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DOI 10.1007/s11340-015-0106-1

A. Dorogoy 1 & D. Rittel 1 & A. Godinger 1

Received: 20 February 2015 / Accepted: 16 October 2015 / Published online: 25 November 2015

# Society for Experimental Mechanics 2015

evaluated and tested quasi-statically and dynamically. The

specimen consists of a long cylinder having an inclined gauge Numerical simulations are widely used in both industry and

section created by two diametrically opposed semi-circular research communities in the field of materials mechanics. The

slots which are machined at 45 with respect to the longitudi- accuracy of a simulation depends on the material properties

nal axis. The geometry imposes stress condition within the used, with emphasis on the true stressstrain curves and duc-

gauge section which correspond to a Lode parameter of~ tility. These properties are usually strain-rate and temperature

0.5, between pure shear (0) and uniaxial tension (1). It thus dependent, and the researcher often needs to generate its own

provides a wider span of loading conditions for a material. A data which is not available in the literature. Recent experi-

thorough numerical study reveals that the stresses and strains ments on metals [14] have shown that the hydrostatic stress

within the gauge are rather uniform, and the average Mises and the Lode parameter (the third invariant of the stress devi-

stress and plastic strain on the mid-section of the gauge repre- ator) influence these properties. While the hydrostatic pressure

sent the material true stressstrain characteristics. The data has a significant effect on the ductility, and an insignificant

reduction technique to determine the stresses and strains is effect on the stress-plastic strain relationship, the Lode param-

presented. Quasi-static and dynamic tests at strain rate of 104 eter has an opposite role. Therefore, for an accurate simula-

1/s were carried out on specimens made of 1020 cold-rolled tion, the stressstrain curves and ductility should be known

steel. No necking or softening was observed with this speci- over a wide range of strains, strain rates, temperatures, hydro-

men, and the fracture location was always well within the static pressures and Lode parameters.

gauge. The obtained stressstrain curves and ductility were Tensile tests are usually used for elasto-plastic charac-

validated numerically. The STS is a new specimen to study terization of metals. These tests provide information about

the combined influence of tension and shear on the mechani- the mechanical properties of materials, including the mod-

cal characteristics of a material. ulus of elasticity, yield strength, tensile strength, elonga-

tion, and the true stressstrain relationship until necking

takes place. In other words, the equivalent von Mises

Keywords Shear-tension specimen . Large strain . Dynamic stress as a function of the equivalent plastic strain for a

load . Steel 1020 . Lode parameter . Triaxiality given material [5]. In order to extend the range of stress

strain curves, knowledge of the stress and strain distribu-

tions on the necked cross-section of the tensile specimens

is needed [6]. A correction for round cross-section tensile

specimens was suggested by Bridgman [7]. This correc-

* A. Dorogoy tion might lead to material curves fraught by an error of

dorogoy@technion.ac.il more than 10 %, while requiring a significant amount of

experimental work in order to measure the evolving cur-

1

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion Israel Institute of vature radius of the necking profile at different stages of

Technology, 32000 Haifa, Israel each tensile test [5]. For non circular cross sections, there

438 Exp Mech (2016) 56:437449

stressstrain relationship and an hybrid experimental

numerical approach is needed [814]. The location of The geometry of the STS specimen is shown in Fig. 1. The

the neck is not always predictable especially in dynamic front view of the STS is shown in Fig. 1(a), and a side view in

testing even if notches exit [15]. Fig. 1(b); A cut view perpendicular to the gauge is shown in

In this study a new shear-tension specimen (STS) is de- Fig. 1(c). The dimensions of the specimen are: L=120 mm,

signed, evaluated and tested quasi-statically and dynamically. D=10 mm, t=1.6 mm. The circular gauge has a radius of r=

