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EDU3073

GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

FOR CHILDREN

(Many parts of this book/module is copyright of various authors.


Thus this copy is solely for educational & internal use for IPGK students).

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Chapter 1:

Guidance and Counselling

You should be able to:-


understand the history of school counselling in Malaysia
The basic concept of guidance, counselling and psychotherapy
The aims of guidance and counselling
The principles and philosophy of guidance and counselling
The significance of guidance and counselling

1.0Introduction

Students in primary and secondary schools in Malaysia are diverse in both their
backgrounds and abilities. Some are developmentally ready and eager to be in school.
Others are disadvantaged because of physical, mental, cultural and socioeconomic
factors. There are also students in schools carrying the burden of traumas, such as
various forms of abuse, through no fault of their own. They come from diverse
sociocultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. In most recent times we see many
problems highlighted about their psychological and disciplinary problems due to many
reasons. Teachers complain some who like to mix with their peers while many others
choose to be alone. Many students are so eager and focused on their education and
striving to achieve their dream careers. There are parents who are caring and loving while
others abusive. Therefore, an ordinary teacher in a school will have a variety of students
with mild or severe psychological and disciplinary problems. Thus, the guidance and
counselling services are needed to help these teachers to deal with various problems of
their students in schools.

Schools counsellors have an important role in addressing these concerns and problems of
students. Basically, the focus of most school counselling programmes is addressing
issues related to academic performance, issues related to career choice, as well as
personal and social concerns which have an impact on the lives of students.

1.1 HISTORY OF SCHOOL COUNSELLING IN MALAYSIA

"The development of counselling services in Malaysia is closely related to the history of


guidance and counselling in the schools" (Suradi and Rafidah, 2005, p.243). There are
records to show that guidance services were introduced by the English during colonial
Malaysia in 1939 with the publication of a booklet titled Panciuan Kerjaya di Tanah Melayu
bagi Ibu Bapa, Guru-Guru dan Murid-Murid. In 1963, Dewan Bahasa & Pustaka published
a book titled Perkhidmatan Panduan di Sekolah. In the same year the Ministry of

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Education Malaysia, set up Bahagian Bimbingan dan Kaunselling (The Guidance and
Counselling Section) which was established under the Educational Planning and
Researeh Division (EPRD).

In 1968, the Ministry of Education Malaysia issued a circular (KP5209/30/13) which


directed all State Education Departments to instruct principals in secondary schools to
appoint guidance teachers to make available guidance and counselling services for
students in schools. In 1993, the Ministry of Education introduced a guidebook titled
Panduan Perlaksanaan Perkhidamatan dan Kaunselling di Sekolah-Sekolah Menengah
(Guide towards the Implementation of Guidance and Counselling Services in Seconday
Schools). The guidebook proposed the following four goals for guidance and counselling
services in schools:

Enrichment services for the overall development of students


Introduce preventive measures
Provide remedial services
Provide crisis counselling services

Schools were required to make available enrichment services for the overall development
of students. Opportunities and facilities have to be made available in line with capabilities
and potential of students. Preventive measures have to be introduced, especially with
regards to discipline problems, inappropriate behaviours and drug abuse.

In addition, efforts should be made to make available remedial services especially with
regards to helping students with academic problems and career choice. It was also
proposed that schools provide crisis counselling for those students needing such service.

In 1996, the Ministry of Education Malaysia issued a circular (KP/SB-HEP 8543/60/91)


requesting primary and secondary school heads to appoint full-time counsellors in their
schools to better plan and coordinate guidance and counselling services in schools
(Suradi & Rafidah, 2005). The goal was to achieve a ratio of one counsellor for every 500
students.

The purpose of having guidance and counselling services in schools is to help students
understand themselves and the world around them. It is the process of helping students
maximise their abilities, capabilities and talents (Suradi Salim, 1996). This is based on the
premise that they are Individuals in our schools who are unable to realise their potentials
and the responsibility of realising their potentials lies within the individual themselves. The
guidance and counselling services aim to help and not to direct the individuals or make
decisions for them.

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The daily lives of people involve making decisions that affect themselves and others in
society. Individuals who fail to make the right decisions and are unable to adapt
accordingly are more likely to encounter problems. For example, a student who chooses
to spend time playing video-games rather than practice solving assigned mathematics
problems is more likely to find it difficult to cope with the subject. School counselling
services in primary, secondary and tertiary level institutions aim to help individuals make
choices and adapt to the environment.

The field of guidance and counselling can be of interest to you even if you do not want to
become a professional counsellor. It offers tools for understanding, connecting, and
helping that can be used to promote self-awareness and self-improvement and to
enhance all aspects of life, including interpersonal relations, coping with stress, and
problem solving. Guidance and counselling can more appropriately be understood as a
dynamic process involving a professionally trained counsellor assisting a client with
particular concerns. In the counselling process, the counsellor can use a variety of
counselling strategies such as individual, group, or family counselling to assist the student
client to bring about beneficial changes. These strategies can generate a variety of
outcomes. Some of these are facilitating behaviour change, enhancing coping skills,
promoting decision making, and improving relationships apart from developing study skills
to do better in education.

This chapter provides you a general understanding about the concept, principles, aims
and significance of guidance and counselling services in our schools. Guidance and
counselling of students is an integral component of the educational mission in any of the
schools. Guidance and counselling services and programs promote the personal/social,
educational, and career development of all students.

1.2 General idea of guidance and counselling


Guidance is a group of planned services that include counselling, it provides the
students with information about career development and counselling to
enhance feelings of responsibility, understand themselves and know their
abilities. A guidance teacher helps to disseminate information about potential careers
and self-development in a proper way. The guidance and counselling teachers also
ensure activities carried out to provide help for students to feel better about themselves
and grow physically and socio-emotionally. Every one of us need guidance at one time or
the other stage of development right from the beginning of life till the end. If properly
guided, every individual will be satisfied in life.

Counselling is described first as an art and a science, then from the perspective of
narrative psychology or storytelling. Counselling is the process of guidance; it is
therefore the interaction that comes as a result of the vocational relationship
between a specialised counsellor and his student where the counsellor assists
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the student to understand himself and his abilities and talents to achieve self
and environmental compatibility in order to attain the appropriate degree of
mental health in light of the techniques and specialized skills of the guidance
process.

Counselling is essentially both an art and a science. The counsellor, like an artist, can
sensitively reach into the world of the client, yet on some level maintain a sense of
professional and scientific objectivity.

1.3 The Philosophy of guidance


Guidance is universal and the basic principles of the philosophy of guidance are common
to all countries with a slight modification to suit the locally accepted beliefs and the specific
guidance services offered. The eight principles of the philosophy of guidance are:

1. The dignity of the individual is supreme.


2. Each individual is unique. He or she is different from every other individual.
3. The primary concern of guidance is the individual in his own social setting. The
main aim being to help him to become a wholesome person and to gain fullest
satisfaction in his life.
4. The attitudes and personal perceptions of the individual are the bases on which
he acts.
5. The individual generally acts to enhance his perceived self.
6. The individual has the innate ability to learn and can be helped to make choices
that will lead to self-direction, and make him consistent with the social
environment.
7. The individual needs a continuous guidance process from early childhood through
adulthood.
8. Each individual may, at times, need the information and personalized assistance
best given by competent professional personnel.

4.2.1 The Main Goals of Guidance Services

Guidance empowers an individual to charter his life successfully, despite of all odds.

The main goals are:

1. Exploring-self: The basic aim is to help an individual increase his understanding


and acceptance of self; his physical development, his intelligence, aptitudes,
interest, personality traits, attitudes and values, his achievements in scholastic

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and other spheres, his aspirations and life-style preferences and above all his
here -and-now needs which keep him highly motivated to behave positively or
otherwise.

2. Determining Values: The second aim is to help an individual recognize the


importance of values, explore different sets of values, determine personal values
and examine them in relation to the norms of society and their importance in
planning for success in life.

3. Setting Goals: This aim is to help an individual set goal for him self and relate
these to the values determined by him so that he recognizes the importance of
long-range planning.
4. Explore the World of Work: The aim here is to help the individual explore the
World of Work in relation to his self-exploration, his value system and goals that
he has set for himself to achieve success in life.

5. Improving Efficiency: The individual is helped to learn about factors which


contribute to increase effectiveness and efficiency and to improve his study habits.

6. Building Relationship: The aim is to help the individual to be aware of his


relationship with others and to note that it is a reflection of his own feelings about
himself.

7. Accepting responsibility for the future: The individual is helped to develop skill
in social and personal forecasting, acquire attitudes and skills necessary for
mastering the future.

The Handbook for Guidance and Counselling Services in Schools (1993) of the Ministry of
Education states the guidance services as follows:-

Provide enrichment services covering the development aspects of the pupils. This
can be done by providing facilities and experience in line with their capabilities
and potential.
Providing preventive services like preventing students from engaging in discipline
problems like misbehaviour, involved in drug abuse and so forth.
Provide crisis counselling services.
Providing rehabilitation services like helping students overcome academic
problems, improving socialisation skills and guiding towards chosen careers.

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In addition, the objectives of the guidance are also to:

1. Help students make personal adjustment, social, emotional and academic with the
situation in schools, regulations and disciplinary regulations.
2. Creating opportunity for every student to develop according to their abilities.
3. Overcome difficulties that interfere with academic achievement of the students
and enhance teacher-student relationship
4. Help students who are less fortunate ability to better performance in studies
5. Forming positive social responsibility, enthusiastic, diligent, inventive, self-reliance
and civic leadership.
6. Help students understand their abilities, talents, interests and shortcomings. This
understanding is important to lead them in choosing subjects and courses as well
as do career planning.
7. Help students build good work habits. This will enable them to complete their
homework on time.
8. Help students develop a balanced aspect of physical, emotional, spiritual and
intellectual potential.
9. Pupils form a stable emotions and are always in a state of peace and happiness.
10. Empowering students to think rationally and avoid any crisis from happening.
11. Help students understand problems from a wide angle.
12. Help students to acquire specific skills to solve problems.
13. Help students to make wise decisions in life situations.
14. Help students acquire skills to communicate to develop socio-emotional aspects.
15. Help students switching from primary to secondary school. The program
accelerate the process of adapting to a new situation for the students.
16. Help students gain knowledge and career information to help them make
application to the educational institutions concerned.
17. Motivational camps held from time to time for pupils to enhance pupils motivation
in improving themselves.
18. Partnering with parents about children's progress in academic and co-curricular
activities.

To sum up, guidance empowers a child to be an integrated individual, actualizing his


potential to the fullest.

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4.2.2 Guidance Services Program in schools

According to the Schools Division, Ministry of Education (MOE), the proposed guidance
program should encompass:

A comprehensive that emphasise guidance is for all groups of students in the


school.
Emphasize the development, rehabilitation.
Integration and application of guidance elements through the curriculum and
co-curriculum.
Covers various aspects of the individual development as in cognitive,
psychomotor, affective, physical, moral or religious, vocational or career.
Students a shaped either through individual or group counselling.

1.6 Definition of Counselling

Let us look definitions given by various experts.

1. Hansen, J. (1972) defines counselling as a process that helps clients learn new
ways to operate and adapt to life situations. Individuals helped shape the
decision-making process, either individually or in groups. This will enable it to
expand its optimum potential and becomes the individual to function effectively.
2. McDaniel and Shaftel (1956) defines counselling as a series of direct meetings
with the aim to help individuals adapt to the environment. Thus, the relationship
between counsellor and client is very important.
3. Smith, G.E. (1980) says counselling is the process in which a counsellor helps an
individual (client) interpret the facts in connection with an option, or adaptation
and planning to do.
4. According to George, R.L. and Cristiani, T.S. (1995), counselling is a
communication process and also help people make choices and solve problems.
5. McLeod, J. (2007) described counselling as an activity in which a person who
problematic invite and allow others to build a special relationship with it. This is
intended to enable it to express the problem, explore, learn and find solutions and
enjoy a meaningful life.
6. The American Psychological Association (1956), defines counselling as a
process "to help individuals toward overcoming obstacles to their personal growth,
wherever these may be encountered, and toward achieving optimum development
of their personal resources".

What is counselling? The world counselling stems from the verb "to counsel" which has
always meant to advice. So it is not surprising that some people still have this

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misconception about counselling. Although some forms of counselling may contain some
advice-giving components, counselling is mostly dedicated to restoring a client's self-
understanding, decision-making resources, risk-taking and personal growth. Telling people
what to do can be a counterproductive remedy. Basically, counselling is a short-term,
theory-based, non-directive, non-judgemental process. During this process, a person
called the client, who is psychologically healthy but faces an adjustment, developmental or
situational problem.

More importantly, the person wants to gain awareness of himself or herself and to make
decisions through the support and assistance offered by another person called the
counsellor.Counselling is not a process of 'doing something to someone'.

Counselling is an interaction in a therapeutic setting, focusing primarily on a conversation


about relationships, beliefs, and behaviour (including feelings), through which the client's
perceived problem is elucidated and framed or refrained in a fitting or useful way, and in
which new solutions are generated and the problem takes on a new meaning (p. 19).

This definition has many aspects to it. First, it describes counselling as an "interaction in a
therapeutic setting". The dictionary meaning of 'therapeutic' is healing, curative, beneficial
or remedial. Second, it is described as a "conversation about relationships in which
clients can be helped to feel understood and better about themselves and their problem.
Third, it is not about finding solutions to the client's problems but rather "new solutions are
generated". Fourth, the relationship between the counsellor and the client is a
collaborative one rather than that of a superior and subordinate. Fifth, it assumes that the
counsellor is a specialist in therapeutic skills and clients also have some expertise in the
issues and problems that concern them.

Therefore counselling is a process to help clients to explore difficulties which may include

the stressful or emotional feelings that may hinder his growth. In the process of helping the

client see things more clearly, possibly from a different view-point. This enables the client

to focus on feelings, experiences or behaviour, with a goal to facilitating positive change.

During the counselling session, a relationship of trust is build. Confidentiality is

paramount to successful counselling. Professional counsellors will usually explain their

policy on confidentiality, they may, however, be required by law to disclose information if

they believe that there is a risk to life.

Counselling is not giving advice, being judgemental or attempting to sort out the problems
of the client. It is important to know and understand that a counsellor cannot expect or
encourage a client to behave in a way in which the counsellor may have behaved when
confronted with a similar problem in their own life. A counsellor should not get emotionally

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involved with the client and must not look client's problems from his/her perspective,
based on his/her own value system.

According to Feltham (2000), counselling is generally characterised by an explicit


agreement between a counsellor and client to meet in a certain private setting, at agreed
times and under disciplined conditions of confidentiality, with ethical parameters, protected
time and specified aims. It is widely accepted that counselling may be a more suitable
form of help for a variety of personal problems or concerns, the most common being
depression, anxiety, bereavement, relationship difficulties, life crisis and traumas,
addictions, confusion and other negative conditions or it may be more proactively; and
educationally to learn for example how to relax, be more assertive, deal with stress and
lead a more fulfilling life.

There are many types of counselling depending on the issue to be dealt with and the
desired achievements. These include supportive counselling, educational counselling,
career counselling, management counselling, family counselling, marriage counselling,
counselling in medical settings, rehabilitative and mental health counselling and many new
types are constantly emerging.

Read more at: http://www.skillsyouneed.com/general/counselling.html#ixzz2mnaR1vBu

1.7 Counselling Principles

Counselling principles are to ensure smooth and effective counselling services in schools.

Patterson (1967) put forward the principles of counselling as follows:

1. Counselling is a process aimed at influencing behaviour change voluntarily client,


the client wanted to change his behaviour and ask the counsellor to help change
it.
2. Counselling should provide conditions that facilitate the voluntary change. The
conditions are as an individual right of self-determination and the rights of
individuals to feel free to make changes in behaviour.
3. Client will face limitations in as determined by the actual goal of counselling is
influenced by norms, values and attitudes of a counsellor.
4. The interview was held to facilitate behaviour change although not all types of
interviews can be considered as counselling.
5. Counselling requires a counsellor who listen to the matters dealt with by clients
but not all actions can be characterized as counselling listen.
6. Counsellors strive to understand the client.
7. Counselling conducted confidentially and all materials must be kept confidential
discussion.
8. Typically, the client has psychological problems.

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9. Counsellors who are skilled and able to help clients overcome psychological
problems.

Biasco, F. (1966) outlined the following principles:

1. Counselling is for all individuals and not be limited to only those who have a
problem. The emphasis is more on prevention than repair.
2. Development counselling is to help clients gain knowledge and understanding of
themselves. This leaves a client's cause to accept her condition in terms of
physical, intellectual and affective.
3. Counselling is most effective when systematically planned and organized.
4. Counselling developments emphasizes the positive aspects of each individual
against the negative aspects.
5. Counselling program would be more effective if there is cooperation between
students, teachers, gum, parents, administrators and school counsellors.
6. Assuming that every individual counselling, including young children the right to
make decisions self and independent form its own personality and your own life
plan.
7. Counselling emphasizes individual development in terms of time; past, present
and future, and in terms of fields, academic, social and personal.

McDaniel and Shaftel (1956) also lists the main principles of counselling as follows:

1. Each client should be accepted as an individual and treated well. Counsellors


should give genuine respect for the rights of the individuals right to be successful
and vice versa. Responsibility for change and directing his life is located on the
client.
2. Counselling is basically a permissive relationship. Permissive conditions can be
seen from two sides. First, relationship between counsellor and client may be
terminated at any time. This means that there is no element of compulsion.
Second, the counsellor cannot persuade the client receives value or idea. Clients
should determine for itself whether to accept a viewpoint or proposal submitted by
the counsellor.
3. Counselling emphasizes client thinking together. Counsellors do not think or make
decisions for the client. Counsellors must think along with the client, the ideas,
suggestions or opinions client should be taken into account in making a decision
for action.
4. Counselling is in line with the ideals of democracy. Counsellors have right to differ
in interests, needs, intellectual ability, emotional stability, and so on. However,
such differences and genuine respect for the rights of others is in line with the
ideals of democracy.

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According to Kamus Dewan, a principle is the base that is the crux of a thought or action.
A set of principles are made to ensure the smoothness and effectiveness of guidance
services in our schools. The following principles will be the basis of administration of
guidance services in schools. Among them are:

1. Guidance is duty to help students become useful members of society, and in line
with the aspirations of the community and the nation.
2. Guidance is a process of knowledge. Guidance helps a pupil as a whole with
regard to their interests, needs, strengths and weaknesses of the person.
Students are provided guidance namely in improving social, health, education and
career.
3. Guidance is for all individuals irrespective of their family socio-economic, social
status, whether they are smart, talented or weak or need special help.
4. Guidance is a lifelong process, from primary school to university. At each stage of
the development of a pupil, various types of difficulties are encountered.
5. More guidance aims to prevent any negative behaviour. Guidance also helps
students understand their weaknesses and vulnerabilities, emphasis is on
developing strength to help the students to achieve their goal.
6. Students information confidential and shall be maintained by the development
guidance. It is important for students to gain the trust of coaches.
7. Guidance requires personal details of comprehensive and complete. Information
capabilities, accomplishments, talents, health and family background needed for
effective guidance.
8. Guidance should be open, non-judgmental, patient and easy to find.
9. Each teacher is a guidance teacher. A teacher is to understand the problems of
students and try to help them overcome it.
10. Guidance helps students set realistic life goals consistent with their abilities,
interests and talents.
11. A time period should be sufficient to allow students to express the problem in full.
Complete information should be provided to facilitate the counselling process
conducted.
12. A teacher should be equipped with particular skills in the process of helping
others. He should understand about human nature and human communication
skills.
13. Ensure and develop good relationships between teacher-student, classroom
teachers, parents, neighbours and the students are necessary. This facilitates
guidance and counselling teacher to collect information about the student.
14. A counselling room is comfortable, equipped with fans, lights, curtains and
decorations that are necessary to ensure success in implementing a successful
school counselling services. External reference agencies should be in the
knowledge of the school counsellors.

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15. A student or client cannot be compelled to share any information or to receive a
decision. A conducive atmosphere and willingness to be created during each
guidance sessions are held.
16. Guidance is conducted in believing that every student is able to grow and change
in a positive direction and will useful.
17. Guidance emphasizes the present and the future.
18. Guidance is to help students adapt themselves to their surroundings and
understood the implications of their actions for the short and long term.
19. Guidance is catered in accordance and an understanding that each student is
different in terms of abilities, interests, talents and motivation to learn.

Exercise:

a. Simplify the principles for guidance and counselling in a mind-map.

1.8 The objectives of the Counselling

Following are counselling objectives:-

1. Help clients solve the short term issues or problems.


2. Develop an understanding and insight that can help clients confront and solve
new problems that may arise in other situations in the long term.
3. Accelerating change behaviour in a positive direction.
4. Enhance clients ability to achieve psychological freedom; the ability to manage
own life.
5. Making wise decisions and to understand the reasons the decision was made and
subsequently willing to take risks as a result of his decision.
6. Act logically and effectively.
7. Help troubled individuals become rational again. For example, Ranjit feel very
disappointed after receiving the results of his Mathematics test paper. He loses
his appetite as he didnt do as expected. He thinks the world is cruel and mean to
him. In such circumstances, the counsellor must help Ranjit so he could see that
his actions are like thinking everything is negative it is not a rational act. Rational
action is how to make effective refresher lessons to achieve success.
8. Develop their interests and abilities to an optimum level.
9. Adjust social, personal and intellectual requirements of the school and the
community.
10. Creating healthy relationships with significant results with others such as parents,
siblings, friends and teachers.
11. Help individuals that are at risk and have substance abuse problems.
12. Help individuals involved in drug abuse in order to make them aware of the
dangers of their practice and learn how to stop the practice.
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13. Help individuals understand and possess the values of life that are necessary for
a healthy life.
14. Familiarize himself with the maximum disciplined life in order to achieve the goal
of self-development cause.

Exercise:
a. Identify and state the counselling objectives in primary schools.

1.9 The need for guidance and counselling

Majority of students lack a sense of direction, a sense of purpose and a sense a sense of
fulfilment. Some may even need guidance and counselling to change their destructive
behaviour which leads them into social problems and end up being discriminate over any
disciplinary issues in the school and at home. Therefore, guidance and counselling
services is the only answer to help and guide these students towards a responsible life as
a good citizen. The service provided in schools or in any organisation can help them to be
on a path of academic excellence, personal and social success . rsjit/2013

Today due to rapid developments in and around them, it is nothing new or something to
surprise to know that society at large do face problems to fulfil their personal and
environmental needs. We now face problems in the changing family status, growing
population and number of new cities and housing areas, conflicts in values, attitudes and
moral , the new criticism about politics, economic factors the changing role of work, new
pressure and demands on school and the problems of the youth all points out the needs
for the counselling services. Guidance and counselling have a challenging role to play in
our schools, more so with ever increasing pressure of Asian parents wanting their children
do extremely well in their examinations.

1.10 Significance of Counselling

The student life is getting complex day by day. Guidance and counselling is needed to
help students for optimum achievement and adequate adjustment in the varied life
situations. Need analysis of the students in the schools will show the need of guidance
and counselling services in the education, vocational, social, health, moral and personal
areas. It is a simple enough to say that guidance is an essential service in any education
setting.

Reference:

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(http://teachereducationguidanceandcounsellin.blogspot.com/2011/03/what-is-
counselling-meaning-need-and.html) rsjit/2013

1.10 The difference between guidance and counselling:

The concept of guidance and counselling reflect a common meaning that includes
awareness, assistance and change behaviour to the better, but still there is a difference
between the two concepts:-

1. Guidance is more general and comprehensive than counselling.


2. Counselling is theory based and structured.
3. Guidance usually precedes counselling and paves way for it.
4. Guidance stresses theoretical aspects while counselling focusses on the practical
aspects in a counselling sessions.
5. Counselling is a relationship between a teacher and or a counsellor with a student
comes in for help.

You should not confuse counselling with guidance.

Guidance is the process of helping people make important choices that affect their lives,
such as choosing which career to pursue or what line of studies to embark on. Specifically,
guidance refers to an expert giving advices and providing information and knowledge to
the person who seeks help in making the right choice. Many early works in guidance
happened in schools and career centres where an adult would help a student make
decisions on subject or career choice. The relationship was between two different statuses
of individuals: the adult as the know-all person, and the student as the inexperienced
person. The relationship is often short-term, involving only one meeting or several
meetings until the person who seeks guidance feel satisfied with the information given and
is more confident in making the right choice. In order to understand what counselling is, it
is easier to compare what it is not by looking first at the definitions of terms such as
guidance and psychiatry.

You should also not confuse counselling with psychiatry. Psychiatry is often associated
with mental illness, extreme emotional problems and serious personal issues. Psychiatry
has its roots in the medical and psychological fields that sec patients who seek
professional help as being mentally ill or sick. The psychiatry process prefers to delve into
the patient's past in order to gain insight into the actual clause of the problems. The
psychiatrist is the expert while the patient is mentally or emotionally a sick person.

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Counselling in Malaysia
Counselling is one of the least understood or most understood field in Malaysia. Most
people cannot tell the difference between counselling, psychology and psychiatry. It is
these misunderstandings that gives the field of counselling a negative image among
Malaysians, and consequently discourage people who may need help from seeking it.
Psychology is basically the science of the human mind; how we think and react to
situations Psychiatry is part of the medical field, except it specifically focuses on the
treatment of mental disorder. Psychiatry focuses on people with abnormal mental
problems. Counsellors work with normal people who have emotional and psychological
problems, but are still mentally competent to make sound decisions. Counsellors treat
patients by discussing and listening so that patients may see things in a new light and able
to think clearly and positively.

For instance, a person who is suffering from a mental problem by walking naked in public,
would be best treated by a psychiatrist, while a normal person who, for example is having
difficulty dealing with death of a loved one or a severe case of shyness, would best be
treated by a counsellor. A counsellor is a qualified professional who needs adequate
training in psychology and knowledge of the methods of counselling. With such an
assurance, people will be less hesitant to seek professional help.

[source: Suradi Salim. The Growth and Challenges of Counselling in Malaysia: Towards a
Positive Society. 2004]

1.11 Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy, or "talk therapy", is a way to treat people with a mental disorder by helping
them understand their illness. It teaches people strategies and gives them tools to deal
with stress and unhealthy thoughts and behaviours. Psychotherapy helps clients manage
their symptoms better and function at their best in everyday life. Psychotherapy aims to
help clients gain insight into their difficulties or distress, establish a greater understanding
of their motivation, and enable them to find more appropriate ways of coping or bring
about changes in their thinking and behaviour.

In short, psychotherapy explore their feelings, beliefs, thoughts and relevant events,
sometimes from childhood and personal history, in a structured way with someone trained
to help them in a safe environment. Depending on the nature of the problem, therapy can

be short or long term. (http://www.psychotherapy.org.uk/article140.html). Many kinds of

psychotherapy exist. There is no "one-size-fits-all" approach. The kind of psychotherapy a

person receives depends on his or her needs.

16
In a school, counselling services are offered by trained counsellors while in the clinical
situation, a qualified psychotherapist handles the counselling services.

You should next identify the difference between psychotherapy counselling with respect to
the goal / purpose and client type and conditions where the counselling process is
carried out.

1.11.1 Difference of Goals/aims

One goal of counselling is to help individuals manage development tasks. Someone


teenagers who helped to achieve emotional freedom from parents, career decision-
making and preparation will be referred to a counsellor. An individual in the age of thirty
years or who suffer from these problems more appropriately referred to a psychotherapy.

In the context of the continuum, the goal of psychotherapy involves a complete change in
the character structure of the individual and the service is long-term. While in counselling,
the goal is limited, more focused on the development of the situation immediately and the
service short term in nature.

1.11.2 Differences of terms and client conditions

Traditional view of psychotherapy involves the client and the counsellor neurotic or
psychotic individuals familiar with the problem. Members psychotherapy often work in
hospitals and clinics and counsellors typically offer services in educational institutions
such as schools, colleges and universities.

In conclusion, we can say that the guidance, counselling and psychotherapy are on a
continuum. Guidance in one end and at the end of psychotherapy and counselling others
in the middle.

COMPARING COUNSELLING AND PSYCHOTHERAPY


Counselling is more for.. Psychotherapy is more for
Clients Patients
Mild Disorders Serious disorders
Personal, social, vocational, educational, Personality problems
and decision-making problems
Preventive and developmental Remedial concerns
concerns
Educational and developmental settings Clinical and medical settings
Conclusion concerns Unconscious concerns
Teaching methods Healing methods
Source: Charles S Thompson, Donna A Henderson (2007) Counselling Children, Belmont: Thomson Brookes/
Cole.

17
Distinctions between counselling and psychotherapy may be superficial in that both
processes have similar objectives and techniques. Although this table summarizes some
differences, those features are often lost in the common ground they share. The key
question about each process rests with counsellors and therapists, who must restrict their
practice to their areas of competence.

1.12 Summary

Although the activities of guidance, counselling and psychotherapy sometimes


superposed states, but more guidance associated with services to provide information and
direction in terms of the selection of career education. Emphasized counselling support
activities, problem solving, awareness raising, and now a short-term problem, while
psychotherapy emphasizing rehabilitation activities, exploration depth, analytical,
highlighting past events as well as long term in nature. In addition, psychotherapy services
are offered to individuals who are experiencing problems that are more serious and
profound.

Perhaps the most important outcome for counselling occurs when children learn how to
be their own counsellors. By teaching children the counselling process, we help them
become more skilled in solving their problems and, in turn, they become less dependent
on others. In our view, counselling is a process of re-education designed to replace faulty
learning with better strategies for getting what the child wants from life. Regardless of the
counselling approach, children bring three pieces of information to the counselling
session: (1) their problem or concern, (2) their feelings about the problem, and (3) their
expectations of the counsellor. Failure to listen for these points makes further counselling
a waste of time.

1.13 SUGGESTED READING MATERIALS

History of the Counseling Profession, www.iupui.edu/-flin/overviewnn

What is Counselling? University of South Florida http://usfweb2.usf.edu/counsel/self-


hln/what.htm

History of School Counselling http://facultv.ashrosarv.ortz/faculty/counseliim/historv hb.htm

History and Trends in Counselling http://facstaffwebs.umes.edu/kipoole/ediic6Ql


602/historv%20GCCC.htm

What is a Counselling Psychologist?


http://www.div 17.oru/Students/whatis.htm

History of Career Counselling http://www.iupui.edu/~-t1ip/careerpp/sld002.htm

18
Different types of psychotherapies
http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/psychotherapies/index.shtml

1.14 Practice Questions

1. a. State briefly the importance of guidance and counselling services in


schools.

b. Explain in brief the problems faced by guidance and counselling


teachers in providing the service to the primary school students.

