 8773 bunti MO, VC
298 (1847-1848) creel CH (2), 1), US (2) Type of A. lntnlingii Pfeif.
Oct 1847 el'ccl MO 8830 foeti MICH, MO, VC
Linslcy, E. C. & M. A. Cazier Moran, Reid
12 jJOrp" ue 5910 $Ocor DS, RSA, ve
Loomi.~, H. li'. &. C. 1- King Type of A. socorroensis Pfeie.
3267 j!Orph US Mueller, C. H,
Lundell. C. 1.. & Amelia A. Lundcll
3044 wrigh CH, MICH, NA, ve
7753 j)cnla MICH, us Mueller, C. H. & M. 1'. Mueller
3ll penta F, CH
Lyonnet, E. 1014 secun F, CH, MICH
514 IJrevi GH, MO, NY, US Type of A. secunda Pfeif.
l'vfaguirc, Hasselt Narvaez Montes, M. & Antonio E. Salazar
10704 j)orph 1", GH 728 sinal US
10949 / JOr l)/1 GH Nealley, C. c.
Marsh, Ernesl G. 1887 Tl!righ us
10 j)enta F
Type of A. ma1"Shii Stand!. s.n. vari; F
II ereet GH Nelson, Aven & Ruth A. Nelson
1143 jJenta F, CH 1758 porjJh MO,NY
Martinclalc, Isaac C. (herbarium) 1856 porPh CH, VC
s.n. erect NA
1991 porj)h MO
Nelson, E. W.
Masan, Hcrbert L. 2769 nelso GH, VS
1680 islan CH, K Type of A. nelsonii Eastwood
1788 Iresm F, GH, US
Nelson, Ceorge
Masan. Herbcrt 1.. &. G. D. Hanna 18 penta CH
14585 islan K, LA, MO, UC, VS 39 penta GH, US (2)
Type of A. islandica Pfeif. Nicolas, F.
14627 socor VC 5890 brevi F, MO, NY, P, VS
Matuda, E. Northrup, John 1. & Alice R. Northrup
585 jJenta 1UCH, US 385 penta F, CH, NY

120 121
Ortega, Jess C.
5392 sinal VS Peebles, R. H.
5728 sinal VS 11500 porPh G H, NY
Palmer, Edward 11605 porph US
27 bracl GH, MEXU, MO, NY (2), US (2) Pecbles, R. H., G. J. Harrison & T. H. Keamey
Type oE A. guadalajarana Watson 5130 tJorph LA
139 foeti CH, NY, US (2) 5627 porPh US
Type of A. longi/es Watson Peebles, R. H. & T. H. Rearney
151 varii J" CH, R, MO, NY, UC, US 8756 porPh F, POM
174 P",Ph F, CH, NY, VS (2) Pennell, Francis W.
180 jmlme GH, US (2) 16998 seclln F, MICH, NY, US
Type of A. palmeri Walson 19698 sinal VS
187 watso F, CH, MO, NA, NY, S, VC, US Pfcifer, Howard William
Type of A. lassa Johnston foeti CONN
226 3153
mi.cra F, CH, K, MO, NY, US CONN
278 prmg CH, MO, NY, US (2)
3205 lJrin g
Type oC A. longecaudala Watson
3237 /Jrevi CONN
3237a lexll CONN
Type of A. pringlei Rose
314 wrigh F, CH (2), MO (2), NY, ve, VS (2) Pocppig
328 wngh US s,n. penta MO
329 porPIl US Pringle, Cyrus Cuernsey
413 tequi. CH, MEXU, MO, NY (2), VS 9 tvrigh F (2), CH, NA, NY (2), RSA, VS (2), VT
Type of A. teqwfana Watson 2268 penia CH
431 corda F, CH, MO, NY, VC, VS 3630 nana CH, VT
Type of A. cordata Eastwood Lcctotype of A. nana ,Vatson
540 wrigh F, CH, MO (2), NY, VC, VS 3714 bract F. CH, MO, NY, ve, US (2), VT
1183 walso CH, NA, VS 4425 jJTing F. CH, MO, NY, UC, us (2), VT
Type oC A. watsoni Wooton $: Standl. 5423 toeti CH, VT
Type of A. brcviPes Renth. varo acuminala Watson 5742 versa CH
Aug-Sep 1886 tequi VS 6383 lJring F, GH (2), MEXV, MO, NY, S, VC, us
Palmer, Erncst J. (2), VT
11359 erect MO Type of A. longccaudala Watson var. viresccns Creenman
11520 ereet MO, ve
11629 ereel ve
MO, POM, 6403 llersa F, CH, MO, NY, VC, VS (2), VT
13540 ereet MO 7209 brevi CH,US
13581 eory~ MO, US, WIS 8458 brevi F (2), CH, MO, NY, POM, VC, US (3),
13774 eoryl MO, US, WIS VT
32105 wrigh MO 8651 oeti 1', CH, MO, NY, POM, VC, US (3), VT
34225 eoryi MO, US 9247 oeti CH, VT
34485 wrigh GH 9676 pring F, CH, MO, VS, VT
34498 wrigh NY 11156 pring F, CH, MICH, MO, NY, US (2), VT
Parish, W. F. 13181 pring F, CH, MIeH, MO, US, VT
249 13182 brevi F, CH, MICH, MO, US, VT
porf)h DS, F 13804 lJcllla CH (2), MICH, MO, VS, VT
2 May 1884 porPh NY 13951 oeli F, CH, MICH, MO, US, VT
5 May 1884 jJorph MO, NY, ve (2), VS (2) 15963 porPh MO
l'arks, Hal B., Jr. Apr 1881 porph F, CH, NA, US, VT
2641 eree! MO 8 May 1884 porPh F, NA, NY (2), VS (3), VT
2919 ereet F Apr 1885 lvrigh F
Parry, C. c., J. M. Bigelw, Chas. Wright & A Schtt. Mexican Boundary 19 Nov 1889 brae! VT
Survey. 1 Oel 1891 pu/me VT
1103 ereet NY, US 29 Jul15 Aug 1893 foeli \lT
1104 wrigh DS, NY, US 12 Oct 1893 foeti VT
Parry, C. C. & Edward Palmcr 8 Aug 1902 oet; US
766 versa F (2), CH, MO (3), NA, as 12 Aug 1902 braet VS
Type of A. versabilifolia Pfdf. 7 Sep 1902 penia VS
21 Oct 1903 palme VT

