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TMC

GEOMETRIC
DIMENSIONING
&
TOLERANCING

Level II
Design Engineering

Produced by:
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd.
25 Clifton Court,
McLaren Vale
SA 5171
AUSTRALIA

Phone/Fax +61 8 83237893


E-mail: tony_meredith@bigpond.com
ABN: 73 073 348 455
T MC
GEOMETRIC
DIMENSIONING &
TOLERANCING
(GD&T)

Curriculum Outline
&
Introduction
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PHILOSOPHY OF DESIGN

Roll of design Engineers in Industry


Engineering Structures
Cost Effective Design
How & Why things can Go Wrong
Communications (Role of GD&T)
Function
Myths
The Engineers Crutch
Conventions & National Standards

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DATUM THEORY
What is a DATUM ?

3-Plane Concept.

Datum Features - Planes


- Cylinders
- Targets

Effect of Size & Form

Gauge/Inspection Datum Set-up

Practical exercises

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GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS
Symbols (General Outline).

Detailed Discussion, application techniques,


Interpretations & practical exercises.
a) Flatness, Straightness, Roundness & Cylindricity
b) Profiles of Lines & Surfaces
c) Parallelism, Perpendicularity & Angularity
d) Runout, True Position, Concentricity & Symmetry
e) True Position in depth

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PRACTICAL TOLERANCING

A] Capturing DESIGN INTENT

B] Application

C] Interpretation

D] Drawing Practice

E] Gauging

F] Significant Characteristics

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FMEA & GD&T
Function Matrix
Co-ordination & interaction

WORKSHOP

Critique of drawings
Review of real examples from
your organization

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T h e R ole o f D esign E n g ineers in Ind u stry

The major function of a Design Engineer in Industry today is to Develop information


which permits an idea or concept to be converted into a physical object or system that
precisely meets the functions of that idea or concept.

The Design Engineer plays a pivotal role in manufacturing


organizations

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Design A Definition

The PHYSICALISATION
of the
IMAGINATION

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Engineering Structures

Traditional:
The traditional structure in Manufacturing Industries is to have a special
Department with its own hierachy. This is further broken down into specialist engineering
functions, such as Product Design,Manufacturing Engineering, Testing etc.

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Engineering Structures

Modern:
Engineers are incorporated into Multi-Functional teams with specific
project responsibilities. The teams usually have members with different disciplines, ie.
Engineers(their sub-disciplines are dependent on the project ), Manufacturing, Quality,
Marketing, Purchasing, Finance, MIS, etc.

Under this type of structure accountability is through the Team Leader


who may or may not be an Engineer.

The ability of the engineer to communicate accurately, under this structure is even
more demanding than in the traditional structure.

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T MC In order to be able to do his/her job properly the engineer must
be trained to understand the following:

1) Laws of Physics as they apply to the concept

2) Mathematics

3) Mechanical systems, their functions & their environmental


limitations

4) Various materials available, their characteristics & applicability

5) Any Legal or other demands relevant to the application of the


concept

6) Costing

7) Testing methods

8) Performance evaluation techniques (statistics)

9) Manufacturing

10)Using TOOLS Effectively (eg. CAD)

11) Effective Engineering Communications

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An Engineer s capability is measured according to how well


he/she applies that training to ensure that the resulting system
efficiently performs the idea/concept s function, ie,

SKILL

In order to demonstrate the above capability the Engineer must


be able to COMMUNICATE his/her system requirements in a
way that can be UNDERSTOOD

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T MC C O S T E F F E C T IV E
D E S IG N

Every COMPONENT drawing in whatever form has a cost

C S
O K
S I
T L
L

No. Made No. Made

C
O
S
T

SKILL

The above curves apply to all enterprises, whether producing components,


works of art or making component drawings.

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There are many examples in the World which demonstrate that
poorly executed drawings/specifications of an excellent
concept will create a poor reputation for Manufacturing &
Reliability in the Market place,
While well executed drawings/specifications can make a
mediocre/conservative concept achieve an excellent reputation
for Manufacturing & Reliability etc. in the Market place.

Well executed Drawings/Specifications also minimize


problems & delays in the process from Concept to Production.

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Things That can Go Wrong
Common Problems in Manufacturing Industry

Example A
A component is submitted for Off Tool Sample approval & found not to
perform properly with its interacting components.

WHY ?
1) The component was not made to drawing because:-

a) The supplier made a mistake

b) The Supplier Mis-interpreted the Drawing

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Things That can Go Wrong

Example A (cont d)

2) The component was made to the Drawing BUT:-

a) The Engineer/Draughtsman made a mistake

b) The Engineer/Draughtsman put INCORRECT information on


the Drawing because he/she did not understand fully the
FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP with its interacting
components.

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T MC
Things That can Go Wrong
Common Problems in Manufacturing Industry

Example B

A component is submitted for Off Tool Sample approval which(after an


extensive test program) was found to work satisfactorily with its
interacting components, although it does NOT CONFORM to the
Drawing

WHY ?
1) The Supplier process was not capable of producing parts within the
Specified tolerance range & making changes to the tooling would jeopardise
the cost &/or the program timing.

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Things That can Go Wrong

Example B (cont d)

2) The Engineer/Draughtsman did not investigate the TRUE tolerance


allowance for the feature(s) because:-

a) He/she played safe in allocating the tolerance(s)

b) he/she did not understand/investigate the true FUNCTIONAL


VARIABLES of the component with its INTERACTING
components.

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T MC

These examples are intended to illustrate some of the


problems that can affect a Company s relationship
with a Customer or the effective operations within the
Company.

Highlighted are the effects of not understanding or using


the means of communication properly between
Designers, Engineers or Draughtsmen with those
responsible for making the Components/Assemblies.

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Cost of correction

Design Prototype Tooling Pilot Prodn. Serial Prodn. In Market Prod. Recall
Error Detection Stage
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IMPORTANT!
Engineering drawings & specifications are
LEGAL DOCUMENTS

1] In respect to contract between Supplier &


Customer.

2] In respect to Product Liability issues that


can arise from the market place

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COMMUNICATIONS

Communications between
Human Beings is by means of
LANGUAGE

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T MC

To UNDERSTAND and, to
ensure that you convey the
true meaning of your
Feelings, Needs, Ideas etc.,
the LANGUAGE MUST BE
LEARNED

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All languages have common attributes:-

SOUNDS are used to communicate feelings,


needs, ideas etc. directly to another person or
group who understand the spoken language.

SYMBOLS are used to communicate


feelings, needs, ideas etc. to another person or
group who are remote and understand the
written language.