2. Prepare a table differentiating counselling and psychotherapy in perspective of


a. the counsellors role

b. the process

Chapter References

Arbuckle , D.S. (1995 ) , Counselling and psychotherapy : An Existential


Humanistic View, Bostan : Ally and Bacon , Inc. .
Belkin , G.S. (1981 ) , Practical Counselling in the Schools, Iowa : C. Brown
Company Publishers .
____, (1975 ) , Counselling : Direction in Theory and Practice , Iowa :
Kendall and Hunt .
Benjamin , A. (1969 ) , The Helping Interview , Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co.
Black , K. (1983 ) , Short - Term Counselling , California : Addision - Wesley
Pub.
Blackham , G.J. ( 1977) , Counselling : Theory, Process and Practice ,
Belmont: Wardsworth Publishing Co.
Board , R.D. (1986 ) , Counselling Skills , England : Wildwood House ,
Hampshire .
Boy , A. & Pine , G.J. (1963 ), Client- Centred Counselling in Secondary
Schools, Boston : Houghton Mifflin.Co .
Brammer , L.M. ( 1973 ) , The Helping Relationship : Process and Skills ,
New Jersey , Prentice-Hall , Englewood Cliffs.
Corey , L.M. ( 1977) , Theory and Practice of Counselling and
psychotherapy, California : Brook / Cole Publishing Co. .
Capuzzi , Gross D.ana , D.R. (2001 ) , Introduction to the Counselling
Profession , Boston : Ally and Bacon , Inc. .
Ed , N. (1999 ) , The World of the Counselor , Pacific Corove , USA: Brooke /
Cole Publishing Co.
19
_____, (1975 ) , Counselling : Philosophy , Theory and Practice , Bostan :
Allyn and Bacon , Inc. .

Egan , G. (1975 ) , The Skilled Helper : A Model for Systematic Helping


and Interpersonal Relations, California : Brooks / Cole Publishing Co. .
Eisenberg , S. & Delaney , D.J. ( 1977) , The Counselling Process, Chicago :
Rand McNally .
George , R.L. & Cristiani , T.S. (1981 ) , Theory, Method and Process of
psychotherapy, New Jesey : Prentice-Hall , Englewood Cliffs.
Gibson , R.L. & Mitchell (1981 ) , Introduction to Guidance , New York :
Macmillan .
Hackney , H. & Nye , S. (1973 ) , Counselling Strategies and Objectives ,
New Jersey , Prentice-Hall , Englewood Cliffs.
Hansen , J.C. , steric , R.R & Warner R.W. ( 1977) , Counselling : Therapy and
Process, Boston : Allyn and Bacon , Inc. .
______, (1984 ) , Guidance and Implementation Guide Counselling , Kuala
Lumpur .
Mc Leod , J. ( 2007) , Counselling Skill , New York : Open University Press.

Thompson., Charles L. (200&), Counselling Children (7th ed): Belmont:


Thomson Brooks/Cole

http://teachereducationguidanceandcounsellin.blogspot.com/2011/03/what-is-
counselling-meaning-need-and.html

What is psychotherapy, downloaded at


http://www.psychotherapy.org.uk/article140.html

Psychotherapy and counselling differences, downloaded at


http://www.psychotherapy.org.uk /article140.html

Career beyond Horizon, downloaded at http://rgniyd-career.gov.in


/parentsandteachers/ guidenceandconselling.php

Psychotherapies, downloaded at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics


/psychotherapies /index.shtml

1.15 Glossary

counselling Counselling is a process where the client and counsellor

20
work together to come up with different ways to experience
various situations. The service offers client an opportunity
and time to talk and think about some issues or difficulties.
It helps them to explore their feelings and looks at how they
may wish to change things or their behaviour in making a
better life. In the counselling process the clients learn to
resolve problems, making choices, coping with changes,
gaining insight and understand new things happening in
their life, improving relationships with others, working out
difficult feelings, apart from sharing and acquiring
information. Counselling therefore, is a more specialized
service requiring training in personality development and
handling exceptional groups of individuals.
guidance GUIDANCE is the process of helping an individual to help
himself and to develop his potentialities to the fullest by
utilizing the maximum opportunities provided by the
environment. rsjit/2013
Guidance and counselling A service to guide and counsel students in their quest for
services excellence in education and to help them overcoming their
psychosocial and emotional shortcomings. In short, it
promotes personal/social, educational and career
development to all students.
Need analysis It means of defining as precisely as possible the student
needs, requirements and understanding of what they think
they want from the guidance and counselling services
provided and or from the other servicers provided in the
school. The main purpose of needs analysis is the user's
satisfaction.
psychotherapy It is a way of treating psychological or emotional problems
such as neurosis or personality disorder through verbal and
nonverbal communication. Patients learn new ways to cope
rather than merely using medication to alleviate the
distress. The immediate goal of aiding the person is in
increasing self-knowledge and awareness of relationships
with others. Psychotherapy is carried out to assist people in
becoming more conscious of their unconscious thoughts,
feelings, and motives. Psychotherapy's longer-term goal is
making it possible for people to exchange destructive
patterns of behaviour for healthier, more successful ones

21
Chapter 2

Guidance and Counselling Services

You should be able to:-

1. State the vision, mission, philosophy, and objectives of guidance and counseling
services in schools.

2. compare and contrast the different types of counseling and guidance services;

3. relate the type of guidance and counseling services to service orientation and
their fields;vassessment, placement and follow-up services, crisis prevention,
rehabilitation, and development;

4. elaborate on the Code of Ethics Ethics Counsellor Counselling Teachers, and

5. Understand the role of the school counsellor and counselling ethics.

2.0 Introduction

This chapter will focus on guidance and counselling services offered in primary schools. We
shall look into different types of guidance and counselling services. In addition, you shall
understand some issues and challenges related to guidance and counselling services in the
schools.

The management and implementation of guidance and counseling services in schools


are generally based on the vision, mission, the philosophy and goals of guidance and
counseling services that are set by the Ministry of Education.

2.1 The Vision

The guidance and counseling services are to be the main instrument for creating a
therapeutic atmosphere in the school.

2.2 The mission

1. Managing programs and counseling activities efficiently and effectively


2. Helping school to develop students that have high emotional intelligence (EQ) and
morally strong values.
3. Guiding students to achieve higher performance in academic.

22
4. Create a favorable learning environment through the implementation of guidance
and counseling programs.
5. Provide integrated career guidance information to students.
6. Foster the spirit of patriotism and leadership qualities among students.

2.3 Philosophy and Objectives of Guidance and Counseling Services

2.3.1 The philosophy

Every student has the potential to be developed through the implementation of guidance
and counseling services are efficient, effectively and ethical. The service shall be based
on internal and external sources available in order to produce students who are balanced
in terms of intellectual, physical, emotional and spiritual development as well as believe
and do righteous deeds.

2.3.2 The objectives

1. Providing facilities and experiential development that caters all aspects of student self-
development that is consistent with the ages, levels of ability and student potential.

2. Provide preventative service such as awareness for students not to indulge in


activities that are detrimental to their well being like misbehaving and indiscipline,
vandalism, drug abuse, smoking, drinking alcohol, bullying, joining gangs, involved in
sexual abuse and antisocial behavior.

3. Provide help to heal and overcome their personal problems, education, career and
psychosocial disabilities so that they can be competitive and able to cope with their
problems.

4. Provide crisis intervention services to any student who needs, such as depression and
serious mental, extreme sadness and anxiety, including hysteria and hurting
themselves. Cases like tendency towards suicide will have to be reffered to specialists
outside the school counselling unit.

2.4 General Guidance and Counselling Services in Schools

2.4.1 Type of Guidance Services

Guidance at school includes the following services:

1. Collecting, recording and updating personal and academic achievement of the of


the student.

23
2. Conducting surveys and interpreting diagnostic tests that can help students solve
problems.

3. Provide information to teachers about student achievement, progress and causes


of problems relevant to students' learning, in order to help teachers to plan and
carry out rehabilitation activities.

4. Collect, prepare and disseminate career information and training through


brochures and school newsletters, post posters, job fairs and career days in the
school.

5. Manage and organize social and study visits to factories, workshops, industries
and firms, training centers and colleges for students.

6. Provide advice to the students to choose the subjects in the UPSR co-curricular
activities , or elective subjects for future careers.(it is more evident in secondary
schools)

7. Organizing how to do well in exams and career planning, apart from conducting
talks on prevention of drug abuse, motivational camps to enhance performance or
positive self-concept for a group of students.

8. Plans and organizes orientation program for students and their parents.

9. Planning and implementing programs such as peer counselor training programs.

10. Coordinating guidance and counseling activities between the school and the
District Education Office (PPD), State Education Department (JPN), Ministry of
Education, outside agencies such as the Malaysian Counseling Association,
NGOs, the Labour Department and others.

11. Serving as an advisor to Guidance and counselling Club in school such as Peer
Guidance (Pembimbing Rakan Sebaya or PRS) , Career Guidance Club and other
related clubs and societies.

24
Figure 2.1 illustrates the types of Guidance and Counselling services under four
components implemented at the school level.

2.6 How are students counselled?

Generally there are three ways students come in for counselling services, voluntary, are
invited and or is referred.

i. Clients who volunteer for counselling

In this catergory, a client shall make an appointment and fill up form. Then they will be
called in for a session or can walk in for a guidance and counselling session. Subsequent
sessions can be arranged with mutual consent.

ii. Clients who are referred or invited

Clients are reffered by others or teachers fill Counselling Services Referral Form, while the
invited client fill Individual Counselling Services Form. In addition, a client also need to
take along a note or an attendance acknowledgement to undergo counselling sessions
later. A letter usually is signed by the subject teacher in the classroom during the
counselling session (if during school hours).

Just as individual counselling, there are also different forms for group counselling;
voluntary, invited or consulted.

25
i. Members of the group volunteer for counseling

The members of this group will fill out an appointment form, then leave it to the guidance
and counselling teacher, or enter into a counselling room for a session. It is important that
students/clients fill the required accurate information before undergoing counselling
session on that day.

ii. A referred group

The class teacher / subject teacher / discipline teacher who wishes to refer a child to
undergo group counselling must fill up Group Counselling Services. After that they submit
themselves to for group counselling on the appropriate date and time, either during school
hours or outside school hours. The group will need to get the Letter for Group Counselling
signed by the class teacher / subject teacher for the next date and time of group
counselling sessions to be held.

iii. An invited group

Guidance and counselling teachers must complete Group Counselling Service and or
invitation letter to Attend Counselling Services to the group members. Then meet and
forward the letter to the subject teacher in the classroom if the counselling sessions
need to be conducted during school hours.

2.7 Types of counselling

Generally there are four types of counseling, namely:


1. crisis counseling,
2. rehabilitation counseling,
3. prevention counseling, and
4. Development counseling.

2.7.1 Crisis Counselling

Crisis counselling is used for cases requiring urgent attention and or counselling. For
example : the case of hysteria ; fights in the classroom or school ; attempted murder,
illegal use of drugs ; traumatic events such as floods , earthquakes , fires ; losing a family
member due to an accident, death, emergency cases such as parental divorce, abuse,
rape and so on .

26
2.7.2 Rehabilitation Counselling

Rehabilitation counselling conducted for children at risk, such as skipping school,


smoking, vandalism, fighting teachers, and other disciplinary problems. They are gathered
to undergo individual counselling or group counselling to seek changes in their behaviour
and avoid the crisis.

2.7.3 Prevention counselling

Prevention is more beneficial than treatment. So every effort should be taken by the
guidance and counselling teacher to prevent the onset of a problem through the
implementation of seminars, talks, workshops and lectures. For example: anti- smoking,
illegal drug use via education campaigns. Organising worshops and seminars for
teachniques in answering examnination questions, hold motivational talks, and so on.

2.7.4 Development counselling

Development counselling is an effort to equip children with the knowledge and skills and to
foster positive attitudes based on their needs. Therefore, guidance and counselling
teachers should help children to understand and accept themselves and their real life
situations. Their perceptions, attitudes and goals are discussed, their plan of life, choice or
anxiety experienced can be explained. With that, they will be better able to address and
resolve problems, and make decisions for their future.

2.8 Counselling ethics

Just like the members of the medicine, engineering, arehitecture, dentistry, and law,
guidance and counselling teachers are also required to comply with the code of ethics.
There is no doubt that the practice of ethics and law in guidance and counselling is
challenging. They generally deal with various parties, such as parents, teachers, school
administrators, and external agencies such as government agencies, non-government
agencies and others which constantly wants solutions

Sometimes, due to misunderstandings and misconceptiions there will be conflict with the
requirements of guidance and counselling practiced in school. In this case, guidance and
counselling teachers will experience a certain dilemma. When this happens, the guidance
and counselling teachers should refer to the code of ethics, or discuss with peers and
other professionals in the same field in order to achieve best safe practices.

As budding teachers and future guidance teachers, you should read about the principles
and the code of ethics for guidance and counselling teachers. There are five principles of

27
ethics for the counselling profession as shown in Table 2.3, namely: autonomy,
beneficence, non-malicious, fairness, and honesty.

Table 2.3 Principles of Ethics

Principles Ethics Explanations

Autonomy Respect the client's right to make decisions or take actions on their own
without any reliance on or disruption of guidance and counselling teachers.
Beneficence Do good to the client;
(Kemurahan) Helping clients achieve positive results in counselling sessions.
Non-maleficence Do not do anything to hurt, or exacerbate the client or others
Justice Provide access and service equal and fair to all children.
Fidelity (kejujuran) Be honest and sincere;
Avoid any fraud or exploitation of a client;
Fulfil agreements or commitments made

2.8.1 Counsellor ethics

a. Code of Ethics for School Counselling teachers

In 1996, the Code of Ethics for school counseling teachers was drafted by the Ministry of
Education (MOE) to meet the needs of the implementation of guidance and counseling
services in schools.

The Code of Ethics contains a Code of Conduct which sets out the responsibility of the
counselor responsibilities as follows:

Counselors should behave to maintain the standards and integrity and the identity
as counselors and the counseling profession.

Counselors should always strive to review and improve the knowledge,


competencies and skills in the field of counseling.

Counselors must perform duties in a responsible manner, in accordance with


objective and honest profession of counseling.

Counselors should be monitored and evaluated by the counselling supervisor


through common supervision (regular supervision) and provided with consulting
support.

1. Responsibility to the Client

a. The counsellor puts best interests of the client above self interest.

b. The counselor must respect the rights of individuals and the confidentiality of
all information obtained in counseling seniasa information unless the client
ataypun dangerous people in the neighborhood.
28
c. Counselors must understand and respect the socio-cultural background of the
client.

d. During the counseling session, the counselor must maintain the physical and
psychological well-being of the client and not to further own interest either in a
form of financial, sexual, and emotional and so on.

e. The counselor should guide the client to the formation of personal


responsibility for his behavior. Counselors also must respect clients self-
decision or determination made in the sessions.

f. Counselors must serve with dedication, sincerity, honesty and, to prove their
skills and professional competence.

g. Counselors cannot adopt, endorse or encourage discrimination based on


race, sex, religion, ideology, physical disability, mental or discrimination in any
form.

h. Counselors must explain to clients about the requirements, process and


implications for counseling services.

i. Counselors must reach an agreement with his client in the early stages of a
counseling session about the limitations of confidentiality element.

j. Agreement between the counselor and the client about confidentiality may be
reviewed and modified by mutual agreement thereafter.

k. In the case of clearly proven client or others are in danger situation, the
counselor should use discretion to protect the interests of the client and others
involved.

l. The counselor is not encouraged to provide counseling services to relatives,


close friends, or anyone who has a close relationship with him or have contact
with the Administration that will be evaluating his services.

m. Counselors can not prevent the client to terminate counseling or want to


switch to another counsellor.

n. The counselor should make sure his client is not undergoing counseling with
another counselor at the same time

o. If, at the discretion of the counselor the client requires the services outside of
his discipline, the counselor should refer the client to the relevant authorities.

p. Counselors should provide a comfortable place and environment for a


counseling session. Clients should not be seen by outsiders, no recorded or
videod counseling sessions unless with the permission and knowledge of the
client.

2. Responsibility to other Professional Partners

a. Counsellors should work towards improving the level of professional


competence

b. Counselors must demonstrate respect, fairness and open in his professional


partner.

29
c. Counselor is responsible to prevent, expose, and correct behavior unethical
counselor friend.

d. Counselors should be prepared to defend, help and defend the oppressed


counselor friend accusations and allegations of unethical.

3. Responsibility to the Community

a. Counsellors need to understand and respect the socio-cultural elements of


the society in which he served.

b. Counselors must comply with state law and perform his duties in accordance
with the law.

4. Responsibility to the organization and employer


a. Counsellors should comply with the agreement signed with the organization's
commitment that he served. ( here organization refers to the school)

b. Counselors should strive to follow the policies and procedures as well as


improvements to provide the efficiency and effectiveness of services to the
organisation.

c. Counselors must act to prevent discriminations in organizations and in the


implementation of the principle of work practice.

d. Counselors can not abuse the privilege and organizational resources.

e. The counselor should explain the level of expertise and professional


competence.

f. Counsellors should establish interpersonal relationships and working


agreement with the principal and other staff about counseling services,
particularly for the elements of secrecy, the distinction between public and
private facts, the workload and accountability to the profession.

g. The counselor must inform the principal (administrator) about the causes of
the conflict that impairs or restricts the effectiveness of its services.

h. Counselors should allow himself to be judged by professionals from time to


time.

i. Councillor shall be liable for career advancement for himself and his
staff.

In summary, the counsellor ethics are:

1. Prioritise the client needs


It is important that counsellors should put their needs aside while implementing
counselling sessions where their full attention is to guide the client in order to help
solve the problem satisfactorily. Counselors are often reminded not to use the
client to meet their own needs.

30
2. Client Consent Rights
Protect the rights of the client consent is ethical and legal requirements and as an
integral part of the therapeutic process. It includes the right of a client to be
notified of the therapy to make and informed decision autonomously. Some
aspects of the agreement includes the right information of counseling, the
counselor and client responsibilities, limitations and confidentiality exceptions,
ethical and legal parameters of the relationship, qualifications and background of
counsellor(s), counseling and service expectations, the duration of therapeutic
process, including benefits derived from counseling, risk encountered, and the
possibility of the client will be discussed with a professional counsellor. Preferably
the basic information about the process of therapy is written on paper to be read
by the client, including a discussion that allows clients to get the maximum benefit
from the counseling process.

3. Confidentiality and Communication Privileges


Client confidentiality and communications privileges is an ethical concept that
must be respected as the privacy of the clients. The client privileged
communications refer legal aspects that ensure that client information is disclosed
in the process of therapy will be protected from legal procedures. Thus, a qualified
counselor should define the extent of responsibility of confidentiality can be
promised. Counselors should discuss thical and legal responsibility with the client
before starting the counseling process; client has a right to know that the case
could be discussed with other therapists or counselling colleagues if any need
arises to do so.

However, under some circumstances, client confidentiality cannot be promised and should
be formally communicated to the parties concerned. Among them are:
i. When the therapist believes his under-age client is a victim of sexual
abuse, rape or other crime.
ii. When the therapist has determined that the client requires hospital
treatment.
iii. When the information has become known and is an issue in court.
iv. When the client asked for records to be given to a third party.

Counsellors are also responsible for Measurement and Evaluation


Counselors should provide a complete description of the test so that the test
results will be accepted by the client in the proper perspective.
Counselors need to be qualified and have administration skils to use of any
tests and then the interpretation of test results. The possible consequences af
a test results be known to others should be explained to the client unless the
client waivers the right and formally agreed in advance to do so.

31
Counselors should provide an accurate description of test and measurement
to the public.
Counselors need to monitor and ensure that test results are not
misunderstood or misused.

2.3.1 Some ethical problems faced by school guidance and counsellors

The scenario in Malaysia

In 1996, the Circular No. 3/1996: Appointment of Full Time Counselling Teachers in School
came into effect. In line with the implementation of the policy, in-service training was held
for the training of primary school teachers who are interested in becoming a guidance and
counselling teacher. Accordingly, various issues and challenges arise among the school
administration including (i) the selection of candidates for guidance and counseling
teacher, (ii) provision of special rooms and facilities.

Selected candidates teachers need to attend 14-week In-Service Guidance and


Counseling (KDP 14M B & K) which posed a problem for most schools. First, lack number
of teachers in schools to carry on normal teaching. Second, teachers who have young
children are reluctant to leave their families while they undergo KDP 14Week courses at a
nearby teacher training institute. Third, the school administration having trouble finding
candidates who are really interested. This is due to no incentive in terms of a teacher's
career path as the course is just for professionalis development. Fourth, not everyone has
the personality, willing and able to help others, even though it will be their own students in
the school.

The requirement to provide guidance and counseling rooms with facilities created a
problem too. School administartors find it difficult to identify a special room to be used as
guidance and counseling room. As it is schools face lack of classrooms for their growing
number of student population.

New schools are provided room for Guidance and Counselling Unit. However many
schools can not solve the problem, has no provision for basic amenities such as fans, sofa
sets, cabinets, bookcases, cabinets and so on.

It is important for guidance and counseling teachers appointed to be aware of the


provision of a conducive environment for the implementation of efficient and excellent
service. Matters relating to the preparation of specifications including counseling rooms,
and spaces in the room.

32
A. Specifications for a counseling room

An ideal counselling room should have the following conditions:

i. Easily accessible and projects a serene and calm athmosphere ;


ii. Provided with basic furniture such as cabinets, steel cabinet racks, boards, tables
and suitable and confortable chairs;

iii. Appropriate decorations, pictures or words of wisdom that is appropriate ;

iv. Wall paint with light-colored window curtains ( not dark colours like red or black) ;

v. If the floor is not tiled, it is sufficient to have rubber mats. rsjit/ipgk/2013

B. Facilities for a counselling unit


Counseling room preferably have:
i. A registration counter for students to make an appointment either for individual or
group counseling sessions ;
ii. waiting area; used to display information related to guidance and counselling,
reading material for children who are waiting for their turn to meet with the
guidance and counseling personel ;

iii. A guidance and counseling room where counselling sessions and client records
are kept apart from records counseling sessions and so on. The room can have
one mirrow, however it must not compromise the identity of the client in session.

iv. The floor space for group counseling can have rubber mats or carpet , and a long
table and chairs , and

v. Room of resources (if possible). Used to display the video, slides, see-through,
TV and so on.

Activity: Make an effort to get a counselling room pictures from a


nearby school and discuss with friends about the facilities provided
there.

Issues and challenges related to the special counselling room and basic amenities can be
overcomed with the collaboration and support of all parties concerned. The PTA and local
community can come in and help in providing these facilities. What is important is their
awareness of the importance of guidance and counseling services in schools.

As a result of the above issues, school counselor today face many challenges. First, the
counselor is aware of the fact that they have to give service to all levels of the children in
school. For this purpose, the most convenient and effective way is through classroom
coaching. However, today parents and the society at large emphasise on academic
excellence and forcing teachers to use as much time available for teaching and learning
33
academic subjects. Therefore, counselors have difficulty in accessing the students and the
classroom for the purpose of guidance oriented information.

Second, the ratio of trained counselors to the large number of students cause problems
for counselors to function effectively. They find difficult to give meaningful service to all
existing children in their schools.

Third, professional development is an important element for a counselor to develop their


professional image. Therefore, they are recommended to enhance specific skills (eg,
cross-cultural skills, technology and diagnosis) and clinical supervision. Cross-cultural
competency is critical as we have multi-ethinic and multi-cultural. Furthermore, the school
counseling program need to feature cultural responsiveness. Scheduled clinical
supervision can be useful in helping to realize counselors that lack knowledge or skills in
relation to the implementation of a counseling session. Through post- session discussion,
the counselor will be able to move towards continuous improvement. Thus its important for
counsellors to continue develop and enhance their skills to provide effective guidance and
counselling services.

CONCLUSION

As Malaysia moves forward into 21st century, the education sector is facing numerous
challenges and changes in many areas. In line with these changes, the guidance and
counseling teachers also need to adapt to the context of a modern school as well as equip
themselves with all kinds of skills. These include the ability to make assessments and use
avilable data to identify barriers or problems between teachers' and the studenty; excellent
clinical skills, skills to be an effective facilitator for group counseling; negotiation skills and
collaboration with other teachers and parents.

In short, guidance and counseling teachers should develop a professional


identity. They are encouraged to join the association counseling in an effort to
increase the professionalism of the counseling profession.

2.4 Practice Questions


1. Mr Ramlan intend to create a filing system to effectively manage the guidance and
counseling services in his school. Explain how you can help him to do so.

2. You are just appointed as a guidance and counselling teacher in your school.
Prepare a guidance and counselling activities for your students. Include the

34
objectives, your key index performance and other working committes to oversee
the implementation of these activities.

Guidance and counseling services is to help students solve the problems of their lives.
a. List four personal aspects in the field of guidance and counselling for pupils in
the school.

b. Code of Ethics serves as a chorus line or the principles of implementation.


Describe the responsibility of the teacher counselors based on code of erhics
for school counseling.

2.6 Chapter References

Bahagian Sekolah, KPM (1996). Surat Pekeliling Ikhtisas Bil 3/1996. Dimuat turun pada
Mei 28, 2010 daripada apps.emoe.gov. my/bs/spi/1996/3-1996.pdf

Gysbers, N.C. & Henderson, P. (n.d). Article 41. Comprehensive guidance and
counseling program evaluation: Program +personnel = results. Dimuat turun pada April
20, 2010 daripada counselingoutfitters. com/vistas/vistas06/vistas06.41 .pdf

Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia. (2009). Panduan pelaksanaan perkhidmatan bimbingan


dan kaunseling di sekolah rendah dan menengah. Bahagian Pengurusan Sekolah Harian,
KPM.

Sciarra, D.T. (2004). School counseling: Foundation and contemporary issues. Belmont,
CA: Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning.

Persatuan Kaunseling Malaysia (PERKAMA). (1994). Kod etika kaunselor [Online].


Dimuat turun pada Jun 3, 2010 daripada http:// www,eghrmis. gov.mv/wp
content2/polisihr/kodetika/kodetika.htm

2.7 Glossary

35
36
Chapter 3

Role of Ordinary teachers as Guidance teacher

You should be able to:-


1. Identify normal teachers role as a guidance teacher

2. Differentiate normal teacher and guidance teachers responsibility in provoding


guidance and counselling services;

3. Play a role in gathering student information with the appropriate technique

4. identifying children's problems in school

5. Propose strategies to help with the student problems.

3.1 Introduction

Many parents assume that the job of a teacher at the school is only teaching in the
classroom. Very few of them understand the actual role played by teachers in schools. In
fact some of the teachers are also unclear about their role as teachers in contrast to
guidance and counseling teachers.

In general, the roles and responsibilities of all teachers are the same. No matter whether
you are teaching in a primary or secondary school, you are entrusted to educate the
students. All teachers are entrusted with their specific own duities apart from certain
responsibilities by the school administration. Therefore, there are those among you who
are appointed as teachers, supervising teachers, discipline teacher, house master, sports
secretary or a club or uniformed bodies advisors.

To get a clearer picture of what a regular teacher help implement guidance and counseling
services effectively in their schools, let us refer to the following figure.

Studies

Social aspects
Guidan
ce
Moral values

Figure 3.1 Guidance and counselling service in a school

37
Teaching and guidance are two major areas of teachers responsibility in a school.
There's no doubt that the teacher in the classroom is to teach. As a teacher its your
responsibility to teach to convey as much information and provide guidance to your
students. You are entrusted to teach and guide your students in to meet their needs in
academic studies, social, personality development, discipline, exercise and being healthy.
As a teacher and a guide, your role is not in the classroom alone but covers in and out of
a classroom either directly or indirectly in any situation.

Your role as guidance teacher means as a regular teacher you have the responsibility to
assist your students in all aspects. Here guidance means responsibilities beyond the
confines of classroom instruction where the emphasis is more oriented to the religious and
moral guidance, psychosocial development, cognitive, affective, physical, and vocational
and career issues.

How would teachers like you meet the students cognitive demands and to guide them
to excel in their studies? Generally, teachers introduce study skills workshops where
students can practice the speed reading techniques, taking notes using mind mapping
(using I-Think Maps), learning to learn the best way and get motivation to excel. Students
require guidance and advice to help them to learn in a systematic and effective way. In
addition to this, they also need to meet the psychosocial demands, for example, teachers
can train gifted students to be the best orator in the school debating team, be good
athelete or play in a team events. The support and right guidance will help to mould
students to be competent as outlined in the National Philosophy of Education.

Counselling services are provided by teachers who are specially trained in counselling.
These teachers have gone a formal training before being awarded a certificate, diploma or
degree for guidance and counselling from universities. There's no denying that there are
ordinary teachers who are totally clueless and completely ignorant about the aims of
counselling services and the role of the school counsellor. Many school administrators and
ordinary teachers assume that counsellors are appointed to do counselling; ordinary
teachers can handle regular counselling sessions! This is contrary to the ethics of
counselling itself as the counselling process can only be operated by a qualified teachers
in the field.

Psychotherapy is usually not handled by school counsellors, as it is highly specialised


field. It is usually handled by trained personnel in hospitals. School counsellors will
recommend students who need these services to respective nearest hospitals for further
help. This is usually done with the permission from the students and their parents to avoid
any misunderstanding in the future.

As a teacher you should be able to differentiate your responsibility to your students to


ensure they get the best in academic as well as their individual development as a human

38
being. Bakhtiar (1997) stated, Between teaching, guidance, counselling and
psychotherapy there is a common

The Handbook for Guidance and Counselling Services in Secondary Schools (1993)
states two categories of teachers listed as personnel to help in the success of guidance
and counselling services in every school, they are:

3.1.1 Assistant Teacher for Guidance and Counselling

A teacher is appointed by the school administrator to serve as an assistant to the


guidance and counselling teachers. In some schools, a teacher who have attended a short
guidance and counselling course or has some experience in guidance and counselling
services will be appointed to help in the services.

According to the Handbook for Guidance and Counselling Services in Secondary Schools
(1993), the Ministry of Education has outlined the guidance and counselling teachers role,
which are:

a. Assist in managing students inventory and records


b. Assist in providing information services.

c. Assist in group counselling services.

d. Assist in counselling services.

e. Assist in placement services.

f. To assist in the service of preventing drug abuse

g. Assist in consultation and referral services.

h. Assist in coordinating service and resources.

i. Assist in the evaluation service.

j. Place an order and ensuring enough stock for guidance materials.

k. To help produce and manage print and non-print guidance materials like
posters, brochures, documents, news, slides and videotapes.

3.1.2. Other Teachers

Other teachers here means all the teachers who teach in the school. While under training
to be teachers, all of you are have gone through thorough training and have learned as
well as picked up skills that do qualify you to assist school counselors implement guidance
39
and counseling programs to all students. If you use the experience and skills learned, you
can certainly help the school in a more efficient and effective way to enhance the teaching
and learning in the school.

Your experience interacting with students and understanding their needs and characters,
helps you to be better prepared to guide and counsel them when needed. Help should be
rendered to all, irrespective its a preventive, remedial or personal development for the
students. Complicated and difficult students should be reffered to a school counselor for
further action. Usually these cases involve internal factors such as mood disorders and
the child is facing an emotional disturbances.

Your role and responsibility as educator covers both in and out of a classroom or school
environment. As a trained educator you should not ignore to guide your students in
spiritual, emotional, social and personality development. Whether a student is in trouble
or otherwise, it is your responsibility to guide them towards adaptation and personal
growth, academic excellence, and being harmonious in cognitive, affective, and social
aspects.

3.2 Role of Normal teacher

A normal or a regular teacher teaches in a classroom. However they are also involved in
implementing extra-curricular activities and other school activities. In addition you as an
ordinary teachers will also be entrusted to assist the guidance and counseling teachers or
school counselors to gather student information. You will also help to implement guidance
and counselling activities that will students.

