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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 10, Number 17 (2015)

Research India Publications ::: http://www.ripublication.com

AC Voltage Controller fed Single Phase Capacitor Run

Induction motor with Different Topology
N.Murali and 2Dr.V.Balaji
1. Research Scholar, SCSVMV University, Kanchipuram, India, muralibeee@gmail.com
2. Associate Professor, BHAIR DAR University, Ethiopia, balajieee79@gmail.com

Single phase capacitor run induction motor is supplied from
AC voltage controllers is primary importance in industrial
applications. In this paper different topology of AC voltage
controller is simulated. The review of different control
strategies of induction motor is done. The multiple pulse width
modulation showing better performance compared to other
control algorithms. The analysis was done using
Matlab/simulink environment. Fig 1: Capacitor run induction motor

Keywords: multiple pulse width modulation control, harmonic 200

analysis, AC voltage controller.

Single phase capacitor run induction motor fed from AC voltage 100
controller gaining confidence in the industry due to simpler
converter circuits, less maintainance and rugged construction. 50
Induction motor is work horse of the industry and it is reliable
for most of the requirement. This drive is mainly focussed on 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6
fans, blowers, pumps and centrifugal fans because of wider
speed control and easier controlling aspects. Fig 2:Angular speed versus time characteristics
The performance of capacitor run induction motor is done
suitably by suitable controllers. The controllers should be 20

reliable, simple and cost effective. For domestic fan applications 15

single phase induction motor is utilized effectively.The major
drawback of using the induction motor is poor power factor and
shortfall in performance. The power factor is improved using
permanent capacitor induction motor and the performance 0

improved by suitable controlling mechanisms. The different -5

controllers available in the literature are phase control,integral -10
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6
cycle control, single pulse and multiple pulse width modulation
techniques. Fig 3:Torque versus time characteristics
In this paper phase control and integral cycle control is
obtained using triac and bidirectional controller [1],[2] and
review of different strategies are discussed [3],[4]. Inverter fed 2. Capacitor run induction motor
capacitor induction motor performances are discussed The permanent capacitor in the single phase induction has
[5],[6].Performance is estimated by model predictive control and numerous advantages over other types of induction motor. The
field oriented control. Performance by PID control using main advantage is power factor is improved while in operation.
intelligent techniques enhance the operation and optimization The capacitor used to start and it runs with the same capacitor.
technique improves the settling time,steady state error and peak The design of capacitor plays vital importance because it works
overshoot. The simulation for open loop control was done for both for starting and running conditions. The value of capacitor
unidirectional, bidirectional,single pulse width modulation and determines the starting toque of the induction motor. The lower
muliple pulse width modulation fed capacitor run single phase value of capacitor leads to low starting torque. But when the
induction motor.The review of different control strategies are capacitor value increases leads to good starting torque. The

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 10, Number 17 (2015)
Research India Publications ::: http://www.ripublication.com

basic construction of capacitor run induction motor has main The single phase induction motor uses dynamic capacitor
winding, auxiliary winding and capacitor connected in series for maximum torque operation[6]. The main and auxillary
with auxiliary winding is shown in figure 1. This is equivalent winding currents are maintained in quadrature by this
to two phase unbalanced motor. method.The efficiency of induction motor done with difference
During starting condition the main winding and auxiliary in current control as appropriate control variable instead of
winding has phase displacement of 90 degrees, this makes the conventional slip control[7]. The efficeincy need to obtain for
rotor of induction motor to rotate. Since single phase induction maximum under different load conditions. The performance
is not a self starting machine. The angular speed characteristic improvement between single pulse width modulation and AC
was shown in figure 2. This waveform is simulated and voltage regulator was obtained for capacitor run induction motor.
obtained. The speed of induction takes some finite time to reach It is evident that phase control is better than single pulse width
the steady state condition. The torque is initially high and when modulation in the output voltage and energy saving[8]. But the
speed reaches steady state the value of torque is normal is performance is inferior when compared to multiple pulse width
shown in the figure 3. modulation. The modeling of single phase induction motor done
by sequence components[10]. The three phase induction is
converted in to two phase induction motor. The pulses generated
for the devices are in symmetrical fashion.
3. Review Of Capacitor run induction motor
The capacitor run induction motor need closed control for
The main philosophy of speed control and the performance is
improving its performance under steady state and dynamic load
improved by using power electronic controllers for the capacitor
conditions.The closed controller gains are adjusted depending on
run induction motor. In this paper the study was conducted for
load conditions by intelligent techniques. The control was
variable voltage operation using AC voltage controllers.. Hene
extensively done by neural networks, fuzzy and neuro fuzzy
suitable method has to be devised for operation of regulator like
systems. The major drawbacks are difficult in experimentation
integral cycle control,phase control, single pulse width
and comparitive results from simulated result is unobtainable.
modulation, multiple pulse width modulation, intelligent control
The model predictive control is new breakthrough in control
and optimization techniques.
systems for adjusting the gains from past, present and future
The TRIAC produces variable voltage operation for
instants. The major demerits are the mathematical formulation is
controling the induction motor. The integral cycle control is one
little complex compared to conventional PID algorithm and
of the method for controlling the speed. The controlled load
these algorithms are useful only for slow dynamic systems. The
voltage depends from on time period over total time period. In
method which evolve in designing the controller gains by
this method speed control varies in steps [1]. It has limitations
optimization techniques. The optimization will search the
are it produces discontinuos current and causes sub harmonics in
necessary variables from the search space corresponding to the
the line. This causes disproportional speed variations. Hence the
objective function either for minimization or maximization
control is given to main winding only. Due to this scenario the
problems[11]. The paper discusses on multi-objective functions
motor is able to operate in derated conditon.
for better performance for the controller.
The speed control of induction motor is good response
when TRIAC connected in series with main winding instead of
supply circuit [2]. The performance is intermittent when
connected in auxillary winding. The harmonic content will be 4.Different Topologies Of AC Voltage Controller
less because auxillary winding connected directly to supply. The There are different topologies for the AC voltage controller. In
triac controlled fan motor produces noise due to odd harmonics this paper it focus on unidirectional ac voltagecontroller,
present. The noise can be reduced by using shunt resistance to bidirectional ac voltage controller, singlepulse width modulation
attenuate the noise [3]. The pulse width modulation chopper and muliple pulse width modulation. The TRIAC is also one of
control is best among the other control methods due to simple the topology of ac voltage controller, but in simulink there is no
and cost effective. In this paper the input harmonics are filtered seperate model to simulate using this device.
using the filters[9].The main drawback is power dissipation is
The capacitor run induction has variable capacitance by 4.1 Unidirectional AC voltage controller
varying it using H-bridge inveter circuit. During transient The circuit employs one controlled device with anti-parallel
condition the modulation ratio is changed and capacitor will diode. Since the load is capacitor run induction motor, the
charge or discharge. At certain firing angles the bridge is not output voltage has spikes. The torque, speed and output voltage
balanced[4], hence certain firing angles only operated. The dq waveforms are shown in figure 17. The harmonic analysis is
modelling of induction motor leads to fifth order equations. The taken into account and it has total harmonic distortion of 44%
computation timefor the analysis is high. The analysis uses which is shown in figure. The major drawback of this method is
matrix methods so that by symmetry of solution reduces more harmonics due to unsymmetrical waveform output. At
computation time[5]. certain firing angles the outputs are unstable. Hence we can
operate only particular triggering angles.