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T MC

WRITTEN communication is also


NECESSARY when continuous reference is
required to ensure that the information does not
change from one reading to the next.

Reliance on VERBAL communication used in


conveying PRECISE information can lead to many
mistakes & so be sources of conflict.

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Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing


System

-Is the Language that Engineers use to


communicate their requirements of a
component or an assembly so that the end
product meets the DESIGN INTENT-

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T MC
WHY USE GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING?
Why is it that we should be so interested in this subject?

FIRST AND FOREMOST ITS USE SAVES MONEY!


It saves money directly by providing for maximum producibility of the
part through maximum production tolerances. It provides "bonus" or extra
tolerances in many cases.
It ensures that design dimensional and tolerance requirements, as they
relate to actual function, are specifically stated and thus carried out.
It adapts to, and assists, computerization techniques in design and
manufacture. It ensures interchangeability of mating parts at assembly.
It provides uniformity and convenience in drawing delineation and
interpretation, thereby reducing controversy and guesswork.

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WHY USE GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING?

Aside from the primary reasons stated before there are others of a more general nature:
The intricacies of today's sophisticated engineering design demand new and better ways of
accurately and reliably communicating requirements. Old methods simply no longer suffice.

Diversity of product line and manufacture makes considerably more stringent demands of
the completeness, uniformity, and clarity of drawings.
It is increasingly becoming the "spoken word" throughout industry, the military, and
internationally, on engineering drawings & documentation. Every engineer or technician
involved in originating or reading a drawing should have a working knowledge of this new
state of the art.

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T MC
FUNCTION

How do we define FUNCTION

There are TWO entities that require consideration


from an engineering aspect:

1) An ASSEMBLY (or Sub-assembly)

2) An individual COMPONENT

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FUNCTION

1) An ASSEMBLY (or Sub-assembly)

An Assembly (or Sub-assembly) is a group of components


that are joined together and/or interact, such that for a
given physical INPUT manipulates that input to create an
OUTPUT which achieves a desired objective.

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T MC
FUNCTION

2) An Individual COMPONENT

A COMPONENT is a single piece within an Assembly


(or Sub-assembly) that has essential
characteristics/features which interact with other
components in order that the Assembly (or Sub-
assembly) can reliably perform its design intent.

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T MC Define the CONDITIONS & EXPECTATIONS for the


Functions
Corrosion Resistance

Temperature/Humidity
Environment
Ageing (Accelerated)
Customer
Number of Cycles
&
Life Expectation
Fatigue Legal
Requirements

Interacting Features
Specifications
Critical Features Strength
Mass
Manufacturability

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T MC Function Loss Matrix
Refer ISO/QS 9000 PPAP Manual

1) List all the Features of the Component/system/assembly.

2) Indicate which features have a DATUM function

3) Determine the Criticality/Severity Rating if those features are


OUTSIDE the Specification [L-Low, M-Medium or H-High]

4) Indicate each feature s dependence [datum reference]

5) Indicate the control symbol(s) appropriate to each feature

6) Review the Matrix

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T MC Design Function/Relationship Matrix

Component/Sub-Assy. Pt. No.


(Dimensioning)

Datum Criticality Rating Control Symbol


Feature Seco Siz Positio Shap Prim. Sec.
Prim Tert. Datum Datum
n e n e

A
Surface
B
Hole
C
Hole
D
Thicknes
s
E
Width

Etc.

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T MC MYTHS

1) Using GD&T increases Cost !!

Proper use of GD&T reduces cost by


MAXIMISING the tolerances of features.

It is provable that the cost of production of a feature


increases according to the inverse of the size of the
tolerance

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T MC MYTHS

2) Computer generated Data/Drawings are precise


& do not require additional information !!

Complex surfaces such as styled features must still be


located in a mechanical environment within an
acceptable tolerance.

Eg. A instrument panel surface profile must be


located so that it fits properly in its environment so
that the overall style of the interior of the vehicle
meets the designers intent.

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T MC MYTHS

3) GD&T can not be applied to all situations !!

GD&T is not just the use of a library of symbols, but a


LANGUAGE to communicate design intent.
If a situation occurs during the establishment of functional
requirement of a feature that is not covered by the standard
library then the requirement can be noted using the
GD&T principles to convey that requirement.

Use the GD&T language/vocabulary in a combination


that truly conveys the DESIGN INTENT

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What is the Engineers CRUTCH ?

That note on the drawing that classifies the tolerance


according to the number of decimal points on the
feature dimension.

0 ---------- +/- 1 mm
0.0---------+/- 0.2 mm
0.00--------+/- 0.1 mm

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T MC
What should we do instead?

1) Refer to the Function Matrix for guidance to


evaluate the REAL tolerance requirement.

2) Are there any formal standards that cover the function


that is required? Eg, Hole/shaft fits, Injection moulding
tolerances, codes of practice etc.

3) Consider how the feature will be Manufactured,


& what is the relative cost in Tooling & Piece cost.

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International Standards & Conventions

Agreement between US ANSI/ASME & ISO Standards


covering GD&T is about 90 95% .
Other national standards such as Australian Stds. Are generally
aligned with ISO.
Overall it can be considered that the GD&T language is
UNIVERSAL in its application & understanding. Ie, no matter
which ethnic group needs to know what the designers intent is,
can understand, provided the GD&T language is understood.

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T MC Standards necessary for GD&T coverage

ANSI/ASME Y14.5M

The following documents must be considered when adopting ISO/GD&T standards


1. 15011101- Technical Drawings Geometrical tolerancing
2. ISO/5458- Technical Drawings Positional tolerancing
3. ISO/5459- Technical Drawings Datums and Datum Systems
4. ISO/2692- Technical Drawings Maximum material principle
5. ISO/3040- Technical Drawings Cones
6. ISO/1660- Technical Drawings Profiles
7. ISO/129- Technical Drawings General principles
8. ISO/406- Technical Drawings Linear and angular dimensions
9. ISO/10578 Technical Drawings Projected tolerance zones
10. ISO/2692:1988/DAM 1 Technical Drawings Least material principle
11. ISO/8015 Technical Drawings Fundamental tolerance principle
12. ISO/7083 Technical Drawings Symbols proportions
13. ISO/10579 Technical Drawings Non-rigid parts

Additional 1S0 standards involved:


1. ISO/1000 - SI Units
2. ISO/286 - Limits & Fits
3. ISO/TR5460 Technical Drawings-Verification principles
4. ISO/2768-2 General geometrical tolerances
5. ISO/1302 - Surface Texture
6. ISO/2768-1 Tolerances for linear and angular dimensions
7. Other peripheral standards on screw threads, gears, drills, welding, etc., may also
be required for coverage beyond Y 14.5 for product design.
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Complete Symbols
List

Items Marked #
are not
described in
detail in this
course as they
are self
explanatory

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T MC

GEOMETRIC
DIMENSIONING &
TOLERANCING
(GD&T)

Session 1

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Geometric Dimensioning &
Tolerancing System-

-Isthe Language that Engineers use


to communicate their requirements
of a component or an assembly so
that the end product meets his
-DESIGN INTENT-

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T MC
FUNCTION

An ASSEMBLY (or Sub-assembly) is a group of


components that are joined together or interact such that
for a given physical INPUT manipulates that input to
create an OUTPUT which achieves a desired objective

A COMPONENT is a single piece within an


Assembly (or Sub-assembly) that has essential
characteristics/features which interact with other
components in order that the Assembly (or Sub-
assembly) can perform its DESIGN INTENT.