3.2.1 Assisting in General Guidance and Counseling Services

Ordinary teachers usually assist in the implementation of guidance and counseling


programs planned in the school. Teachers are involved directly or indirectly in the
programmes which can be either held daily, weekly, monthly or on a need to basis. For
example, teachers are directly involved facilitators in enrichment activities, training group
activities and so foth. Teachers do assist in in group dynamics simulations or other
activities conducted during the orientation week or motivational camps. Teachers who are
interested in social activities also help counselors by becoming trainers to mentoring
programmes. Ordinary teachers also mentor students who are academically weak in
certain subjects.

There is undeniable constraint on ordinary teachers to carry out their usual duties as
teachers. Sometimes the tasks to be performed versus the time and family and personl
obligations are just too much to bear. As a result, regular teaching staff fine it difficult to

40
engage in active guidance and counselling activities. However, these teachers may still
cooperate through moral and mental support to other fellow teachers who implement
programs planned by the school. Every single adult individual in the school play an equal
part and responsible to help and guide the studenbts to be better students and
responsible citizens of the nation.

Trainee teachers also play an important role in giving guidance to their students during
their practicum in schools. As future teachers, you are responsible to cooperate and assist
all parties in the school to provide the support asnd help to implement the guidance and
counselling services to to fully effective for the students.

3.2.2 Provide Guidance

Teachers are responsible to teach and help moulding the students to be useful individuals.
Its your responsibility to guide and make students to realise their potential. The National
Education Philosophy is a source of guide for teachers to implement various activities both
in and outside the classroom to ensure each and every student develops a morally strong
and a responsible citizen of this nation.

a. Education guidance

The process of teaching and learning in the classroom requires the teacher always to be
attentive and willing to help students in any situation. Cognitively weak students
require guidance outside of class time. For example, students who are weak in the
multiplication operation should be guided to master the multiplication tables. The same
applies to students who are weak in language learning, like spelling. Others may have
problems in writing and so on. Various prorammes are being implemented and carried out
to help students who are academically weak. These weak students also need moral and
movational support. Thus, it is a duty of an ordinary and regular teacher to refered thse
students to a counselor for specific help. This approach is more efficient because in a
regular classroom situation, students are often likely to be left behind and finally lost
interest in the studies. This happens as teachers are unable to focus on an individual
basis or in small groups. However, with the guidance and motivation from the counselling,
these students will be able to help themselves more efficiently. They will also be helped
and guided by speacially trained teachers who guides these weak students in a smaller
groups to learn the basics and finally rejoin their peers in a normal classroom learning.

Students are also guided in extra-curricular activities. Many students do need guide
and help to realise their potential and hidden talents. Teachers need to give
encouragement and support so that they can achieve their potential in any sports or co-
curricular activities. The Ministry of Education launched One Child one Sport to encourage
students to be involved in outside the classroom activities. Successful students not only
grow into happy adults but also bring glory to their respective schools. This enhance their
41
self esteem and helps them to achieve self-satisfaction, which in turn can be used to guide
and help them in their stuidies.

b. Social guidance

The process of socialization in schools and in the classroom affects the formation of
students' behaviour in the long run. Students that have a positive learning outcomes are
expected to be born cheerful, confident and disciplined. On the other hand, negative
influence will cause students to misbehave which eventually leads to discliplinary
problems in the classroom and the school.

Every teacher is responsible to ensure their students are not influenced by negative
elements. It is a collective responsibility to act before any negative elements spreads
among the students which leads self-destruction. Cases like students vandalising school
property, playing truant and involved in gangsterism often appear in the print and
electronic media - somehow affected the reputation of the school.

Students have many socio-emotional problems like mental stress and health problems.
In addition, to environmental and surrounding factors, family, peer pressure, and the
society at large too causes many social problems to the students. So, the teachers have
an important role and responsibility to guide them in the right direction and be accepted by
society. For example, if a teacher detects a student has a family problem, being a practive
teacher the student is guided and helped to overcome the problem at the earliest stage. If
the problem is allowed to continue, the student becomes a victim that will soon affect the
students performance in the classroom. Teachers with the help and cooperation of
counsellors, can take the initiative to call both parents to discuss the problems that arise.
Efforts like these are much needed to help the guidance services reach to students so that
they can continue to study, live in peace and happiness like their other friends.

c. Spiritual guidance

Character building, discipline and morale of students actually start at home. Schools
just as second nursery students. Parents are the first people that are responsible for
forming their childrens personality since childhood. Whatever is being learned and taught
at home is then brought into a school. Parents upbringing do influence a childs
behaviour. An example of negative behavior is being undisciplined and using abusive
language when communicating with fellow students. This is the result of home upbringing
where parents commonly could be using impolite words that will be an example to their
children. So, in our efforts to prevent this negative practice being continuing, religious
and moral activity programmes need to be increased. Many primary schools hold
programmes like qiamullail for their Muslim students. Apart from that there are other

42
uniform bodies and school based societies that hold camps and programmes that help
problematic and risky students to learn good characteristic via activities and socialising
during and after the camps or activities. This way, we can make them aware of the
detrimental habits while learning new positive values and noble deeds that will make these
students lead a better life.

3.2.3. Indentify Student Problems

Schools are social institutions that were very influential in shaping character and
personality of students. If students do not have high endurance then space for
meresapnya negative elements into itself is wide open. Sometimes students do not realize
is influenced by the negative actions of friends around. They include actions such as
copying in exams, lying or skipping classes every day in school.

It is simple for a teacher to know exactly what troubled students is because students'
problems stem from a variety of physical elements / physical, emotional / affective,
spiritual / moral, intellectual / cognitive, and social discipline. Moreover, the problems
associated with mental and emotional factors which physical symptoms are quite difficult
to see. Only in certain cases where there is clear evidence or reported by third parties it's
now possible to be taken. In an attempt to obtain information or evidence, there are
several ways that can be practiced by teachers. Among them are:

a. Through observation - Teachers can easily observe the behavior of their students in
and outside the classroom from time to time. During the observations made, it is likely
we will be faced with students who behave in unusual or abnormal. So we must act
quickly so that appropriate assistance is given or made reference to a counselor.

b. Inventory tools - Feedback from inventory tools can actually help teachers to get to
know their students better. Teachers can ask the school counselor to conduct tests
using appropriate inventories.

3.3 Collecting and Updating of Student Records

Every student in the school has a personal record of each. Usually all schools 001M card
for recording data and personal information of students. The task of recording the
information carried by the class teacher or teacher level since the early years. This record
is about to be updated from time to time. . For example, in the field of personal data such
as height, weight belt and health (eye / teeth / illness), this information is constantly
changing with the growth and development the students. Any change in data in the official
43
record is very important as a reference to health, social, discipline, welfare and safety of
the child. These records are personal records that are considered confidential and must
be kept at safe location within the school building. Usually they are kept in the
administrative rooms or at times by Student Afaairs teacher and sometimes by the school
counsellor.

5. Referring a Case

There is no doubt that school teachers are not experts in all fields, especially for matters
outside the scope of work and knowledge of the teachers themselves. So in the face of
psychological problems and serious discipline teachers are not allowed to take action
alone. They need to work with other teachers to follow the rules and procedures laid by
MOE.

Teachers should maintain good relatiionships with their students. You need to be proactive
and attentive to any problems posed by your students. High-risk cases that is beyond your
scope, should be referred immediately to the appropriate people like teacher counselor or
discipline teacher. For the counselor, he /she should refer cases that require specific
attention or action of others who are more responsible. For instance at times some cases
need relevant authorities to act immediately; sexual abuse and drug abuse. However, a
word of caution you need to follow guidelines in a counselors act 550 (please get hold of
a copy and go through every section in the act). A student that has been reported by his
peers was involved with a drug addiction, the counselor should act quickly.

In common school pactice, teachers can make refer students to others. One of them is to
refer students to obtain counseling or further guidance from trained counselors. Reference
is made on the grounds that regular teachers do not have the skills to carry out effective
counseling. Most of the students from this group are those who suffer from psychological
problems such as depression or emotional disorders. While some others may have much
more complex problem thast need special attention. Under this circumstances, the schoo
counsellor may refer this student to a specialist (counselor / therapist) or other authorities
like the police, doctors, hospitals or social welfare officer with the permission and
aknowledgement from the school administration.

Another way is to refer cases of serious discipline to discipline teacher or any teacher
discipline teacher appointed for further action by the school administration. Usually, heavy
cases which may require an immediate action will be refered to the headmaster. For
example, a student that need to be punished with a cane. (Refer the guidelines by MOE
on how and what is punishable acts in a primary school). This action is necessary
because the caning should only be done by teachers or headmasters or a representatives
who is authorised according to the rules by the MOE.

44
In some instances, there are cases referred to a counselor prior to any disciplinary action
taken. This move is made in order to allow a student to be able to obtain counselling and
to uunderstand their actions that detrimental to them and others. However, if the students
after acknowledging their misconduct and keep behaving in a manner that endangers
themselves and others. He /she is then will face the disciplinary board that decides the
nect course of action as laid in the guidelines given to them.

In any case, as educators, we need to understand that whether that the counseling
approach and or a multtidisciplinary approach, both complement each other. The
approaches have the same ultimate aim to produce students who are well-balanced in
terms of emotional, spiritual, intellectual and socially.

Discussion:
a. What is a counselors reposibility towards his clients under the Act 550?
b. What you should do before making an official reference or a report to authorities
without being on the wrong side of the law?
c. When a counsellor can or cannot report a case to authorities? Give specific examples
with facts.

6. Follow-up plan

Any assistance and guidance given to students takes time to reap results. Sometimes
a little change in the attitude and behavior of students is just a beginning. The guidance
process works and succeeds with the commitment and cooperation from the students and
teachers. If a teacher actively provides guidance programs but fewer students responded,
it means time and effort being wasted. Some may just regress to their old habist and
ttitudens that actually made them come for guidance and counselling services. It is true
that for every positive reaction from students, they requires supervision at all times. Thus
students under counselling need guidance and must do their follow-up with their teachers
and school counsellors.

Many positive activities can be implemented in different ways. For example, academic
counseling programmes like extra classes held for important subjects in primary schools
have a profound effect on a student. A teacher that provide effective answering techniques
will help students to be more confident and develops a positive self esteem. If in any case
once students are found to be involved with glue sniffing, drug abuse, vandalising school
or public property, gangsterism and so forth; teachers can provide supervised activities.
Control and supervision of the activities carried out is a form of preventive counseling that
is carried out systematically. Meanwhile the school authorities need to work with the

45
childrens parents as well as the local authorities before the issue gets out of control and
brings more damage to the children and the school at large.

In conclusion, teachers need to understand and appreciate their role and


responsibility not only to teach but also to guide young minds towards a responsible way
of living. You are responsible conducting guidance programs to help the students to grow
up harmoniously and to provide and ensure a safe school environment. In addition, you
also utilise the proper guidance, give students the opportunity to demonstrate their talent,
potential and capabilities in and out of the classroom. Guidance is not limited in a
counselling sessions, but is also done in areas of curriculum and co-curriculum activities
that develop students to think critically and creatively and be able to make decisions and
act rationally. This way, the students are more willing to reevaluate their role themselves
why and for what they go to school and where they would be in future.

3.3 Identify the problems of children

3.3.1 Types of problems

Students in schools do gace various problems. The roblems can be classified under two
main categories, namely academic problems and personal and social problems.

A. Academic

Generally a class consists of students who has difference in intelligence, aptitude,


physical, interests, talents, and so on. Therefore, there are students who can learn quickly,
and there are students who can only understand a concept or a skill after being given
remedial ativities. In some extreme cases, there are students who cannot study.

Generally, pupils are always facing the learning problem is composed of students who
have lower IQ. This is due to a number of factors.

Factors for Learning Difficulties

Let us look into some of the factors for learning problems;

1. Curriculum that is not compatible with the cognitive development of students.


2. Inappropriate strategies and methods of instruction received by students.
3. Educational materials used are not interesting enough to the students.

Pupils start to lose interest in their learning activities and this leads to frequent truancy. As
a result, these pupils will be lagging far behind in their studies because they could not
follow what is being taught by a teacher. Being often absent from school will put them into
problems.
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B. Personal factors

Personal factor is closely linked to poverty and social problems. Family poverty and low
social environment factors usually affect the performance of pupils in the school. There
are some students who are poor have a part time job to supplement the family income so
they do not have enough time to learn. Pupils are also encouraged by their parents.
Furthermore, these students interact with peers who are also facing similar personal
problems. They equally have no strong motivation to learn! Personal problem is a vicious
cycle in their learning process.

ii. Lack of Intelligence Factor

The recovery factor of intelligence is closely related to mental problems. Students with
mental problem is a slow thinker, poor memory, difficult to understand something, have
poor observation and so on. Mental problems exist among students due to the following:

1. Heridated from parents


2. Complications during birth or premature birth
3. Brain injury due to diseases or accidents.
4. Lack of nutritious food.

iii. Mental Factors

Mental factors in learning disabilities can be shown as the following signs:

1. Not sounding words correctly.


2. Can not put words to construct sentences correctly.
3. Quickly forget what was taught by the teacher.
4. Slow reading rate or could not read
5. Long- time convergence of attention on learning too short
6. Can not remember the sequence, for example, can not memorize the
multiplication of zero.
7. Cannot follow teacher instruction in the regular classroom
8. Weak and limited ability to understand concepts and acquiring skills
9. Laziness, lack of interest and do not have a passion for reading.

Learning problems can be overcome through remedial education if the pupil experience
mild mental problems. For severe cases, such as mental retardation, special education aid
is needed to teach the students in a special school.

C. Physical Factors
47
Physical factors are refered from the aspects of student health. Pupils who are unwell will
have trouble learning in school. Thus learning is closely related to health factors such as
the following:

1. Lack of nutritious food will damage the health of children. They are usually
malnourished tired easily. Therefore, they can not concentrate on teaching full.
They are also less force and enthusiasm to complete the work assigned by the
teacher.

2. Lack of learning also arise because students do part-time work to help their
parents. Students always look tired and less enthusiasm for reading.

3. Pupils who are unwell susceptible to various diseases. They are often on sick
leave. Their education also affected because they often do not attend school.

4. Physical disability such as deaf, dumb, blind, stuttering, nasal congestion, hearing
loss, vision is clear, and so on can also hinder students' learning progress.
Hearing problems or poor vision can be remedied by wearing a hearing aid or
glasses. However, for cases such as the deaf, dumb and blind, they had to be
placed in a special school.

D. Psychological factors

Psychological factors associated with emotional problems. Pupils who struggle with
emotion usually have fear, hate, silence, shame, low self-esteem does not have
confidence.

Emotional Problems arise from factors other than learning factor; like personal issues,
mental and physically. For example, the poor may feel afraid and feel inferiority complex.
Students with learning disabilities may hate or dislike the teacher and school or simply
being a shy person. Students who have a physical disability may be losing confidence in
learning activities as well.

Factors contributing to learning problems discussed above may adversely affect the
performance of students in their learning activities. A student may have more than one
factor for learning disabilities. The task for the teacher is to detect and try to help these
students to overcome their learning problems.

Generally most of the problems described by the children to the guidance and counseling
teachers can be classified into five categories as follows:

Interpersonal Conflict. Children who are having trouble communicating with parents,
teachers , or peers ;

48
Intrapersonal conflict. Children cope with the problems associated with making
decisions need clarification on solution alternatives and consequences ;

Lack of information about themselves. Children who want to know themselves


more deeply in terms of abilities , strengths , interests and values;

Lack of information about the environment. Children need information about how
to achieve success in their academic and career in the world of work ;

Lack of skills. Children need to learn about one -on-one skills, such as: how to study
effectively, assertive behavior, effective listening skills, and so on.

3.4 Identify student problems

Student problems can be identified via observation or by using psychological testings like
inventories.

Observation as the primary means of identifying problems in children. In addition, other


methods such as checklists; sosiogram; works of children; pictures, and audio and video.

The procedure observations are as follows:

Prior to the observation session , determine the objective or purpose of the


observation , the target can be observed , the period of observation , and
recording observations ;

Arrive to class or place in which the children were gathering and learning activities
;

Sit in the back of the class or located so as not to disturb the process of teaching
and learning ;

Make a note of the observations as field notes relevant.

Then, the observation is noted in particular the observation forms. The format for the
observation can be prepared with relevant columns. Look up for sample forms from school
counsellors in a nearby schools.

3.5 Collection of Student Information

In a school, the guidance and counselling unit overses the collection and keeping the
student information. The unit:

1. Prepare and file handling guidance for every pupil.

49
2. Collect and record details related to the evaluation and interpretation of student
interest.

3. Monitor students' attendance figures and patterns referred for counseling.

4. Coordinate, maintain and update student records

5. Provide information about achievement, progress and overall performance of


pupils' learning, their problemas for the purpose of rehabilitation.

6. Conduct surveys as may be necessary or useful to help develop pupils.

The unit will also provide services and manages inventory in guidance and counseling to
help students discover their potential and to determine the direction of future, especially in
their chosen line of work in future.

Today, there are various types of inventory tests available for Guidance and Counseling
services. Among them are Inventory for study, Inventory for Career, Inventory for Self and
many more. At the school, the inventory that is often used and it is kept as confidential.

3.6 Information-gathering techniques

In Guidance and Counselling, students basic information that is needed is a personal


particulars, their academic results and co-curricular activities in which they participate.
There testing and test information techniques used to gather these informations.

3.6.1 Test techniques

A. Students academic achievement as summative and formative assessment test


schools, including UPSR, PMR , SPM and STPM .

Achievement test refers to the test in the classroom generated by teachers to measure
what is known by the children in relation to a subject, such as reading, math, science,
language, and so on. Achievement test designed to measure following aspects:

The level of learning, namely: high, medium, or low;


The rate of learning, such as: fast, medium or slow;
Comparing performance with other children or own achievement in other
subjects, which seeks to identify the strengths and weaknesses of academic
achievement obtained ;
Predictions about the future of education quality.

50
Achievement tests are also very useful for identifying the potential child will face due to
learning problems. For example, children who achieve low scores in oral reading tests do
not necessarily know how to read; it could be dyslexia. Armed with this initial low
achievement test scores, the guidance and counselling teacher can plan relevant
interventions such as consulting with special education teachers, parents, consultants,
and so on to help the student improve in learning.

B. Intelligence tests are used to measure intelligence quotient of students (IQ)


recommended by Terman and Binet. Test bias Talent as Differential Aptitude Test
(DAT).
Interest Test to assess students' interest in an activity or career, such as
the Career Assessment Inventory (CA1), which consists of three areas.
(Look up these in internet) .

Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) reflects the ability of candidates in terms of


verbal and non- verbal. SAT scores are also used as one of the criteria for
admission to a university or college in most western countries.

C. Interest Inventory
Career interest test can be administered to obtain the initial profile of a group of children
that can be used as material in individual counseling sessions later. Furthermore, when
combined with achievement and aptitude test scores, data on career interest is to help the
children to explore education and career opportunities to get involved later.

The career interest inventory that is commonly used in schools, including Strong -
Campbell Interest Inventory ( SCII ) , Self- Directed Seareh ( SDS ) , Ohio Vocational
Interest Survey ( OVIS ) , and Kuder Occupational Interest Survey ( Kois ) .

D. Test and Personality Inventory

Personality Test is used to study the non- cognitive aspects such as affective aspects,
motivation, emotion and attitude of a student.

There two types of approaches that are commonly used to measure personality, namely:

i. Personality Inventory - Being objective and covers aspects such as self-


concept, social adjustment, problem-solving styles, and other traits traits. These
two personality tests are used to get information for personal matters as well as
values and attitudes. For example: Mooney Checklist , Myers - Briggs Type
Indicator , and so on ;

ii. Projective Techniques this have been more subjective and unstructured.
Example: Thermatic Aperception.

51
E. Screening tests are used to isolate pupils with less agile intelligent.

Diagnostic tests are used to detect the cause of the weakness or lack of knowledge in
students' learning skills. Results of this type is important for teachers to plan recovery
activities.

H. Special Aptitude Test as Mechanical Aptitude Test, Clerical Aptitude Test, Aptitude
Testing Art and Music Aptitude Test is used to measure the potential of students in a
particular field.

Aptitude " is defined as a feature that shows a person's ability to achieve success in a
particular field, or to acquire specific knowledge and skills in relation to the field. By
tradition, the test is designed to measure a person's learning abilities called intelligence
tests.

The aptitude test battery includes a variety of tests to measure aspects such as verbal
reasoning, mechanical aptitude, language fluency, numerical ability, and so on. For
example, the Scholastic Aptitude

3.6.2 Non- Test Techniques for Gathering Student Information

a. Review document containing student information: Bailey (1978) divides the


document for review in two categories, namely primary documents and secondary
documents. The main document consists of pupil autobiography, anecdote and
cumulative card. The secondary document is a written report based on interviews,
observations or documents of reference. Examples of secondary documents are
biography of pupil, teacher reports and checklists.

b. Questionnaire that has information about the student, families, homes, health,
study time, interests, hobbies , future plans , the activity of co-curricular activities
outside of school, special accomplishments and how they utilise time, including
during school holidays .

c. Observation techniques can be used to identify the characteristics of pupil


development in affective and psychomotor areas , especially in the subject of
Islamic Religious , Moral Education , Music and Physical Education.
Student behavior observation activities should be held into the conduct of their
time in and out of the classroom. Type of observation tool that is often used to
record student performance through observation are (a) checklist and (b) the
scale of rates. Drug checklist can be used to identify behavioral characteristics of
students who are or are not there. In the checklist, the characteristics of student
behavior must be stated clearly and easily and arranged in order.

52
The scale rates, other than to record student behavior has been observed, shows
the degree of achievement of behavior shown by the pupils concerned. The
degree of achievement is usually expressed with a 5-point, namely (1) very bad
(2) bad (3) medium (4) Good (5) best. In addition to the degree of achievement of
a 5-point, the tool scale rates should incorporate features of behavior and
arranged in order. The degree of achievement of a 5-point usually expressed on
each side of its behavior to be assessed.

d. Records Anecdote is a report based on the observation by teachers in a form of


a document in an event. This report is usually recorded about the pupil behavior
or personality are observed, including teachers comments.
According to Goodwin and Driscoll (1980) anecdote has the following features:
i. direct observation ;
ii. An accurate record , and specifically about an event ;
iii. Covers the context in which the occurrence of a behavior ;
iv. Interpretation recorded separately from such events;
v. Focusing normal or abnormal behavior demonstrated by the
student

In practice, ordinary teachers can use anecdotal records to record the observed
behaviour.

e. Sociometry and sosiogram :

Sosiometri refers to a method in researeh that aims to examine the social and
psychological relationships between individuals in a collection of something.
Sosiogram is something kind of tattoo image is formed rather than the results
of researeh into the relationship between students social in something
particular collection.

In terms of education, communication and interaction patterns of students in


the class is seen in a form of to work together; the students who have the
same social level or almost the same, where they are assembled as peers. This
may be identified through the study of sociometry, a technique used to
examine the relationships and patterns of interaction among individuals. For
example, students in a class were told to choose his friends. Their choices are
then recorded or put into a diagram, or an image called sosiogram.

A sosiogram will allow teachers to put students in the appropriate groups apart
from selecting their class monitor and so forth. This will enhance the spirit of
cooperation, and teaching and learning can be fun and administered
effectively.

53
f. Student information via 001 and 002 Cards

001 refers to the Schooling record, while 002 Card refers to Students Personal details.
These cards were first used 1967 in primary and secondary schools.

The 001 card includes items like; personal and family particulars, school and co-curricular
activities, test and exam results, school attendance, financial aid and or prizes won.

The 002 card contains eight main sections rtion which includes; student attributes,
interests, likes and dislikes, choice of career, intervievs details with the student, paraents,
health records and records of any disease.

Both cards are completed by classroom teachers and kept for students. Every student has
these cards that follow them throughout the schooling life from primary to secondary
school. If students is transferred to another school, the card is then sent to the new
school.

However, beginning 1978, these cards were combined into 001 R(77) for primary schools
and 001 M (77) for secondary schools. .

The aim of these records are to know and understand students academic and co-
curucular from year to year, to understand their interests, health concerns and family
background. These edicts are very important for teachers to guide them towards
developing their potential in terms of intellectual, physical, social and spiritual thoroughly.

Today, most school use a computerised forms to help them keep vast information about
their students.

g. Students work

Students work includes paintings, collage, writing and projects they carried out in their life.
The work is the product of the original childhood cognitive ability and creativity. Teacher
can see the growth and development which has been or is not seen in their students
development. Students work can be kept as a scrap book, or it can be shared with other
students in the classroom or with parents.

h. Pictures or Photos

Nowadays, digital cameras have replaced traditional cameras as a medium to capture


emotions during students childhood in any activity. Instead of a large number of images
taken, you may choose at will follow where the image to be printed; tray which may be
stored on CD,

54
However, you must remember that a good practice is to have parent consent if you desire
to use a picture of their child in any publication.

i. Audio and Video recordings

A video requires expertise and some experience to record. Its a medium that can record
for longer period of time. It is important to get the necessary permission from the school
and parents before doing any recording. Some students a camera and video shy! They
could feel threathened or there could be other problems. Some may even be good actors,
and others see it as natural for them being filmed. Typically you can record school
activities like prize giving day, sports, speech day, open day and so forth to shown in a
classroom or their parents as a form of appreciation. At least parents can see their child's
involvement in school activities.

Its rather obvious that visual and audio recordings do help us to understand our students
better. However, its important that student privacy is ensured and you need consent from
the parents as weel. There are few shortcomings. First you need to be sure of your
objectives, time period and the end results of these recordings. Second, the sudden
disconectivity of electric to the equipement. Third, is the student cooperative when the
recording is carried out?

Extra reading materials

Look up information regarding school psychological test. Identify the weakness in


collectiong student information.

Practice Questions

1. Techniques for gathering information students can be grouped into test and not a test.
Discuss.

2. Give five types of non-testing techniques that are used to collect information for
students.

Explain their strong and weaknesses.

3. Identy main student probems in primary schools. Suggest intervention strategies to


address these problems of students in schools.

Chapter References

55
Aminah Hashim dan Arthur, P.L., (1996). Bimbingan dan Kaunseling dalam Pendidikan.
Kuala Lumpur: Federal Publications.

Brammer, L.M. (1981). The Helping relationship, Process and Skills. London: Prentice Hall
International

Schmidt, J.J. (2003). Counseling in schools: Essential services and comprehensive


programs (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

Sciarra, D.T. (2004). School counseling: Foundations and contemporary issues. Belmont,
CA: Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning.

Thompson, C.L., Rudolph, L.B. & Henderson, D. (2004). Counseling children (6th ed.).
Belmont, CA:Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning.

Wortham, S.C. (2008). Assessment in early childhood education (5th ed.). Upper Saddle
River, NJ:Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.

Laman Web

Observing and recording student performance. Dimuat turun pada Julai 12, 2010 daripada
parkcoop.kl2.mt.us/.../Microsoft%20Powe

rPoint%20-%200bser\ing%20and%20Recording%20Student%20 Performance.pdf

Methods of recording information. Dimuat turun pada Julai 15, 2010 daripada
www.vetpd.qld.gov.au/resources/pdf/tla/.../ observationsamples.doc

56
Chapter 4

Counselling theories

You should be able to:-


Explain the importance of theory to counseling;
Discuss the three aspects of behaviourist theory: the view of man, the role of
counseling, and techniques / strategies to help clients;
Discuss the Client Centred Theory: the view of man, the role of counseling,
and techniques / strategies to help clients;
Discuss the Rationale Emotive Theory : the view of man, the role of
counseling, and techniques / strategies to help clients;
Compare and contrast between the theoriesl.

4.0 Introduction

Counseling theories are rough foundations that underlie the formation of a knowledge.
Actually each of us have views which constitute a ' theory of consumption ' of human
behavior. Theory of the use of' actually refers to the beliefs and assumptions that affect
our daily lives. Such theories do affect behavior, particularly the relationship between
individuals. Our own Personal theory, have been influenced by factors such as socio-
economic , gender , experience , level of schooling , friends and opportunities of
personality , temperament and self-awareness .

If we are aware of our personal theories, we can see how the theory relates to the formal
theories and practices that help us. To understand some of the theoretical assumptions
that we make, we should try to answer the following questions:

1. What is man? Are they good or bad? Are they born that way? Are they controlled
or controlling? What moves people?

2. How do people learn something? Are learning different?

3. What personality traits evolve? How personality is inherited or learned?

4. Can people change? How do people change? Does that change comes from the
outside or from the inside?

5. What is a social diversion? Who determines what a diversion (Deviance) is? What
kind of behavior that I cannot accept and cannot accept?

6. Your answers to the questions above may be right or may be wrong. What is
certain is that the answer will surely help you influence the process will run?
How well do you know that nature will also affect your flexibility which in turn will influence
your work and the environment in which you will work!

4.1 Importance of counselling theories


For a career guidance and counselling teacher, counseling theory is important for the
following reasons:

1. Theory is deemed as a frame of reference to help guidance and counseling


teachers understand human behavior, the next plan of appropriate action plans
with clients who reunited. Consistency and integrity are important in order to
achieve goals in the most efficient and effective way

2. The theory describes the behavior changes as well as it provide information


on the factors relating to communication, counseling goals , techniques,
processes, and outcomes. Information such as this can serve as a guide to
guidance and counseling teachers in understanding how students work and how
the problem exists, then help the child to manage his life to the growth and
healthy development.

3. Third, knowledge of various theories can help teachers counseling choose an


existing theory, or to form a new theory that is conguren with values and
personality, and suitable for use with a variety of clients who have different issues.
Theory helps inexperienced counselors by serving as a road map. Novice
counselors can rely on theory to provide direction and help ensure they will be
effective with clients. Theory also helps more experienced counselors by
facilitating their integration of self and external knowledge.

4. Theory is like a metaphor: a succinct way of conceptualizing a problem or


situation, yet broadening understanding at the same time. Theory provides
generalizations that not only clarify our understanding but may lead us to similar
conclusions about other situations. In this way, theory creates knowledge.

5. Theory is the conduit for researeh. If we didnt have a theory, we wouldnt have
anything to test, so we couldnt do researeh. Without research, we would have to
rely solely on clinical observations to determine effective interventions. Therefore,
we would have no objective means by which to test our subjective observations.

6. Theory is how humans master nature. To really understand why you are doing
something, you must have thought realistically and thoroughly (Rousseau, 1968).
To do otherwise is akin to driving about blindly; like driving your car with the lights
off. You may accomplish your task, but you probably wont. Without theory, we are
driving blind when we try to help clients.

7. Action in counseling must be immediate, under circumstances that may be


somewhat unforeseen, complicated, and new. But we dont have to have all the
answers. By utilizing theory we can draw upon the experiences of others that
have gone before us (Whitehead, 1916).

References
Rousseau, H.J. (1968). The impact of educational theory on teachers. British Journal of Education
Studies, 16(1), 60-71.
Whitehead, A.N. (1916). The organization of thought. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 17,
58-76.

4.2 How a counsellor choose a Theory of Counseling

According to Seligman (in Thompson, Rudolph & Henderson, 2004), there are about 350
types of counseling and psychotherapy theories that have been presented by various
theorists in the field of guidance and counseling, and psychotherapy.