The specimen is similar to the known shear compression spec- 1.5 mm. The gauge width is W=2r=3 mm. The vertical height

p

imen (SCS) which was introduced in [16] and was validated of the gauges is h 2 2 r 4:24 mm. Lext represents the

numerically for static and dynamic loading and parabolic distance between the locations of the reflecting tape stripes

hardening materials in [1719]. The SCS was used in several used for optical laser extensometry.

investigations [2027] and was recently modified to have a

circular gauge [28]. The STS consists of a long cylinder hav-

ing an inclined gage section created by two diametrically op- Numerical Model, Mesh, Boundary Conditions

posed semi-circular slots which are machined at 45 with re- and Material Properties

spect to the longitudinal axis. While uniaxial tension test cor-

respond to Lode parameter of 1, the shear-tension test corre- The meshed specimen is shown in Fig. 2. Due to its symmetry,

sponds to an approximately constant Lode parameter~0.5 only half of the physical model is included in the numerical

which is imposed by the geometry. No necking or softening model. The front and back views of the zoomed region adja-

is observed with this specimen, and the fracture location is cent to the gauge are shown in Fig. 2(b), (d) respectively,

known ahead of time, yielding reliable data on the stress while a side view is shown in Fig. 2(c).

strain curves and ductility. The typical mesh shown in Fig. 2 comprises 215652 nodes

Second section of this manuscript presents a thorough nu- and 201670 linear hexahedral elements of type C3D8R. The

merical evaluation of the new specimen. Third section is di- seed size within the gauge is 0.25 mm while within the whole

vided into two parts: quasi-static and dynamic. In the first part specimen 0.5 mm. A tensional vertical displacement of 1 mm

the quasi static experimental results are detailed, followed by was applied on the upper face of the specimen (Fig. 2(a)).

numerical validation. In the second part the dynamic experi- Symmetry conditions were applied along the cut (Fig. 2(c))

mental results are detailed followed by numerical validation. and on the bottom face (Fig.2(a)). The center point of the

Discussion and summary are given in the fourth section bottom face was fixed. When an explicit solution scheme

followed by concluding remarks.

finite element software Abaqus standard and Abaqus explicit

6.14 [29]. The purpose of the numerical simulations is to

demonstrate that:

pressure (p) and equivalent plastic strain (p) are evenly

distributed on the mid-section of the gauge during the

entire loading history.

2) The evolution of the average Mises stress M and the

averaged equivalent plastic strain p on the mid-

section of the gauge replicate the material property t

tp (which is input into the simulation).

3) Develop a data reduction technique in which the mea-

sured P-d (loaddisplacement) curve of the specimen is

reduced into the averaged M and p on the mid-

section of the gauge, which accurately represent the ma- Fig. 1 A STS specimen with a circular gauge. (a). Front view (b). Side

terial property t tp. view. (c). A cut view (A-A) perpendicular to the gauge inclination

Exp Mech (2016) 56:437449 439

ap Dt

P

.

The deformed specimen is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The

deformation and distributions shown in Figs. 4 and 5 are typ-

ical for large plastic deformations, and correspond to an ap-

plied vertical displacement of d=1.0 mm, which in turn cor-

responds to normalized applied displacement of ap =0.24.

The distributions of the equivalent plastic strain and Mises

stress are shown in Fig. 4(a), (b), and (c) (d), respectively.

The results show that the Mises stress and the equivalent

plastic strain are distributed quite evenly over a wide part of

the mid-section. The equivalent plastic strain is slightly less

uniform - end effects (shown in Fig. 4(a), (b)) are noticeable

on the two edges of the gauge, in which the value of the

Fig. 2 The meshed numerical model. (a). Front view of the whole equivalent plastic strain is lower.

specimen. (b). Front view on the zoomed area. (c). Side view of the The Mises equivalent stress distribution is shown in

specimen. (d). Back view of the zoomed area Fig. 5(a), the hydrostatic pressure distribution in Fig. 5(b),

and the equivalent plastic strain distribution in Fig. 5(c). It

was used for static calculations, the displacement load was can be observed that the Mises stress and the pressure are dis-

applied slowly during 0.002 s. tributed evenly, while the equivalent plastic strain is less even. It

