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2/23/2017

Seminar in SIT
20 February 2017

New Sampling Method to obtain Undisturbed


Samples in Gravel and Sandy Soils
Introduction of Gel-Push (GP) Samplers

K. Orihara

Kiso-Jiban Consultants Co. Ltd.


Kiso-Jiban Singapore Pte Ltd.

Presentation Contents

1. How to Determine Design Properties of Gravel and Sand?


2. Common Sampling Methods in Gravel and Sand
3. What is a new sampling method of Gel Push (GP) sampling?
4. Application of GP sampling
Japan and Other Countries
Singapore

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How to Determine Mechanical Properties of Gravel/Sand ?

in Singapore
Estimate based on experience or SPT/CPT
Sampling not carried out because of difficulties and high cost

Strength, Deformation modulus, Ed


Sand Fill 30 degrees or 10 (MPa) or
F1 based on SPT/CPT based on SPT/CPT or Pressuremeter
Gravel Fill ???? ????

in Japan and earthquake region


Estimate based on experience or SPT/CPT
Try undisturbed sampling and laboratory testing
if liquefaction and dynamic deformation properties are required
in earthquake design

Difficult to obtain Undisturbed Sampling


Difficult to obtain undisturbed samples for laboratory testing
due to loosening or densifying during sampling, transportation,
extraction, and trimming.

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Reconstitute Gravelly Soil


Disturbed sampling and reconstitute a test specimen

Cyclic triaxial test for


liquefaction strength

Mazier Sampler for Gravelly Soil

A Mazier Sampler was modified to obtain dense gravels in Akashi Kaikyo Bridge

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Freezing Method

Grouted
gravel

Sand Key

Liquid Nitrogen Tank

Frozen core samples obtained at the damaged Quay Wall in 1995 Kobe Earthquake

New sampling method


Gel Push (GP) Sampling

First, undisturbed unfrozen


sandy gravel, ever
sampled

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Schematic illustration
of GP sampler
Lower cost than
freezing method

GP Sampler

Drilling Fluid does not contact


Sample.
Polymer Solution covers Sample

Bit
After Sampling After removal
of shoe
Shoe
Polymer

Edge face of
Free Piston Edge face of
Sandy Soil
sandy Soil sample
Sample

Sample Inner Tube


PVC Sample
liner

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Loose sand sample by GP sampler ?

Coat by polymer gel

Remove polymer gel

Loose sand samples

Characteristics of Polymer Gel


Fluid when moving Ordinary GP
Viscous when not moving
Environmentally no harm

Reduces a friction between sample and sampler tube


Retains samples by its viscousity

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GP Samplers for Various Types of Soil/Rock

Applicable Ground

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Applicable Soil/Rock of GP Samplers


Applicable Soil and Rock Types
Applicable Ground

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Application of GP Sampling for Geotechnical Design

1. Static and Dynamic Properties of Sand and Gravel


2. Foundation on gravel, sand, coral limestone
3. Earthquake engineering
Liquefaction potential evaluation
Deformation analysis

4. Quality control of grouted ground and compaction of


embankment
5. Slaking Prone Materials

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GP Sampling at University of Canterbury 2011 GP Sampling


08.14Samp

GP-S

GP-Dm

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GP Sampling in Christchurch
Silty sand qc=1 to 5 MPa

Liquefaction strength tests

(Taylor et.al 2012)

GP Sampling at Tailing Pond in Poland 2014

Silty sand, qc=1 to 5 MPa

Stability of Confining Dam


under liquefaction
GP sampling was carried out
to obtain undisturbed
samples from the great
depths for lab testing

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GP Sampling at Tailing Pond in Poland


from J.K. Mitchell Lecture by Jamiolkowski 2014 Sample quality evaluation
by Shear Wave Velocity, Vs

Triaxial-Ck0U-C test results on GP specimen, Geoteko 2014

Remarks made by Speaker


GP samples exhibit dilative response by Triaxial
cyclic CK0U tests
Very different behavior (su, G0) from what
obtained on reconstituted specimens Maybe disturbed

GP Sampling in other countries

Lake deposit in Italy 2015

Collaboration with NGI in Norway 2016

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GP Sampling in other Countries

Loose sand sampling in Holland 2016

Liquefaction study in Taiwan


(J.W. Chen et al 2014)

GP Sampling for Coral Limestone in Okinawa, Japan

Reluctant to place foundation piles in


Young Limestone (Quaternary)
Clay based on poor cores obtained by
Coral
conventional sampling method and
scattered SPT.
Young Limestone GP samples showed that Limestone is
more intact.
Mudstone

GP
Conventional Televiewer

GP
Conventional

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GP Samples from Sliding Plane of Landslide in Japan

GP sample

Sliding planes

GP sample for CD test

Conventional NQ Core

GP Sampling for Embankment Fill of Dam in Japan

GP sampling of
Compacted Gravelly fill

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GP Sampling for Grouted Gravel Fill in Japan


GP Sampling of Grouted Gravel Fill (Experiment)

GP Sampling for Grouted Gravel Fill at Quay Wall in Miyagi, Japan

GP sampling in Singapore
GL-12.0012.85m
Reclamation sand with SPT 8 to 10
GL-13.0013.80m (Yokoi et al 2014)

GL-14.1515.20m

Undisturbed Sample of Loose Reclamation Sand


100

G.L.-12.00~12.85m
90
G.L.-13.00~13.85m
80
G.L.-14.15~15.205m
Percentage Passing, %

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
0.001 0.010 0.100 1.000 10.000 100.000

Grain Diameter, mm
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Friction Angles of Reclamation Sand


GP GP

Reconstitute Reconstitute

GP

Reconstitute

Direct Shear Test

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Slaking Prone Jurong Formation Residual Soil

Water 0.3% Polymer


Solution 3% Polymer
Solution

GP sampling
Before Soak

10 seconds

5 minutes

1 hour
Mazier sampling

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2/23/2017

Kiso-Jiban Laboratory

THANK YOU!
Full automated triaxial test Consolidation test Simple shear test

Tokyo Lab Cyclic test Wave velocity measurement


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