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T MC Fundamental Dimensioning Rules[Y14.5]


1] Each dimension shall have a tolerance, except those dimensions specifically identified as
reference, maximum, minimum or commercial stock size.
2] Dimensioning & tolerancing will be complete so there is full definition of each part feature
3] Dimensions shall be selected & arranged to suit the function & mating relationship of a part
& shall not be subject to more than one interpretation.
4] The drawing should define a part without specifying manufacturing methods
5] A 90 angle applies where centrelines & lines depicting features are shown on a drawing at
right angles, & no dimension is shown.
6] A 90 angle applies where centrelines of features in a pattern or surfaces shown at right
angles on a drawing are located & defined by BASIC dimensions, & no angle is specified.
7] Unless otherwise specified, all dimensions are applicable at 20C.
8] All dimensions & tolerances apply in a free state condition (unless otherwise specified). This
principle does not apply to nonrigid parts.

9] Unless otherwise specified, all geometric tolerances apply to the full depth, length &
width of the (subject) feature.

10] Dimensions & tolerances apply only at the drawing level where they are specified. A
dimension specified on a detail drawing is NOT mandatory for that feature on the assembly
drawing. 46

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Rule #1:
Where only a
tolerance of size
is specified, the
limits of size of
an individual
feature
prescribe the
extent to which
variations in its
form as well as
its size are
allowed.
[Y14.5]

ie Perfect
form at MMC
or the
Envelope rule

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T MC RFS

Examples:
Rule #2:
Regardless of
0.12 A C B
Feature Size
[RFS] applies,
with respect to
individual
tolerances, 0.12 M A M C B L
datum
references or
both where no
modifying
symbol is
specified. Maximum Least
[Y14.5] RFS is the Material Material
default Condition Condition
condition in
the absence of
any
modifier. 48
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T MC

What is a Tolerance ??

A TOLERANCE is the TOTAL amount by


which a feature may vary from the perfect
conditions of Structure, Size, Shape and/or
Position while the Design Intent is
maintained.

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DATUM THEORY
What is a DATUM ?
3-Plane Concept.
Datum Features - Planes
- Cylinders
- Targets
Effect of Size & Form
Gauge/Inspection Datum Set-up
Practical exercises
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What is a DATUM ??

A DATUM is:-

1) A theoretically exact point, axis or plane derived from the


true geometric counterpart of a specified datum feature .

2) The origin from which the location of geometric


characteristics of features of a part are established.

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T MC Degrees of freedom

To stabilize a
part in Space
All 6 Degrees
of Freedom
MUST be
controlled

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T MC Attributes of a cylinder as a Datum feature

Cylindrical form
may be a hole,
spigot or shaft.

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T MC Problem of IMPLIED Datums

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T MC
CONTROL SYMBOLS

XXX BASIC
MAX. MATERIAL
CONDITION
TANGENT PLANE

LEAST MATERIAL
FREE FORM
CONDITION
DATUM

DIAMETER
PROJECTED TO:-

DATUM TARGET
A
CR CONTOLLED ST Statistical Tolerance
RADIUS

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T MC Control Symbols

XXX.XX BASIC

BASIC dimensions are only used to LOCATE


Tolerance Zones

A DATUM

This edge to be located


at the feature or surface
DATUM TARGET nominated as the datum
A1
Used to indicate points
or areas on a surface
which together form the
DATUM reference.

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T MC Problem of IMPLIED Datums

CONFUSION!!!!

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EXAMPLES WITH DATUMS

NO CONFUSION!!!!!

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T MC Datum prioritisation why?

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ESTABLISHING DATUM PLANES FROM DATUM SURFACES/FEATURES
3 PLANE CONCEPT- DATUM REFERENCE FRAME

ESTABLISHING THE DATUM PLANES

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T MC

Datum Plane
(Surface)

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T MC Datum Plane
(Surface)

Surface
nominated as
Datum

Note! Datum symbol is


NOT at the feature size
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T MC DATUM TARGET SYMBOLS

Datum Target Symbols are used to


establish datum planes & part orientation
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T MC DATUM TARGETS

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T MC DATUM TARGETS

1
3

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T MC Surface to surface [Formed part]

Secondary Datum

Tertiary Datum

Primary Datum 66
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T MC
Partial Surface datum target

Pressure Applied to
simulate function

Less than
Height
tolerance

Functional location
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T MC

?
Requires
Flatness or
similar callout

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T MC Locations on Casting surface for Machining

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T MC Feature nominated
as Datum
Feature nominated
as Datum

Establishing Datum Centre


Planes from Datum Features
Surface nominated Note! RFS
as Datum

CAUTION!
The FUNCTIONAL
requirements should be
carefully considered
before use

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T MC Axial Location [position]
established by Datum Target

Secondary Datum

Primary Datum

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T MC Features as Datums

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T MC Attributes of a hole[cylinder] as a Datum feature

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T MC Attributes of a hole[cylinder] as a Datum feature

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T MC Features as Datums

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T MC Features as Datums

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Features as Datums
T MC
Datum features

Datum Surface

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T MC Feature Pattern as Datum

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T MC Features as Datums

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1] The Datum Feature
Simulator is the surface of
Manufacturing or
Verification equipment

2] The Datum Axis is


derived from the Datum
Feature Simulator

Note! Simulated Datum


Features are used as the
practical embodiment of
the Datums during
manufacture &
Inspection
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T MC SURFACE(3)
(wedge)
SURFACE(2) PIVOT(2)

PIVOT(1)

SURFACE(1)
+ PIVOT(3)
Feature(hole)
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T MC
BELLCRANK

0.75 in

3.002 in

1.125 in 0.813 in

5 in

4.251 in

1.501 in

0.49 in

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T MC
Nominate the
DATUM features that
are used to control the
fasteners locations
B