122 123
Proctor, Ceorge R. Rose, J. N. &: J. S. Rose
9561 penta A,MO 11147 versa US
Purpus, C. A. Runyon, Rohert
4 jJorjJf DS, F, UC, US 1696 ereet US
75 t/Clso US Rzedowski, Jeny
428 versa VC, US 17471 bract MICH
1057 wrigh F, CH, MO, NY. PO M, VC Sagra, Ramon de la
2717 verm F, CH, MO, UC, US s.n. penta p
4545 wriglt VC Salazar, F'.
5023 narla ve 24 Jul 1913 brcvi US
5333 penta 1" GH, MO, NY, ue, US s.n. brevi US
Type oE A. mcemosa Brandg. Santos, M. &: William L. McCart
6826 l'arii F, CH, MO, NY, ue, US 60 creet MICH
Type of pUTjmsii Brandg. Schaffner, J. G.
6946 lIclso VC 47 versa CH,NY
9075 llelso F, CH, MO, NY, VC, US 307 versa 1', MICH, NY, VS
10075 IlelSO NY, 110M Sehott, Arthur
Aug 1903 lIJa/SO VC (sterile) 65 ereet F
Jul 1905 vena POM, UC 426B j)enla F 3)
Reed, C. 839 jJenta F
193 erecl NY Aug 1852 creet F, NY
Reko, n. P. 28 Apr 1855 IJenta F
4965 (oeli us Sep 1855 jJwta F
Revcrchon, J. Schllmann, 'Valther
128 ereet CH versa F, P, US
129 roryi CH
1582 r:oryi Scemann, Berthold
Y, MO 2)
1583 2175 tvrigh RM
ereet 1', MO, NY, US 2) Lectotype oE A. wrig1Jtii Scem.
3674 erecl CH, MO, NY, US
Ripley, H. D. ,,\: R. C. Bameby Sess &: Moo (see appendix also)
2486 wrigh GH 4275 IJenta F
4099 rvrigh NY 4408 /Jrevi F
13584 seeun NY 4409 jJring F
Roe, Keilh, Eunice Roe &: Seatt More 4413 {oeti F
tJ38 ue/so CON N 4414 bract F
Rose, J. N. 4415 foeli F (2)
1430 j)orj)h NY, US 4418 penta F
2333 duran US 4419 lJOrp1J F
Type of A. durangensis Pfeif. 4423 foeli F
4764 I)ring US S.n. (oeti PI, ex llerb. Pavon
Rose, J. N. Re Walter Hongh Type of A. vefulina Duchr.
4801 )raet NY. US Type of A. anguieida Pavon ex Duehr.
Rose, J. N. & Jos. H. Painter s.n. braet F ex G, G, MO cx G
7466 jJalme NY, US Type of A. bracleosa Duchr.
7530 foeti CH, US Type of A. rotlmda Sesse &: Mojlo
7651 oeti NY, US
Rose, J. N., Jos. H. Painter & J. S. Rose Shreve, Forresl
8933 nana CH, US 4913 IJO ryJh MJCH
8148 porPh MICH
9407 foeti NY, US
Rose. J. N., P. C. Stand ley & P. C. Russell Sinclair, J. F.
12813 sirlal summer 1940 erect GH
12893 j)orph NY, US Small, John Kunkel
penta NY
13354 porj)/t us 3912
13460 porj)h NY, US Small, Jolm Kunkcl &: J. J. Carter
14554 t)orph F, CH, NY, US 2) 3141 penta NY
14765 porPh US 6 Jan 1909 penla GH, US

