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Pitch is the frequency of a sound, and it relates to the highness or lowness of a

tone that we hear. Slower vibrations or frequencies create lower tones.


typically twelve different pitches used in music. An easy way to conceptualize these
twelve pitches is to think of seven white keys on a piano and the five black keys
that are between them.
repetition of these twelve pitches is known as an octave.
scale is a group of notes in ascending and descending pitch.
Rhythm is the timing of the musical sounds or notes in the music. Rhythm is
composed of both the strong, accented pulses as well as the weaker, unaccented
pulses.
recognition for rhythm begins for humans in their mothers womb, where their
mothers heartbeat keeps a steady pulse.
The beat is the basic time unit within a piece of music.
Syncopation involves placing emphasis on normally un-emphasized beats or using
a rest on a normally emphasized beat. In other words, syncopation involves
disrupting or interrupting the expected or normal rhythm of music.
Tempo is the speed of a given piece of music.
A metronome, or a device that produces regular ticks or beats according to the
beats per minute, is one way that musicians and composers can help maintain a
consistent pace in the music.
Largo: very slow
Adagio: slow
Moderato: moderate tempo
Allegro: fast
Presto: very fast

Dynamics in music refers to the loudness or softness of a note, as well as the


quality of the note as played.

Fortissimo (ff): played very loudly


Forte (f): played loudly
Mezzo forte (mf): played moderately loud
Mezzo piano (mp): played moderately soft
Piano (p): played softly
Pianissimo (pp): played very softly

Subito forzando (usually written as sforzando) is a sudden change in the level of


sound.

Crescendo (or cres.) refers to music that gradually increases in volume or gets
louder. Decrescendo or diminuendo (decres. or dim.) refers to music that gradually
decreases in volume or gets softer.
Timbre (which is pronounced tam-ber) is the tone quality of a sound, and it is what
helps to distinguish one musical instrument from another.

Soprano: a high female voice


Alto: a low female voice
Tenor: a high male voice
Bass: a low male voice

melody is a series of musical notes that have been strung together.

Melodic phrases are groups or sets of notes that make sense together, express a
musical idea, and, when combined, create the melody.

Harmony is having more than one pitch within the music at the same time.

form is referred to as the framework that a composer uses to create a piece of


music. It is the combination of the other musical elements, including pitch, tempo,
and dynamics.

12-bar blues is a chord progression that is common in many popular forms of


music.

common meter, which consists of four lines of a particular number of beats that
end in the rhyming pattern of a-b-a-b.

concerto is a musical piece in which one solo instrument (such as a piano or violin)
is accompanied by an orchestra.

sonata is a musical composition for a solo instrument (often piano or other


keyboard instrument).

symphony is a musical piece that has been scored for a full orchestra; it is often an
extended composition.

1. What are the basic elements of music?


a. Pitch, rhythm, dynamics, and melody.
2. What are pitch and melody? What do they add to music?
a. Pitch is the frequency of a sound, and it relates to the
highness or lowness of a tone that we hear. Slower vibrations or
frequencies create lower tones. melody is a series of musical notes
that have been strung together. They add the feeling to the music.
Depending on the pitch and melody, we perceive the mood of the song
very differently.
3. What is rhythm? Why is rhythm important to music?
a. Rhythm is the timing of the musical sounds or notes in
the music. Rhythm is composed of both the strong, accented pulses as
well as the weaker, unaccented pulses. Rhythm gives the beat and the
flow to the music and a pattern that we can enjoy.
4. What are dynamics in music? What are some of that way
dynamics are noted?
a. Dynamics in music refers to the loudness or softness of a
note, as well as the quality of the note as played.
i. Fortissimo (ff): played very loudly
ii. Forte (f): played loudly
iii. Mezzo forte (mf): played moderately loud
iv. Mezzo piano (mp): played moderately soft
v. Piano (p): played softly
vi. Pianissimo (pp): played very softly
5. What is form in music? How do the other musical elements
contribute to form?
a. form is referred to as the framework that a composer
uses to create a piece of music. It is the combination of the other
musical elements, including pitch, tempo, and dynamics. The form
often defines a genre but can be changed to suit the composers ideas.

Lab:

1. Describe some of the influence of latin america music in the US in the


early part of the twentieth century.
a. Latin Jazz was popular in clubs during the 1940s and
Machito & His Afro-Cubans were a favorite band during the time.
2. What was the significances of Machito and His Afro-Cubans?
a. Machito and His Afro-Cubans was very popular and in a
time where most were racist, an acknowledgement to the
accomplishments of Machito and His Afro-Cubans was very
significant.
3. How did Dizzy Gillespie incorporate LAtin music into his music?
a. He added the conga player Chano Pozo to his jazz band to
get the same rhythms as Afro-Cuban music.
4. What was the Palladium?
a. It was in mid-town manhattan and was once dance studio
but was a dancing club of mambo.
5. How did the TV and films increase the exposure of the US to Latin
music?
a. More people were exposed to Latin Music through media
and it became even more popular. Latin Music and the Mambo were
part of many films and the hit TV show I Love Lucy featured an
interracial marriage of the American Lucy and her Cuban husband and
had latin music.
6. Why do you think Lain music had such a great influence on the
development of popular music?
a. The rhythm and form of Latin music is upbeat and fun like
most pop songs are and new music always draws influence from older
music of all different genres. Because Latin American music was so
popular, it served as inspiration for many popular musicians, like The
Beatles.
7. Do you think that any of the music that you listen to has latin
influences? Why or why not?
a. Yes. I enjoy many different genre but pop, and rock are
both favorites. Since Latin American music was so popular, its
influenced reaches new pop music and rock that I listen to which can
be seen especially in the beats and rhythm.

Apply:

1. What are the basic elements of music?


a. The basic elements of music are pitch, rhythm, tempo,
dynamics, and melody.
2. What is the pitch?
a. Pitch refers to how high or low a tone is in the music. It is
the frequency of sound and the faster the vibrations, the higher the
note and the lower the vibrations, the lower the note.
3. What is syncopation? What types of music use syncopation?
a. Syncopation is when a usually un-emphasized beat is
emphasized, or a usually emphasized beat has a rest instead. Ska,
Jazz, rap, and more use syncopation in their music.
4. What are three examples of forms of music? Describe each form.
a. One example is the common meter, which is a form of
four lines with the last one having a pattern of a-b-a-b to rhyme. It also
has a certain number of beats.
b. Another example is a sonata which is a form of a piece
specifically designed for a solo instrument.
c. The last example is a symphony, which is composed for a
full orchestra often with for parts, the first being a sonata.
5. What is form in music?
a. The form is the outline for creating a piece of music and
uses other musical elements, like pitch, tempo, and dynamics to create
the form.

Critical thinking qs:

1.

a. Music has been described as a universal language


because anyone can understand the mood to a song and relate to it
regardless of the place it is from or the language it is in. I agree with
this assessment because I have found it to be true. Even when I
listened to Latin music or music in a different language, I could always
understand at least part of its meaning and mood and relate to it.
2.

a. Musical notation is important because it tells musicians


how to play a piece and the can then know exactly how to recreate,
adapt, or use certain pieces to fit their own compositions.
3.

a. We use music in public places, like stores, in TV, movies,


and on our own time. In my own life I am constantly surrounded by
music and listen to it when I travel and work, besides for hearing music
wherever I go.
4.

a. Music was played at a wedding I attended. The music for


the couples first dance was slow and happy although I didnt know the
song and it was the first time I had heard it, I identified the sweet and
romantic mood it set right away.