In the following numerical verifications, we modeled a has its maximum value of ~1 (red) on the mid outer face while

representative elasto-plastic material model with Mises plas- at the region of the end effects (green) it reaches lower values

ticity. The density is: 7870 Kg than 0.6. The average value on the mid section is 0.74.

m3 ; Youngs modulus: 210 GPa,

and Poissons ratio: 0.3. The flow stress versus equivalent A ductile failure criterion was added to the analyses of the

plastic strain is shown in Fig. 3. specimen. According to this failure criterion, an element failed

and was deleted when the equivalent plastic strain reached an

arbitrarily set value of fp =0.5. A vertical displacement of

Numerical Results 1 mm was applied again on the top face of the specimens.

The evolution of the fracture in the gauge is shown in Fig. 6.

Real specimens vary slightly in their dimensions, hence the Only the gauge area (Fig. 2(a)) is shown.

applied experimental loaddisplacement curves can be differ- The failure patterns of the STS specimens is different from

ent for each specimen. In order to overcome this problem the that of an SCS specimen [28, 30]. In the STS, a crack initiates at

applied displacement and load curves are presented in the the center of the gauge and propagates toward its ends, while in

sequel in a normalized form. Due to the normalization, the SCS specimen the opposite happens, namely the crack starts at

obtained loaddisplacement curve depends mainly on the the ends and propagates towards the center. It can be observed in

specimens material properties. The applied displacement is Figs. 5(c) and 6(a) that the equivalent plastic strain is higher at the

center of the gauge, causing fracture initiation in this area.

normalized by the vertical height of the gauge ap dh and

The average values p ; M ; p on the mid-section were

8

9

x 10 estimated at each time interval by taking the average values of

all elements along the two paths shown in Fig. 5(a), namely

8

mid-section and edge of the gauge. Figure 7 shows the average

Mises stress M against the averaged equivalent plastic

7

strain p . These values are compared to Abaqus input

6

stress [Pa]

5

(Fig. 3) for the assumed material stressstrain curves. It can

4

be observed that the average values on the mid section replicate

3 very well the inputted material behavior (t,tp) used in the

2 analyses.

1 Figure 8 shows the applied loaddisplacement curves

0 (d,p) for the specimens. d (like d) is normalized by

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

plastic strain the vertical height of the gauge h. As shown in Fig. 8, the

Fig. 3 The characteristic t tp of a model material used for numerical load has a maximum value at d/h0.05, and for d/h>

simulations 0.05 the load decreases.

440 Exp Mech (2016) 56:437449

at applied vertical displacement of

d=1.0 [mm]. (a). Front view of a

deformed specimen with color

maps of p. (b). A cut view of a

deformed specimen with color

maps of p. (c). Front view of a

deformed specimen with color

maps of M. (d). A cut view of a

deformed specimen with color

maps of M

end effect

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

that typically observed with an SCS specimen, for which the

load increases monotonically with the applied displacements

[17, 19, 28] until fracture. It will be shown later that while the

macroscopic load decreases, the average Mises stress on the

mid-section keeps increasing, thus indicating a lack of mate-

rial softening effect.

(a) The triaxiality (tr) and the Lode parameter () are defined

by equations (1)(2), respectively: ([31]):

p

tr 1

M

22 1 3

2

1 3

(b) Where the hydrostatic pressure (p) and the equivalent Mises

stress (M) are given in equations (3)(5):

end effect

1 1

p m ii 1 2 3 3

3 3

r r

3 1h i

M si j s i j 1 2 2 2 3 2 3 1 2 4

2 2

(c) 1

si j i j ii 5

Fig. 5 Stress and strain distribution along the mid-section of the circular 3

gauge specimen at vertical applied displacement of 1.0 mm. (a). Mises

stress distribution. (b). Hydrostatic pressure distribution. (c). Equivalent

The stresses 1, 2 and 3 are the principal stresses with

plastic strain distribution 1 >2 >3.