B
A

A
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T MC Nominate the DATUM features that are used


to control the locations of the COVER &
KEY to the BODY

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T MC
CONTROL SYMBOLS

XXX BASIC
MAX. MATERIAL
CONDITION
TANGENT PLANE

LEAST MATERIAL
FREE FORM
CONDITION
DATUM

DIAMETER
PROJECTED TO:-

DATUM TARGET
A
CR CONTOLLED ST Statistical Tolerance
RADIUS

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T MC Control Symbols

Maximum Material Condition


M MMC

Least Material Condition


L LMC

P Projected Tolerance Zone

CR Controlled Radius

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T MC M
Maximum Material Condition
MMC

The MMC principle is normally only valid when BOTH of the


following conditions are fulfilled:
-Two or more features are interrelated with respect to
orientation or location [eg, a hole & an edge or surface, two
holes, etc.]. At least ONE of these related features is to be a
feature of size.
-- The feature(s) to which the MMC principle is to apply MUST
be a feature of size [eg, a hole, slot, shaft, etc] with an axis or
centre plane.

Application of this Modifier in the


context of applicable Geometric
Controls allows BONUS
tolerance as the actual feature of
size departs from the MMC
condition.

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T MC Least Material Condition


L LMC

The condition of a feature of size which contains the


least amount of material within the stated limits of size
[eg, smallest pin, largest hole.

NOTE! The least material condition may be a NOTE! Rule #1 allows feature
desirable alternative to MMC under certain distortion within the MMC
design function requirements. Envelope

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T MC
P Projected Tolerance Zone

Usually used in context of Position control


of Tapped Holes or Locating Pin holes
[ Fixed Fastener applications]

0.08 M P 6.4 A B M C

Projected Tol Zone 6.4mm,


usually equal to max.
thickness of mating part or
total protrusion of fixed
fastener.

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T MC CONTROLLED RADIUS

Note! The
magnification limit
MUST be stated to
appropriate to the
function!!

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T MC
CONTROL SYMBOLS

XXX BASIC
MAX. MATERIAL
CONDITION
TANGENT PLANE

LEAST MATERIAL
FREE FORM
CONDITION
DATUM

DIAMETER
PROJECTED TO:-

DATUM TARGET
A
CR CONTOLLED ST Statistical Tolerance
RADIUS

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T MC TANGENT PLANE

Applicable to the
0.1 T A following Geometric
controls:

Function Note!
-Only the tangent plane of the
toleranced surface must be within the
tolerance zone.
-The flatness of the surface is NOT
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T MC FREE FORM

Principle: Applicable to parts that are non rigid or liable to distortion under certain
conditions.

Conditions of support must be specified before determination of


conformance to specification.

Free State feature of size may be specified if the correct constraint


conditions of assembly can be met.

Example
F
M12 Bolt Torque 35-
40Nm before checking

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T MC Statistical
ST
Tolerance

This modifier may be used to indicate that the


associated dimension is derived from a statistically
dependent assembly condition & that interacting
component features are similarly derived.
The resultant assembly condition MAY NOT
function correctly if the combination of assembled
parts are at extremes of the permitted tolerances.
May be used in the context of selective assembly of
very close tolerance features.

ST
6.15 +/- 0.08

94
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47
T MC BONUS TOLERANCES

Bonus Tolerances are :-


Additional tolerances
for Geometric control.
Only permissible when
an MMC or LMC
modifier is shown in the
feature control frame.
Only come from the
actual feature
tolerance.
The amount of bonus
is only the amount the
actual mating size
departs from MMC or
LMC.

95
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T MC
GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS

Symbols (General Outline).

Detailed Discussion, application techniques,


Interpretations & practical exercises.
a) Flatness, Straightness, Roundness & Cylindricity
b) Profiles of Lines & Surfaces
c) Parallelism, Perpendicularity & Angularity
d) Runout, True Position, Concentricity & Symmetry
e) True Position in depth

96
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48
T MC
TOLERANCES OF FORM

For Single Feature


For Related Features
FLATNESS
SQUARENESS
PERPENDICULAR
STRAIGHTNESS TO:-

ANGULARITY
ROUNDNESS
CIRCULARITY

PARALLEL TO:-
CYLINDRICITY

RUNOUT

PROFILE

TOTAL RUNOUT
SURFACE

97
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T MC
TOLERANCES OF POSITION

TRUE POSITION

CONCENTRICITY

SYMETRY

98
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49
T MC
FLATNESS
Note! Surface finish
control can be used in
conjunction with
Flatness control BUT
NOT instead of Flatness
control

99
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T MC FLATNESS

Inspection & Gauging methods

100
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50
T MC STRAIGHTNESS

[Applied to a FLAT surface]

101
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T MC STRAIGHTNESS

[Applied to a cylinder]

102
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51
T MC STRAIGHTNESS
MAX. MATERIAL
(Use of Modifier) CONDITION

DIAMETER

103
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T MC STRAIGHTNESS

Compare with
Cylindricity
call out later

104
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52
T MC STRAIGHTNESS Unit Length Basis

Compare with
Cylindricity
call out later

105
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T MC ROUNDNESS (CIRCULARITY)

106
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53
T MC Roundness of a Cone

107
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T MC Inspecting Roundness

108
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54
T MC Roundness of a Sphere

109
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T MC CYLINDRICITY

110
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55
T MC
Cylindricity & Roundness

0.05 M 0.10/25 M
Part or Element length
25mm

111
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T MC ROUNDNESS & CYLINDRICITY


EVALUATION

112
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56
T MC PROFILE

42
33

113
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T MC SURFACE

114
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57
T MC

115
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T MC Application of
Tolerance Zone
Profile or Surface

Equi-spaced either side NOMINAL is Least NOMINAL is


of the NOMINAL form Material Condition Maximum Material
(LMC) Condition (MMC)

116
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58
T MC Complex Surface or Profile

117
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T MC Complex Surface or Profile

118
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59
T MC

119
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GEOMETRIC
DIMENSIONING &
TOLERANCING
(GD&T)

Session 2

120

60
T MC
GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS

Symbols (General Outline).