A counsellor chooses a theory or few theories that are generally consistent with the
following factors:

Their orientation training during basic counseling guidance and counseling


training ;
His philosophy of life based on the values and beliefs system , and
Experience in conducting counseling sessions

4.3 Which are the effective counselling approaches?

Broadly speaking, theories of counseling and psychotherapy that are available can be
classified into three categories: behavioral, affective, and cognitive. You have to remember
that no single theory can be considered as the most effective. In contrast, the combination
of several theories that focus on a variety of techniques have been effective to a range of
clients with different types of problems.

Based on a meta-analysis in relation to counseling children and adolescents conducted by


Kazdin, Lambert and Cattani -Thompson (of Thompson, Rudolph & Henderson, 2004), the
conclusion can be drawn are as follows:

Harnessing the intervention counseling is more as compared to no intervention ;

The positive effect obtained is the same for all the clients , whether a child,
adolescent or adult ;

The positive effects are permanent , and

Improvements can be detected in a relatively short period of time.

However, there is no empirical evidence to suggest that any one approach or counseling
techniques, consistently, is more effective if compared to others. Instead, Saxton (in
Thompson, Rudolph & Henderson, 2004) says that there are three types of factors
contributing to the effectiveness of the counseling sessions, namely

support factors , such as positive relationships with teacher guidance and counseling ,
warmth , and empathy ;
Learning factors, such as that experienced therapeutic experience ; experience emotional
outbursts and mood ;
Factor of action, such as: facing fear, control certain behaviors, gain cognitive mastery.

BASIC ID model was put forward by Lazarus (in Thompson, Rudolph & Henderson,
2004). This model describes seven problem areas commonly shared by the client in a
counseling session, as outlined in Table 4.1 below:

Problem Example
B behaviour Behaviour fighting, disturbance, talk without
reason
A Affect Emotion expressions of anger, phobias,
depression
S- Sensation Sensation school headache, abdominal pain
academic failure, the problem of
perception
I - Imagery Imagery nightmares, low self esteem, the
habit of daydreaming
C- Cognition cognitive irrational thinking, decision-
making problems
Table 4.1 Read more at :
http://mucounseling603theories.blogspot.com/2007/11/multimodal-therapy-
chapter-11.html

Keat (in Thompson, Rudolph & Henderson, 2004) also presents a model named as the
outflow. Let us examine what is meant by this second model. Refer to Table 4.2, which
outlines seven areas of problems and example problems for each area. Compare table
4.2 with the new BASIC ID model introduced above. To what extent do these two models
are equal to or different from each other?

Problem area Example


H Helping. Health issues like sickness, disease
E Emotional Worries, anger. Sadness
L Learning problems Failure, lack of concentration
P Personal Relatioships with elderly people, peers
I Imagination Self esteem, problem solving skills
N Need to know Delinquient behaviour, guidance, actions,
G Guidance
Table 4.2: HELPING Model

In summary, it can be said that having guidance and counseling teachers identify areas of
client problems, he will need to plan and design appropriate interventions to address
specific deficiencies. With this last problem areas can be prevented from becoming more
serious.

The next section will discuss three types of counseling theory that aims to help teachers
guidance and counseling in managing one or more problem areas as contained in BASIC
ID model and / or model Helping. However you should also understand what theories of
child development say before reading the counselling theories in this chapter.

4.4 Theories of child development

In order to understand the development of therapeutic work with children, we will now
consider contributions to developmental psychology made by the following:

Abraham Maslow
Erik Erikson
Jean Piaget
Lawrence Kohlberg
John Bowlby.

4.4.1 Abraham Maslow

Maslow (1954) aided our understanding of the needs of human beings by identifying a
hierarehy of needs. This hierarehy was not specifically developed for children but is very
relevant to them and includes the following levels:
Physiological needs as the lowest level (the need for food, water, rest, air and
warmth).
Need for safety.
Need for love and belonging.
Need for achievement of self-esteem.
Need for self-actualization - as the highest level (achievement of personal goals).
Maslow suggested that if lower-level needs aren't met, then the individual cannot direct
their energies towards fulfilling higher-level needs. This has clear implications for
counselling children because, if we accept Maslow s hierarehy, it is pointless trying to
achieve higher-level needs without first addressing lower-level needs.

The hierarehy does not need to be viewed or used rigidly. It may be possible to work on
some higher-level needs before lower-level needs have been fully met. Additionally,
particular levels in the hierarehy may assume greater importance at different
developmental stages for the child. Understanding the hierarehy does help a counsellor to
recognize when specific needs of a child have not been met and should be addressed.
For example, a child who has been physically abused will have a need to work issues of
safety before being able to address issues of self-esteem or self-actualization.

4.4.2 Erik Erikson


Erik Erikson believed that the individual has the potential to solve their own conflicts, and
that competent functioning is achieved through the resolution of crises occurring
throughout the individual's life at particular developmental stages. He emphasized the
importance of the formation of an individual's personal identity; the personal identity being
the way in which an individual sees themselves.

Specifically, Erikson divided an individual's life-span into eight stages, each of which is
represented by a personal social crisis. He believed that dealing with each crisis gives the
individual an opportunity to strengthen their ego and to become more adaptive so that life
can be lived more successfully.

Erikson's work is relevant to issues relating to self-concept and to the counsellor's work in
helping the child to gain ego-strength through the successful resolution of developmental
crises. It is important for counsellors working with children to be familiar with, and
understand, Erikson's eight stages (see Erikson, 1967) because these stages illustrate the
inevitable crises which children will meet. Each stage contributes to the ongoing process
of mastery and achievement, making their recognition in the counselling situation a
significant consideration.

4.4.3 Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg

Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg both contributed to the concept of children acquiring
particular behaviours and skills at various stages in their development. Piaget (1962,
1971) noticed that a child interacts with both human and nonhuman objects, and the
relationships which the child has with these objects allow them to become progressively
more adaptive in their behaviour. As the child becomes more adaptive, they develop
higher levels of cognition and start to understand their environment in an increasingly
complex way. Recognition of the child's development of cognition and acquisition of moral
values is important for the counsellor when selecting activities such as games with rules
(see Chapter 30).

Lawrence Kohlberg (1969) was interested in the relationship between Piaget's concepts of
cognitive development and the acquisition of moral values. We invite you, as counsellors,
to develop your understanding of the normal developmental sequence in which children
come to understand moral concepts, because a child's decision-making processes will be
based on their moral understanding and expectations of particular outcomes.

4.4.4 John Bowlby

Bowlby (1969, 1988) placed great emphasis on a child's attachment to their mother. He
believed that the child's behaviours later in life would depend on the way in which they
attached to their mother. He believed that children who securely attached to their mother
were happy and well adjusted; where the attachment was less secure the child would be
likely to become socially and emotionally maladjusted. He also believed that children who
were securely attached to their mother would find it easier to separate and develop as
individuals. Clearly, Bowlbys theories were culture specific and relate only to those
cultures where primary attachment to the mother is socially promoted.

Ideas about attachment are relevant when counselling children who have poor attachment
histories with their mothers and consequently are unable to form healthy relationships.

Abraham Maslow Introduced the idea of hierarchy of needs

Erik Erikson Believed that the individual has the potential to solve
their own problems. Postulated 8 stages of development.
Believed that ego-strength was gained through
successful resolution of developmental crises

Jean Piaget Had a concept of children obtaining particular


developmental stages and recognized stages of cognitive
development.

Lawrence Kholberg Looked at the relationship between Piagets concepts of


cognitive development and acquisition of moral concepts.

John Bowly Introduced theory of attachment whereby a childs


emotional and behavioural development is seen to be
related to the way in which a child was able to attach to
its mother.

Table 4.3 provides a summary of the theories of child development

4.5 Counselling theories

There are many theories or approaches adopted by counsellors. Different textbooks on


counselling theories may emphasise certain theories and ignore others. So, when you
read a particular textbook, some theories may be left out. However, most textbooks will
discuss the few popular theories which are often-discussed due to their wide acceptance
among the counselling practitioners. Also, different authors may classify the various
theories differently

Gerald Corey a prominent practicing counsellor and author, identified 11 therapeutic


approaches in his book Theory and Practice of Counselling and Psychotherapy (2005);
and grouped them as follows.

4.5.1. The Analytic Approaches


These are counselling approaches focusing on analysing unconscious motivation,
personality development and childhood experiences. Included under this category are:
Psychoanalytic therapy by Sigmund Freud (will be discussed)
Adlerian therapy by Alfred Adler
4.5.2. The Experiential and Relationship-Oriented Approaches @ Humanistic Theory
These approaches focus on creating a good relationship between counsellor and client, as
well as having good and positive views of human nature. Included in this category are:
The existential approach by Viktor Frankl, Rollo May and Irvin Yalom
Person-centred approach by Carl Rogers (will be discussed)
Gestalt therapy by Frederick and Laura Perls

4.5.3. The Action Therapies @ Cognitive behaviourial approach


These approaches focus on client's current behaviour and developing a clear plan for
changing unproductive behaviour with a new one. Included here are:

Reality Therapy by William Glaser


Behaviour Therapy by B.F. Skinner, Arnold Lazarus and Albert Bandura
Rational Emotive Therapy by Albert Ellis
Cognitive Therapy by A.T. Beck

4.6 PSYCHOANALYTIC COUNSELLNG

Sigmund Freud was a psychiatrist in Vienna. He was the originator of psychoanalysis,


introducing new, seemingly outrageous ideas on human behaviour and development. His
ideas related mainly to his own self-exploration when he experienced emotional problems
during his early 40s. Then, Freud suffered from various illness originated from stress, had
many phobias, and dreams which he analysed and tried to find meaning. He examined his
own childhood experiences and childhood sexual feelings, on which he based his
theories, values, and his mind was was highly creative and productive, writing profusely
until his works fill 24 volumes. Many of Freud's early concepts of psychoanalytic principles
and techniques have been the foundation of the helping profession and are still used by
many professional helpers.

4.6.1 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF HUMAN NATURE

Following Freud's view of man is that man is selfish. His views are:

1. Freuds view of human nature is very deterministic. According to Freud, peoples


behaviour is determined by irrational forces, unconscious motivations, biological and
instinctual drives, and certain psychosexual events during the first six years of life.
Instincts are central to the Freudian approach.

2. According to Freud, sexual desire is the primary motivational energy of human


life. The term libido was first used to refer to sexual energy, but later broadened to
include the energy of all the life instincts. Libido, then, should be understood as a
source of motivation that encompasses, but goes beyond sexual energy.

3. Freud included all pleasurable acts in his concept of life instincts. He saw the
goal of life as gaining pleasure and avoiding pain.

4. Freud also postulated the concept of death instincts which account for the
aggressive drive. At times people manifest their unconscious wish to die or hurt
themselves or others. Both sexual and aggressive drives are powerful determinants
of human behaviour. rsjit/2013

4.6.2 Freuds Ideas


Some of Freud's ideas are directly useful when counselling children today. It is also
important to understand them because some later theorists drew on his ideas but
modified them. Consider the following aspects of Freud's theories to be the most
relevant for counsellors who work with children today:

Id, ego and superego


Unconscious processes
Defence mechanisms
Resistance and free association
Transference.
Freud believed humans as basically driven by irrational forces, unconscious motives, and
biological drives that mainly evolved during childhood years. The goal of life is mainly
focused on gaining pleasure and avoiding pain. Three main ideas of Freud are often
discussed when describing the psychoanalytic approach; namely, the structure of
personality, the iceberg theory of unconsciousness, and the psychosexual personality
"development.

a. Human personality
b. Conscious and unconscious mind
c. Pschosexual stages of personality development
d. Ego mechanism

A. Human Personality

According to Freud, human personality is made up of three integrating components. The


id is born at birth. The id consists of all human psychic energy and instincts. It operates
according to the pleasure principle, meaning it focuses on gaining pleasure at any cost in
order to satisfy instinctual needs regardless of moral or logic reasons. The gratification of
needs is aimed at reducing tension and avoiding pain. As one grows up and interact with
parents and significant others, one learns to mediate or balance between instincts calls
and the demands from the environment. This second component of personality, ego, is
ruled by reality principle, where it reasons realistically and logically and formulate plans on
how to satisfy needs in socially acceptable ways. Superego, the third component of
personality, consists of learned principles of right and wrong in order to control instinctual
gratification and behaviour. It includes a person's ideal moral code, and strives not for
pleasure but for perfection.

Figure 4.1 : Freuds Psychoanalytic Model


(Source: Charles L. Thompson (2007). Counselling Children (7th Ed). Belmont:
Thompson Books/ Cole Pg78)

As noted in Figure 4, the unconscious holds about 85% of the material in our minds. The
concept of the unconscious is the foundation of psychoanalytic theory and practice. It
holds that, in a part of the mind that we are not aware of, drives, desires, attitudes,
motivations, and fantasies exist and exert influence on how people think, feel, and behave
in the conscious area of functioning. The conscious refers to the part of mental activity
that we are aware of at any given time. The preconscious refers to thoughts and material
that are not readily available to the conscious but can be retrieved with some effort.
Students may struggle to find an answer to a test question lost in the preconscious. The
subconscious refers to those involuntary bodily processes such as digestion and
breathing that have been with the person since birth. Carl Jung's collective unconscious
refers to the vast reservoir of inherited wisdom, memories, and insights that individuals
share with all humankind.

B. Consciousness and Unconsciousness

Another contribution of Freud to the understanding of human behaviour is the concept of


(consciousness and unconsciousness. According to Freud, humans are unaware of much
of their mental processes. The unconscious mind consists of all the instincts, wishes and
experiences that are mainly unacceptable to be acknowledged, recognised or expressed.
Though consciously unaware of these repressed motives, they influence and sometimes
govern behaviours. Only about ten percent of the mind is above the surface of awareness.
The main idea is that people often do not understand why they behave as they do due to
unconscious motives, which need to be identified through counselling. (Sec Figure 2.4).

Figure 4.2 The Iceberg Theory of Unconsciousness

C. Psychosexual Stages of Personality Development

A controversial idea proposed by Freud is known as the psychosexual stages of


personality development. Freud suggested that the desire for sexual pleasure is a lifelong
drive that begins in infancy. Humans go through five stages of psychosexual development
beginning with the oral stage whereby a baby's oral needs are met by sucking the
mother's breast. Anal stage is about meeting anal needs either by holding or eliminating
faeces. During the phallic stage, children become aware of the genital differences and
become attach to the opposite sex of parents. The latency period is when sexual interest
is relatively quiescent since children get engrossed in school activities and peers. The last
stage is genital which begins at puberty and each gender takes more interest in the
opposite sex. Excessive gratification as well as excessive frustration at any point of
development in any of the stage will result in fixation, unresolved conflict or emotional
hang-up, manifested in a form of personality problem or disorder.

Oral stage is centered on the mouth as a source of pleasure.

Anal stage is centered on the anus and elimination as a source of pleasure.

Phallic stage is centered on the genitals and sexual identification as a source of


pleasure.
o Oedipus Complex is described as the process whereby a boy desires his
mother and fears castration from the father, in order to create an ally of the
father, the male learns traditional male roles.
o Electra complex is described a similar but less clearly resolved in the female
child with her desire for the father, competition with the mother and thus,
learns the traditional female roles.
Latency stage is a time of little sexual interest in Freuds developmental view. This
stage is characterized with peer activities, academic and social learning, and
development of physical skills.
Genital stage begins with the onset of puberty. If the other stages have been
successfully negotiated, the young person will take an interest in and establish sexual
relationships.

Ego Defense Mechanisms

Ego defence mechanism were believed by Freud to protect the individual from
being overwhelmed by anxiety. He considered them normal and operating on the
unconscious level. Some of the ones most often referred to are:
Repression is the defense mechanism whereby the ego excludes any painful
or undesirable thoughts, memories, feelings or impulses from the conscious.
Projection is the defense mechanism whereby the individual assigns their
own undesirable emotions and characteristics to another individual.
Reaction Formation is the defense mechanism whereby the individual
expresses the opposite emotion, feeling or impulse than that which causes
anxiety.
Displacement a defense mechanism whereby the energy that is generated
toward a potentially dangerous or inappropriate target is refocused to a safe
target.
Sublimation is a positive displacement is called whereby the frustrating target
is replaced with a positive target.
Regression is the defense mechanism whereby returns to an earlier stage of
development.
Rationalisation is the defense mechanism in which an individual creates a
sensible explanation for an illogical or unacceptable behavior making it
appear sensible or acceptable.
Denial is a mechanism whereby an individual does not acknowledge an event
or situation that may be unpleasant or traumatic.
Identification is a defense mechanism whereby a person takes on the
qualities of another person to reduce the fear and anxiety toward that person.

Defence
Cause of anxiety Means of coping Example
mechanism
Emphasise desirable
Anxious about Failing to impress the football
traits or try to excel
Compensation one's real or coach, Amin strives to excel
in area of weakness
imagined weakness in badminton
or in other areas
Denial Faced with painful Refuse to perceive or A woman refused to accept
or unpleasant
accept reality her husband's untimely death
reality
Shift or let off the
Unable to express Unable to express anger at
emotions to a
Displacement emotions to a her husband, Mei Ling shouts
substitute person or
person at her children
object
Doctors and nurses avoid
Think or talk about
being overwhelmed with
the situation in
Intellectualisatio Anxious about a emotions by explaining to
impersonal and
n stressful problem patients and family members
technical or
about illness and death using
intellectual terms
intellectual terms
Anxious about Attribute the
Joyce accuses Ali of cheating
one's own feelings, feelings,
in the exam when in fact she
Projection shortcomings, or shortcomings, or
was the one who committed
unacceptable unacceptable
the offence
impulses impulses to others
Justify the behaviour
Anxious about Kumar blamed the traffic jam
by giving a rational
Rationalisation committing a as the reason for arriving late
and reasonable, but
behaviour for class
often false reason
Prevent dangerous
ideas and emotions
Having dangerous Sara lavishes praises on her
Reaction from being
ideas, emotions or younger sister when in reality
formation expressed by
impulses she is jealous of her sister
expressing opposite
behaviour
Crying, throwing a tantrum,
Retreat to childlike
Feeling anxious or speaking in childish manner,
Regression behaviour and
threatened yelling, bed-wetting are some
defences
examples of regression
Having Prevent or exclude We try to forget hostile
uncomfortable, the thoughts from feelings toward a family
Repression
painful or entering awareness member, past failures and
dangerous thoughts or consciousness embarrassments
Redirecting or
Having unmet People channel their high
working out the
desires or level of frustration,
Sublimation energy in more
unacceptable aggressive or sexual energy
socially acceptable
impulses into sports, arts or politics.
activities.
Table 4.2 : Psychological Defence Mechanisms as a Way of Coping with Stress
[source: Corey, G. (2005). Theory and Practicc of Counseling and
Psychotherapy. (7th ed.). USA: Brooks/ Cole]
4.6.3 Role of the Counselor

To encourage the development of transference, giving the client a sense of safety and
acceptance. The client freely explores difficult material and experiences from their past,
gaining insight and working through unresolved issues. The counselor is an expert, who
interprets for the client.

4.6.4 Goals of therapy include

a. Helping the client bring into the conscious the unconscious.


b. Helping the client work through a developmental stage that was not resolved or
where the client became fixated.
c. Help the client adjustment to the demands of work, intimacy, and society.
4.6.5 Psychoanalytic Techniques

The primary goal of counseling within a psychoanalytic frame of reference is to make the
unconscious conscious. All material in the unconscious was once in the conscious.
Once brought to the conscious level, repressed material can be dealt with in rational ways
by using any number of methods discussed in this book.

Several methods are used to uncover the unconscious. Detailed case histories are taken,
with special attention given to the handling of conflict areas. Hypnosis, although rejected
by Freud, is still used to assist in plumbing the unconscious. Analyses of resistance,
transference, and dreams are frequently used methods, as are catharsis, free association,
interpretation, and play therapy. All these methods have the long-term goal of
strengthening the ego. The principal counseling methods are catharsis, free association,
interpretation, analysis of transference, analysis of resistance, and analysis of incomplete
sentences, bibliocounseling, storytelling, and play therapy. However we shall discuss
some important ones.

Free Association is a process where the client verbalizes any thoughts that may
without censorship, no matter how trivial the thoughts or feeling may be to the client
Dream Analysis is a process where the client relates their dreams to the counselor.
The counselor interprets the obvious or manifest content and the hidden meanings or
latent content.
Analysis of transference is a process where the client is encouraged to attribute to
counselor those issues that have caused difficulties with significant authority figures in
their lives. The counselor helps the client to gain insight by the conflicts and feelings
expressed.
Analysis of resistance is a process where the counselor helps the client to gain
insight into what causes form the basis for a hesitation or halting of therapy.
Interpretation is a process where the counselor helps the client to gain insight into
past and present events.
(Source: http://lcdcexamreview.wordpress.com/2013/01/04/freud-
psychoanalytical-theory-addictions-counseling/)

Check your understanding.


1. Explain briefly from the psychoanalytic perspective, what is the reason(s) for
clients having problems in life?
2. Give the different ideas proposed by Freud in a mind map.
3. What is the goal of counselling according to psychoanalytic approach?
4. As a counsellor, what techniques in psychoanalytic counselling will be used to
help your syudents?

4.7 Behaviourist Theory


This therapy is associated with Pavlov, Skinner, Bandura, Beck, Wolpe and Lazarus.
According to therapists, thoughts and feelings are difficult to measure. Therefore, the
focus should be on behavior.

John B. Watson (1878-1958) disagreed strongly with Freud's focus on unconsciousness


and thoughts that cannot be seen nor measured. He once proclaimed, "Give me a dozen
healthy infants, well-formed and my own special world to bring them up and I ll guarantee
to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select -
doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant, chief, and yes, beggarman and thief (Watson, 1913).

A Russian physiologist, Pavlov accidentally came across a type of learning known today
as classical conditioning, where humans acquire new behaviour by associating
previously reflexive response with a new stimulus. B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)) believed
that thoughts are not needed in order to explain behaviour. Behaviour is simply shaped
and maintained by what comes after (consequences) cither in the form of reinforcement or
punishment. Skinner's radical view is known as operant conditioning.

4.7.1 BEHAVIOURAL ASSUMPTION ON HUMAN NATURE

According to the behavioural approach,

1. The human is seen as simply reacting to the environment. What one learns from the
environment determines behaviour - changing the environment will change behaviour.

2. Humans are neither good nor evil. Anybody can become good or bad depending on
what he or she learns from the environment.

3. Thoughts and emotions are not the main factors influencing behaviour. The past is not
dealt with too deeply, only to the extent that it helps clarify how the current behaviour
comes to be acquired.

4. Clients have learned to acquire a maladaptive or inefficient behaviour through


association, or consequences. It is the result of conditioning, the stimulus response
(S-R). The reaction to a stimulus depends on experience ;

5. Able to respond to a stimulus is appropriate and what they have learned only;

6. Keep the pattern of behavior, and then repeat the pattern of the future, if needed

Given that human behavior can be learned, then it can also be removed and replaced with
new behaviors. However, the old behavior is still to be learned again later. For example,
James, a 8 year old student often tell lies. Through counseling interventions, he was made
aware of the evils of his negative behaviour. He was determined to change. However, no
one can guarantee that James will continue to remain with his change of behavior to tell
the truth forever.
In summary, you should remember that behaviourist emphasis is on the negative behavior
that can be observed, and should be eliminated. In short, this school is very concerned
about the learning process and the elimination of a particular unwanted behavior.

Counsellors holding on to behavioural tenets are active when conducting sessions,


compared to insight therapies. Second, behavioural counsellor focus on changing clients'
behaviour rather than - exploring thoughts and feelings. Third, counsellors using the
behavioural approach work within a short time frame of sessions, with clear-cut goals to
achieve in a defined time limit. Whereas (Insight-oriented counsellors believe on thoughts
and feelings, behavioural counsellors focus on observable and measurable behaviours.
They believe that behaviour is learned, thus it can be changed. The focus of counselling
and therapies is often on changing the behaviours, thoughts and feelings in such a way
that the change can be observed and measured.

Figure 4.3 Pavlov's Experiment on Classical Conditioning

Read at: http://www.simplypsychology.org/pavlov.html


http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/behavior/classcnd.html

In order to understand the views of behavioural approach towards human, a brief


description of the theories is presented here. Two main theories are discussed: Classical
conditioning and Operant conditioning!

a. Classical conditioning refers to what happens prior to learning that creates a


response through pairing. A key figure in this area is Ivan Pavlov who illustrated
classical conditioning through experiments with dogs (see Figure 3.1). Placing
food near a hungry dog induces salivation, which is respondent behaviour. When
food is repeatedly presented with some originally neutral stimulus, such as the
sound of a tuning fork or bell, the dog will eventually salivate to the sound of the
tuning fork alone. However, if the tuning fork is sounded repeatedly, but not paired
with food, the salivation response will eventually diminish and become extinct.

Through classical conditioning, clients acquire new behaviour or response through the
concept of association. For example, before learning to become afraid of cats, humans
have natural fear (reflexive) for pain. If a client got scratched by a cat causing pain during
childhood, he or she may grow up to fear cats. Loud shouts, scary tales and scolding from
parents in relation to objects, animals or events often resulted in various kinds of phobias
that may extend into adulthood.

Figure 4.5 : Principles in Operant Conditioning

Classical conditioning was the first type of learning to be discovered and studied within the
behaviorist tradition (hence the name classical). Skinner renamed this type of learning
"respondent conditioning" since in this type of learning, one is responding to an
environmental antecedent.

Major concepts

Classical conditioning is Stimulus (S) elicits >Response (R) conditioning since the
antecedent stimulus (singular) causes (elicits) the reflexive or involuntary response to
occur. Classical conditioning starts with a reflex: an innate, involuntary behavior elicited or
caused by an antecedent environmental event. For example, if air is blown into your eye,
you blink. You have no voluntary or conscious control over whether the blink occurs or not.

The specific model for classical conditioning is:

1. Unconditioned Stimulus (US) elicits > Unconditioned Response (UR): a stimulus


will naturally (without learning) elicit or bring about a relexive response
2. Neutral Stimulus (NS) ---> does not elicit the response of interest: this stimulus
(sometimes called an orienting stimulus as it elicits an orienting response) is a
neutral stimulus since it does not elicit the Unconditioned (or reflexive) Response.
3. The Neutral/Orientiing Stimulus (NS) is repeatedly paired with the
Unconditioned/Natural Stimulus (US).
4. The NS is transformed into a Conditioned Stimulus (CS); that is, when the CS is
presented by itself, it elicits or causes the CR (which is the same involuntary
response as the UR; the name changes because it is elicited by a different
stimulus. This is written CS elicits > CR.

In classical conditioning no new behaviors are learned. Instead, an association is


developed (through pairing) between the NS and the US so that the animal / person
responds to both events / stimuli (plural) in the same way; restated, after conditioning,
both the US and the CS will elicit the same involuntary response (the person / animal
learns to respond reflexively to a new stimulus).

The following is a restatement of these basic principles using figures of Pavlov's original
experiments as an example.

Before conditioning

In order to have classical or respondent conditioning, there must exist a stimulus that will
automatically or reflexively elicit a specific response. This stimulus is called
theUnconditioned Stimulus or UCS because there is no learning involved in connecting
the stimulus and response. There must also be a stimulus that will not elicit this specific
response, but will elicit an orienting response. This stimulus is called a Neutral
Stimulus or an Orienting Stimulus.

During conditioning

During conditioning, the neutral stimulus will first be presented, followed by the
unconditioned stimulus. Over time, the learner will develop an association between these
two stimuli (i.e., will learn to make a connection between the two stimuli.)
After conditioning

After conditioning, the previously neutral or orienting stimulus will elicit the response
previously only elicited by the unconditioned stimulus. The stimulus is now called
aconditioned stimulus because it will now elicit a different response as a result of
conditioning or learning. The response is now called a conditioned response because it
is elicited by a stimulus as a result of learning. The two responses, unconditioned and
conditioned, look the same, but they are elicited by different stimuli and are therefore
given different labels.

In the area of classroom learning, classical conditioning primarily influences emotional


behavior. Things that make us happy, sad, angry, etc. become associated with neutral
stimuli that gain our attention. For example, if a particular academic subject or
remembering a particular teacher produces emotional feelings in you, those emotions are
probably a result of classical conditioning.

http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/behavior/classcnd.html

b. In operant conditioning, humans learn to repeat a behaviour if it gets reinforced,


and stop a behaviour when it gets punished. Parents scold, cane or punish
children with the hope that their children will stop misbehaving. At other times, we
smile at, praise or reward good deed or behaviour so that the behaviour is
repeated in future. The principle is when you present a reinforcer, the desired
consequence is for the behaviour to be increased or repeated in future. If you
present punishment, the desired consequence is for the behaviour to decrease or
stop in future (see Figure 3.2).

c. Positive reinforcement: When your child cleans his room, give him a small
reward that he likes so that in future he will remember to clean his room.

d. Negative reinforcement: When your child cleans his room, do not spank him
(you have warned him about getting spanked if he does not clean his room).
Hopefully in future he will remember to clean his room.

e. Positive punishment: When your two children fight with each other, give them
both a spanking so that in future they will not repeat the behaviour.

f. Negative punishment: When your two children fight with each other, do not take
them shopping. Hopefully they will stop fighting becausc what they really want is
to go to shopping.

A question often asked is whether reinforcement is the same as reward? The answer is
no.

g. It is not accurate to use the term reward because in actuality, reward does not
always result in an increase of a particular behaviour. Parents and teachers often
reward children with the hope that they will repeat a targeted behaviour. What if
the reward is not something favoured by the receiver? It is no use rewarding your
child with a chocolate bar if he or she does not like chocolate. Similarly, it is no
use punishing your child with time-out (asking him to stay in his room for a certain
time), when in fact he likes being in his room - there's lots of things to entertain
him there! The point is to know and be aware of likes and dislikes of the person
you want to reinforce or punish in order to get the desired outcome. There are
many more aspects about operant conditioning, which is not the scope of this
chapter. If you wish to know more about the principles of reinforcement and
punishment, any introductory text on psychology will help to enlighten you.

4.7.2 Social Learning Theory

Albert Bandura propsed Te social learning theory, perhaps the most influential theory of
learning and development. While rooted in many of the basic concepts of traditional
learning theory, Bandura believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types
of learning.

His theory added a social element, arguing that people can learn new information and
behaviors by watching other people. Known as observational learning (or modeling), this
type of learning can be used to explain a wide variety of behaviors.
4.7.2.1 Basic Social Learning Concepts
There are three core concepts at the heart of social learning theory. First is the idea that
people can learn through observation. Next is the idea that internal mental states are an
essential part of this process. Finally, this theory recognizes that just because something
has been learned, it does not mean that it will result in a change in behavior.
People can learn through observation.

4.7.2.2 Observational Learning

In his famous Bobo doll experiment, Bandura demonstrated that children learn and imitate
behaviors they have observed in other people. The children in Banduras studies observed
an adult acting violently toward a Bobo doll. When the children were later allowed to play
in a room with the Bobo doll, they began to imitate the aggressive actions they had
previously observed.

4.7.2.3 Bandura identified three basic models of observational learning:

1. A live model, which involves an actual individual demonstrating or acting out a


behavior.
2. A verbal instructional model, which involves descriptions and explanations of a
behavior.
3. A symbolic model, which involves real or fictional characters displaying behaviors
in books, films, television programs, or online media.