Exp Mech (2016) 56:437449 441

no cracks

cracks

Yield point

(a) (b)

uncracked regions complete

fracture

specimen

Fig. 9. The behavior of the averaged Lode parameter is also

(c) (d) quite constant 0:48 < < 0:65. The average of during

Fig. 6 Failure patterns of the specimen in gauge area (Fig. 2a). Color the plastic deformation is 0.52 and is shown as an horizontal

map of the equivalent plastic strain. (a). The specimen just before failure.

line in Fig. 9.

(b). Two separate cracks appear at the center of the gauge at two different

heights. (c). Partial fracture: the cracks coalescence at the center and

propagate toward the ends of the gauge. (d). Complete fracture: the

crack propagate and cuts the ends of the gauge Data Reduction Technique

Three special values of the Lode parameter are: 1,0 and 1, During an experiment with the STS, the applied load (P) and

which are for generalized tension, generalized shear and gen- vertical displacement (d) are measured, as shown in Fig. 8

eralized compression, respectively. from numerical simulations. The goal of the data reduction

These two parameters are important since they are known to technique is to reduce the measured Pd curve into the char-

influence the flow behavior and ductility (equivalent plastic strain acteristic equivalent t tp of the material. It was shown (Fig. 7)

to failure) of materials [14]. Figure 9 shows the variation of the that the averaged M p on the mid-section represents well

averaged triaxiality and Lode parameters t r ; on the mid- the true material properties t tp. The mapping procedure of

section of the gauge during the plastic deformation. The results the displacement into equivalent plastic strain is similar to what

indicate that the averaged (over the gauge section) triaxiality t r is detailed in [16, 17, 19, 28]. First we map the applied displace-

on the mid-section during plastic deformation is rather constant, ment d into the averaged equivalent plastic strain p . We do it

in the range 0:39 < t r < 0:32 for the range of plastic defor- for d>dY where dY is the applied displacement in which

mation 0 < p < 0:38. The average of t r during the plastic the mid-section of the gauge yields.

8

x 10

7

-0.3

6

-0.35

failure

5

triaxiality, Lode parameter

-0.4

flow stress [Pa]

4 fit -0.45 Lode parameter

STS

3 -0.5

2 -0.55

-0.6

1

-0.65

0

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

plastic strain 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4

Fig. 7 Comparison of the averaged values M ; p along the mid-cut equivalent plastic strain

section obtained by both types of specimens to the input material property Fig. 9 Variation of the averaged triaxiality and Lode parameter along the

(t,tp) mid-cut section during plastic deformation

442 Exp Mech (2016) 56:437449

0.45

The yield point on the normalized applied loaddisplacement

0.4

curve (ap ap) is shown in Fig. 8.

0.35

equivalent plastic strain

0.3

p on the mid-section of the gauge, with the applied nor-

0.25

malized displacement ap d h . It can be observed that the

0.2

dependence is almost linear, so that a first degree polynomial

approximation (equation (6)) of the type: k

0.15 dd y

dY/h p 2 h

0.1

where k2 =3.7625 is sufficient for accurate mapping, as in

0.05

[16, 19, 21]).

0

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 Next, we map the applied load P for P>PY into the aver-

applied strain d/h

aged Mises stress by:

Fig. 10 Variation of the averaged plastic strain p in the mid-cut

section of the gauge with the applied normalized displacement d

h . P p

d

The arrow indicates the beginning of plasticity h Y k f or P > PY 7

M 1 p

Dt

i For the SCS k 1 p K 1 1K 2 p where K1 and K2 are

X

N

dd Y

k i1 f or d > d Y 6 constants. This function is not suitable for the STS since the

p

i1

h applied load does not increase monotonically.

applied load P/(Dt) versus p in

comparison to the characteristic

curve. (b). The ratio k 1 p

Mises stress [GPa]