Detailed Discussion, application techniques,


Interpretations & practical exercises.
a) Flatness, Straightness, Roundness & Cylindricity
b) Profiles of Lines & Surfaces
c) Parallelism, Perpendicularity & Angularity
d) Runout, True Position, Concentricity & Symmetry
e) True Position in depth

121
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TOLERANCES OF FORM

For Single Feature


For Related Features
FLATNESS
SQUARENESS
PERPENDICULAR
STRAIGHTNESS TO:-

ANGULARITY
ROUNDNESS
CIRCULARITY

PARALLEL TO:-
CYLINDRICITY

RUNOUT

PROFILE

TOTAL RUNOUT
SURFACE

122

61
SQUARENESS
PERPENDICULAR
TO:-

123

SQUARENESS
PERPENDICULAR
TO:-

124

62
SQUARENESS
PERPENDICULAR
TO:-

125

SQUARENESS
PERPENDICULAR
TO:-

126

63
SQUARENESS
PERPENDICULAR
TO:-

127

SQUARENESS
PERPENDICULAR
TO:-

128

64
SQUARENESS
PERPENDICULAR
TO:-

129

SQUARENESS
PERPENDICULAR
TO:-

130

65
ANGULARITY

131

ANGULARITY

132

66
ANGULARITY

133

PARALLEL TO:-

Form tolerance
MUST be Less than
size tolerance

134

67
PARALLEL TO:-

135

PARALLEL TO:-

136

68
PARALLEL TO:-

137

PARALLEL TO:-

138

69
PARALLEL TO:-

139

PERPENDICULAR
PARALLEL TO:- TO:- FLATNESS

140

70
T MC
TOLERANCES OF FORM

For Single Feature


For Related Features
FLATNESS
SQUARENESS
PERPENDICULAR
STRAIGHTNESS TO:-

ANGULARITY
ROUNDNESS
CIRCULARITY

PARALLEL TO:-
CYLINDRICITY

RUNOUT

PROFILE

TOTAL RUNOUT
SURFACE

141
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T MC
CO-AXIAL FEATURES
Selection of Proper Control

There are four characteristics for controlling interrelated coaxial features:

1. RUNOUT TOLERANCE (circular or total) (RFS)

2. POSITION TOLERANCE (MMC or RFS)

3. CONCENTRICITY TOLERANCE (RFS)

4. PROFILE OF A SURFACE (RFS DATUM)

Any of the above methods provides effective control. However, it is important to select the

most appropriate one to both meet the design requirements and provide the most economical manufacturing

conditions. (See also details of preceding and following sections.)

142
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71
T MC CO-AXIAL FEATURES
Selection of Proper Control

If the need is to control only CIRCULAR cross-sectional elements in a composite


relationship to the datum axis, RFS, e.g., multi-diameters on a shaft, use:
CIRCULAR RUNOUT EXAMPLE
(This method controls any composite error effect of circularity, concentricity, and
circular cross-sectional profile variations.)

If the need is to control the TOTAL cylindrical or profile surface in composite


relative to the datum axis RFS, e.g., multi-diameters on a shaft, bearing mounting
diameters, etc., use:
TOTAL RUNOUT EXAMPLE

(This method controls any composite error effect of circularity, cylindricity,


straightness, co-axiality, angularity, and parallelism.)
NOTE Runout is always implied as an RFS application. It cannot be applied on an
MMC basis, since an MMC situation involves functional interchangeability or
assemblability (probably of mating parts), in which case POSITION tolerance
would be used. See later. 143
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T MC CO-AXIAL FEATURES
Selection of Proper Control
If the-need is to control the total cylindrical or profile surface and its actual mating envelope axis relative to the

datum axis on an MMC or RFS basis, e.g., on mating parts to assure inter- changeability or assemblability, use:

POSITION (IF MMC) EXAMPLE


This will be dealt with in
(IF RFS) EXAMPLE
detail in the session on
OR RFS DATUM POSITION

If the need is to control the axis of one or more features in composite relative to a datum axis, RFS, e.g., to control

such as balance of a rotating part, use:

CONCENTRICITY EXAMPLE See Concentricity

NOTE Concentricity is always implied as an RFS application. Variations in size (departure from MMC size, out-of-

circularity, out-of-cylindricity, etc.) do not in themselves conclude axis error.

If the need is to control the total cylindrical or profile surface simultaneously with the size

dimension(s) (using basic dimensions for both), relative to a datum axis, e.g., precise fit, multi- diameters, etc., use:

PROFILE OF A SURFACE EXAMPLE

144
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72
T MC RUNOUT TOTAL RUNOUT

145
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T MC RUNOUT

146
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73
T MC RUNOUT

147
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Dimensioning a conical form


Dwg. callout

18.5+/- 0.1 ?

6.5 +/- 0.1


15.00
10.00

0.03 A 0.03 A

0.03 A 148

74
Dimensioning a conical form
Meaning

18.6 0.042

6.4

15.00
10.00

6.6

A
18.4 0.03
0.03 A
149

T MC TOTAL RUNOUT

Feature may be bent 150


Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

75
T MC TOTAL RUNOUT

RUNOUT

Feature can only be bent or


tapered within Runout tolerance

Feature may be bent or


Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd
tapered within feature tolerance 151

T MC TOTAL RUNOUT RUNOUT

?
?

152
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76
T MC TOTAL RUNOUT RUNOUT

?
?
?
?

Establish common
AXIS between
DATUM
DIAMETERS
153
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T MC TOTAL RUNOUT RUNOUT

?
FUNCTION
MUST
Determine
the primary
datum

154
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77
T MC TOTAL RUNOUT RUNOUT

155
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T MC TOTAL RUNOUT

NON FUNCTIONAL
Datums used to enable
efficient manufacturing
PROCESS

IMPORTANT!
Consider Functional
relationships when
establishing
Dimensions
&Tolerances 156
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78
T MC TOTAL RUNOUT

157
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T MC TOTAL RUNOUT

158
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79
T MC TOTAL RUNOUT

? ?

159
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T MC TOTAL RUNOUT

Axial float occurs


during rotation

160
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80
T MC TOTAL RUNOUT

Function must be considered


in respect to these
interpretations to determine
correct dimensions &
tolerances (& Datum
reference)
161
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T MC TOTAL RUNOUT

Target Datum would


Minimize effect of
surface irregularities

162
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81
T MC TOTAL RUNOUT

163
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T MC TOTAL RUNOUT

IMPORTANT!
30
TOTAL RUNOUT CAN ONLY BE
APPLIED TO SURFACES OR
FEATURES THAT ARE CO-AXIAL,
PARALLEL OR PERPENDICULAR
TO A DATUM AXIS OR SURFACE

164
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82
T MC Rotating Function

Complete the DATUM references to


ensure all features are Co-axial

165
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T MC
GEOMETRIC
DIMENSIONING &
TOLERANCING
(GD&T)

Session 3

166
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83
T MC TOLERANCES OF LOCATION
(Part 1)

SYMETRY

CONCENTRICITY

TRUE POSITION

167
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T MC SYMETRY

Where a feature, such as a slot, is required to be symmetrical to the datum center plane of
another feature, the symmetry characteristic may be used.