2. Mental states are important to learning.

Intrinsic Reinforcement

Bandura noted that external, environmental reinforcement was not the only factor to
influence learning and behavior. He described intrinsic reinforcement as a form of internal
reward, such as pride, satisfaction, and a sense of accomplishment. This emphasis on
internal thoughts and cognitions helps connect learning theories to cognitive
developmental theories. While many textbooks place social learning theory with
behavioral theories, Bandura himself describes his approach as a 'social cognitive theory.'

4.8 Learning does not necessarily lead to a change in behavior.

While behaviorists believed that learning led to a permanent change in behavior,


observational learning demonstrates that people can learn new information without
demonstrating new behaviors.

a. The Modeling Process


Not all observed behaviors are effectively learned. Factors involving both the model and
the learner can play a role in whether social learning is successful. Certain requirements
and steps must also be followed. The following steps are involved in the observational
learning and modeling process:

b. Attention:
In order to learn, you need to be paying attention. Anything that detracts your attention is
going to have a negative effect on observational learning. If the model interesting or there
is a novel aspect to the situation, you are far more likely to dedicate your full attention to
learning.

c. Retention:
The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention
can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act
on it is vital to observational learning.

d. Reproduction:
Once you have paid attention to the model and retained the information, it is time to
actually perform the behavior you observed. Further practice of the learned behavior leads
to improvement and skill advancement.

d. Motivation:
Finally, in order for observational learning to be successful, you have to be motivated to
imitate the behavior that has been modeled. Reinforcement and punishment play an
important role in motivation. While experiencing these motivators can be highly
effective, so can observing other experience some type of reinforcement or
punishment? For example, if you see another student rewarded with extra credit for
being to class on time, you might start to show up a few minutes early each day.

Bandura's social learning theory has had important implication in the field of eduction.
Today, both teachers and parents recognize the importance of modeling appropriate
behaviors.

4.8.2 PURPOSE OF COUNSELLING ROLE OF THE COUNSELLOR

The goal of behavioural counselling is for the counsellor and the client to mutually agree
on counselling goals. Since behaviourists focus on observable and measurable behaviour,
the main emphasis in counselling would be to see and observe a change in behaviour,
and such desired change is documented in a form of a contract. Goals are stated in terms
of specific behaviour change that can be measured and can be reasonably achieved by
/clients. In other words, the client will get involved in deciding on what to change and how
to change.

The counsellor holding a behavioural perspective is active, acting as a consultant, teacher,


advisor, reinforcer and facilitator. The counsellor may instructor teach or supervise clients
on the steps or techniques of changing the desired behaviour. The client is a willing
student practicing or going through the steps in order to change his or her behaviour. The
behavioural counsellor focuses on helping clients modify maladaptive behaviours and
acquiring healthy ways of behaving.

4.8.3 COUNSELLING TECHNIQUES

Goal Setting

The collaboration between the client and the counsellor in goal setting:

Counsellor provides a rationale for goals, explaining the role of goals in


counselling, the purpose of goals, and the client's participation in the goal-setting
process (e.g. the client wants to stop smoking, to get angry quickly)
Client states what he or she wants to change from the counselling. Focus is on
what the client wants to do rather than what the client does not want to do.

The client is the person seeking help, and only he or she can make the change.

The client and counsellor then decide to continue pursuing the selected goals.

[Source: S. Cormier & P. Nurius (2003). Interviewing and change strategies for helpers.

Counselling techniques are based on the various principles of learning, proposed in the
behavioural approach. By using operant conditioning principles, undesirable behaviour
may be decreased or eliminated through using reinforcement or punishment, either
operated by clients themselves, or by significant others in the clients' environment.

To learn new behaviour or skill, the counsellor will use shaping technique, where the
target "skill is broken down into smaller, achievable units so that clients can accomplish
one small change at one time until they acquire the whole new behaviour. Rehearsal is a
major technique for clients to practice new behaviour.

Using classical conditioning principles where fear or phobia has been acquired, a
technique called systematic desensitization can be applied. In this technique, instead of
feeling fear or anxiety about an object, person or animal, clients are taught to feel relax
and calm at various small steps approaching the main feared figure. Modelling is another
technique where clients observe a model demonstrates the desirable behaviour. The
model can be the counsellor, a peer or a family member.

There are numerous other techniques or procedures introduced by professionals using


behavioural theories. Behavioural techniques gained popularity among trainers and
helpers due to their easy application to many day-to-day behavioural skills. Some of the
popular ones include assertive training, anger management, and stress
management. The main aspect in all the behavioural techniques is to identify the desired
new behaviour, v develop a plan or steps to change, and implement the change.

Specifically, if the counsellor evaluates your behaviour as being learned through the
classical conditioning, she may use a number of procedures to change the behaviour such
as aversion therapy, systematic desensitization either through vicarious desensitization or
virtual reality exposure. If the acquired behaviour is learned through operant conditioning
principles, the counsellor may teach clients any technique suitable for changing the
behaviour, using the principle of positive reinforcement, non-reinforcement,
extinction, punishment, shaping, stimulus control or time-out.

4.8.4 Techniques used based in Classical conditioning

These techniques are used one way to alter behavior, and a number of techniques exist
that can produce such change. Originally known as behavior modification, this type of
therapy is often referred to today as applied behavior analysis.

Flooding: This process involves exposing people to fear-invoking objects or situations


intensely and rapidly. It is often used to treat phobias, anxiety, and other stress-related
disorders. During the process, the individual is prevented from escaping or avoiding the
situation.

For example, flooding might be used to help a client who is suffering from an intense fear
of dogs. At first, the client might be exposed to a small friendly dog for an extended period
of time during which he or she cannot leave. After repeated exposures to the dog during
which nothing bad happens, the fear response begins to fade.

Systematic Desensitization: This technique involves having a client make a list of fears
and then teaching the individual to relax while concentrating on these fears. The use of
this process began with psychologist John B. Watson and his famous Little Albert
experimentin which he conditioned a young child to fear a white rat. Later, Mary Cover
Jones replicated Watson's results and utilized counterconditioning techniques to
desensitize and eliminate the fear response.
Systematic desensitization is often used to treat phobias. The process follows three
basic steps. First, the client is taught relaxation techniques. Next, the individual creates a
ranked list of fear-invoking situations. Starting with the least fear-inducing item and
working their way up to the most fear-inducing item, the client confronts these fears under
the guidance of the therapist while maintaining a relaxed state.

For example, an individual with a fear of the dark might start by looking at an image of a
dark room before moving on to thinking about being in a dark room and then actually
confronting his fear by sitting in a dark room. By pairing the old fear-producing stimulus
with the newly learned relaxation behavior, the phobic response can be reduced or even
eliminated.

Aversion Therapy: This process involves pairing an undesirable behavior with an


aversive stimulus in the hope that the unwanted behavior will eventually be reduced. For
example, someone suffering from alcoholism might utilize a drug known as disulfiram,
which causes severe symptoms such as headaches, nausea, anxiety, and vomiting when
combined with alcohol. Because the person becomes extremely ill when they drink, the
drinking behavior may be eliminated.

4.8.5 Techniques used based on Operant Conditioning

Many behavior techniques rely on the principles of operant conditioning, which means that
they utilize reinforcement, punishment, shaping, modeling, and related techniques to alter
behavior. These methods have the benefit of being highly focused, which means that they
can produce fast and effective results.

Token Economies: This type of behavioral strategy relies on reinforcement to modify


behavior. Clients are allowed to earn tokens that can be exchanged for special privileges
or desired items. Parents and teachers often use token economies to reinforce good
behavior. Kids earn tokens for engaging in preferred behaviors and may even lose tokens
for displaying undesirable behaviors. These tokens can then be traded for things such as
candy, toys, or extra time playing with a favorite toy.

Contingency Management: This approach utilizes a formal written contract between the
client and the therapist that outlines the behavior change goals, reinforcements and
rewards that will be given, and the penalties for failing to meet the demands of the
agreement. These types of agreements aren't just used by therapists teachers and
parents also often use them with students and children in the form of behavior contracts.
Contingency contracts can be very effective in producing behavior changes since the rules
are spelled out clearly in black-and-white, preventing both parties from backing down on
their promises.
Modeling: This technique involves learning through observation and modeling the
behavior of others. The process is based on Albert Bandura's social learning theory, which
emphasizes the social components of the learning process. Rather than relying simply on
reinforcement or punishment, modeling allows individuals to learn new skills or acceptable
behaviors by watching someone else perform those desired skills. In some cases, the
therapist might model the desired behavior. In other instances, watching peers engage in
the sought after behaviors can also be helpful.

Extinction: Another way to produce behavior change is to stop reinforcing a


behavior in order to eliminate the response. Time-outs are a perfect example of the
extinction process. During a time-out, a person is removed from a situation that provides
reinforcement. For example, a child who starts yelling or striking other children would be
removed from the play activity and required to sit quietly in a corner or another room
where there are no opportunities for attention and reinforcement. By taking away the
attention that the child found rewarding, the unwanted behavior is eventually extinguished.

Self check exercise.

1. Who are the founders of the behavioural approach?


2. From a behavioural perspective, what is the reason(s) for clients having problems in
life?

3. Identify and use mind map to show the different ideas proposed by behaviourists.

4. What is the goal of counselling according to behavioural approach?

5. Discuss the implication of Banduras approach in teaching and learning apart from its
usage in counselling sessions.

4.9 Client Centred or Person Centred


Theory
Client-Centered Therapy (CCT) was developed by Carl Rogers in the 40's and 50's. It is
a non-directive approach to therapy, "directive" meaning any therapist behavior that
deliberately steers the client in some way. Directive behaviors include asking questions,
offering treatments, and making interpretations and diagnoses.

Rogers' theory later evolved into client-centred counselling or client-centred


psychotherapy as known today. The approach is applicable to numerous types of
counselling, be it individuals, groups, or families. He was dubbed the father of "client-
centred therapy" and his approach appeals to many professionals today because of its
simple and acceptable ideas which can be easily applied by new counsellors. The job of a
counsellor is to reflect the counselee's responses back to him and, thus, set up a catalytic
atmosphere of acceptance. Such an environment is supposed to allow the client to get in
touch with the innate resources within himself or herself for successfully dealing with life
and developing self-esteem.

Rogers believed that every person can achieve their goals, wishes and desires in life.
When, or rather if they did so, self actualization took place. This was one of Carl Rogers
most important contributions to psychology and for a person to reach their potential a
number of factors must be satisfied.

Self Actualization

"The organism has one basic tendency and striving - to actualize, maintain, and
enhance the experiencing organism (Rogers)

Rogers rejected the deterministic nature of both psychoanalysis and behaviorism and
maintained that we behave as we do because of the way we perceive our situation . "As
no one else can know how we perceive, we are the best experts on ourselves."

Carl Rogers (1959) believed that humans have one basic motive, that is the tendency to
self-actualize - i.e. to fulfill one's potential and achieve the highest level of 'human-
beingness' we can. Like a flower that will grow to its full potential if the conditions are
right, but which is constrained by its environment, so people will flourish and reach their
potential if their environment is good enough.

However, unlike a flower, the potential of the individual human is unique, and we are
meant to develop in different ways according to our personality. Rogers believed
that people are inherently good and creative. They become destructive only when a poor
self-concept or external constraints override the valuing process. Carl Rogers believed
that for a person to achieve self-actualization they must be in a state of congruence.

This means that self-actualization occurs when a persons ideal self (i.e. who they would
like to be) is congruent with their actual behavior (self-image). Rogers describes an
individual who is actualizing as a fully functioning person. The main determinant of
whether we will become self-actualized is childhood experience.

The Fully Functioning Person


Rogers believed that every person could achieve their goals wishes, and desires in life.
When they did so self-actualization took place. For Rogers (1961) people who are able be
self-actualize, and that is not all of us, are called fully functioning persons. This means that
the person is in touch with the here and now, his or her subjective experiences and
feelings, continually growing and changing.

In many ways Rogers regarded the fully functioning person as an ideal and one that
people do not ultimately achieve.

It is wrong to think of this as an end or completion of lifes journey; rather it is a process of


always becoming and changing.

4.9.1 CARL ROGERS' VIEWS ON HUMAN BEHAVIOUR

According to Carl Rogers, humans are rational, likes to socialize, forward-looking, and
realistic. For further explanationed the human traits such as the following:

1. Having self self esteem and dignity, and must be respected;


2. Capacity or the ability to achieve self realisation and make wise judgments, if only
given the chance;

3. Able to choose own values

4. Able to learn how to perform the responsibilities in constructive manner

5. Able to handle handles feelings, thoughts and behavior, respectively;

6. Potential to make constructive changes and personal developments towards a


fulfilling life.

According to Rogers, if humans are positively regarded and allowed to develop freely, they
will grow to be fully functioning. Because of the positive views towards human nature,
Rogers' approach came to be known as a humanistic approach. According to him, fully
functioning persons have the potential to achieve self-actualisation, which refers to using
the maximum or highest potential existing in oneself through striving, maintaining and
enhancing one's life experiences.

Rogers believed that in order for a healthy self to develop, a person needs unconditional
positive regard, which means unconditional love, warmth, respect and acceptance.
However, in real life, parents, teachers and peers often offer conditional regards. The
person will be accepted, loved or cared for if he or she is good, pretty or clever, to give
some examples. Rogers also proposed that each person has a self, which is central to the
being. The self encompasses all values, beliefs and perceptions one has about oneself,
acquired through interactions with significant others as one goes through his or her life.

As a person grows and develops, he or she becomes aware of the differences between the self and
others. A person will develop a real SELF (what the person is) and an ideal self (what the person
hopes to become). Humans always try to maintain consistency between ideal self, true self, and
self-image. Self-image is the total subjective perception of one's body and personality. It a person
receives or perceives information from others that are inconsistent with his self-image, incongruent
occurs. The incongruent person becomes contused, vulnerable, dissatisfied or seriously
maladaptive. A person tends to feel worthy only when fulfilling or conforming to others' wishes or
expectations that might not be congruent with the person's values, beliefs or perceptions.
Incongruences between the real self and the ideal sell makes a person becomes maladjusted, thus
developing unhealthy self (See Figure 4.6)
Self-
Real self image Real self-
Self image
Ideal self

Ideal self

Figure 4.6 The three self

Incongruence occurs when there is a mismatch between any of these three components
or the self: the ideal self (what you would like to be), the self-image (what you think you
are), and the true self (what you actually arc). Self-esteem is negative where if there is
incongruence between ideal self and self-image. Anxiety and defensiveness occurs when
there is incongruence between self-image and true self. Consistency between ideal self,
true self, and self-image results in a positive self-image.

4.9.2 GOAL OF COUNSELLING AND ROLE OF THE COUNSELLOR

The goal of person-centred counselling is to encourage clients to be brave enough so that


they are able to explore, identify or confront any fears, perceptions or issues that have
been burdening them. In a condition full of positive regard and empathy, clients become
increasingly willing to change and grow. As clients become more fully functioning, they will
have greater acceptance of their self.

The role of the counsellor is to provide a safe and trusting climate or conditions wherein
the client will feel safe enough to explore his or her self. In contrast to the others in the
real world that accept the clients only with certain conditions, the counsellor instead
creates a nurturing condition that encourages the client to discover his or herself.

The counsellor acts as a facilitator who knows how to guide the client through the process
of self-discovery by hearing, observing and reflecting client's verbal and nonverbal
language. The counsellor is not directive in the sense that he does not suggest or interpret
why clients feel as they do or what they should do. By using verbal techniques such as
reflection, asking questions and rephrasing, the counsellor will assist clients in becoming
more aware of their feelings and thought, thus gain insights to their own experiences and
find their own self.

4.9.3 COUNSELLING TECHNIQUES

Carl Rogers is best known for his contributions to therapy. His therapy has gone through a
couple of name changes along the way: He originally called it non-directive, because he
felt that the therapist should not lead the client, but rather be there for the client while the
client directs the progress of the therapy. As he became more experienced, he realised
that, even as "non-directive" as he was, he still influenced his client by his very "non-
directiveness". In other words, clients look to therapist for guidance, and will find it even
when the therapist is trying not to guide. So he changed the name to client-centred. He felt
that the client was the one who should say what was wrong, find ways of improving and
determining the conclusion of therapy. His therapy was still very "client-centred" even
while acknowledging the impact of the therapist.

One of the phrases that Rogers used to describe his therapy is "supportive, not
reconstructive," and he uses the analogy of learning to ride a bicycle to explain: When
you help a child to learn to ride a bike, you can't just tell him how. He has to try it for
himself. And you can't hold him up the whole time either. There comes a point when you
have to let him go. If he falls, he falls, but if you hang on, he'll never learn. In client-centred
counselling, the quality of the relationship between the counsellor and the client is itself a
technique. Rogers believed that the counsellor should create a therapeutic condition for
the client which emphasises empathy, positive regard, and congruence.

Empathy refers to the counsellors' ability to feel with the client and convey this
understanding back to the client. When the client perceives the counsellor as being
understanding and appreciative of his or her predicament, then only will the client proceed
with his or her self-exploration.

Respect or Positive Regard where the client will feel safe when the counsellor
genuinely and positively accepts the client as a person regardless of what the client is
telling the counsellor. Such positive regard will make the client feel valued regardless of
how bad or negative his or her self is.

Congruency refers to the counsellor's genuine behaviour and non-verbal language that
is free from pretension.

Some of the methods to promote the therapeutic relationship include extensive use of
silence, acceptance, immediacy, active and passive listening, reflection of feelings and
thoughts, clarification, summarization, confrontation, and leads. Reflection is the mirroring
of emotional communication.

If the client says "I feel like great!" the therapist may reflect this back to the client by
saying something like "So, life's getting you down, hey?" By doing this, the therapist is
communicating to the client that he is indeed listening and cares enough to understand.

Often, people in distress say things that they do not mean because it feels good to say
them. Carl Rogers relates the case of a woman who came to see him. She said. "I hate
men!" He made her reflect by saying "You hate all men?" Well, she said, maybe not all.
She did not hate her father or her brother. Even with those men she "hated," she
discovered that the great majority of them she didn't feel as strongly as the word hate
implies. In fact, ultimately, she realised that she didn't trust many men, and that she was
afraid of being hurt by them the way she had been by one particular man. Reflection must
be used carefully, however. Many beginning therapists use it without thinking (or feeling),
and just repeat every other phrase that comes out of the client's mouth. They sound like
parrots with psychology degrees! Reflection must come from the heart - it must be
genuine and congruent.

How Does Client-Centered Therapy Work?

Mental health professionals who utilize this approach strive to create a therapeutic
environment that is conformable, non-judgmental and empathetic. Two of the
key elements of client-centered therapy are that it:

Is non-directive. Therapists allow clients to lead the discussion and do not try to
steer the client in a particular direction.

Emphasizes unconditional positive regard. Therapists show complete


acceptance and support for their clients.

According to Carl Rogers, a client-centered therapist/counsellor needs three key qualities:

1. Genuineness:
The therapist needs to share his or her feelings honestly. By modeling this
behavior, the therapist can help teach the client to also develop this important skill.

2. Unconditional Positive Regard:


The therapist must accept the client for who they are and display support and care
no matter what the client is facing or experiencing. Rogers believed that people
often develop problems because they are used to only receiving conditional
support; acceptance that is only offered if the person conforms to certain
expectations. By creating a climate of unconditional positive regard, the client
feels able to express his or her emotions without fear of rejection.

Rogers explained:
"Unconditional positive regard means that when the therapist is experiencing a
positive, acceptant attitude toward whatever the client is at that moment,
therapeutic movement or change is more likely. It involves the therapist's
willingness for the client to be whatever feeling is going on at that moment -
confusion, resentment, fear, anger, courage, love, or prideThe therapist prizes
the client in a total rather than a conditional way."

3. Empathetic Understanding:
The therapist needs to be reflective, acting as a mirror of the client's feelings,
thoughts. The goal of this is to allow the client to gain a clearer understanding of
their own inner thought, perceptions and emotions.
By exhibiting these three characteristics, therapists can help clients grow
psychologically, become more self-aware and change their behavior via self-
direction. In this type of environment, a client feels safe and free from judgment.
Rogers believed that this type of atmosphere allows clients to develop a healthier
view of the world and a less distorted view of themselves.

EXERCISES:

1. State Carl Rogers' assumptions of human nature?


2. Briefly outline the goal of counselling according to the client-centred approach?
3. Discuss the general techniques used in client-centred counselling?
4. Rani is appointed as a guidance and counselling teacher in SK Berjaya. How can
she create an athmosphere where students are happy to meet to discuss their
concers?
5. Silence is one of the technique used by a counsellor in client centred tharapy.
Discuss its pro and con in perspective of a client in a counselling process.
6. Give the characteristic of an effective counsellor according to
Rogerian theory.

4.10 RATIONAL EMOTIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY (REBT)

a) Introduction

REBT is based on the premise that whenever we become upset, it is not the events taking
place in our lives that upset us; it is the beliefs that we hold that cause us to become
depressed, anxious, enraged, etc. The idea that our beliefs upset us was first articulated
by Epictetus around 2,000 years ago: "Men are disturbed not by events, but by the views
which they take of them."

Rational Emotive Therapy was developed by Albert Ellis. According to him human being is
both rational and irrational.Irrationality is the cause of emotional problems, such as guilt,
anxiety, anger and depression. Emotional problems cannot be separated from ideas. Ellis
thinks that the mistake most people make us rating themselves.against other people and
then labeling themselves.This prevents them from accepting their natural fallibility and
almost always result in self contempt or in a defensive pose of superiority.The goal of
rational emotive therapy is to show the client how his misinterpretation of events are
causing him problems and to teach him to see things in a more rational manner and aid
him in the process of adjustments. According to Ellis every human being who gets
disturbed really is felling himself a chain of false sentences.

Ellis has developed his own made of behaviour which is called A, B, C model. A is the
activating event Vis the belief system and C is the emotional consequence. Here made
A is not the cause of Crather W is the cause of C. According to Ellis every human being
who gets disturbed really is telling himself a chain of false sentences. That is the way
humans seem almost invariably to think in words, phrases and sentences and it Is these
sentences which really constitute his neurosis.

1. It is absolutely essential for an individual to be loved or approved by every


significant person in his environment.
2. It is necessary that each individual be competent, adequate and achieving in
areas of interest if the individual is to be worthwhile.
3. Some people are bad, wicked or villainous and these people should be blamed
and punished.
4. It is terrible and catastrophic when things are not in the way an individual wants
them to be.
5. Unhappiness is a function of events outside the control of the individual.
6. If something is dangerous or harmful, an individual should constantly be
concerned about it.
7. It is easier to run away from difficulties and self-responsibility than it is to brace
oneself up to learn on.
8. Petty events in an individuals life determine present behaviour and cannot be
changed.
9. .An individual should be every concerned and upset by other individual problems.
10. There is always a correct and precise answer to every problem and it is
catastrophic

4.10 The Goal

Regardless of what happened to the individual in the past, the therapist assures that the
person is solely responsible for the way he feels about himself and this is responsible for
his happiness. The goal of rational emotive therapy is to show the client how his
misinterpretation of events is causing him problems and to teach him to see things in a
more rational manner and aid him in the process of adjustments.

4.9 The role of counselling

The role of theory-oriented counseling is rational emotive cognition restructuring of clients,


including thoughts and irrational beliefs that clients have a view and philosophy of life in a
more positive and rational.

According to Crawford and Ellis (in Thompson, Rudolph & Henderson, 2004), irrational
beliefs can be classified into five categories, namely:
i. the failure of belief in nature that prevents the achievement of the individual
concerned ;
ii. a rigid and dogmatic beliefs that lead to the intention of the less realistic ;
iii. anti- social belief that destroys a person's social relationships ;
iv. unrealistic beliefs that give a false impression of reality , and
v. The opposite belief stems from a false premise.

In accordance with the categories of irrational beliefs on, Waters (in Thompson,
Rudolph & Henderson, 2004) has presented a number of examples of irrational beliefs in
children as follows;

a. Irrational belief in children


It is sad if people do not like me ;
I called a bad person if I make a mistake ;
I must achieve my expectations ;
I must easily fulfil all my requirements ;
The world must be fair to all mankind and wicked must be punished accordingly ;
An adult can not make any mistakes ;
There is only one right answer ;
I must win ; If I lose I will be very disappointed;
I do not have to wait to achieve what I want.

Try to compare the above list with some examples of irrational beliefs in adolescents.
Identify the extent of both lists the same or different from each other.

b. Irrational beliefs among adolescents:


It is sad if I did not like my friends , and I was the one who always fail ;
I should not make mistakes ;
Parents are to blame me for my suffering at the moment ;
I cannot change my current situation. I shall abide by such conditions ;
The world should be fair and equitable ;
It is sad if I do not achieve what I want ;
It is better to avoid yourself from facing challenges than open to accept the risk of
failure ;
I must submit to my peers ;
I can not accept any criticism ;
Other people should always be responsible in all respects.
4.10.3 The process

In the initial interview the responsibilities of the counsellor and the client are defined. The
client is responsible for practicing any learning acquired during the counselling sessions.
Practicing means home work.

However, most teachers do not have the guidance of the theory of rational emotive
experience using biasany a problem to detect irrational thoughts found in client counseling
session. Here are the guidelines that can be used as a reference to solve the above
problems.

Identify generalizations made by the client.


Example: "I have achieved a grade F for testing recent history. Course I will get low grades for all
subsequent test history. "

Identify the categorization of black - white " made by the client to decide between
good and bad.
Example: "I failed to achieve a grade of A for all subjects. Therefore I can not be
an excellent student. "

Identify the client's tendency to focus on negative events.


Example: "I had twice passed the Math test, and almost failed one time.
Accordingly, I would fail the math to come. "

Identify the client's tendency to exaggerate and minimize errors in achievement.


Example: Im lucky just to have achieved an A in math ago.

Identify the client's use of words such as should, must, always, must, never.
Example: "I should not make mistakes."

Identify the client's statement of aggravating something or someone


Example: "He should be sentenced to a rat. Should not he fined RM5000 only. "

Identify the client forecast negative.


Example: "I know my friends will not be happy in my birthday party
4.10.4 Techniques / Strategies for Helping Clients
The theory of rational emotive counseling or oriented elements are didactic teaching, and
directing. Thus, Ellis suggested that three types of techniques are used, namely cognitive,
emotive and behavioral.

Rational therapists use a wide verity of techniques to correct the illogical and self
defeating goals and beliefs of the client. These include persuasion, confrontation,
challenge, command, even theoretical arguments. They do not baby their clients .He
may go so far as to give home work assignments encouraging the clients to risk arguing
with their boss .patting a dog that frightens them directive.

a. Cognitive techniques

Some of the techniques commonly used include:

Restructure the irrational thoughts and beliefs through the use of the acronym
ABCDE ;
Defining the negative situation to become more positive ;

Conceptualise a problem in holistic and comprehensive manner into small


parts of the area.

b. Emotive technique

Among the suggested techniques which focuses emotive affective or emotional domain
clients are;

Humour element help clients to see their situation in perspective, and not to look
down on themselves;
Guide the client to establish the pattern of positive emotions. Example: describe
how to overcome fears or phobias ;

Training attack shyness / shy help clients not to get too disregard for other
people's perception of them.

c. Behavioral techniques
Among the behavioral techniques that are commonly used to help the client achieve the
goals of counseling are:

Techniques such as operant assertiveness training , formation ;


classical techniques such as systematic desensitasi ;

Self- management including self-monitoring ;


Assignment homework help clients try and practice what they have learned in
counseling sessions in their daily activities.

In summary, the theory of rational emotive aims to teach clients to think and behave
rationally. However, they are free to choose between negative behavior and positive
attitudes. In other words, they are taught to take responsibility for their own thoughts and
consequent

Exrtra reading
The ABC Model

Albert Ellis and REBT posit that our reaction to having our goals blocked (or even the
possibility of having them blocked) is determined by our beliefs. To illustrate this, Dr. Ellis
developed a simple ABC format to teach people how their beliefs cause their emotional
and behavioral responses:

A. Something happens.
B. You have a belief about the situation.
C. You have an emotional reaction to the belief.

For example:
A. Your friend falsely accuses you of taking money from her purse and threatens to break-
up with you.
B. You believe, She has no right to accuse me. She's a liar!
C. You feel angry.

If you had held a different belief, your emotional response would have been
different:

A. Your friend falsely accuses you of taking money from her purse and threatens to break-
up with you.
B. You believe, I must not lose your temper. That would be unbearable.
C. You feel anxious.

The ABC model shows that A does not cause C. It is B that causes C. In the first example,
it is not your friends false accusation and threat that make you angry; it is your belief that
she has no right to accuse you, and that she is a liar. In the second example, it is not her
accusation and threat that make you anxious; it is the belief that you must not lose your
temper, and that losing your temper would be unbearable.

The Three Basic Musts


Although we all express ourselves differently, according to Albert Ellis and REBT, the
beliefs that upset us are all variations of three common irrational beliefs. Each of the three
common irrational beliefs contains a demand, either about ourselves, other people, or the
world in general. These beliefs are known as "The Three Basic Musts."
1. I must do well and win the approval of others for my performances or else I am
no good.

2. Other people must treat me considerately, fairly and kindly, and in exactly the
way I want them to treat me. If they don't, they are no good and they deserve to be
condemned and punished.

3. I must get what I want, when I want it; and I must not get what I don't want. It's
terrible if I don't get what I want, and I can't stand it.

The first belief often leads to anxiety, depression, shame, and guilt.

The second belief often leads to rage, passive-aggression and acts of violence.

The third belief often leads to self-pity and procrastination. It is the demanding nature of
the beliefs that causes the problem. Less demanding, more flexible beliefs lead to healthy
emotions and helpful behaviors

Disputing

The goal of REBT is to help people change their irrational beliefs into rational beliefs.
Changing beliefs is the real work of therapy and is achieved by the therapist disputing the
client's irrational beliefs.

For example, the therapist might ask, "Why must you win everyone's approval?"
"Where is it written that other people must treat you fairly?"
"Just because you want something, whymust you have it?"

Disputing is the D of the ABC model. When the client tries to answer the therapist's
questions, s/he sees that there is no reason why she/he absolutely must have approval,
fair treatment, or anything else that s/he wants.

Insight

Albert Ellis and REBT contend that although we all think irrationally from time to time, we
can work at eliminating the tendency. It's unlikely that we can ever entirely eliminate the
tendency to think irrationally, but we can reduce the frequency, the duration, and the
intensity of our irrational beliefs by developing three insights:

1. We don't merely get upset but mainly upset ourselves by holding inflexible beliefs.

2. No matter when and how we start upsetting ourselves, we continue to feel upset
because we cling to our irrational beliefs.
3. The only way to get better is to work hard at changing our beliefs. It takes practice,
practice, practice.

Acceptance
Emotionally healthy human beings develop an acceptance of reality, even when reality is
highly unfortunate and unpleasant. REBT therapists strive to help their clients develop
three types of acceptance: (1) unconditional self-acceptance; (2) unconditional other-
acceptance; and (3) unconditional life-acceptance. Each of these types of acceptance is
based on three core beliefs:

Unconditional self-acceptance:
1. I am a fallible human being; I have my good points and my bad points.
2. There is no reason why I must not have flaws.