(t) normalized applied load (ap)

0.6

0.5

0.5 0.4

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45

equivalent plastic strain

(a)

(b)

Exp Mech (2016) 56:437449 443

In order to determine k 1 p for the STS, the normalized

8

7 x 10

P

applied load Dt 6

on the mid section. This can also be done by application of

5

equation (6) to the experimental results of Fig. 8. The aver- average experimental curve

aged Mises stress on the mid section M is plotted as well 4

against the plastic averaged plastic strain p . These two curves test number:

3 1

are shown in Fig. 11(a). It can be observed visually in 2

Fig. 11(a) that for p >0.2 the normalized applied load de- 2 3

4

1 5

cates that the decreasing applied load does not mean

softening. According to equation (7) the ratio between these 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09

two curves is k 1 p . This ratio is shown in Fig. 11(b). The

normalized applied displacement: d/h

Fig. 13 The five experimental results showing the normalized applied

ratio is for the range 0 < p < f p where f p is the aver- load =P/(Dt) versus the normalized applied displacement d/h. Note

aged fracture strain on the mid-section. The ratio k 1 p can the average experimental curve

* *

be approximated by: k 1 p a* eb p c* ed p where: a =

0.0515, b =156.5, c =0.9094 and d =0.2616 . The varia- Results and Data Reduction

tion is quite even with 0:92 < k 1 p < 1:01.

The total strain is: . For most

All specimens were manufactured from 12 mm diameter cold

p e p E

drawn round steel bars C22E (DIN) or 1020 (AISI/SAE), in

metals the elastic strain is negligible in comparison with the

the as-received condition. Dog-bone, cylindrical and STS

plastic strain e < < p , hence using p is justified.

specimens were machined.

The cylinders were sandwiched between loading rods and

compression was applied, while the dog-bone and the STS

specimens were tested in tension. All specimens were tested

Experimental Results quasi-statically on a servo-hydraulic with a crosshead speed of

1 [mm/min]. The vertical displacements were measured with

The quasi-static tests and the dynamic tests are detailed in the an optical laser extensometer, while the applied force by the

next two subsections. load cell of the machine. The tests stopped when the speci-

mens deformed drastically (in compression) or fractured. The

dimensions of the dog-bone type and cylinder type specimen

Quasi-Static Tests are shown in Fig. 12, and the dimensions of the circular gauge

STS are shown in Fig. 1 and detailed in Geometry section.

The quasi static tests include a comparison of the STS The normalized experimental results for 5 specimens are

results to test results obtained by using cylindrical spec- shown in Fig. 13. The applied load on each specimen (i) is

imens in compression and dog-bone specimen in normalized by its gauges vertical area projection (Dti). The

tension. applied displacement is normalized by the vertical height of

the gauge h. Each curve has a distinct apparent yield and

fracture strain. The averaged experimental curve is shown as

well. The average curve was obtained by first plotting the

experimental results of each specimen for the plastic region,

i

dd

using translation: i h

Y

; i 1:::5. Then the plastic

strain region was divided into N points and for each point j=

1...N the average of the applied stress was calculated by j

5 i

15 i where i Dt

P

i . Figure 14 shows the translated

i1

average stressstrain curve from yield (dY) up to the fracture

strain (df), as a function of dd

h

Y

. It can clearly be observed

that the experimental applied force has a maximum point at

Fig. 12 Geometry and dimensions of the cylindrical and dog-bone ~0.025 and for larger displacements the load is decreasing.

specimens. All dimensions in mm This phenomenon was predicted by the numerical simulations

444 Exp Mech (2016) 56:437449

8

6.6 x 10 Numerical evaluation of an STS section we fixed the fail-

6.4 ure strain fp =0.5 but the calculations showed that the aver-

6.2 aged failure strain is smaller (see Fig. 7): pf 0:38. It

6 means that the real fracture strain is higher by ~32 % from

P/(D*t) [Pa]

5.6 This is the result of the strain distribution on the mid-section,

5.4 and its averaging, as compared to its maximum value on the

5.2 mid-section where fracture starts. Such a result suggests that

5 the averaged true failure strain will always be underestimated

4.8 to some extent, although, as discussed in the next section,

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07

( d - dY)/h

this point can be remedied.