124 125

Small, John Kunkel & C. A. Mosicr Waterfall, U. T.

5674 penta MQ, NY 4960 wrigh GH, MO, NY
Small, Jo1m KUnkel & C. V. Nash 5095 wrigh CH, MO
5105 wrigh GH (2), MO, NY
223 penta NY (2) GH
5160 wrigh
Small, John Kunkel & G. K. SmaIl CH, MO
6239 wrigh
4634 penta NY
Waterran, U. T. & C. S. Wallis
Sperry, Omcr E. 13318 wrigh US
561 coryi us Wlegand, K. M. & M. C. Wiegand
607 lOng!! us (2) 410 wrigh CH
TI20S cory~ CH, ve
1376 roryl ve, US White, Stephen S.
jJorph MICH
1812 coryi GH 643
1892 1088 wgh MICH
coryi CH, US
2469 while GH, MEXU
Typc of A. whitei Johnston
256 jJOrph us Whitchead, J.
Stewart, Rohert M. 1223 MICH
150 rvrigh GH
228 wrigh Wiggins, Ira L. monti CONN
GH 14750
325 wrigh GH 15543 jJOrph DS
574 wrigh GH Wiggins, Ira L. & Rced C. Rollins
633 wrigh GH
800 297 porPh DS O NY
wrigh GH 419 sinal DS, CH, M '.
1045 wrigh GH Type of A. ba/tl.censis Wiggins & Rolhns
1925 wrigh GH
2107 wrjgh GH Wilkinson, E. H.
2329 17l ereet MO
wrigh GH
2385 wng!! GH Wilson, r. F, MO, NY
2689 wrigh GH 8434 penla
Tharp. B. C. Wooton, E. O.
jJOrph US
ereet us 14 Jul 1911
cary; US Wright, Charles
43-535 DS, F, CH, NY, UC, US
c()ryi 11, MO, NY, ve 567 eoryi
F, GH (2), NY
6 Jul 1942 ereel DS. CH, MO, NY, ve 568 wrigh
Thornbcr 2610 penla
28 Aug 1902 ue 1700 (Valverde
Co., Texas) eoryi BM, CH (2), US (2)
Thmaw, F. W.
1700 (Kinney
8 erect us Co., Texas) coryi MO, NY
ue, US
s.n. ereet us 1701 JOrp.h CH, MO, NY (2),
Toumey, J. \Y. 1848 eoryl GH
269 1Jorph US 1863 ereet CH, NY
15 Apr 1894 jJorph NY, ve Zingg, Robert M.
Townsend, C. H. AI9 wrigh F
Mar 1889 socor us
Traey, S. M. & F. S. Earle
17l wrigh HM, F, GH, MO, NY (2), US
Turner, TI. L. & A. M. Powell
1068 uwu WIS
Twcedy, Frank
34 coryi US
Warnock, Barton H.
46146 coryi F, GH