3. Despite my good points and my bad points, I am no more worthy and no less
worthy than any other human being.

Unconditional other-acceptance:

1. Other people will treat me unfairly from time to time.


2. There is no reason why they must treat me fairly.

3. The people who treat me unfairly are no more worthy and no less worthy than
any other human being.

Unconditional life-acceptance:

1. Life doesn't always work out the way that I'd like it to.
2. There is no reason why life must go the way I want it to

3. Life is not necessarily pleasant but it is never awful and it is nearly always
bearable.

http://www.rebtnetwork.org/whatis.html

A major aid in cognitive therapy is what Albert Ellis called the ABC Technique of
Irrational Beliefs.
The first three steps analyze the process by which a person has developed irrational
beliefs and may be recorded in a three-column table.

* A - Activating Event or objective situation. The first column records the objective
situation, that is, an event that ultimately leads to some type of high emotional
response or negative dysfunctional thinking.

* B - Beliefs. In the second column, the client writes down the negative thoughts that
occurred to them.

* C - Consequence. The third column is for the negative feelings and dysfunctional
behaviors that ensued. The negative thoughts of the second column are seen as a
connecting bridge between the situation and the distressing feelings. The third column
C is next explained by describing emotions or negative thoughts that the client thinks
are caused by A. This could be anger, sorrow, anxiety, etc.

Ellis believes that it is not the activating event (A) that causes negative emotional and
behavioral consequences (C), but rather that a person interpret these events
unrealistically and therefore has a irrational belief system (B) that helps cause the
consequences (C).

For example
Gina is upset because she got a low mark on a math test. The Activating event, A, is that
she failed her test. The Belief, B, is that she must have good grades or she is worthless.
The Consequence, C, is that Gina feels depressed.

After irrational beliefs have been identified, the therapist will often work with the client in
challenging the negative thoughts on the basis of evidence from the client's experience
by reframing it, meaning to re-interpret it in a more realistic light. This helps the client to
develop more rational beliefs and healthy coping strategies.

A therapist would help Gina realize that there is no evidence that she must have good
grades to be worthwhile, or that getting bad grades is awful. She desires good grades,
and it would be good to have them, but it hardly makes her worthless.

If she realizes that getting bad grades is disappointing, but not awful, and that it means
she is currently bad at math or at studying, but not as a person, she will feel sad or
frustrated, but not depressed. The sadness and frustration are likely healthy negative
emotions and may lead her to study harder from then on.

REBT is based on a few simple principles having profound implications:

1. You are responsible for your own emotions and actions,


2. Your harmful emotions and dysfunctional behaviors are the product of your
irrational thinking,

3. You can learn more realistic views and, with practice, make them a part of you,

4. You'll experience a deeper acceptance of yourself and greater satisfactions in life


by developing
a reality-based perspective.

REBT distinguishes clearly between two very different types of difficulties:


practical problems and emotional problems. Your flawed behavior, unfair treatment by
others, and undesirable situations, represent practical problems. Regrettably, your human
tendency is to upset yourself about these practical problems, thereby unnecessarily
creating a second order of problems--emotional suffering. REBT addresses the latter by
helping you:

Take responsibility for your distress. The first lesson in healthy emoting and
relating was stated by the Roman philosopher Epictetus more than 2000 years
ago: only you can upset yourself about events--the events themselves, no matter
how undesirable, can never upset you.
Recognize that neither another person, nor an adverse circumstance, can ever
disturb you--only you can. No one else can get into your gut and churn it up.
Others can cause you physical pain--by hitting you over the head with a baseball
bat, for example--or can block your goals. But you create your own emotional
suffering, or self-defeating behavioral patterns, about what others do or say.
Identify your "musts." Once you admit that you distort your own emotions and
actions, then determine precisely how. The culprit usually lies in one of the three
core "musts:"

"Must" #1 (a demand on yourself): "I MUST do well and get approval, or else I'm
worthless." This demand causes anxiety, depression, and lack of assertiveness.

"Must" #2 (a demand on others): "You MUST treat me reasonably, considerately,


and lovingly, or else you're no good." This "must" leads to resentment, hostility,
and violence.

"Must" #3 (a demand on situations): "Life MUST be fair, easy, and hassle-free,


or else it's awful." This thinking is associated with hopelessness, procrastination,
and addictions.

Ascertain what you're demanding of yourself, of your significant others, or of your


circumstances. Not until you have discovered the "must" can you then go on
effectively to reduce your distress.

Dispute your "musts." The only way you can ever remain disturbed about
adversity is by vigorously and persistently agreeing with one of these three
"musts." Thus, once you've bared them, then relentlessly confront and question
your demands.

Begin by asking yourself: "What's the evidence for my 'must?' " "How is it true?"
"Where's it etched in stone?" And then by seeing: "There's no evidence." "My
'must' is entirely false." "It's not carved indelibly anywhere." Make your view
"must"-free, and then your emotions will heal.

Reinforce your preferences. Conclude, therefore:


o Preference #1: "I strongly PREFER to do well and get approval, but even
if I fail, I will accept myself fully,"
o Preference #2: "I strongly PREFER that you treat me reasonably, kindly,
and lovingly, but since I don't run the universe, and it's a part of your
human nature to err, I, then, cannot control you,"

o Preference #3: "I strongly PREFER that life be fair, easy, and hassle-free,
and it's very frustrating that it isn't, but I can bear frustration and still
considerably enjoy life."

http://www.threeminutetherapy.com/rebt.html

4.10 Conclusion
Ellis says human being is both rational and irrational. Irrationality is the cause of emotional
problems, such as guilt, anxiety, anger and depression. Ellis has identified eleven
irrational ideas. The goal of rational emotive therapy is to show the client how his
misinterpretation of events is causing him problems and to teach him to see things in a
more rational manner and aid him in the process of adjustments.

http://teachereducationguidanceandcounsellin.blogspot.com/2011/03/rational-emotive-
behaviour-therapy-rebt.html

EXTRA KNOWLEDGE:

4.12 ADLERIAN COUNSELING

Alfred Adler (1870-1937) was the founder of Adlerian approach, also known as Individual
psychology. He was a sickly child and had difficult relationship with his younger brother.
Against his parents and teachers' expectation, he rose to the top of his class and went to
study medicine at the University of Vienna, later specialising in neurology and psychiatry.
Adler wrote his book in 1959 titled Understanding Human Nature which was a bestseller.
He wrote, spoke and demonstrated his work in Europe and the United States until his
death in 1937.

Alfred was a colleague of Sigmund Freud, and along with Carl Jung developed the school
of psychodynamic thoughts. He disagreed with Freud's extreme emphasis on biological
and deterministic views toward human. Adler proposed a more optimistic, hopeful and
positive theory on human development, stressing on subjective feelings and social
interest. He focused on unity of personality, believing that humans can only be understood
when viewed as complete beings. Humans develop a unique life style that is created by
them. They have created their own personality and therefore can choose to change.
Clients are encouraged to value their strengths and to acknowledge that they are equal
members of society who can make a worthwhile contribution. After Adler's death, Rudolf
Dreikurs was the most significant figure bringing Adlerian psychology to America, applying
its principles to education, individual, group, and family therapy.

4.12.1 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS of HUMAN NATURE


The following are sonic assumptions of human nature stated by Adler:

Holistic:

Adler argued that people's actions, thoughts and feelings had to be seen as a whole. He
held that "no life expression can be viewed in isolation, but must always be regarded in
relation to the total personality" (1956. p. 75). Personality is not made up of separate
parts, but rather, the person as a whole orientates himself or herself to the surrounding.

The lifestyle of people and how they behave in the world is determined by the ideas and
beliefs they have chosen. For example, a person may choose to believe that he should be
better than others or that he should be liked by others. Adler did not place importance on
genetic factors but more importantly how the person used what he or she inherited in
responding to the environment.

Social

Adler further suggested that people were social in nature. So, their behaviour had to be
interpreted in a social context. If this be the case, then it is important to examine:

how people behaved in their family,


how they behaved in their school,
how they behaved as adults in the workplace,
how they behaved with their friends and
how they behaved in intimate relationships.

The human baby is born in an inferior position, quite helpless and dependent on others for
survival. The feeling of inferiority, whether real or imagined, may last well into the teenage
years. Some people become so engrossed in their feelings of inferiority that they become
emotionally and socially paralysed and develop an inferiority complex. Humans are
always trying to overcome physical weakness by striving for perfection and significance as
well as developing a sense of superiority. Such effort is called compensation. This does
not mean being overly more powerful or more significant than others, it simply means
moving from a perceived lower position to a higher one, from feeling neglected to feeling
accepted, and from perceiving weaknesses to achieving strength, the unique ways in
which an individual achieves his or her superiority is what meant by individuality.

PARENTING
Wise parenting will enable children to grow to feel that they arc social equals. In
other words, they are equal in their families, have equal rights, equal respect and
share equal responsibilities. Children expect to be treated equally and expect their
views to be taken into account.
- Alfred Adler

According to Adlerian counselling, humans are mainly motivated by social interest,


meaning people feel connected to society that treats them as equal and they see
themselves as belonging to society. People who possess social interest are
responsible for themselves and those in their society. They have an opportunity to change
their beliefs and their behaviours. Adler considered that each person has chosen to be the
person that he or she is; we are the authors of our own creations of ourselves. People can
change if they wish. However, change is not easy for an adult; we are all good at being
our old selves and will have to struggle at being a different version of ourselves.

Teleological

Teleological comes from the Greek word teleo which means goal. Adler felt that human
behaviour was guided by a purpose. To understand human nature, you have to know what
is guiding a particular behaviour. For example a person who is always late. What is the
purpose of being late? Perhaps the person is often late to show others that he or she is
busy.

Alternatively, the person wants to show to others he or she is in control and nobody can
tell him or her to be on time. Adler calls the beliefs that underlie people's goals of
behaviour as private logic; to the person it is logical to behave in such a way.

BIRTH ORDER

Another major idea of Adler was his emphasis on birth order. Birth order is the ordinal
position an individual is born into his or her family. Adler proposed that people who share
the same ordinal birth positions share similar characteristics. This is because the
psychological situation of each child is different from each other depending on his or her
birth order. Adler focuses on five positions with each sharing similar unique characteristics:
the oldest, the youngest, the second horn, the middle, and the only child. Birth order and
the interpretation of this position influence one's interactions within the family and with
others outside the family. Individuals tend to form their unique personality from the first
years within the family, reacting to their siblings and family dynamics. Thus, the family
environment is also seen as important to a person's development, especially the first six
years of life. A negative family environment may be rejective, authoritarian, suppressive,
materialistic, overprotective or pitying. A positive family environment may be democratic,
accepting, open, authoritative, and social. (See Figure 2.6).

Birth order

General
Influence
on
Personality
Developm
ent
First child often receives much attention and is lavished with love. She is seen
as unique and special. She tends to be dependable, hard working and try to
Oldest
keep ahead. When the second child arrives, the first child finds herself
child
dethroned and slightly neglected. She is no longer the centre of attention and
must share the spotlight with the newcomer.
This child finds that she is an addition to the family, and share the spotlight
with another person that comes before her. She strives to gain attention and
Second
to be better than the older sibling. She competes with the oldest, striving for
born
achievement in different areas. The second born is often the opposite of the
first-born.
Middle This child often feels left out since the first and second has already team-up.
child This child may adopt the "poor me" attitude and creates problem to gain
attention. In problematic family, however, the middle child may become the
peacemaker, the person who holds things together.
The youngest is often the baby of the family and becomes the centre of
Youngest attention. He may be pampered and spoilt. He has to strive and become at
child least as good as the others ahead of him. Youngest children tend to develop
in a unique ways, different from the older siblings.
The only child shares some characteristics with the oldest child since she is
also the centre of attention and strives to become the best. She is also
Only child pampered and spoilt. She may crave being in the spotlight all the time, even
with those outside her family. She may have problems sharing or cooperate
with people of her age, yet get along well with adults.
Figure 2.6: Birth Order and Its Influence in Personality Development

4.12.3 GOAL OF COUNSELLING and the ROLE OF THE COUNSELLOR

The goal of Adlerian counselling is to help clients develop a healthy, holistic lifestyle. This
is achieved through an equalitarian relationship between the counsellor and the client.
Clients are assisted in identifying, exploring, and disclosing mistaken goals and faulty
assumptions associated with feelings of inferiority. These feelings might result from any
negative effects of birth order, negative family environment or lack of social interaction and
correction of the faulty lifestyle, goals, and assumptions.

Ultimately, the counsellor will help the client foster social interest and start contributing to
society, overcome feelings of inferiority and acquire a sense of equality with others, modify
clients' views and goals, and change clients' faulty motivation. Within clients' lifestyle
encourage clients to be brave enough so that they arc able to explore, identity or confront
any fears, perceptions or issues that have been burdening them. In a condition full of
positive regard and empathy, clients become increasingly willing to change and grow. As
clients become more fully functioning, they will have greater acceptance of their self. In
conclusion, clients are ultimately responsible for their own lives.

The role of the counsellor is to diagnose, teach, and model the desired behaviours. The
main taslc oF the counsellor is to assess clients' level of functioning by gathering
information on their family constellation, including the birth order, the parents, siblings and
others living at home. Clients' early life experiences are also explored. The counsellor then
interprets clients' situations, putting assumptions on clients' areas of problems that need to
be worked out.

4.12.4 ADLERIAN COUNSELLING TECHNIQUES

Adlerian counselling follows FOUR phases of therapy:

1. Establishing a Relationship

The counsellor establishes an equal partnership with the client with equal respect, rights
and responsibilities. The counsellor accepts the client without any conditions and
encourages the person to point his or her strengths and abilities. Focus is on the fact that
the client can make a change if he or she wishes to. The client must feel safe, especially if
he or she is to reveal his or her inner thoughts. The counsellor should be straight with the
client and not 'play games'.

2. Gathering Information

Gather information about the client by observing the way he or she enters the room, sits,
speaks and behaves in the counselling sessions. The counsellor will analyse the clients'
lifestyle by examining their birth order and family environment, early memories especially
during the first few years of life. Early recollections are used as a diagnostic tool to
evaluate clients' present attitudes and current lifestyle. The counsellor asks directly why
the client has come and much can be learned by what he or she tells and does not tell.
The counsellor will ask about the client's place of work, family, friends and relationship
with siblings. For example, is the client the eldest who was often bullied by his younger
brother?

Or was the client a pampered child? The client will also be asked to recall earlier
experiences. According to Adler, people remember events that reinforce the beliefs and
ideas in their private logic.

3. Giving Insight

Counsellors will help clients gain insight into their present behaviours. Adlerian counsellors
use mainly verbal techniques to assess, evaluate arid interpret clients' lifestyle. The
counsellor can use confrontation where he challenges clients' private logics. Asking the
"what if" questions encourage clients to explore possibilities. By now the counsellor will
have some idea about the clients' view of themselves, their view of the world and their
unconscious decisions about how to move through life. These guesses will have to be
confirmed by the clients: agree or disagree. Agreement on the counsellor's assessment of
the client may be conveyed verbally or non-verbally (by gestures and body language). For
example, the client may recognise how private logic has restricted him and may want to
change his behaviour. If the client is a person who likes to be better than everyone else,
then it is likely that he or she will be lonely and without real friends.

4. Encouraging Reorientation

This is the most difficult phase where the Counsellor guides and encourage the client to
find a way to change. The counsellor will point out the client's strengths and encourage
the client to find a way to move on. Tasks which are achievable are set for the client;
especially those that challenge private logic and are hindering the person from changing.
To acquire new behaviour is an uphill task, and the counsellor should make an effort to
congratulate achievement, the counsellor may make reference to earlier counselling
sessions where certain issues were discussed that may be helpful to the client at this
phase of the counselling process. The counsellor may end the sessions by assigning
tasks if appropriate.

The Adlerian approach requires the clients be able verbalise their thoughts and so
language is essential. Even if non-verbal situations such as drama or art are used, clients
need to talk about and understand what they discover themselves. The Adlerian approach
is based on the belief that people want to belong as equals and are keen to develop their
full potentials. The Adlerian approach is appropriate for people who are able to accept
responsibility for their behaviour and who are willing to make changes.
Practice questions

1. Discuss briefly the Adlerian approach and its view of human behaviour?
2. a. From the Adlerian perspective, what is the reason(s) for clients having

Problems in life?
b. What is the goal of counselling according to Adlerian approach?

3. What are the techniques used in Adlerian counselling?


4. a. What is your birth position?

b. Do Adlers characteristics defined for your birth position reflect in your


personalities?

Suggested reading
Read up on GESTALT theory
Reality Theory and its uses
Solution focussed theory

Chapter References
REBT
(http://teachereducationguidanceandcounsellin.blogspot.com/2011/03/rational-
emotive-behaviour-therapy-rebt.html)

BASIC ID; http://knowwhatubelieve.blogspot.com/2012/04/lazaruss-multimodal-


basic-id-
concept.html
Theoritical perspectives, At http://iws2.collin.edu/lipscomb/16_week_course
/theoretical_ perspectives_outline.htm

Gilliland, B.E. & James, R.K. (1998). Theories and strategies in counseling and
psychotherapy (4th Ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Gilliland, B.E. & James, R.K. (1998). Theories and strategies in counseling and
psychotherapy (4Ih Ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Lazarus, A. (n.d.). Lazarus-Multimodal-Therapy. Retrieved February 6, 2012,
from Psychotherapy.net: http://www.psychotherapy.net/video/lazarus-
multimodal-therapy
Nystul, M.S. (2003). Introduction to counseling: An art and science perspective
(2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Nystul, M.S. (2003). Introduction to counseling: An art and science perspective
(2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Rousseau, H.J. (1968). The impact of educational theory on teachers. British
Journal of Education Studies, 16(1), 60-71.
Whitehead, A.N. (1916). The organization of thought. Proceedings of the
Aristotelian Society, 17, 58-76.
Sciarra, D.T. (2004). School counseling: Foundations and contemporary issues.
USA: Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning.
Sciarra, D.T. (2004). School counseling: Foundations and contemporary issues.
USA: Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning.
Thompson, C.L., Rudolph, L.B. & Henderson, D.A. (2004). Counseling children
(6th ed.). USA: Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning.
Thompson, C.L., Rudolph, L.B. & Henderson, D.A. (2004). Counseling children
(6th ed.). USA: Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning.
Wagner, W.G. (2003). Counseling, psychology, and children: A
multidimensional approach to intervention. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill
Prentice Hall.
Wagner, W.G. (2003). Counseling, psychology, and children: A
multidimensional approach to intervention. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill
Prentice Hall.
McLeod, S. A. (2007). Carl Rogers. Retrieved from
http://www.simplypsychology.org/carl-rogers.html

Glossary

Assertive Activities/ programs designed to teach self esteem and self expression
training in intimidating interpersonal situations.It is used also as a
therapeutic technique in treatment of dysfunctional behavior such
as dependent personality disorder.
Congruent Congruence is about being genuine being yourself in your
relationships with other people, without any pretence or faade. When
we are congruent, how we act and what we say is consistent with how
we are feeling and what we are thinking.
Defence A tactic developed by the ego to protect against anxiety. Defense
mechanism mechanisms are thought to safeguard the mind against feelings and
thoughts that are too difficult for the conscious mind to cope with. In
some instances, defense mechanisms are thought to keep
inappropriate or unwanted thoughts and impulses from entering the
conscious mind.
Extinction Extinction is the disappearance of a previously learned behavior
when the behavior is not reinforced. Extinction can occur in all types
of behavioral conditioning, but the term is most often associated with
its occurrence in operant conditioning.
Flooding Flooding is a form of behavior therapy based on the principles
of respondent conditioning. It is used to treat phobia and anxiety
disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder. It works by exposing
the patient to their painful memories with the goal of reintegrating
their repressed emotions with their current awareness In order to
demonstrate the irrationality of the fear, a psychologist would put a
person in a situation where they would face their phobia at its worst.
Under controlled conditions and using psychologically-proven
relaxation techniques, the subject attempts to replace their fear with
relaxation.
Ideal self Ideal self This is the person who we would like to be. It consists of
our goals and ambitions in life, and is dynamic i.e. forever changing.
The ideal self in childhood is not the ideal self in our teens or late
twenties etc.
Insight Insight learning is a kind of learning or problem solving that occurs
suddenly through understanding the relationships of the different parts
of a problem rather than through test and error. It is when something
happens all of a sudden after you have understood the relation of the
various parts.
Modelling A process where a client/ student learns by imitating without any verbal
direction by the therapist or others
Negative Think of negative reinforcement as taking something negative away in
reinforcement order to increase a response. Imagine a teenager who is nagged by his mother
to take out the garbage week after week. After complaining to his friends about the
nagging, he finally one day performs the task and to his amazement, the nagging
stops. The elimination of this negative stimulus is reinforcing and will likely increase
the chances that he will take out the garbage next week.
Neurosis A functional disorder in which feelings of anxiety, obsessional thoughts
compulsive acts, and physical complaints without objective evidence of
disease, in various degrees andpatterns, dominate the personality.
Personality Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of
thinking, feeling and behaving, a person's unique behavioral and
cognitive patterns; OR, a person's unique consistent pattern of thinking,
feeling, and acting. For example, some peoples are shy and
introspective while others tend to be outgoing and extroverted.
Positive Think of it as adding something in order to increase a response. For
reinforcement example, adding a treat will increase the response of sitting; adding
praise will increase the chances of your child cleaning his or her room.
The most common types of positive reinforcement or praise and
rewards, and most of us have experienced this as both the giver and
receiver.
punishment Punishment refers to adding something aversive in order to decrease a
behavior. The most common example of this is disciplining (e.g.
spanking) a child for misbehaving. The reason we do this is because
the child begins to associate being punished with the negative
behavior. The punishment is not liked and therefore to avoid it, he or
she will stop behaving in that manner.
Rational belief Healthy, productive and adaptive beliefs that are consistent with social
reality, and are stated as preferences, desires and wants. rsjit/2013
Reframing To reframe, step back from what is being said and done and consider
the frame, or 'lens' through which this reality is being created. Then
consider alternative lenses, effectively saying 'Let's look at it another
way.' Challenge the beliefs or other aspects of the frame. Stand in
another frame and describe what you see. Change attributes of the
frame to reverse meaning. Select and ignore aspects of words, actions
and frame to emphasise and downplay various elements.
Thus, for example, you can reframe:
A problem as an opportunity , A weakness as a strength
An impossibility as a distant possibility, A distant possibility as a near possibility
Oppression ('against me') as neutral ('doesn't care about me')
Unkindness as lack of understanding
reinforcement The term reinforce means to strengthen, and is used in psychology to
refer to anything stimulus which strengthens or increases the
probability of a specific response. For example, if you want your dog to
sit on command, you may give him a treat every time he sits for you.
The dog will eventually come to understand that sitting when told to will
result in a treat. This treat is reinforcing because he likes it and will
result in him sitting when instructed to do so.
Self worth A person who has high self-worth, that is, has confidence and positive
feelings about him or her self, faces challenges in life, accepts failure
and unhappiness at times, and is open with people.
Shaping A teaching technique by which a child is rewarded for successful
approximation of a target skill. If a child is learning to write his or her
name, say "Alex," a teacher would shape the responses by starting
with the letter A, and providing the other letters: _lex. The next step
would be perhaps for the child to write the first and last letters
independently. The process would continue until the child can write his
name independently.
Stimulus Something that incites or rouses to action; an incentive
Systematic technique used in behavior therapy to treat phobias and other behavior
desentization problems involving anxiety; client is exposed to the threatening
situation under relaxed conditions until the anxiety reaction is
extinguished
Unconditional Unconditional Positive Regard means 'a basic acceptance and and
positive regard complete support given to a person regardless of what he or she says
or does'. Rogers believed that it was essential for therapists to show
unconditional positive regard to their clients. He also suggested that
individuals who don't have this type of acceptance from people in their
life can eventually come to hold negative beliefs about themselves.
Unconditioned The unconditioned response is the unlearned response that occurs
response naturally in response to the unconditioned stimulus. For example, if the
smell of food is the unconditioned stimulus, the feeling of hunger in
response to the smell of food is the unconditioned response.
http://allpsych.com/psychology101/sensation_perception.html

http://www.apa.org/research/action/glossary.aspx
Chapter 5

Basic Counselling Skills

At the end of the chapter, you should be able to:

Understand some counselling misconceptions;


describe the stages and process of counseling;
master the skills to build relationships with students, entertain and hear in
counseling;
acquire skills in interpreting non-verbal behavior;
identify the cause of the problem and suggest a wide range of solutions, and
Acquire skills in implementing interventions.

5.0 Introduction

5.1 SOME MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT COUNSELLING

For some people, seeking professional help is out of the question. Counselling is thought
to be for losers, not people who are strong and capable. However, the vast majority of
people who seek counselling do so because it takes great courage and strength to work
on their own issues and become proactive in improving their life. How do you view
counselling? The following are some misconceptions about what counselling is and how it
works:

Counselling is only for people who have serious emotional or mental problems.

You don't have to be in a crisis to go for counselling. When your vehicle isn't running
properly or as well as it should, it doesn't necessarily mean it needs a major overall but
rather a tune-up. The same could apply to you; counselling could be used only as a tune-
up for problems you may be facing. Why wait until you can no long function at home,
school, work before seeking help. When you are not feeling well physically, you seek the
help of a physician. The same principle applies too if you are not feeling good about your
life or some aspects of it.

Counselling is for people who are too weak to overcome an addiction or have
some other types of inadequacy in dealing with problems on their own.

An individual is not psychologically impaired or weak if he is going for counselling.


Confronting and addressing your problems through counselling take courage, self-
discipline and motivation. It is a proactive, smart decision to address issues before they
start affecting you negatively. The main purpose of going for counselling is to get good
advice.

The counsellor will teach you how to cope with your problems.

Counselling helps to draw out answers within yourself and identify your beliefs, values,
and thoughts which affect how you act and feel.

Counselling can teach you how to express repressed feelings of anger, joy, guilt, etc.
Counselling is essentially a safe way for an individual to explore his life and get help to
process his thoughts, feelings, beliefs, etc. This is not to say that counselling is not a place
to find solutions. Yes, finding solutions that make sense to the client is critically important!
But it can be much more.

A good counsellor will provide you with a quick solution to your problems with
little to no effort on your part if you ask him.

The counselling process requires some patience. The process may seem slow and drawn
out at times. Counselling is not an instantaneous answer to all problems. It can take a lot
of self-exploration. Before things can get better, they forgotten get worse because old
wounds are being opened up and looked at in order to deal with them in an effective
manner.

When in counselling, the counsellor does most of the talking and you listen.

People tend to have two different views about this. Some people seem to think that all
counsellors do is sit and listen to clients with no input at all. Other people think that
counsellors do all the talking and that clients are going to get lectured to. Counsellors are
listeners, but the process of working through a person's problem is a collaborative one.
Counsellors need to go at the "speed" of the client and need to custom-fit their way of
working to suite the needs and desires of the client. This means that there will be an
interaction that involves participation of both the client and the counsellor.

Counsellors will work towards changing your beliefs and values to conform to the
right way to feel and act.

Counsellors help you draw out answers from within yourself. Each person is different and
dealing with problems takes personal evaluations and self-discovery in order to deal with
the problem effectively.

If you choose to seek professional help, you are considered mentally unhealthy.
Quite the contrary, confronting and addressing your problems through counselling takes
courage, self-discipline and motivation. There are many reasons for seeking professional
help, the following are some of them:

feel depressed, sad, downhearted, hopeless and don't understand why or what to
do to change the way you feel.
Have no purpose or direction in your life.

Going through a personal or professional transition.

Feeling stressed due to work, school, family or financial problems.

is or has been a victim of abuse, whether physical or mental.

Cannot control your anger, becomes resentful and says/does things you regret
later.

Have lost someone close to you and feel you cannot go on with your life.

Feel alienated from yourself, from others.

Not able to make friends.

arguments with spouse almost never result in an efficient compromise,

Time spent gambling is taking away from my family life.

In the process of ending a relationship.

Have problems communicating with your parents.

Counselling doesn't stay and end in the counselling room. The skills you learn can be
applied to many aspects of your life, to empower and enrich your relationships at home, at
work and in your community, as well as provide you with increased well-being to becoming
the person you were meant to be and always wanted to become. The skills and growth
you experience will be carried with you in your everyday life.

Counselling is painful, unpleasant and serious!

As much as issues can be painful and hard to face, the counselling relationship can be
very pleasant. There can be times when there is a lot of humour within the counselling
room. Some people become relieved that they can simply be themselves within the
counselling room and once they experience that it is a safe place for them, they relax and
enjoy working on improving their life. They learn that the counsellor is not there to judge
them or make them feel bad. Once safety and trust have been established, counselling
can be the best investment you ever make in yourself!
Can it really be confidential?

No information disclosed (even the fact that you walked in the door) by you can be
divulged to any third party without your written permission to do so. As a matter of fact,
even if you gave your written consent, you have the power at any point in time to revoke
your consent. In other words, you arc the one in the "driver's scat" with regards to who you
wish to have and not have your personal information. If you have any questions regarding
confidentiality, ask your counsellor about it.

[source: Misconceptions about counselling. Tumbler Ridge Counselling Services


http://www.nris.bc.ca/trcs/whatscounselina.htmll

Check you understanding.

Read the above list of misconceptions about counselling.


a) Which of the above misconceptions you had about counselling?
b) What led you to have these misconceptions?

5.2 Counselling stages

You have learned that counseling is a process that is experienced by a person at any
time, and not necessarily during a crisis or any change in daily life. Counseling sessions
includes few stages, namely : ( i ) Defining the problem , (ii ) Explain the expectations of
the child , (iii ) to explore children's efforts to solve problems , ( iv ) exploring and
indentifying ways towards problem solving , ( v ) Obtain commitment from the children to
try a solution that has been identified , and ( vi ) Terminate the counseling sessions
( Thompson , Rudolph & Henderson , 2004).

However, if you refer to other books, chances are you'll find the other words used to
describe each of these. The important thing is that the consent of all theorist about the
dynamics that occur in each stage of the counseling process is similar.

Describe briefly what happens in the above situation. Why?


Stage 1: Build relationships Identifying childrens problem
In anticipation of efforts to define the problems of children, it is important for guidance and
counseling teachers to build relationships with the children in question. For the first
meeting, is not surprising if the child is not yet ready to share things about a personal or
significant people in his life. Or they are not sure if your guidance and counseling teachers
are willing to listen to what is to be told.

As a result, guidance and counseling teachers should strive to build a relationship that is
professional and seeks to create an atmosphere conducive to travel further counseling.

Among the things that may be recommended include the following:

Greet children at the door with a smile and a friendly appearance;


invite the children to their seats before the teachers guidance and counseling
area
Start the session with the issues and is not endangered like, "What?" It's eat?"
And so on;

When a guidance and counseling teachers found that children are comfortable, he will
start the session with restructuring of the session. Structuring sessions will involve an
explanation of the items below:

the purpose of counseling ;


length of time the session ;
the number of sessions ;
the role of children and counselors , and
Conditional confidentiality.

The restructuring aims to explain to children about such things as listed above so that it
will be clear about what will take place in counseling. This will prevent your child from
having the wrong impression of the counseling process, thus creating expectations that
are too high and unrealistic for a counseling session.