Fig. 14 The averaged normalized experimental results in the range of

displacements: dY <<df

Numerical Validation

shown in Figs. 8 and 12(a), and as mentioned does not mean

was extrapolated to higher values of plastic strain as shown

that strain-softening occurs, as is shown in Fig. 11(a) .

in Fig. 16(a), and was then input into Abaqus (see

The data reduction technique (equations (6)(7)) is applied

to the data of Fig. 14 to yield the characteristic p curve of

Numerical model, mesh, boundary conditions and material

properties). The red markers on the curves of Fig. 16(a)

the material (Fig. 15), together with the results of compression

indicate extrapolation while the characterized region is

cylinders and tension of dog-bone specimens [28]. The hard-

ening of the STS curve is similar, but lower to that of the

cylindrical specimens for the small plastic strain range. The

flow stress is ~50 MPa lower. This difference is probably due

to the effect of the third invariant of the deviator stress, i.e.,

Lode parameter [2]. Let us remind that in our compression tests,

=1, and in tension =1, as opposed to the in shear-tension

test where =0.52. Indeed, it can be found in the literature [3]

that the effect of the Lode parameter on the fracture strain is

negligible while its effect on the plastic flow is notable.

Using the STS, the 1020 steel could be characterized up to

p =0.23 where fracture occurred, while dog-bone specimens

would allow to reach only up to p =0.025, one order of mag-

nitude less than the STS.

It should be noticed that the average plastic strain on the mid-

section at fracture is not the ductility (fracture strain) of the

material. This is understood by considering the fact that in

8

x 10

7

6

fracture

5

stress [Pa]

4

cylinders dog-bones STS

3

1 Fig. 16 (a). The obtained (1st iteration) and modified (2nd iteration)

characteristic p curve of steel 1020 obtained by STS. (b).

0

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 Comparison of the experimental average Dt P

d

h curve to the numerical

plastic strain ones obtained by using the characteristic curves of Fig. 17a. Note that the

Fig. 15 The characteristic t tp curve of steel 1020 obtained by STS in three normalized loaddisplacement curves for the modified p in 17b

comparison to those obtained by cylinders and dog-bone specimens [28] coincide until fracture

Exp Mech (2016) 56:437449 445

d

h process while comparing the experimental Pexp

vs:

Dt

curves of Fig. 16(a) are compared to the averaged experimental d exp d exp

h to the numerical one. (A rough estimation can

Y

curve in Fig. 16(b). Even though there is a good agreement, it can

be obtained by multiplication the observed failure strain

be observed that the numerical curve is slightly lower than the

of step 7 by 1.32).

experimental one for d h < 0:04 and is slightly higher for

d

h > 0:05. Hence the obtained characteristic curve was slightly

Dynamic Tests

modified (2nd iteration) as shown in Fig. 16(a). The modified

curve of the 2nd iteration was once again input for another nu-

Experimental Results

merical analysis. A very good agreement can be observed in

Fig. 16(b) between the experimental and numerical Dt P

d

h Five specimen were tested using hardened C300 maraging

curves for the modified characteristic curve. A ductile failure steel split Hopkinson tension bars (SHTB). The geometry of

criterion with damage evolution [32] was then added to the anal- the specimens is the same as for the quasi-static tests (Fig. 1)

P

ysis. The Dt d

h curves for 3 values of the failure strain (0.35, with L=80 mm and D=8 mm. The only difference is an outer

0.40 and 0.45) are shown in Fig. 16(b). The results clearly show thread ~11 mm long, as shown in Fig. 17(a), which allows for

that the failure strain of steel 1020 is ~0.42 in quasi-static tension specimen mounting into the bars.