126 127

Martn Sess ancl Jos Mariano Moci'o collected pIants in

Mexico, Central America, Cuba, Puerto Rico ancl elsewhere from
1788 to 1804-. Their herbarium colIections are available in incoffi ;j<

rlete portions; several Aristolochia collections (plus afie draw-
~ ~
ing) are among them. They described several Aristolochia spe-
des in their two principal publications, "Flora Mexicana" and .
-8 ""
"" ;; .s
" ~
" ~
-E ~ ,. ~
~ &~ ;:t! ,. ~
Pi , ....... ...:: p:
~ " , ,.
" ! t'" :,:]'"" "10 :,:'C';;""! "o:" ""'-""" ";;"" :-~ ~o: ]pj'"" "tle~ "';;:,:'""
". u V
"Plantae Novae Hispaniae." The problerns of integrating these .~~
specimens (lod the authors' published species descriptions with g"

:2 , ","-"
the rest of Arista/acllia nomenclature is the subject oE this note. o "~

M uch research has beco devoted to correetIy determining

the dates of publicatan o( the works cited aboye, Pages con-
"2 .. .. .. .. .. -
" -" -" ""i;, "- "- .2 -" -"
o ~

v v o

,, .. .. .. ..

cerned with ATistofochia (pp. 209, 210) in the "Flora Mexicana"
were published in 1896 in the second editian, which was pub- s
lished befare the similar pages dealing with Aristolochia in the "ro
"" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" " ;:
first edition. "Plnntae Novae Hispaniae," pp. 156, 157, where .ou
Aristolochia species are clescribed, was published in 1890 or p:
earIicr. Thus, it may be seen tha-t if these represented first
clescriptions, they couId take precedence over the more numer- o
ous later names ror Aristolochia species.
Assigning names to the collections is difficult, since most of
Z e1:- ~z
them 1 have seen are sterile. Interpretation of the descriptions ,S s .g .
ro "",
in their pubIications is complicated because they assumed Euro- ~z ~
v v
" , .g
pean plants grew in Mexico,' also, in at least one case in Aristo-
foc/ia~ they described two different species with identical species
u v
~ ~

. e " "" "" "" "
"," "
"u E

~-a.", "" "" 2
"," ,
;; 2~
"S "5
"C "C :~
Below is atable listing their pentandrous specimens which

e "'"
.. .." "o ..s ..s .." .."' .." "" .." ..""'"
~ 00
'" "

have been seen by me; these are chicfly from the Field Museum '" '" '" '"
in Chicago (F). 1 inclmle Sess and Mocio's names from the
labels as well as the numbers on the specimens but am unable u~

sl ,- ;t: :o; :o; e
~ ~ ~ ~
to state the relevancy to their publications [or these specimens. '0 00
o o
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~
N ~
'" ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Sorne oE them are mixed in a confused fashion, as may be Seen "

Zc "
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

from my discussion oC their publishecl names be1ow. Perhaps the

lFor determination oC Sess and Mocil'io's hexandrous Aristolochia collections,

see Pfeifer, H. W. 1966. Annals oi the Missouri Bol. Carel. 53:186 and 193.

reacler can best jlldge from the evidence himself, but 1 have llot synonyrny o f A . bracteosa in the main bdy of this paper
used any of these names where any uncertainty existed concem- for further details. Th b
ing their application. . S & M non L. (1753), nee un.
G. Aristoloeha langa. ., e Geor i (1800).
(1784), nec Woodv. (1791?), ne gt d by Sess &
As may be noted, all oE the provisional identifications listed descri don and references quo e .
below use names of species described by authorities other than The do not
Mocio pglve
. any c1ue for the correct aSSlgnment
Sess ancl Mocio.
oI this name.
Sess ancl Mocio's published species are now listed below
with comments and suggestions for their possible application n. "FLORA MEXICANA, " pp. 209 210 . [1894],1896.
where this is feasible and can be deducecl. A Aristolochia pentandra S. & M.. .
. Equivalent to I-A aboye, in tlllS lIst.
I. "PLANTAE NOVAR HISPANIAE," pp. 156, 157. [1887], 1890?
A. Aristolochia pentandra S. & M. B A ristolochia rotunda S. 8c M.
. Equivalent t a part o l-F aboye. (The accounts are
This is cited by Sess & Mocio as equivalent to A. <

pentandra Jacq. (1762), but was collected in Apatzin- not identical.)