To specify symmetry the following conditions must exist:

1. Non-cylindrical features (slots, tabs, projections, etc.) only are to be controlled.

2. The material condition RFS only is to apply.

3. The feature and its datum must be symmetrically configured to each other.
4. The datum feature is usually non-cylindrical but may be cylindrical if appropriate to the
part.
Symmetry-
Symmetry is that condition where the median points of all opposed or correspondingly located
elements of two or more feature surfaces are congruent with the axis or centre plane of a datum
feature.
168
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84
T MC SYMETRY

169
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T MC CONCENTRICITY

Definition. Concentricity is that condition where the median points of all diametrically
opposed elements of a figure of revolution (or corresponding-located elements of two or
more radially disposed features) are congruent with the axis (or centre point) of a datum
feature.
Concentricity tolerance. A concentricity tolerance is a cylindrical (or spherical)
tolerance zone whose axis (or centre point) coincides with the axis (or centre point) of
the datum feature(s). The median points of all correspondingly-located elements of the
feature(s) being controlled, regardless of feature size, must be within the cylindrical (or
spherical) tolerance zone. The specified tolerance and the datum reference can only
apply on an RFS basis.

170
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85
T MC CONCENTRICITY

171
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T MC CONCENTRICITY

172
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86
T MC
IMPORTANT!!!

Symmetry & Concentricity usually require a


detailed & time consuming analysis to derive data
for the verification process.
A Computer Measuring Machine process is usually
employed to determine compliance with such
requirements.
ONLY use these requirements for functions that can
NOT be controlled by DIRECT Dimensions or
True Position

173
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T MC

TRUE POSITION

174
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87
T MC
Definition. True Position is a term used to describe the
perfect (exact) location of a point, line, or plane of a
feature in relationship with a datum reference or datum
feature.

POSITION TOLERANCE
A position tolerance is the total permissible variation in
the location of a feature about its exact (true) position.
For cylindrical features (holes and bosses) the position
tolerance is the diameter (cylinder) of the tolerance zone
within which the axis of the feature must lie, the centre
of the tolerance zone being at the exact (true) position.
For other features (slots, tabs, etc.) the position
tolerance is the total width of the tolerance zone within
which the centre plane of the feature must lie, the centre
plane of the zone being at the exact (true) position.

175
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T MC
Position Theory

Possible hole centre


positions

Tolerance zone
applies to part Note! Tolerance
thickness zone should be
derived from the
design/functional
requirement
NOT conversion
of Co-ordinates

176
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88
T MC
Possible hole
centre positions

177
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T MC

PROOF !

178
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89
T MC IMPORTANT!

Rule #2: RFS applies, with respect to the individual


tolerance, datum reference or both, where no
modifying symbol is specified. MMC or LMC must be
specified on the drawing where required.
179
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T MC

Simulated part
or Gauge Pins

180
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90
T MC Simulated part
or Gauge Pins

Only available when BONUS


M POSITION
TOLERANCE
applies [Rule #2]
181
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T MC
IF RFS ie, without M

Tolerance NOT
available
182
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91
T MC
Primary
Secondary

Tertiary

Note! Surfaces are Datums NOT


Features 183
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T MC

184
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92
T MC

Tertiary

Primary
Secondary

185
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T MC

186
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93
T MC Floating Fastener
Application

187
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T MC
MATING
PARTS
Floating Fastener
Application

Note! Gauge Pin


Height equals Part
Thickness

188
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94
T MC
Fixed Fastener
Application

189
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T MC
MATING
PARTS
Fixed Fastener
Application

Note! Pin
height equals
part thickness

Note! Gauge Thickness


equals Stud Height
Consider FUNCTION

190
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95
T MC
MATING
PARTS
Fixed Fastener
Application

Note! Gauge Pin


Height equals part
Thickness

Note! Gauge
thickness equals
Stud height

191
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T MC
Location

Patterns
&
Location
Pattern

192
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96
T MC
Pattern features
tolerance zone

Pattern Location
tolerance zone

193
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T MC
Pattern Features
Tolerance zone

WRONG!

CORRECT
Pattern location
tolerance zone

194
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97
T MC

Pattern
Gauge

195
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T MC
Pattern
Gauge

196
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98
T MC PATTERN LOCATING
GAUGE

All Slip Pins

197
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T MC
Composite
Pattern

198
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99
T MC

HOLE
PATTERN AS
DATUM

199
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T MC

Datum Feature at
MMC
200
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100
T MC Functional Gauges

Slip Pin

Slip Pins

Fixed Pin 201


Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

T MC DATUM Feature
RFS

202
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101
T MC Functional Gauges
Slip Pin

Slip Pins

203
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T MC MMC feature related to


MMC Datum feature

Note! 3rd Datum NOT


Specified

204
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102
T MC

Note! Datum
reference

57.6-28.2 =29.4(Max)
56.4-28.8= 27.6(Min)
IE, 1.8 variation

205
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T MC

Where is this
surface relative to
Datum B ?

206
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103
T MC Unequal distribution of position

207
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T MC

Task
A] Identify the type of
fastener system
B]Calculate the Position
tolerance for each part
C] Assume the M8 Bolts
to be perfect, ie 8

208
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104
T MC

A] Sketch the Gauge(s) to functionally check this part


B] Dimension the important features
209
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T MC

Consider the callout items indicated, circle if you


agree, modify to what you consider to be correct callout.
Are there any other changes or options necessary 210
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105
T MC
GEOMETRIC
DIMENSIONING &
TOLERANCING
(GD&T)
Session 4

TRUE POSITION
[Continued]

211
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T MC
Definition. True Position is a term used to describe the
perfect (exact) location of a point, line, or plane of a
feature in relationship with a datum reference or datum
feature.

POSITION TOLERANCE
A position tolerance is the total permissible variation in
the location of a feature about its exact (true) position.
For cylindrical features (holes and bosses) the position
tolerance is the diameter (cylinder) of the tolerance zone
within which the axis of the feature must lie, the centre
of the tolerance zone being at the exact (true) position.
For other features (slots, tabs, etc.) the position
tolerance is the total width of the tolerance zone within
which the centre plane of the feature must lie, the centre
plane of the zone being at the exact (true) position.

212
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106
T MC
PO SITIO N TO LERA NC E-LEAST M A TERIAL CO ND IT IO N (LM C)

O ccasionally a method is required to control a situation w hich is essentially the reverse of the usual position relationship; that is, the
stated position tolerance applies at the least m aterial condition, LM C, of the feature or datum, instead of at M M C, and increases as the
feature or datum departs from the least material condition.