for Lode parameter of 0.52 and triaxiality of 0.36. A fast camera (Kirana, Specialized Imaging) recorded the

impact at 1,000,000 fps. Four characteristic frames are shown

in Fig. 17(b)-(e). The pictures were taken at 150, 175, 190 and

Summary of Data Reduction and Validation Steps

225 s from trigger. Cracks can be observed at the ends of the

for Quasi-Static Loading

gauge and its center in Fig. 17(d), while Fig. 17(e) shows the

fully fractured gauge. The fracture pattern resembles the letter

The data reduction and validation steps for taking advantage

Z and the fracture face is stepped. The 5 fractured specimens

of the STS under quasi-static loading can be summarized as

are shown in Fig. 18.

follows:

The recorded pulses during the 5 tests are shown in Fig. 19.

All tests were performed with the same pressure within the air

1. Perform a numerical analysis of the specimen using the

tank: 3 bar and it can be observed that there is a good

best known stressstrain curve for the material (Numeri-

repetability of the results (the spike is probably the result

cal evaluation of an STS).

of a shorted gauge wire).

2. Obtain the numerical results for:

ber of the time step during the numerical solution.

3. Plot p vs d h and obtain by curve fitting the coefficients

for equation (6) (k2).

4. Plot Dt

P

vs and M vs p on another figure and get the

p

ratio k 1 p for equation (7).

5. Perform an experiment and obtain the curve: Pexp dexp.

6. Identify\estimate on the obtained experimental curve of

step 5 the yield point (Pexp exp

Y ,dY ) and replot the translat-

exp d exp d exp

ed normalized experimental curve: PDt vs: h

Y

for

d >dY .

exp exp

tion equations (6)(7) with the results of steps 34 on the

experimental curve of step 6.

8. Validate t tp by substituting it into the analysis of step 1.

Make small adjustments to t tp until a satisfactory

exp d exp d exp

agreement between the experimental PDt vs: h

Y

and the numerical ones is obtained. Fig. 17 (a). The dynamic STS specimen. (b). During impact testing

9. Add a ductile failure criterion (fracture strain) to the anal- before fracture. (c). During impact testing before fracture 25 s after

ysis of step 8 and find the ductility by a trial and error 18b (d). Fracture occur. (e). The fractured STS specimen

446 Exp Mech (2016) 56:437449

elements of type C3D8R. The mesh size in the SCS gauge

region is ~0.2 mm and on the bars ~1 mm.

Symmetry conditions were applied all along the assembly on

the face shown in Fig. 20(c). The load was applied at the right

end of the half incident bar. At that location in the experimental

setup, a strain gauge is used to measure the incident and reflected

pulses. The average of the measured incident strain pulses mul-

tiplied by the Youngs modulus of the bars was applied as a

negative pressure. The incident pulses are shown in Fig. 19.

An elastic material model was used for the SHPB bars

(Table 1). An elasticplastic material model was used for the

1020 steel (Table 1). The stress-plastic strain curve was input

into Abaqus for the STS is shown in Fig. 16(a). A ductile

failure criterion with a displacement type damage evolution

[32] of 5 m was used.. The purpose of the analyses is to

obtain and validate the stressstrain results in the dynamic

regime.

Numerical Results

Fig. 18 The five dynamically fractured STS specimens The dynamic flow behavior and ductility of the STS is obtain-

ed by hybrid numerical-experimental technique using trial

Numerical Model, Mesh, Materials and Boundary Conditions and error procedure. As a first guess, we use the quasi-

static t tp curve. The experimentally measured strain pulse

The numerical model included 3 parts: 1) Half of the incident is applied as pressure (multiplied by Youngs modulus of the

bar. 2) The SCS specimen. 3) The transmitted bar. The assem- bar) on the incident bar, and the reflected pulse is determined

bly of these parts is shown in Fig. 20(a). A magnified region of at the location (Fig. 20(a)) of the strain gauge and compared to

the STS specimen is shown in Fig. 20(b). The front view on experimentally measured transmitted pulse. The t tp which

top of Fig. 20(b) and the back view on the bottom of 20b. It are input to numerical analyses is iteratively modified until a

was assumed in the analysis that the STS specimen is perfectly good agreement is reached.