gam [sic], on the west sicle oE Mexico. This makes it very C. Aristolochia longa S. 8cM 'G b
llnlikely that it is synonymous with A. pentandra Jacq.; Equivalent to IDOst o - l- a ove.
but, as a pentandrous species, it could be nearly any of
D. Aristolochia indica S..&~. . 1 nt to A. foetida R.B.K.
the other species native to that part oE Mexico. No speci- As in I-D above, thlS IS eqmva e
men of Sess and Mocio's seems to fit the inadequate . . h!la S & M., non Willd. (1809).
description they provide. E. Aristolochw mlcrop y . 'b d (without literature re[
B. Aristolochia odoratissima S. & 1\tL, ?non L. (1763), ?nec A hexandrous plant descn e " No specimen
Bemh. (1841). erences or synonyms) frOID "Tagarn~na"t
. th's name 1 aro unable to asslgn 1 .
1 have presumed this is a hexandrous species. carnes l non S &: M., vide supra~
C. Aristolochia anguicida S. & M. = A. anguicida Jacq. F. Arislolochia pentandra S. &: M., .
(17 6 2) .
nec Jacq. (l ?6~).. d tailed enough to assign this
D. ATislolochia indica S. & M., non L. (I753). The descnptlOn IS not e I spedes. Because
n of the pentam rous
Sess d...- Mocio 1415 bears this name, and is a speci- as a synonym to a y . 1abelled A. pentandra not
men 01 A. foetida H.B.K. (1817). o the absence of a. s~eClme~ this one cannot be typi-
E. Arisiolochia sempervirens S. & M., non L. (1763), nec assignable to Jacqum s speCles,
Forsk. (1775).
fied. . .' & M. non Roxb. (1832), nec
The description and references quoted by Sess and G Aristaloc"a long'f ollO S. , . (1923).
. h (1854) nec Hauman
Champ. ex B~nt. 'b l ' "
Mocio do not give any due for the accurate assignmerit
of this name. floribus solitariis, pen-
This plant IS descn ee as ... " No
F. Aristolocha rotunda S. & M., nOn Georgi (1800), nec d . Capsu 1ae ob10 ngae
, 6-angulares . .. . d
tan ns . . . . unable to assign It, nee -
Bov ex Duch" (1864). specimen bears tlllS name. 1 am
Sess 6- Mocio 4414 bears this name, and is a speci- lessly to sayo
men 01 A. bracteosa Duchr. (1854). The "ype 01 A. brac-
lII. In 1903, D. Jos Ramrez pu blished an article, "Noticia
teosa Duchr. is a S. & M. collection at G; pIease see the