Definition. Least M aterial condition (LM C) is the condition in which a feature of size contains the least amount of material within the
stated limits of size: for examp le, maximu m hole diameter, minimu m shaft diameter. Least material condition is the condition
opposite to M M C. For examp le, a shaft is at least material condition w hen it is at its low limit of size and a hole is at least material
condition when it is at its high limit of size.

This method is applicable to special design requirements that w ill not permit M M C or that do not w arrant the exacting requirements
of RFS. It can be used to maintain critical wall thickness or critical centre locations of featu res for which accuracy of location can be
relaxed (position tolerance increased) w hen the feature leaves least material condition and approaches M M C. The amount of increase
of positional tolerance permissib le is equal to the feature actual size departu re from least material condition.

The term "least material condition" and the abbreviation LM C have been used instead of "minimum material condition" (which is
synonymous) to avoid confusion, since the abbreviation would be the same as that for maximum material condition. The symbol
modifier L is used to indicate the LM C requirement applicable to feature or datum.

Although the use of LM C does impose exacting requirements on both manufacturing and inspection, it permits additional tolerances.

W henever least material condition (LM C) or L is specified on a drawing, the position tolerance applies only w hen the feature is
produced at its LM C size. See Fig. 1.

Additional positional tolerance is permissib le but is dependent on, and equal to, the difference betw een the actually p roduced featu re
size (w ithin its size tolerance) and LM C. See Fig. 2.

213
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T MC

214
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107
T MC True Position LMC

Minimum
Condition

215
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T MC Non-cylindrical mating parts

SHAFT

216
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108
T MC Non-cylindrical mating parts

COLLAR

217
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T MC Non-cylindrical mating parts

BASE

218
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109
T MC Non-cylindrical mating parts

COVER

219
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Non-cylindrical mating parts


T MC

220
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110
T MC Non-cylindrical mating parts

12.60 MMC
PLUS TOTAL 12.6 PROJECTION SIZE TOL
25.60 MMC
PLUS TOTAL 25.60 DATUM SLOT SIZE TOL

221
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T MC Non-cylindrical mating parts

222
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111
T MC Non-cylindrical mating parts

223
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T MC Non-cylindrical mating parts

224
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112
T MC Profile Position related

This requirement
is extremely
difficult to check
other than by a
Tracing of each
If the tolerance
requirement zone is not shown
(say 10X)
as uni-lateral then
the tolerance is
Bi-lateral

225
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

T MC Profile Position related

This requirement
is extremely
difficult to check
other than by a
Tracing of each
requirement
(say 10X)

226
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113
T MC Profile Position related

Note! Bi-lateral
tolerance applies
How do we determine the
variation from MMC to
apply Bonus tolerance??
Highly complex to check!! Check that
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd
FUNCTION REALLY requires this call-out 227

Co-axial features
T MC
NOTE! STATIC FUNCTION ONLY

228
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114
Co-axial features
T MC

229
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T MC Co-axial features

NOTE! Rotating Function only

230
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115
T MC Co-axial Mating Parts
Static Function

231
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T MC Co-axial Mating Parts


Static Function

232
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116
T MC Co-axial Features - Static Function
[Wall Thickness Control]

Minimum Wall Thickness


= (24.2 20.8 0.2)/2
= 1.6

233
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T MC Dwg. Callout

Radial holes- Axial part

234
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117
T MC Radial holes- Axial part

235
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Projected tolerance zones


T MC

Projected length
equal to Part
Thickness for Bolt
or Total Stud
Height

236
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118
T MC Elongated Holes Bi-directional Position Tolerances

237
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T MC Elongated Holes Bi-directional Position Tolerances

GAUGE

Diamond shaped
Gauge Pins

Slip pins

238
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119
Tolerance stacks
T MC

239
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Tolerance stacks
T MC

240
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120
T MC
ADVANCED
POSITION
THEORY

No. 1 Advantage:
Functional Parts will NOT
be rejected

241
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T MC Co-axial features

Static
Application

ADVANCED
POSITION
THEORY

242
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121
T MC Fixed Fasteners (Threaded)

ADVANCED
POSITION
THEORY

Note! Datum
Features

243
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T MC Fixed Fasteners (Threaded)

ADVANCED
POSITION
Note! Datum
Feature THEORY

244
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

122
T MC State this requirement
into drawing format

Squareness 0.04

245
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

T MC
Drawing callout

246
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

123
T MC Design a Functional Gauge to
check the location of the holes

247
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T MC

248
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

124
T MC Determination of POSITION using
Co-ordinate Measuring Machine

249
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Determination of POSITION using


T MC Co-ordinate Measuring Machine

250
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125
Determination of POSITION using
T MC Co-ordinate Measuring Machine

Size MMC = Bonus


7.663 7.6 = 0.063
Tol. + bonus = allowed tol.
0.25 + 0.063 = 0.313

251
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

T MC DIMENSION REVIEW

1.4/1.7 Typ.

252
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126
T MC DIMENSION REVIEW
g
on A
37.2/36.2 Wr

21.5/20.5
7.7min

7.3 min.typ.

W
RO
NG

1.5 A

A 30 deg.
10.5 min

8.9 min.typ

253
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

T MC Assembly [part only]

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Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

127
T MC HOUSING
Length C
Surface A

Diameter D

PCD E
Surface B
Tapped holes F
Diameter G

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Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

T MC Design Function/Relationship Matrix


(Dimensioning)
Component/Sub-Assy. Pt. No. 123-456A Housing

Datum Criticality Rating Control Symbol


Feature Seco Positi Shap Prim. Sec.
Prim Tert. Size Datum Datum
n on e

A
Surface
Y H
B
Surface
L
C
Length
L
D
Dia.
M G
E
PCD
H H
F
Tapd
H SC P
holes 6.7
G
Dia.
Y SC

256
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

128
T MC HOUSING
6x M8 X 20/22 full thd.
10/11
[SC]

120/119.8 DIA [SC]


47/47.5 DIA

A C

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Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

T MC FLANGE MOUNT

Surface A Dia H
Holes F

Dia J
Dia B Dia D

Dia C
Ref. Surf.

Length M

Length L

Thread E
Length K

Length G

258
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

129
T MC Design Function/Relationship Matrix
(Dimensioning)
Component/Sub-Assy. Pt. No. 123-457 Flange Mount

Datum Criticality Rating Control Symbol


Feature Sec Positi Shap Prim. Sec.
Prim Tert. Size Datum Datum
on on e
A
Surface
Y - - M Ref
surf
B
Dia.
Y SC M H A
C
Dia.
Y H H H B
D
Dia.
M M M B
E
Thread
M M B
F
Holes
H SC B
G Ref
Length
M - -
surf
H Manuf Manuf
Dia
Loctn L L L Loctn.