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 10, Number 17 (2015)
Research India Publications ::: http://www.ripublication.com

Table 2: Bidirectional AC voltage controller

Firing angle in Torque in Angular speed in
degrees N-m rad/sec
0 10.0
20 0.0
40 9.5
90 8.0 156
120 4 155
150 0.3 40

Fig 4: unidirectional AC voltage controller 4.3 Single pulse width modulation

The pulse width modulation is generated by comparing carrier
waveform and signal. When the performance is compared with
Table 1:unidirectional AC voltage controller phase control it is inferior. But this paved way for new
technology to get improvements. The circuit comprises of anti
Firing angle in Torque in Angular speed in
parallel scr with capacitor induction motor. The harmonics,
degrees N-m rad/sec
speed and torque waveforms are obtained for a particular firing
0 10
20 10
40 10 57 AC Bi- Capacitor
source directional run
60 9.5 6 voltage AC voltage induction
controller motor

4.2 Bidirectional AC voltage controller

The circuit employs two controlled device conected in anti- SPWM
parallel.Since the load is capacitor run induction motor, its controller
output has spikes. The torque and speed waveforms are shown in
figure 8,9. The harmonic analysis is taken into account and it has
total harmonic distortion of 65% which is shown in figure 18. Fig 8 : Single PWM controller

4.4 Multiple pulse width modulation

In this method uses two IGBT for the voltage controller. The
main device is for conducting in both directions the supply
voltage to the load and other device isused for frewheeling
action.Each igbt is connected with four diodes,this new topology
gives better performance compared to all other topolgies which

Fig 7:Bidirectional AC voltage controller

Fig 9 : Multiple PWM controller

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 10, Number 17 (2015)
Research India Publications ::: http://www.ripublication.com

Fig 13 : Harmonics order of SPWM controller

Fig 10: Multiple PWM triggering signals

Table 3:MPWM controller

Modulation Torque in Angular speed in
index N-m rad/sec
0.2 0.34 30
0.4 0.55 53
0.6 0.78 95
0.8 0.37 147
Fig 14: Harmonics order of MPWM controller
0.9 0.27 157

6. Conclusion
5. Results The different topologies of AC voltage controller have been
The harmonic analysis was obtained for all the topologies which analyzed for the effective performance of capacitor run induction
was discussed. The unidirectional AC voltage controller has both motor. The other methods have some shortfall in solving the
even and odd harmonics because the waveform is not problem. This can be averted by the new methodology of
symmetrical. The bidirectional AC voltage controller has no multiple pulse width modulation for effecient operation. It is
even harmonics present. The total harmonic distortion value is found that this methodology has to be improved by suitable
more. The single pulsewidth modulation THD is less than closed loop control. Hence from this review of different control
compared to bidirectional controller. Hence single pulse width strategies multiple pulse width modulation with optimization
modulation show better performance compared to phase control. technique can be verified with hardware for practical realization.
Finally multiple pulse width modulation has better performance
compared to other topologies. The THD value is less compared References
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Fig 12 : Harmonics order of bidirectional controller

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 10, Number 17 (2015)
Research India Publications ::: http://www.ripublication.com

[6] Vishal verma, Peeyush pant, Bhim singh Simulation of a

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 10, Number 17 (2015)
Research India Publications ::: http://www.ripublication.com