130 131
acerca de algunas lminas de la Iconographa indita de la
Flora Mexicana de M. Sess y J. M. Mocio."2 hasta/a, 109, 139
Accepted names in this accotl.nt ~re. in indica, 139, 140, 141
The pI ates referred to were a set of 1400 colored drawings Roman type; synonyms are in la/les.
innata, 139
which disappeared after Mocio's death in 1819. Copies of Illustrations are indicated by page islandica, 27, 80 (map), 82, 83, 84,
them exist in the Conservatoire Botanique at Geneva. and nllmbers in itafies. iJ3, 94, 130
copies of the copies have been distributed to many other Apama, 20 , brwinskii, 26, 43, 43, 45, 129
herbaria. Ramrez aHempted to assign names to some of Aristolochia, 11, 25 /assa, 63, 64, 65, 132
acontophylla, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32 O'Tlga, 141
them; his no. 5 was labelled Aristolochia sagitifolia Moc. et
(mar), 131 longeClllld(ta, 77, 78, 132, 142
Sess. As Ramrez points out, this name is not mentioned in aetL1llinala, 63, 64 longeeatulala vaL vireseens, 77, 79,
Sess and I'vfocio's works, but two specimens exist bearing angllicida, 34, 37, 135, 139, 140
this name, numbers 4408 and 4409 (both at F). One is a balUeensis, 40, 42, 137 /ongiflora, 68, 72, 130
bracteosa, 21, 27, 79, 80 (map),81, longito1ia, 68, 141
specimen of A. brevipes Benth., the other A. pringlei Rose.
82, 135, 139, 140 /ollgilJeS, 3-1, 36, 132
The plate is presumably A. pringlei, too, according to Ram- brevipes, 22, 28, 64, 96 (mar), 97, mars/di, 109, 111, 112, 130
irez (who identifies it as A. longecaudata Watson, which is 98, 128, 139, 142 ~ micrantha, 27, 6!, 66 (map), 67, 8,
another name for A. pringlei) q. v.). Accordingly, 1 suppose brevi/Jes varo aCi/minata, 63, 64, 6:>,
it might be possible to state that A. sagitifolia Moe. & Sess 132 rnicrol}fyl/a, 141
brevitJes vaL wrightii, .118 monticola, 26,37,38 (mar), 39, 40,
ex Ramrez, nomo nud.) is a synonym o A. pringlei Rose.
buntingii, 21, 26, 54 (map), 55, 55,
FinalIy, there is also a photograph of a pIate attributed
131 mutabilis, 27, 59, 60 (map), 61, 63,
to Sess & Mocio, numberecl 380) which is depositd at F, ca[ifornica, 21 130
which is identifiable as Aristolochia foetida H.B.K. It is the cardiantha, 26, 31, 32 (map), 33, 34, nana, 28, 120 (map), 12,2, 123, 124,
same plate as is mentioned in the tabIe under number 4413. 36, 100, 128
133 )
cnudata, 139 nelsonii. 26, 47, 48, 49, 50 (map.
conterla, 109, 111 131
conversiae, 26, 49, 53, 57, 58, 59, 60 oaxacana, 28, 94, 95,95,96 (mar),
(mar), 67, 126 127
('orcIata, 27, 84, 85, 86 (map), 87,
odornti.uima, 140
132 ralmeri, 27, 70 (mar), 72, 73, 74,
coryi, 28, 101, 101, 102 (map), 103,
pmil1s1l1aris, 37,40,125
126. 99 99 101 102
dllrangcnsls, 28, , ' , pentanlIra, 19 ' 2~!J, 28 ' 108 (map),
(m,p). 134 109. HO, 139, 140, 141
erecta, 14,27,68,69,70 (map),72, jJelllmHlra varo has/ala, 109
73, 129 Pentamh-ae (silbsecL), JI, 15 (mar),
flexuosa, 27,74,75,76 (map),128
foelicIa, 21, 23, 26, 34,35,38 (map), 25
porphyrophyl Ia, 28 ,.), G~ 104 ' ]05,
100,139, 140, 141, 142 . 107,108 (map), 128, 139
foliis /anceolatis seslibllS sub~rs~~
jnOC1l11llJens, 139
lis, caule erecto floribus so[tar1iS pringl ei , 18, 19, 21, 23, 27, 75, 76
longissimis, 68 (map), 77, 78. 132, 139, 142
grandiflora, 139 purtmsii, 45, 47, 134
glladalajarana, 79. 81, 82, 132
2Anales Inst. Med. Nac. 6-2:66-72, 73. 1903.

quercetorum, 40, 42, 127 versabilifolia, 27, 88, 89, 90 (map),
racemosa, 109, 111, 113, 134 92, 132
repens, 68, 72, 129 watsoni, 27, 63, 64, 65, 66 (map),
reticulata, 21 105, 132
rotunda, 25, 79, 82, 135, 139, 140, whitei, 27, 86 (map), 87, 87, 88, 91,
141 137
sagitijofia, 139, 142 wrightii, 28, 103, 118, 119, 120
secunda, 26, 51, 52, 53, 54 (mar), (mar), 122, 135
59, 131 /
wrightii varo lexana, 118, 121. 129
sempervirens, 139, 140 Aristolochiaceae, 11
sinaloae, 26, 40, 41, 42, 44 (mar), Asarum, 20
125 Asclepiadaceae, 11
socorroensis, 27, 84, 90 (map), 92, Brionia sagittala, 139
93, 94" 131 Ceropegia, 11
sucfausa, 97, 98, 127 Holostylis reniformis, 20
tequilana, 28, 113, 114, lIS, 116 Howardia joelida, 3i
(map), 132 Einoma, 25
tereliftora, 28, lIS, 116 (mar), 117, berlandieri, 65, 68, 125
ll8, 126 bracteata, 109
tresmariae, 26, 48, 50 (mar), 51, brevijJes, 97
51,53,59,127 has/ala, 109
valentina, 34 pentandra, 109
variifolia, 26, 44 (map), 45, 46, 47, Quercus, 20
127 Saruma hcnryi, 20
vellltina, 34, 37,135 Thottca gnmdiftora, 20

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