When structuring the session is finished, guidance and counseling teachers will continue
to step defining the problem. He will identify emerging issues and create opportunities for
children to explore the above issues. For that purpose, guidance and counseling teachers
can refer to the guidelines below:

Ask the children what are the goals and objectives to be achieved through counseling
sessions. If such goals and objectives are quite difficult to achieve, guidance and
counseling teachers should guide children to make up the goals or objectives that are
more realistic. If the child is not sure what he wanted to achieve at the end of
counseling, guidance and counseling teachers should also pay careful guidance. The
key is that the child and , instead of guidance and counseling teachers who determine
the goals and objectives of counseling ;
Encourage children to tell about what he wants to share. Guidance and counseling
teachers do not have to censor what is notorious ;

Allow the child to speak and do not be quick to intervene. Avoid making personal
penalties on the issues described.

Just like any other client, when the children are reunited in counseling began to discuss
concerns or problems, it is recommended that guidance and counseling teachers listen
actively seeks to identify the elements as follows:

i. The existence of a problem to be solved ;

ii. The feeling of being connected with the problem , and

iii. Expected child of what needs to be completed by guidance and counseling


teachers.

Therefore, it is the responsibility of guidance and counseling teachers to respond to this


statement:

"In other words, you feel because .you want to

Such feedback will enhance more effective communication between the two sides earlier,
in addition to defining the problems faced by children.

Practice active listening preferably continuous throughout a counseling session. When


children realize that guidance and counseling teachers really pay attention to the problem,
the counseling sessions will be further to the next level.

Stage 2 Exploration the possible causes for the problems

In this stage, the counsellor strive to get a clear picture of the problems students face. At
this stage, counsellor/ teachers should master skills like using the open-ended questions
that can push students to express his feelings. For example:

Can you tell me why you did not say about your mathematics, who likes to teach you?

The students may be silent and would not answer the question immediately! Therefore,
you should be patient and give the student some time to think and organize the answer.

If the silence is longer than a reasonable time, the teacher counselor can change the
question to be simpler, such as using a series of questions. For example:

Do you love mathematics teacher?

Why? How? And so on.

To elicit information and to understand the feelings of students, teachers and counselors
must also acquire skills such as interview skills where you have too show your concern
and genuine attention by looking face to face , you should be able to capture the non-
verbal skills such as head nods , smiles , signaling and also do some encouraging or a
praise. These are basic skills for achieving the counselling objectives.
In view of this, it is recommended that guidance and counseling teachers to pay attention
in sessions in an effort to encourage the children to make deeper exploration. These
include:

Use basic counseling skills such as listening skills and attending; interpret non-
verbal behavior; skills to respond, skills, identify problems, how to implement
intervention skills. These skills will be further discussed in the next section ;

Focus on behavior , not physical or personal aspects of the child;

Be objective and non-judgmental ;

Show enthusiasm to help children ;

Avoid conflicts with the child ;

Help the children think of the alternatives solution, but donot give any suggestions.

To begin the exploration, guidance and counseling teachers can use this statement:

When you are ready, we will start by looking at the extent of your efforts to solve your
problems.

This statement will encourage the child to think, and then generate a list of actions that
have been taken or behavior shown until now as an alternative solution. For those who
have yet to write efficient, guidance and counseling teachers can post the answer set.

Based on the above, the parties will identify the advantages and disadvantages of each
alternative so that the child can

Stage 3 Goal Setting / Identifying the Cause of the Problem & looking for alternative
solution

After the students have spoken about their problems, counsellor together with the client
identify the cause of problems. Here the counselors should use the questions planned to
change problems identified in the first session, further explain the specific problems from
different angles. For example, a common problem is that students do not like math
classes. Teachers and counselors can ask why questions, to continue guiding the
student with a series of structured questions to identify the true cause of the problem.

Stage 4. Finding Alternatives (also known as selection of Strategies and Take


Action)

During this stage, students are helped to look for alternatives to solve the problem,
Counsellors are required to trigger students to use thinking skills to generate ideas in
discussion and problem-solving techniques, find different alternatives or choices based on
the causes of the problems that have been identified. In other words, you must master the
skills of counsellors to compare, analyze, evaluate, examine and decide to help students
find an alternative that can solve the problems encountered.

Here there would be a brainstorming session in which the counselor encourages the child
to develop as many problem-solving alternatives as possible. Counselors encourage
children to generate as many alternatives as possible and to withhold judgment until the
list is finished. Quantity of ideas is more important than quality in this first step. After the
brainstorming list is complete, children are asked to evaluate each alternative in light of its
expected success in helping them get what they want

It is important to know that whether students will be willing to accept your


recommendations, solely depends on the techniques used in these sessions. This means
that the success of achieving the objectives of counseling depended on the efficiency of
the teacher counselors using the principles of client centred counselling, especially to
create a feeling of empathy, which is important to comprehend and understand the
feelings or emotions of the students. When students realize their feelings are consistent
with teachers counselors and many others also have similar problem like theirs, they are
ready to the possibility of receiving an alternative to solve their problem. In other words,
empathy is a critical skill for the success in the counselling sessions. The other skill is
communication and listening skills. Using suitable communication skills enable counselors
to convey the message or information accurately, while the listening skills them to
understand exactly what is told by the student/client. A proper use of these skills will
ensure any misunderstanding, conflicts or doubts that may arise betwwen the student and
the counselor.

Stage 5 ending the session

Summarising is the final stage in the counseling sessions, in which students may be
asked to determine and choose the alternative that is considered appropriate to address
problems encountered. At this stage, the teacher counselor should use reinforcement
techniques with the aim to increase the ability and ensure they actually implement the
chosen alternative.

In order to terminate the counseling session, it is important for guidance and counseling
teachers to follow the following:

Summarise what has happened during the last counseling session, for example: the
results of the childs choice of alternative solutions, the child's ability to manage the next
life, and so on;

- Getting agreement to end child counseling;

Plan for follow-up (if necessary), eg refer the child to a psychiatrist, medical doctor, and
so on
However, if the child found that all the alternative solutions that have been tried are less
effective or fail to solve their problems, the session can be restarted by making new
appointments.

We now can conclude that the counseling of children is an art and a science. It is an art
because you as the guidance teacher, should master basic counseling skills including
active listening skills, as well as caring and empathetic nature.

As a science, the guidance and counseling teachers should use a variety of techniques or
strategies designed to gain an understanding of an objective in each stage of the
counseling process. To recall, the questionnaire used to measure the effectiveness of
activities, questions to assess guidance and counseling, including the counseling services
offered. In order to build rapo early in the counseling process, guidance and counseling
teachers must be genuine, empathetic in nature and practice unconditional positive
acceptance of children as suggested by Carl Rogers in Client Cenred Theory.

Finally, counseling can be summed up as a dynamic process in which guidance and


counseling teachers continually adapt seeks to accommodate the client's needs are
unique and changing.

WHEN SHOULD COUNSELING BE TERMINATED?

How does a counselor decide when to end counseling? Does the counselor or the client
decide? How does either party know the client is ready to stand alone? If the counselor
and client have clearly defined the problem brought to counseling and the goal to be
accomplished, the termination time will be evidentwhen the goal is accomplished. The
counselor may also want tQ took for any of the following signs:

Is the child more open?

Does the child accept responsibility for feelings and actions?

Is the child more tolerant of self and others?

Is the child more independent and self-directing?

Is the child less fearful, less unhappy, and less anxious than when the counseling
relationship began?

Termination may be difficult for children, who usually find the sessions to be a time
when a caring adult gives them undivided attention. Mutual attachments may be formed
between counselor and child, and the child (and possibly the counselor) does not wish to
end this pleasant relationship. To ease the break, client and counselor can discuss a
possible termination date several weeks ahead of time. Plans can be made and rehearsed
about how the child will react should problems recur. The child learns that the counselor
still cares and will be available should trouble arise. Counselors may even consider
building in a follow-up time when they ask their child clients to drop them a note or call to
let them know how things are going. The counselor may want to schedule a brief follow-up
visit. Any informal method of showing the child that a counselor's caring does not end with
the last interview can signal the counselor's continued interest in the child's growth and
development. Most successful counselors use a plan for maintaining the gains their clients
have achieved

5.7 BASIC SKILLS for COUNSELING

Guidance and counseling teachers need to master a wide variety of basic counseling skills
to use in certain levels/stages in the counseling process. We will be learning basic
counseling skills like the following categories:

1. Attending and listening skills


2. interpretation skills of non-verbal behaviour
3. Responding skills
4. Skills to identify problems
5. Implementation of intervention skills

5.7.1 LISTENING SKILLS & Attending client

Both skills to entertain and listen very important to build the foundation of a strong
relationship between teacher guidance and counseling, and children who meet during a
counseling session. Through these skills, guidance and counseling teachers to convey the
message that he is ready physically and psychologically secaia to what is being said and
done by the children later.

5.7.2 How to entertain students

A guidance and counseling teacher should greet the children at the entrance counseling
room with warmth, thus ensuring friendly athmosphere. A conducive environment will
make the child feel safe and reassuring to seek for the help he/she came for.

There certain skills youo need to master and these are contained in the acronym,
SHOVELER as described below:

S (Face the other squarely) : Look directly at children;


H (Head Nods) : nod the head;

O (. Adopt an Open Posture): open body position;

V (Verbal Following): Detection of verbal abuse;

E (Speech) : Conversation;

L (Lean toward the other) : body leaning forward;

E (Make Eye Contact) : Contact points;

R (Be Relatively Relaxed) : Located in releks.

[Sumber: www.psvch.umn.edu/courses/.../basic%20counseling%2 Oskills.pdfl

Based on these acronyms, quite clear that treats skills include both verbal and non-verbal
behavior.

5.7.3 How to Listen In On

Guidance and counseling teachers who wish to listen actively in counseling children
should display such characteristics.

For further clarification, here are four tips for cultivating the next active listening skills:

i. Efforts to understand the client before trying to be understood by the norm , we


would like to understand. It is more effective in counseling guidance and
counseling teachers should not talk but listen. It is better to collect before
providing any information desired by the child concerned;

ii. Nature does not punish


Empathetic listening means not giving penalties on what is being said. These
behavioral characteristics associated with the receipt of unconditional positive you
have learned in client centred theory.
For example , guidance and counseling teachers should avoid punishing the
children who regularly miss school in the early stages of counseling sessions until
the client has explained the reasons behind his practice ;

iii. Give full attention


Ernest Hemmingway, a novelist said, When people talk, we must listen carefully.
Extremely rare to meet people who really listen to the fullest. During a
counselling sessions, children want guidance and counseling teachers not only to
listen, but do active listening, and be caring and sensitive to their concerns.

iv. Use silenc


Silence is an invaluable tool in counseling. Therefore, you should never interrupt
or intervene when a child is speaking. As the proverb says, silence is golden",
then the silence is especially noticeable counsellors gather information about the
situation being experienced by the children in counseling.

In general, active listening skills can be divided into two types, namely: basic skills
and advanced skills. Basic skills in order to understand the client, includes open-
ended questions, paraphrasing, reflection of feeling, minimum responses, ask for
clarification, formulate and revise perceptions. The advanced skills are used for
smooth running counseling sessions, and include the restructuring and eliciting.

5.7.4 Basic Listening Skills

There are seven small skills embodied in basic listening skills as listed above:

a. Open Questions

Open-ended questions are questions that can not be answered with a Yes or No", but
encourage children to describe what is talked.

Example: What you want to tell them?


How is the situation at home affect you?

b. Parafrase ( is also reflection of content)

Paraphrasing is used in counseling sessions last for a period of time. It aims to inform the
child that he is not only heard but understood what was said. In paraphrasing, use one or
two keywords the client and combine with other words of the same meaning. In addition,
the use of words such as: It seems, Is it possible... is an easy way at that can be
understood by the client.

Using this skill, the counsellor literally does not just parrot or repeat word for word what
the child has said but instead paraphrases it.This means that the counsellor picks out
the most important content details of what the child has said and re-expresses
them in a clearer way and in their own words rather than in the child's. It is important
to note that reflection does not necessarily occur during conversation with children but can
happen during the therapist's observation of the child in play. The following are some
examples of paraphrasing.

Example one
Child statement: 'My Mum and Dad are always working. My Dad leaves home a lot to go to work,
he goes to Cairns and all over the place. Mum is the boss where she works and
has to stay back sometimes and tell other people what to do.'
Counsellor response: 'Sounds like your Mum and Dad aren't around very much for you.'

Example two (child playing with miniature animals in the sand tray)

Child statement: 'Come on dinosaur, jump over the fence; it's nice over here. Come on,
watch me, look, come on Spiky, come over here, I'll help you, I'll come
back and get you, look.'

Counsellor response: 'Looks like your animal wants Spiky to come and join him.'

Example three (child playing in the doll's house, with the doll's family)

Child statement: ' I told you not to make that mess on that floor.You'd better clean it up.
You've put stuff all over the floor, you naughty boy.'
Counsellor response: 'That mother wants the little boy to clean up the mess.'

c. Reflecting feelings

These skills to convey the message to the child that guidance and counseling teachers not
only understand but empathize with his feelings. Reflecting feelings, means sensing
feelings of which the person may be scarcely aware. It means helping the person name
feelings and experiences that they have not yet put into words. It means letting them know
that you are truly entering into their world: This involves reflecting back to the child
information about emotional feelings that the child is experiencing. When a child is
involved in play, reflection of feelings can also be used in relation to emotional feelings,
which the child attributes to imaginary people, symbols or toy animals involved in the play.

Reflection of feelings is one of the key counselling skills because it raises the child's
awareness of feelings. It entourages the child to deal with significant emotional feelings
rather than to avoid them.

It is important for a counsellor to be clear about the difference between thoughts and
feelings and not confuse the two. If we were to ask you, the reader, to tell us the difference
between thoughts and feelings, what would you say? If we said,'We feel that caring people
make better counsellors' we would be expressing a thought; it would have been better if
we had said,'We think that caring people make better counsellors'.

Thoughts generally require a sentence to describe them, whereas feelings usually only
need one word. Feeling words such as the following describe an emotional state:
happy sad angry
confused disappointed surprised
despairing overwhelmed frightened
worried contented insecure
rejected betrayed helpless
responsible powerful
Source: Katryn Geldard.(2013) Counselling Children

Reflecting feelings should always be done tentatively owned as your own perceptions.
Be ready to accept that sometimes your perceptions will be inaccurate.

Example 2: :
Client: It has been often Maniam (a classmate) tarnish the name of my future classmates.
He accused me of copying the Maths answers and taking stationery without permission

(Reflection)

Counsellor: Maniams actions cause to be really angry?

If a counsellor is able to reflect the feelings of the child, the counseling sessions will be
smoother. The most important is to use words that conform to the feelings of children.

Hence, it is recommended that guidance and counseling teachers generate a list of words
that describe the childrens feelings like the following example:

Reflecting feelings involves making statements that include 'feeling' words, such as 'youre
sad,'You seem to be angry', or 'You look disappointed'. The following are some examples
of statements made by children with the appropriate reflection of feelings by the
counsellor.

Example one

Child statement: 'Every time I ask Mum if I can go to Aunty Karen's, she says "No".
Kelly's going this weekend, and it was my turn.'

Possible counsellor responses:'You're disappointed' or'You sound angry.' (The correct


response would depend on the context and on non-verbal cues.)

Example two (child's brother was killed in a car accident)

Child statement: 'My brother didn't even have his favourite dog with him when the car
was hit.'
Counsellor response: 'You're very sad' or 'You sound very sad.'

Example three (child is involved in imaginary pretend play)

Child statement:'Let's get out of here before they find out. Quick, they're coming.'
Counsellor Response: You sound scared.'

Example four (child is playing in the doll's house, with the doll's house family)

Child statement:'I told you not to make a mess on that floor. You'd better clean it up.
You've put stuff all over the floor, you naughty boy.'
Counsellor response: 'That mother sounds very angry.'

Frequently, children will try to avoid exploring their feelings because they want to avoid the
pain associated with strong emotions such as sadness, despair, anger and anxiety.
However, getting in touch with feelings usually means moving forward to feeling better
emotionally and then to being able to make sensible decisions.

Sometimes children will tell us directly how they are feeling. For example, a child might
say,'I'm very angry with my brother.' However, usually children will not tell us directly how
they are feeling emotionally, but instead will give non-verbal cues and will talk indirectly
about their situation.

If you, as a counsellor, attend closely to a child, your own feelings will begin to match
those of the child and it will become easier for you to identify what the child is feeling. With
practice, it is possible to notice feelings such as distress, sadness or anger from the
child's posture, facial expression, and movements and play behaviour.

Be aware that if you correctly reflect a child's feelings, then the child is likely to get more
fully in touch with those feelings. If the feeling is a painful one, the child may start to cry.
As a counsellor, sometimes difficult; certainly, it is important for counsellors to be able to
deal with the feelings generated in themselves by children's tears.

Reflecting back anger to a child can sometimes have a dramatic outcome. If the
counsellor reflects back the anger by saying,'You're angry' or perhaps 'You sound very
angry', then the child may respond by angrily snapping back,'I'm not angry', followed by a
period of acting out in the play room. If this happens, the counsellor may feel alarmed;
however, the child's reaction reflects their ability to express anger, which they did not wish
to own openly. The counsellor may then encourage the child to direct their anger more
appropriately through the use of media.

In summary, reflecting feelings allows the child to fully experience their emotions and to
feel better as a result of releasing these feelings. Once feelings have been released, the
child is then able to think more clearly and be able to consider constructive options and
choices about the future. Reflection of feelings is therefore one of the most important of
the counselling skills.

d. Minimum reponse

Minimal response are small signals that let the client know you are listening and
understanding words like uh-huh, yes, no, mmm, and little actions like nodding
that show you are engaged in listening. This will encourage the client to talk, with
minimum interruption or influence by the counsellor. Once the client begins to talk, the
listener uses well-placed responses that are unobtrusive enough to not interrupt the
speakers thoughts, but which encourage them to reveal more.

Minimal responses such as nods, non-words like mmm, and yes & no are usually
used while the client is speaking, with words and short phrases being used in-between
Using minimal response is a skill that requires you to listen actively and give your full
attention. Too few responses or using them formulaically dropping them in without
regard to what theclient is really saying is likely to discourage them from talking and wil
give the impression of not listening or not caring. Using them appropriately is likely to
encourage talking and help the client feel they are being listened to, heard and
understood.

e. Ask for Clarification

When the teacher guidance and counseling did not hear or understand what is talked
about children, he will ask for clarification. This situation occurs because the sound of
children that are too slow, or the language used is very difficult to understand. Guidance
and counseling teachers who do deliver the message to the child that he would really like
to understand what it is to be served.

Some example sentences / questions in the form of request for clarification is as follows:

"I do not understand. Could you explain? "

"Can you repeat what you described earlier? I am not clear.

f. Summarising

"Based on what you tell us in this session, I found that you seem dissatisfied with your
performance in the UPSR exam attempts. Dissatisfaction grows more serious as you fail
to meet the expectations of parents are quite high. They fully expect you to obtain
excellent performance in UPSR later. I understand your situation at the moment. issue do
you want to focus next ? Issues which is more critical and need to be sorted out? "

6. Checking perceptions

Checking out occurs when the counsellor is genuinely confused about his or her
perceptions of the client's verbal or nonverbal behaviour or when the counsellor has a
hunch that bears trying out. Examples are "I feel that you're upset with me. Can we talk
about that?" "Does it seem as if . . . ?" and "I have a hunch that this feeling is familiar to
you." The counsellor asks the client to confirm or correct the counselors perception or
understanding, in contrast to a clarifying request, which elicits a deeper, clearer
understanding. If the client continues to correct our reflections, then the key is to repeat
the clients exact words sincerely so that he feels joined. If then he still corrects our
reflection, he is really correcting himself and struggling with his own inner conflict that may
be part of a pattern of conflict with others that can be explored.

The client will then respond to the reflection by elaborating more, by correcting the
reflection, saying, No, that's not quite what I said. Whatever his response is, we can
respond by saying, Can you say a little more about that? after he has elaborated. We
can pretty well carry on an entire session with just reflections and invitations to say more.

"... I understand your situation at the moment. Which issue do you want
to focus on next? Or some other more critical issue and needs to be
sorted out first? "
For a better understanding of small skills contained in basic listening
skills, see Table 5.1

.
Interpreting Verbal Behaviour
Verbal

Effective verbal or spoken communication is dependant on a number of factors and

cannot be fully isolated from other important interpersonal skills such as non-verbal

communication, listening skills and clarification. Clarity of speech, remaining calm and

focused, being polite and following some basic rules of etiquette will all aid the process of

verbal communication

Non verbal

According to various researchers, body language is thought to account for between 50 to


70 percent of all communication. Understanding body language is important, but it is also
essential to remember to note other cues such as context and to look at signals as a
group rather than focusing on a single action. Learn more about some of the things to look
for when you are trying to interpret body language.

During counselling sessions, giving attention does not usually refer to oral
communication alone. Mehrabian (1971) showed the importance of
communication in percentage::

Verbal communication can be divided into several components; body style


(posture) , gestures , facial expressions , eye contact , and tone of voice .

1. Body style: It refers to how one is sitting, moving and walking. For example,
when someone just walk into a room without knocking the door (indicating or
seeking permission to enter) and heads for a chair and sits there! This usually
indicates a problem that is being faced on something bothering on his mind. As a
result the client is indecisive. So to encourage the client, the counsellor will have
to probe the client in safe way :

2. Gestures: According Ekman et. al. (1972), there are 76 motion cues commonly
used and can be understood. As councelors, it is important not to give much
attention to the gestures, but you should try to understand the meaning of the
signs highlighted. For example, a client sits in tense and clutching her body. This
gesture demonstrated that she is very angry. A smile shows interest, like being
kind, approval and sympathy, and shrivel shows anxiety or a sense disagreeing.

3. Eye contact: Important for counsellors to use eye contact with the aim of
showing he is listening and paying attention to the words of his clients. Clients
who triy to evade eye contact usually indicates he is trying to hide something from
the counsellor.

4. Tone of voice: According to Argyle (1983), a tone of voice has deep powerful
emotions that is usually indicatd by a highor low tone of voice. For example,
people who are feeling sad usually speak with a low voice and slowly ; worried
people usually speak fast.

All about the head, face and neck

Here's a list of all the body language signs you might want to take notice of.
They are within your field of vision when youre having a conversation:

General movement in facial muscles - involuntary or deliberate, for


example grimacing, twitching, smiling or frowning. Lifting or dropping of the
eyebrows may indicate surprise, questioning, wondering or disbelief.
Frowning - it can mean: discomfort, physical pain (why exactly at that
moment, you might ask yourself or indeed your partner), anger, suspicion or
listening intently

Smiling but notice which facial muscles are moving. Is it a real smile that
involves all the facial muscles? An artificial smile would involve only the
muscles around the mouth. It leaves no trace of any pleasure and it could
be an attempt to hide displeasure, disagreement and/or discomfort.

Nodding - this can mean all kinds of things. It could simply be an


encouragement for you to say more, or an agreement. It could also be
masking negative feelings, even though you might think it implies agreement.
It could even be an automatic movement - implying 'I am listening', but the
listener has really switched off.

Eye contact and movement of the eyes - avoiding your gaze at one end of
the scale and staring at the other. Both could mean the same: "I am
uncomfortable, but I don't want to let on". Looking away can be a way of
discouraging communication. Its well-known, though, that couples in love
maintain eye contact for longer than average. We all know about the lifting of
eyes to the ceiling too: "Oh for goodness sake" - usually with along with a bit
of 'tutting'

Winking which is sometimes hardly noticeable. Winking may simply be a


habit someone has developed to communicate comfort or kindness. It can
also mean "you and I know whats going on" or "I like you"

Size of the pupils - abnormally large may mean shock or absolute terror. It
can also be associated with medication or drug use

Neck youll see someone swallowing when they are anxious. What you
can't see is that its because their mouth is dry. When someone is feeling
uncomfortable they may stroke their neck to soothe themselves. Covering
the windpipe can be seen as a defensive movement, implying protection of
the self

Silence - as a counselling tool

Shostrom (1968) demonstrated that silence has various meanings. Studies shows being
silent provide a space for clients to think and make a reflection. For example, a student
who met counsellor for the first time, usually keep silent and then continue speaking. An
experienced counselo will wait for about a minute and then break the silence. This way the
counsellor projected empathy and will be detected by the client. This eventually
encourages the client to open up and discuss the problems they are facing.

It is important for the counselling personel to use the silence in sessions to allow clients
some soace for themselves to reflect. However, if the silence is too long, you may have to
break the silence. In the midst of silence, the counselor should practice empathy skills to
demonstrate the understanding of the clients distress feelings, as to encouge the client to
be stable in emotion and mind. This will help the client to be able disclose their inner
thoughts and feelings more freely.

It is important for counselors to assess what silence has a meaning to the client.
Sometimes, silence is to reflect the issues discussed at earlier time. At other times it may
indicated being scared, angry, tired, respect, grief or shame! To interpret the meaning of
this silence, it is better for the counselor to observe non-verbal communication.
Sometimes a counselor may his worries about the client situation seems like being
worried, feeling angry or sad. This might persuade the client to speak more. St times, it is
necessary to ensure the confidentiality of their communications with a counselor, to allow
them to feel safe to continue the conversation. Counsellors need to acknowledge clients
cilence, by doing so it breaks the client being shy. For example:

You find difficult to continue speaking because you lack confidence or do not believe me?
Or You dont want to speak because you are called to see me? Is this what you feel and
think? "

Responding Skills

1. Minimum response
2. Paraphrasing and reflection
3. ask for clarification
4. confrontation
Basic counseling skills like responding should be mastered by guidance and counselling
teachers. These skills require you to pay attention to the feelings and statements made
during a counseling session. When these skills are combined with the skills you've learned
before, the child will be motivated to continue sharing problems, and more self- disclosure.

How to Provide a Positive Response

Among the positive response guidance and counseling teachers to information provided
by the child include the following

Provide motivation;
Provide encouragement;
Challenging positively;
Give praise
nod your head and minimal encouragement such as " urn ... hmm ";
Ask questions like, "So, what will happen then? "
Apart from the above techniques, some of theorists who believe that confrontation,
interpret, and skills support is also included under the skills to respond.

Interpreting skills

For additional information, read the guidelines below on how to respond.

i. Give the reaction when requested by the child in question. This shows that he is
ready to accept any comments, criticism , etc.;

ii. Focus on the positive things and / or are in control areas set out from children. If
the guidance and counseling teachers had to focus on the negative, start with the
positive first. Make sure the child has a mental and emotional endurance to
accept and be able to change the characteristics of the negative behavior

Example:

"It seems that you have the characteristics of leadership. Yet, you also need to
give consideration to the idea of group members"

(iii) Provide specific responses and konkirt.

Example:

"I noticed you do not seem able to adapt to your classmates. " (Too general )
Until now, you have told me your opinion about your conflicts with the other four
members of the group to prepare a presentation. What exactly do you want?
(Specific)

iv) Not to be judgmental or evaluatative. Instead, give reinforcement to the client in order
to solve the problem.

Example:

While the record shows that you did not go to school for 30 days till March, but from April,
you just appeared for two days per month. Nizam, these is not a good practice".

(v) Check the client's reactions to the responses given by submitting the following
questions:

"Did I meet comment mean?"


What is your response you for ...
"Did you mean ...?

Supporting skills

Sometimes the guidance and counseling teachers found that children's problems may be
quite serious and not commensurate with the still young age . Children that need extra
help in the form of support in order to overcome the fear or resistance to counseling
services.

The following statements can be used to convey your support:

Yes, there is time, we certainly need the help of other people, although only up to talk to
someone who will listen without criticise us.

"It's an indication that our wisdom increases when we ask for help from others.

Ask for help from others really need the courage and strength of a person.

Counseling Services is to help children like you. Try to identify its effectiveness. "

Uncertainty in our lives sometimes cause anxiety and stress.

3 Requesting Clarification

Request for clarification will enable less information will be focused more sharply. These
skills can be used to explain keliruan but it should be used only when absolutely
necessary. If the skills are often used in love hearts, it will affect the smoothness of the
counseling relationship dalani dialogue.
When using clarification, the counselor has the client clarify vague or ambiguous thoughts,
feelings or behaviors by asking the client to restate what s/he has just said or by
stating to the client what the counselor has understood the client have said.

Clarification;

Can be either a paraphrase of the client's most recent statement or a question to


the client about the content of what has just been said.

it is a request for the client to make more clear what has already been said,
whereas a probe requests information that has not yet been stated.

Differentiated from a paraphrase by its purpose: to gain clarity about vague or


ambiguous material, whereas a simple paraphrase intends to communicate to the
speaker that the counselor is listening, has understood what has been just said,
and involves an invitation to continue speaking without interruption.

Client: "I and my sister always go together. He says I am being selfish and not willing to
help. "

Here, clients who say he, mother or sister, is not clear. So to ask for clarification,
counselors can ask by saying: Are you saying Mother or an older sister?

Sometimes, it is better to ask for clarification as counselor:

"I do not know say a can hear the akhiryang events occurring after your
parents back home. Could you repeat it once? , Or "Hey, you said to
feel confused on the teachers pay less attention to yoo. Does this mean
that all teachers? "

Question: Explain briefly the importance of clasrification skill to a counsellor.

4 Confrontation

Guidance and counseling teachers use confrontation when they detect there is a
mismatch between the speech, nonverbal communication exhibited and feelings
expressed by the student/ client.

The purpose of using confrontation is focused on the fact of what is said or done , which
draws attention to the discrepancy between what was said and what is shown in
nonverbal communication .

In counseling sessions, confrontation is not meant to challenge students negatively, or


threathen them! This type of reaction is used in conjunction with other skills like active
listening, and asking for an explanation; it smoothes the process of counseling. Hence in
the process of doing so, we obtain solutions or alternatives to the problems put forward.
Read the guidelines makes confrontation as follows:

1. Step 1:
Discuss with children the statement inconsistent, confusing issues, conflicts that are
not congruent.

2. Step 2 :
Childrens attention to things that are not compatible, then help them manage the
conflicts that arise until resolved.

3. Step 3 :
Identify the positive impact of confrontation that has been made on the growth of children.

4. For clarification, read the suction counseling sessions, and trying to understand how
guidance and counseling teachers make confrontation.

Exercise: Look up some examples for the above skills. Discuss with your lecturer.

Intervention skills

Under the context of counseling, intervention is a technique used in therapy sessions.


Thus, interventions are often applied to deal with severe personal problems, including
substance abuse, eating disorders, self-harm , abuse computer or watching television in
extreme activities , and especially mental and emotional disorders .

Interventions can be divided into intervention in langsungdan indirect intervention.


Intervention directly using individual or group counseling techniques, and indirect
interventions involving collaboration client families to encourage them to help client solving
the problem.

(a ) Summarising Skills

Summarising involves taking what someone has said over a prolonged period
and putting it in a nutshell a sentence or a few sentences that condense
what might have taken a few minutes or longer to say.

So if I can summarise what youve been telling me, youd like to have your
mum for Christmas, and would feel guilty if you dont ask her. On the other
hand your partner doesnt get on with her and you feel its unfair on him to ask
her to stay. You also realise that your brother never invites your mum to stay
with him and his family and you resent that youre usually the one who does
it.
Some therapists are fonder of summarising than others. Personally, I use it
sparingly, perhaps if the client has come with a lot of issues, and I want to be
sure Ive taken them all in.