bonded to the incident and transmitted bars. The bonded area Likewise, the ductility is also found by trial and error pro-

can be seen in the back view. Because of symmetry only half cedure. Different values are tested until a good agreement is

of the three merged parts were modeled, as shown in the cut reached between the experimental and numerical transmitted

section of Fig. 20(c). pulses.

recorded pulses

Exp Mech (2016) 56:437449 447

which was used for the numerical

validation. (a). The assembly. (b).

Magnification of the specimen

area showing the connection to

the bars. (c). A cut section

through the model showing the

face on which symmetry

condition were applied

(a) is the quasi-static curve of Fig. 16(a). The middle curve (b) characteristic -

p

is 50 MPa higher than curve (a). The upper curve (c) is 0.8

100 MPa higher than (a).

The results of 4 numerical analyses are shown in Fig. 21(b).

The first 3 correspond to using the t tp curves (a)-(b)-(c) 0.6

with fracture strain of fp =0.5 and the 4th to the curve (b)

stress [GPa]

transmitted pulses are compared to the average of the 5 exper- b

imentally obtained transmitted pulses. a

The experimental results do have a ringing effect due 0.2

to inertia [33]. This ringing effect is attenuated as the

plastic strain within the gauge increases. Hence, the nu- 0

merical results do not replicate the first experimental 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

(inertial) peak value, but it does replicate the next three plastic strain

ones. Curve (a) coincides with the minimum of the 2nd (a)

extreme value. Curve (c) coincides with the maximum of

800 a

the 3rd extreme value. Curve (b) seem to flatten the ring-

b

ing effect, and to be more similar to the experimental

c

pulse. It means that due to the strain-rate effect the mate- 600

test

rial hardens by~50 MPa. The strain rate is~10000 1/s and

strain

b - no failure

is obtained by derivation of the numerical results for p .

400

The 4th numerical pulse shows how would the transmitted

pulse behave if there was no fracture. The value of fp =0.5

seems adequate for simulating the fracture. 200

0

Steel 1020 C300 Maraging 0 20 40 60 80 100

steel time [s]

(b)

density Kg

m3

7870 8000

Fig. 21 (a). Characteristic p curves which correspond to the quasi-

Youngs modulus E GPa 205 190 static curve (a) and an elevated stress by 50 and 100 MPa (b) and (c). (b).

Poisons ratio 029 0.3 The corresponding numerically obtained transmitted pulses due to the

characteristic curves in comparison to the experimental transmitted pulse

448 Exp Mech (2016) 56:437449

Summary of Data Reduction and Validation Steps involves basic numerical simulation work. Keeping in

for Dynamic Loading mind that there is no accepted specimen to investigate

shear under tension (Lode parameter: 10), whose

The data reduction and validation steps for taking advantage availability might help to discover interesting properties

of the STS under dynamic loading can be summarized as of materials. it is believed that the data reduction proce-

follows: dure is reasonably straightforward and justifies the use of

the STS.

1. Perform an experiment on a SHTB and obtain the inci-

dent, reflected and transmitted strain pulses. Acknowledgments Mr. A. Reuven and Mr. Y. Rozitskis assistance

with the production of the specimens and conducting the experiments is

2. Apply a numerical analysis of the experimental setup

greatly appreciated. We thank Professor Ishay Weissman for the discus-

(similar to Numerical results section) in which the static sions on statistical issues.

t tp serves as a first guess for the true dynamic t tp

and the experimentally measured incident pulse serve as

the applied load. References

3. Monitor the numerically obtained transmitted strain pulse

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