259
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

T MC FLANGE MOUNT
?

B
[SC]

[SC]

260
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

130
T MC SHAFT

Surface A
Dia C

Ucut Dia B

261
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

T MC Design Function/Relationship Matrix


(Dimensioning)
Component/Sub-Assy. Pt. No. 123-458 Shaft

Datum Criticality Rating Control Symbol


Feature Seco Siz Positio Shap Prim. Sec.
Prim Tert. Datum Datum
n e n e

A
Surface
L B
B
Dia
Y M M
C
Dia
M M M B
Ucut
L L L B

262
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

131
T MC SHAFT

44.4/44.25 dia

19/18.95 dia.
Ucut 1/1.5wide
X 0.7/1 deep

263
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T MC Failure Mode & Effects Analysis

A Design potential FMEA is an analytical technique utilised primarily by a


Design Responsible Engineer/Team as a means to assure that, to the extent
possible, potential failure modes and their associated causes/mechanisms have
been considered and addressed. End items, along with every related system,
subassembly and component, should be evaluated.
In its most rigorous form, an FMEA is a summary of an engineers and the
team's thoughts (including an analysis of items that could go wrong based on
experience and past concerns) as a component, subsystem or system is designed.
This systematic approach parallels, formalises and documents the mental
disciplines that an engineer normally goes through in any design process.

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132
T MC Failure Mode & Effects Analysis

The Design potential FMEA supports the design process in reducing


the risk of failures by:

A] Aiding in the objective evaluation of design requirements and


design alternatives.

B] Aiding in the initial design for manufacturing and assembly


requirements.

C] Increasing the probability that potential failure modes and their


effects on system and vehicle operation have been considered in the
design/development process.

265
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

T MC
Geometric
Dimensioning &
Tolerancing

Practical exercises

266
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133
T MC

CONTENT

Component Drawing Review Basics


Callout Evaluation
Sub-Assembly Reference
Critique of existing drawings
Assembly Drawing callout development
Sheet Metal [Structural fabrication components]

267
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

T MC

Part 1
Component
Drawing review
[Basics]

268
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134
T MC Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

269
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TMC Basic Fitment

270
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

135
TMC

Yes, only when balance of


feature is at MMC[Rule271
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd #1]

T MC

95

272
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

136
T MC 4 SURFACES

MI
N.

BOTH SIDES

291
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

TMC

Bolt MMC
Fixed Fastener

292
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146
TMC Female Part

Male Part

Unilateral tolerance
from MMC

Note! True
Position callout
? Unilateral tolerance
from MMC is not required
293
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

T MC

Part 3
Component Drawing review
[Sub-assembly reference]

294
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

147
TMC Floating
Fastener

295
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TMC

Equivalent to
Fixed Fastener

296
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

148
TMC
Fixed Fastener

297
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

TMC

298
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

149
T MC

? Housing
Fixed interchangeability
Fastener
NOT required
?
?

Fixed
Fastener

?
299
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

T MC

Bolt Dia
MMC 8.00

Functional Parts
will NOT be Functional Parts
rejected. [u/s dia] will be
rejected.
Option
2 Option
1
300
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

150
T MC Improved drawing
based on
FUNCTION

Functional
Datum?

Functional
Datum?
301
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

T MC

Functional
Requirements
defined

302
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

151
T MC

R 100
90
incl.

3X
R 20

Functional
Functional Requirements
Datums? defined
303
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

TMC

Part 4
Critique of existing
Drawings

304
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152
TMC

307
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

TMC
BEWARE!
Do NOT use same I/D
letters for different
situations.

[Static Application]
Use True Position
Note! M required on
Datums A & B
308
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

154
TMC
STATIC
APPLICATION

Use True
Position
Is this the
correct
FUNTIONAL
DATUM?

309
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

TMC
60

310
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

155
TMC

311
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

TMC

Part 5
Assembly
[Drawing callout development]

312
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

156
TMC Function Loss Matrix
Refer ISO/QS 9000 PPAP Manual

1) List all the Features of the Component/system/assembly.

2) Indicate which features have a DATUM function

3) Determine the Criticality/Severity Rating if those features are


OUTSIDE the Specification [L-Low, M-Medium or H-High]

4) Indicate each feature s dependence [datum reference]

5) Indicate the control symbol(s) appropriate to each feature

6) Review the Matrix

313
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

TMC Design Function/Relationship Matrix

Component/Sub-Assy. Pt. No.


(Dimensioning)

Datum Criticality Rating Control Symbol


Feature Seco Siz Positio Shap Prim. Sec.
Prim Tert. Datum Datum
n e n e

A
Surface
B
Hole
C
Hole
D
Thicknes
s
E
Width

Etc.

314
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

157
TMC St
ub Hub
Be A
ar xle
in &
gs

Studs

Wheel Rim
Brake Disc

Wheel Nuts
315
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

TMC
Wheel Studs
Bearing Dias

A-B

110 PCDia Wheel Hub

316
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

158
TMC Wheel Hub

5x H7 14

110 PCDia C

317
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

TMC
14 g8 (press fit)

M12 x 1.0
A

18.00 +/- 0.5


Free form

318
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

159
TMC Brake Disc [Rotating Function]

5x H9 14

Control for other 110 PCDia


rotating surfaces
C
319
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

TMC
WHEEL
[Rotating Function]

75 incl.

5x 17

320
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

160
TMC
5.5/ 5.0

14.8+/-0.2
75 incl.

5x 17

Enlarged
View Wheel
Nut Location
15.5/17.0
321
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

TMC

25/24
18 A/F Hex.
Stock 2.4/2.2

75 incl.

M12 X 1.0 17

WHEEL
NUT

322
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

161
TMC

Part 6
Sheet metal
[Structural fabrication components]

323
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

TMC
?

?
?
?

?
?

324
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

162
TMC

?
?

Note! All Geometric Controls to be


inspected while Workpiece is constrained
on Datum Target Areas A1-A3 & B1-B2 325
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

TMC ? ?
?

?
?

?
? ?

326
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

163
TMC Note! Only the
Geometric callouts ?
are displayed. Co-
ordinates are taken ?
from CAD File. ?

?
?

?
? ?

? 327
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

TMC

?
?

?
328
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

164
TMC

? ?

?
?

329
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

TMC ?

?
330
Tony M Consulting Pty. Ltd

165