Summarising at the end of a session carries the danger that it feels like youre putting
everything back in the box, before the client leaves. Much of the work of therapy is the
processing done in the 6 days 23 hours between sessions, so to encourage the client to
shut down, rather than leave still in touch with the feelings that he or she needs to work-
through can be unhelpful.

So, Summarising is different to paraphrase or reflection, though both elements may


be included in a summary. Summary gives structure to what has been said, and is usually
used to focus the important facts or conclusion by focusing on the key points that were
discussed.Summarising skills are highly dependent on the skills to interpret, especially the
use of reflective thinking skills. Features reflective thinking is involved in the solution of a
problem, critically and creatively, recollection -related experiences as well as an evaluation
of the possibilities of settlement. Figure 5.3 The following briefly describes the stages of
reflective thinking that occurs during the process of resolving a particular problem.

2 Paraphrasing (reflection of content)

Paraphrasing involves repeating whats said by putting it in your own words:


Client: Im having a tough time in my job
You: Things feel really difficult for you at work

Paraphrasing and summarising can be useful:


For letting the client know theyve been heard and understood.
To let the other person clarify without you directing them
For helping the client clarify to themselves whats going on
For helping the client find the words theyre looking for:
Client: I felt a bit cross.
You: You were angry.
Client: Yes, actually, I was angry.
Summarising can be used to review towards the end of sessions.

( c ) Decision Making Skills : suggesting solutions

Under the context of problem solving, reflection is a process of a person who strives to
remember and reflect on the problems that have thought or experienced, analyze and
evaluate its impact, including repair and planning to figure out how to modify it to be used
more effectively in the future.

Making the decision is the final stage in the process of problem solving . It is defined
as a technique or process of thinking skills and creative and reflective thinking to consider
the selection of the best of the possibilities of alternative solutions proposed in the
problem solving process. The main strategies used in the decision-making process is the
use of critical thinking skills and creativity, including reflective thinking through
graphical management yourself or brainstorming, to compare, analyze, evaluate and
predict the effects and consequences of each choice from a wide range of possible
troubleshooting solution, so choose only the best decision with the aim of achieving the
objectives of effective problem solving as well as perfect....

Extra reading materials


Practice Questions
Chapter References

Gibson, R.L. & Mitchell, M.H. (1995). Introduction to counseling and guidance (4th ed.). Englewood Clifs,
NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Mehrabian, A. (1972). Nonverbal communication.Chicago: Aldine-Atherton.

Nystul, M.S. (2003). Introduction to counseling: An art and science perspective (2 nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and
Bacon.

Thompson, C.L., Rudolph, L.B. & Henderson, D.A. (2004). Counseling children (6th ed.). USA: Brooks/Cole-
Thomson Learning.

Wagner, W.G. (2003). Counseling, psychology, and children: A multidimensional approach to intervention.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Internet

Active listening. Downloaded on 13 Nov 2013 at http://www.state .goV/m/a/os/65759.htm

An analysis of counselling/counselling skills as a therapeutic intervention. Downloaded on 13 Nov 2013 at


http:// ivythesis.tvpepad.com/term paper topics/2009/07/an-analysisof-counsellingcounselling-skills-as-a-
therapeutic-intervention. html#ixzz 15FFdAcje

Attending skills. Downloaded on 13 Nov 2013 at http://www.thecounsellorsguide.co.uk/attending-skills.html

Basic counseling skills. Downloaded on 13 Nov 2013 at www.Dsvch.umn.edu/courses/.../basic%20counseling


%20 skills.pdf

Counseling and psychotherapy: Commonly used counselor skills in therapy sessions. Downloaded on 13 Nov
2013 at http ://w ww. suite 101 .com/content/counseling-and-psychotherapv-a171602#ixzz 15FCfEDu A

How to identify, assist and refer students with personal problems and/or disruptive behavior. Downloaded on
13 Nov 2013 at http://pc.brooklyn.cunv.edu/FACRFRL.HTM

Listening and responding skills course manual. Dimuat turun pada November 3,2010 daripada
www.securethefuture.com/publications/ listening.pdf

Responding and reflective skills. Downloaded on 13 Nov 2013 at


http://www.thecounsellorsguide.co.uk/responding-reflective-skills.html

Responding skills. Downloaded on 13 Nov 2013 at http:// ivythesis.tvpepad.com/term paper topics/2009/07/


an-analysisof-counsellingcounselling-skills-as-a-therapeutic-intervention. html#ixzz 15FDEJW55

What is nonverbal communication? Downloaded on 13 Nov 2013 at http://www.soapboxorations.com/


donnellking/nvcom.htm

Glossary
Chapter 6

Intervention in Counselling for children

At the end of the lessons of this chapter, students will be able to:
describe the concept, types and characteristics of play in child counseling
interventions;
describes the implementation steps play therapy;
describe the concept, types and features stories, painting, music, and determine
implementation measures storytelling therapy, art and music, respectively;
describe the concept of context Biblio under child counseling interventions, and lists
the implementation steps Biblio therapy, and
Master the skills to integrate various therapeutic interventions to implement effectively.

Introduction: The concept of Intervention

Intervention is a technique used in therapy sessions. Thus, interventions are often applied
to deal with the excessive socio-emotional, physical issues, and emotional disorders.

Types of Intervention

Interventions divided into direct and indirect intervention. Direct intervention use individual
or group counselling techniques. Indirect interventions will involve the cooperation to
promote their client families to help the clients resolve the problems encountered.

Types of counselling interventions

At present, there are several types of therapies used in the intervention kaunseling
childhood.

1. Play Therapy

From birth, play a major aktiviti in the development of childhood fizikal aspects,
intellectual, social and emotional.

Definition of Play Therapy


(A) The Association of Play Therapy mentakrifkan play therapy as the systematic use of
models tereotikal to form interpersonal process. This is done when playing a trained
therapist uses the therapeutic power of play to help clients prevent or resolve
psychosocial problems and achieve optimum growth and development.

(B) According to Carmichael (2006), play therapy is a structured approach to therapy and
theoretical berasaskan normal communication and learning processes of childhood.

The therapist uses play therapy to help a child by getting them to express their feelings
and emotions through non-verbal language. In play therapy, toys and objects becomes a
child language. Through play, the therapist (or a counsellor) can help the child learn
positive behavior when they experience the emotional-social skills deficits. It is important
to build a positive relationship between therapists and the child to elicit the experience of
positive emotions that are need for recovery. In addition, play therapy may also be used
for developing childrens cognitive aspects and contribute to the depth of perception to
resolve conflicts within a childs negative thoughts.

Usefulness of Play Therapy

According to Carmichael (2006), play therapy is especially suitable for a child aged 3 to 12
years. However, play therapy has now expanded to teenagers and adults as well.

Play therapy is used as a basis for various mental interventions, such as processing
anger, grief, trauma, modification of behavioral disturbances, such as indecision,
depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, cognitive development,
social and unfavorable physical issues , through learning and behavior problems.

Play therapy is often used as a tool for diagnosis. For example, a client noticed play
therapist play with toy objects to determine behavior disorders.

According to the psychodynamic view, a child who involve themselves in the main
obstacle to deal with uncertainties and depth. In this way, play therapy may be used as a
self-help mechanism, for a child there is structured play but it should be free play.

Play Therapy Approach


An approach to treatment through the use of play therapy is the process of systematically
desensitizasi or original learning to change behavior disorder of childhood.

Often, after a child runs using its own means of solving problems, they face problems.
Then the therapist uses play to assess or understand the child and tries to apply play
therapy to help them. The counsellor tries recognize mental disorders and their problem
solving techniques.

Benefits of a Play Therapy

Play therapy brings many benefits to children who face mental disorders. He has helped a
child:

Become more responsible and establish more memorable strategy.


Build new and creative settlement to the problem.
Cultivate respect and self acceptance, and others.
Learning experience and emotions are expressed.
Cultivate empathy and respect the thoughts and feelings of others.
Learning new social skills and relational skills with family.
Establish self efficacy and increase confidence.

Concept of play therapy

Play therapy is one-dimensional models in various conceptualization based on the


following concepts:

i. through play, a child better understand the world;


ii. The process is repeated along the developmental continuum shuttle ; during
therapy the child is given the the opportunity to meet and explore their identity

iii. The child via the elements of symbolic play gives them the opportunity to assess
and test their imaginative options

Story telling

Key Concepts

The theorists assume storytelling is an effective way to build rapo and recognize children
with more friendly. When they presented their stories, the children share important
information about themselves and their families, as well as to express the pent. As a
result, guidance and counseling teachers to better understand children's conflicts and their
family dynamics.

Through the theme that manifests or repeated during the analysis of children's stories, the
guidance and counseling teachers to understand their feelings and struggles closer.
Storytelling as a Therapy

As the moral values contained in the story, and the children had the intrinsic motivation of
love to listen to stories, storytelling therapy is a most effective approach to counseling
Children who have behavioral problems. Through storytelling embodied moral values
related, children can learn how nienyebabkan problem, as used by the main character.

Use for Therapeutic Stories

1. The story reflects the inner emotional ups

Stories include emotional experience. They provide children with the necessary words to
express feelings and a context to help them understand those feelings. Thus, by listening
to stories, children are becoming more confident, creative and vibrant when facing
everyday problems.

2. listening to provide experience before

Effective storytelling techniques or involve whole mind, the senses and the emotions of
listeners, lifelike often with the story world. As a result, listeners are better prepared to
face similar situations in life.

3. The story teaches creative problem solving

Typically, the story contains a problem or conflict to be resolved. The story brings the
listener to appreciate every step to resolve the problem or conflict. In this way, the story
teaches creative, resourceful and perseverance.

4. The story shows the action and akihat

The story gives examples of failures and successes, sorrow and joy. They reflect the
character of the consequences of each decision, whether positive or negative. This
provides guidance to the children to make positive decisions in the future.

5. The story reflects the universality of the human condition

Through structured emotional events, emotional story to the listener's perception and
experience, and reminds listeners even though there are differences between each other,
all men face the same obstacles of life.

Helen Keller, in "The Story of My Life'' wrote: listening to stories is the most easy and
natural for children to master the language that allows them to organize, structure,
manipulate, think and perceive the world in a rational manner.

Use Stories to Children's Therapy


1. Having problems with more confidence
2. Better prepared to face future
3. Taught by creative, intelligent and perseverance
4. Gaining experience obstacles
5. Think and perceive the world in a rational

Storytelling Therapy Techniques

The goal of storytelling therapy allows children who suffer from traumatic experiences
recounted processing experience. This is in order to learn the nature of belief and the
feeling of security with the use of modeling or imitation prose. However, the aim of this talk
therapy can only be achieved under the condition of no defensive or awareness of
children that the stories presented are related to the character of the child itself. Children
who perceive the main character for overcoming similar obstacles would encourage the
belief that success can be achieved and positive change is realistic. Therefore, effective
storytelling therapy techniques are:

1. Should be sensitive: Experienced therapists will use a technique that story is not like
a situation similar to that experienced by the client. In this regard, it is good to use
animals as the main character or characters change gender, such as female to male
self.

2. Get creative: The story must be presented creatively and with passion and feeling
that attracts the attention of the child to hear. In this regard, use an impassioned tone
when delivering stories to arouse appreciation of children: preferably use the statues
and pictures of the support storytelling.

3. Must be positive: Always end the story with a positive and successful event
addressing similar character facing children.

4. Encourage their children the story: After hearing the story, children are encouraged
to theme their similar story is told by his therapist. Their purpose is to add to this story
where the children/ students have the confidence to solve their own problems.

Guiding Principles for Storytelling Skills Mastery

To master storytelling skills, teachers must understand and adhere to the following guiding
principles:

a. The teacher should choose a story that fits with their interests, abilities, ages and
experience of students and the objectives of the lesson.

b. Prior to starting a storytelling session, teachers have to memorize the contents of


the material contained in the story.
c. Teaching aids such as word cards, picture cards, statues or masks that can attract
the interest and attention of students should be prepared before the session
started telling stories. Questions for follow-up activities should also be included.

d. Prior to commencing storytelling, make sure all students were ready to hear the
story.

e. Teachers can sit or stand during the story, as long as all students can clearly see
the teacher's face and expression.

f. Start the story with an interesting voice and with great emotion.

g. Opinion of the students continue to face alternately. This highly effective way to
engage students in the focus of the stories presented.

h. Ensure clear and loud voice teacher. Stimulus variation skill should be used for
varying the tone and intonation of teachers according to the characters and story
content.

i. the word cards and pictures should be used to help students understand the story
more clearly.

j. During the storytelling session, the teacher can ask questions to encourage
students to predict the development of ceiita sehnjutnya. This way not only to
attract the attention of the students but also to the expansion of their imagination.

k. Make sure that the words and phrases used to tell a story can be understood by
the pupils. The purpose of storytelling is to deliver its content and not teach
difficult words.

l. Fill in the story should be presented to the student with the movements naturally.
Activities acting teacher should be avoided.

m. After the story, follow-up activities should be conducted, for example, a question
and answer activity about the theme and the moral contained in the story.
Teachers can also provide masks available to students to undertake acting.

Storytelling : Planning and Management

Storytelling activity usually consists of three main stages, namely planning and
preparation, storytelling and cover. In the planning and preparation, teachers select
appropriate stories, memorize the important content and providing relevant teaching aids.
During storytelling, teachers begin by introducing the title story, then use storytelling
techniques and deliver content with an attractive voice. Level cap is used for follow-up
activities, such as discussion of the theme of the story and the moral contained in the
story.
Planning and Preparation

In the first stage, the teacher began selecting the appropriate title of the story.

The theme of the story should contain pure moral values. Fill out the story to be interesting
and the words used should be appropriate to the student experience. Long-short story
should be commensurate with the provisions of the storytelling.

After the story is selected, the teacher should try to memorize and practice on their own
without telling listeners, at least once. In addition, teachers need to provide teaching aids
such as word cards, picture cards or masks to be used for the students to act after the
talks. Several questions must be prepared to test the understanding of students after the
storytelling.

Before starting to tell a story, the teacher must organize student seating to ensure that
every student can hear and see the expression of the teacher. Place of storytelling should
be adorned with musical instruments like the pictures correspond to the content of the
story to bring students into situas-like nature of the story.

Storytelling Session

The planning starts with an interesting set of induction and nothing to do with the story that
is to be served. Teachers can use the voice, style and teaching aids that will attract the
attention and help students to understand the content of the stories presented. Make sure
each student has full attention when the teacher talks. Teachers can engage students in a
storytelling session by using the questions to guide them in the development of the story
from the beginning until the closing stages.

Ending the story

The purpose of the ending storytelling help students strengthen their moral values
embedded in the body of the story. There are many activities that can be used in the
closing session of this story. Among them are:

a. Questioning students about the content of the stories presented.

b. Asking the students to repeat the substance of the story in their own
words.

c. Talk to the students about the values in the story.

d. Guiding students to act based on the content of the stories presented.


e. Asking students to write essays based on the contents of the story heard

ART THERAPY

As we all know, art therapy began in the prehistoric era in which humans have drawn on
cave walls to express their ideas. Visual art forms that are commonly used include
drawing, area, and crafts.

Based on the above, art therapy can be defined as a form of expressive therapy that uses
color media, chalk, pencils and markers, integrated with theory and techniques
psikoterapeutik creative process, especially the use of various art materials affektif
components to diagnose the cause of the problems faced by its clients. In other words, art
therapists use drawing and other art processes for diagnosing and treating clients who
have a mental disorder, cognitive, physical, and development potential. Based skills
assessment and psychotherapy, art therapists choose materials and interventions artistic
needs of clients and their therapy sessions to achieve the therapeutic goals and
objectives.

Art therapy operates under the belief in the creative process of painting can contain
therapeutic effect of treating individuals who have a mental disorder. It is an approach to
psychotherapy that emphasizes the art of painting and other artistic expression as an aid
in communication issues, emotions and conflicts. Art image becomes significant in
enhancing the effectiveness of verbal exchange between therapist and client to solve
problems, create new perceptions, which in turn bring about positive change, growth and
recovery. View through the integration of art therapy art therapy with psychotherapy,
drawing can be a healing process and that art products produced communication of
relevant information is essential for therapy.

Figure 6.1 below illustrates the emotional joy, fear, sadness and anger from children's
drawings.

PURPOSE OF ART THERAPY

The main purpose of art therapy is similar to other therapeutic modalities, namely:
improving and maintaining mental health of individuals.

In addition, art therapist helps the client to identify the true thoughts and feelings through
his paintings that not only allows the client to obtain the perception and evaluation of his
behavior, but also get a more accurate understanding of the self and how the interaction
with the surroundings.

According to Malchiodi (2006): the process of drawing can be perceived as an opportunity


for self-expression in the imaginative, authentic and spontaneous, an experience within
leading emotional healing, transformation and self-actualization. The creative process is
intended to bring about health improvement and development experience.

Key Concepts

The main concept of art therapy include the following:

1. Art is regarded as the sublimation of which will not be aware of the children fulfilled;
2. Have a visual symbol like painting that can be used as a diagnostic tool;

3. Encourage expression of positive and negative thoughts about themselves, their


families and the world;

4. Produce uniqueness, and creativity of children.

Procedures and Results

The origins of art therapy typically associated with Freud's theory of psychoanalysis.
Lately, this very popular type of therapy used by guidance and counseling teachers
oriented Gestalt theory, behavioral, and cognitive.

Art therapy is used in conjunction with cognitive theory is very important in the
development and assessment of cognitive processes. For example, Silver (in Nystul,
2003) describes how the concept can be developed through a sequence of drawings.
Jung (in Nystul, 2003) explains how color can be attributed to the perception and
judgment: the yellow color associated with intuition; red with passion; sensation green,
and blue with reflection. Meanwhile, Kenny (in Nystul, 2002) argues that the choice of
color is closely related to the emotional state of a person; black and gray represent
depression, while white signifies emotional rigidity.

By custom, the three types of drawings used in art therapy, namely:

(I) self-portraits;
(Ii) Free or spontaneous painting, and
(Iii) Drawing families.
Preparing to implement Art Therapy

Just as play therapy, counseling and guidance teachers who wish to use art therapy as an
intervention in counseling children need to make preparations such as choosing a basic
art materials.

Selecting Art Materials

Ideally, art therapy should be performed in a special room with a sink dibeklakan, aprons,
trusses, and tables are easy to clean. In addition, materials or media art needed is
supplied including:

Crayons (various colors and sizes);


Finger paint (green, blue, yellow, purple, black and brown;
marker pens (various colors and sizes);
tempura paint (various colors);
Clay;
Play Dough; (discussed IN Detailed)
Paper (various sizes and types such as paper tears, drawing paper);
Scissors;
Glue, and so on.

How to interpret childs art


According to most of the theorist, the interpretation of the works of art therapy involves the
following:
Media selection of children's art;
The creative process is traversed to produce a work of art in question;
The nature and content of the timely results.

Table 6.2 below contains guidelines for interpreting the artwork of children. As a reminder,
the interpretation outlined a generalization only, and can not be fully utilized due to the
uniqueness of the child element.

For additional information, it is recommended that you visit a particular website to read
more about how to interpret works of art therapy in children

Table A guide to interpret clients art


Dimensi Art Interpretation
Type
Size and the Small or very small inadequate and or not safe
location items/objects located in a small
corner of the drawing paper.
Darkened Dark face Sadness
areas Sun is black Feeling shy due pimples etc
dark Blue Serene/ peaceful;
Colours Yellow Loving/ happiness
RED Anger, energetic
full view with love Loving
Tersingkir akibat kasih
My dear mother, mother hates me,
sayang dan kemesraan ibu
Content etc
yang tidak konsisten.
Tools like hammer, knives, and so
Anger or agresif but timid
on

Download article on interpreting children artwork.


www.gwinnett.k12.ga.us/.../InterpretingChildren'sHumanFigureDrawings

http://www.childrenyouthaspeacebuilders.ca/pdfs/interpreting-
art.pdf
Drawing a tree can reveal a personality at
http://voices.yahoo.com/what-drawing-tree-reveal-personality-
11391486.html?cat=72

MUSIC THERAPY

Music therapy is considered as one of the oldest art forms that are used to treat patients.
In ancient times, songs and chants used by primitive people to get the help of God. Music
therapy helps in a healthcare profession that uses music to keep the needs of the
individual physical, emotional cognitive, and social.

By the definition of the American Music Therapy Association, music therapy is the clinical
music interventions to accomplish individual goals under DONE therapeutic relationship
by a therapist who has been trained and successful in the music therapy program
acknowledged.

Music therapy is a therapeutic intervention in the form of non-verbal communication which


is best suited for individuals who applied to communication problems and found it difficult
to express his feelings verbally. Thus, music therapy interventions can be used to:
Manage stress
Restoring health
Mengekspres feeling
Improve memory
Improve communication
Encourage physical rehabilitation

But those who benefit from music therapy is that children, adolescents, adults, and elderly
people who have mental disorders and learning problems, Alzheimer's disease, abuse
problems, brain injuries, chronic pain, physical disability, including maternity.

The role of therapists assess emotional health, physical and social functioning,
communication abilities and cognitive skills through musical responses, planning music
sessions for individuals and groups based on client needs using music improvisation,
music listening with an open heart to write a song, lyric discussion, music and imagery,
muzil performance and learning through music, treatment planning, evaluation of on-
going, dti action.

Key Concepts
Music therapy has the following key concepts:
In intrinsic, music is part of our culture;
Music can give children a chance to get to know their thoughts and feelings are
hidden;
Music has a basic structure such as rhythm, melody, pitch, and tempo can restructure
the thinking of children who not congruent

Music Therapy with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)


Autism, a complex mental disorders due to genetic factors, maternity, home environment
and climate problems of parents, or disruption of brain growth. Autistic spectrum disorders
include problems such as social behavior like being alone, passive, active but odd than
formal, stilted and awkward. Most communication problems such as speech problems,
including verbal comprehension. Music therapy is the most effective intervention for
children with autism. Alvin (1992), using the power of music to penetrate and raise
consciousness and awareness responses of autistic children, with the aim of not only
musical message received, but also to help them respond. Jemikian way, music can play
a two-way communication.

Brown (1994) describes music therapy as a therapeutic tool is very useful for people with
autism. According to him, the elements of music can be used to establish social relations,
and it sounds like the tone (pitch), rhythm and tempo (rhythm) can diinterprestasi by
therapists as a useful emotional communication. The Franco (2002) wrote an Autism
various aspects of communication that uses music to reflect his emotions in the vocals.
Recently, music therapy integrated approach to storytelling as a therapeutic
approach to childhood interventions Autism. Based on the study Brownnell (2002),
adapted social stories in music therapy to help autistic children understand social
situations or events, and this raises the spirit to strive to learn social skills formally.

In children's services, music therapy is used at present as a diagnostic tool in the field of
autism. Wigram and De Backer (2002) concluded: Music therapy can play a significant
role in the evaluation of children who have communication disorders, because of its non-
verbal and music is the medium used in communication systems praverbal.

Basic Criteria for Treatment using Music Therapy


Toigo (1992) suggest three criteria based, primary care for an autistic person. Among
them are:
1. There should be an overall picture of the structure of music with his session.
2. Intervention music should reflect the physical movement, tone, or emotional voice
quality in order to bring acceptance and understanding of Autism.
3. Music therapy should be integrated with sensory integration theory, effective
because music brings an appropriate auditory stimulation, proprioceptive, tactile
and vestibular for autistic people.

Procedures and Results


As we all know, the music therapist uses music and experience the therapeutic
relationship to enhance the well-being of children. Experience music refers to a variety of
activities, including modifying, performing, composing, and listening to songs.

Fleshman and Fryrear (in Nystul, 2003) says that music therapy consists of four activities:
i. Experience-oriented recreation and entertainment to foster the process of
socialization;
ii. therapeutic group listen to enhance group cohesion;
iii. Activities that are similar to psychotherapy aimed at stimulating the emotions,
stimulate discussion, fostering self-understanding, and enhancing social
relationships;
iv. Music therapy in individual and group leading to client problems, such as
requesting client duet to nurture cooperation.

General strategy for Music Therapy


1. Structure refers pictorial timetable shows that attract the attention of the client to
attend therapy sessions with the right music.
2. Therapeutic relationship: Requirements mengkomprehen therapist and predict
the development of interpersonal relationships with clients, and ensure a
consistent means of communication in all therapy sessions.
3. Music Interaction: Interaction music can be started with existing music or
transformer. Information therapists should include skills development, praverbal
interaction, such as a period of time, interaction through eye contact, including
session initiation techniques. Most importantly, the therapist must master the skills
retention musical interaction that his client would not withdraw before the last
therapy session is completed.
4. Emotional Control: The therapist uses music appropriate framework to regulate
the child's emotional Autism when he let go of emotions that are not normal
5. Sensory Integration: For Autistic clients who are having problems with the
processing of sensory information, the therapist hams integration with other
suitable approach to reduce behaviors that hinder their ability to focus and
communicate with others.

The process of planning and implementation of Music Therapy


Client consent to treatment plans and interventions ethics.

Arranging for clients attending the therapy room to inspect its facilities
available.
Organize the evaluation period to determine the strategy and structure of
therapy sessions.
Record the details of all the activities undertaken each therapy session,
including feelings and thoughts of the therapist.
Reflection or action of therapies held after each session(to prepare intervention
techniques to modify and improve in the next session)
Telling the client and guardian about the plans and subsequent treatment
sessions.
Therapy session with the appropriate technique and allow sufficient time for the
client to understand.

Biblioterapy

Bibliotherapy can be defined as the use of books to help people solve problems. A more
precise definition is as a technique to structure bibliotherapy interaction between the
therapist and client, facilitator and participant based on mutual partnership with the idea of
literature being read. This concept is applied in practice treatment, particularly after World
War II as many wounded soldiers do reading sessions during the recovery period. Read
considers military personnel can help faster recovery.

Actually, the idea of recovery through reading is not something new. This idea can be
traced from the time of the Greeks established the first library for more than 2000 years
ago.

Biblioterapy Ideas include reading material selection for a client who has relevant
experience with a situation that is written therein. It starts from the human tendency to
identify with others through expression in literature and art. For example, a child who is
upset when read (or read) stories of other children who lost their mother will feel less
lonely in his world. In this regard, bibliotherapy include storytelling therapy approaches
that have been discussed in more detail in the beginning of this chapter.

Key Concepts
Fleshman and Fryrear (in Nystul, 2003) argues that the concept of counseling
bibliotherapy derived from the theory of Freudian psychoanalysis, as follows:

Elements of universality. Clients will be able to minimize feelings of guilt, shame


and isolation if they find someone who will listen to the problems of life;
Identification. Clients can identify with a character in a book to be role models in
terms of attitudes and values;
Catharsis. Clients have the opportunity to make a self-disclosure and catharsis
(expression of feelings without limitation), then see how the characters will solve
the problem;
Insight. Clients acquire insight after reading and comparison to alternative
solutions are used by characters.
Troubleshooting. This will take time to achieve and occurs gradually as the child
will try alternatives until they successfully complete solution of the problem being
faced.

Goals when using books and stories

There are a number of goals that can be achieved by using books and stories. These
Include general goals, goals specific to the use of story books, goals specific to creating
Stories, and goals when using books for educational purposes.

General goals when using story books or when creating stories


To help the child to recognize their own anxiety or distress by identifying with
characters or situations in a story.
To help a child to discover themes and related emotions which recur in their life
from time to time. For example, the child may discover that they have a fear of
being left alone, a fear of betrayal or excessive feelings of responsibility for others.
By becoming aware of such feelings, the child can deal with them and move
towards a resolution of related issues.

To help a child to think about and explore alternative solutions to problems.This


goal can be achieved by changing stories so that they have different outcomes.

Goals specific to the use of story books

To help a child to normalize events in their life by letting them know that others
have had similar experiences.This goal can be achieved by reading stories which
have themes similar to their own experiences.
To help reduce stigma related to socially unacceptable experiences. Children who
have experienced sexual abuse or domestic violence feel better about themselves
when they know that other children have been through similar experiences and
have had similar feelings. They can discover this by reading stories about other
children having similar experiences.

To help the child to recognize that some events are unavoidable. For example, a
child who has become ill and has to go to hospital may be helped by reading a
book about another child going to hospital and may thus identify with some of that
child's fears and hopes.

Goal specific to creating stories

To help a child to express wishes, hopes and fantasies. This is particularly useful
for children who are experiencing painful life situations and are telling untrue
stories to avoid the pain of facing reality. For example, a child who has no parents
might be ashamed of being different from their friends and might find it too painful
to tell them the truth. Consequently, they might tell their friends that their parents
are famous people who are working overseas. By using storytelling, the counsellor
is able to help the child to recognize that their stories are not true, but may be
expressions of wishes.

Goal when using books for educational purposes

To help educate children in appropriate beliefs and behaviours. Books commonly


used in this way are those related to protective behaviours, anger management and
social skills.

Materials needed when working with books and stories

We make use of a variety of story books which cover different themes and situations,
including the following:
Making friends
Families
Rejection
Magic
Monsters
Fairytales
Fables.

We also have story books which are useful for helping children to identify and own their
feelings. For example, we have books on cheating, bullying and temper tantiums.
Additionally, we have a collection of books which we use for educational purposes on
topics such as:

The development of skills which reflect self-esteem issues


Sexual abuse
Protective behaviours

Type of Books Used in Counseling Bibliotherapy


In implementing bibliotherapy counseling as an intervention in counseling, pernulisan
materials that can be used can be classified into several categories of personnel, namely:
a short story (fiction), biographies (non-fiction), fairy tales, picture books, and self-help
books. Also includes autobiography, biography, and personal diaries.

Short story
The stories describe the conflict-specific inclusions and was a concern that arises is the
best option of all. When children read or hear the story, they would be associating
themselves with the characters in the story, and be empathetic to the situation last bitter
character. Next, children will better understand and deal with their own conflicts.

Biography
Some biography tells how the children are being adopted to address the problems they
face, or take care of siblings as typical children. If biography is read corresponds to the
situation of children are concerned, he will be able to learn how the characters in the story
of resolving conflicts, difficulties and so on.

Self-Help Books
In recent years, the books self-help special children already in the market. The scope of
these books are quite extensive - motivation, effective communication skills, decision
making skills, social skills, and so on. It is therefore vital for guidance and counseling
teachers acquire these books for your use and reference in the future.

Fairy tales
Fable was well loved by the children to be able to serve their fantasy world. In addition,
stories like this also tells us about the ways to solve the problems of life based on their
imagination.
Picture Books
By custom, the child was very fond of a little picture book that contains the words but the
pictures are colorful and clear. Most of this book reflect the thoughts and feelings of
children. As this book based on their experience, it is easy for children to identify with the
character in question, thus interpreting the message.

Just like other creative art therapy, counseling bibliotherapy can be used as a stepping
stone in group counseling where children can be used as a general discussion. In the
following sessions, discussion group members may be more specific to a member in need
of further study.

Implementation
Bibliotherapy involves reading only, or complemented with discussions or play activities.
Children who struggle with mental disorders are asked to draw a scene, after which
identifies the character that has similar features.

Reasons for Intervention Bibliotherapy


1. To foster a positive self-concept of the individual.
2. To improve the understanding of human behavior and motivation.
3. to foster individual self-assessment and reflection in good faith.
4. Arouse interest in individuals with events occurring around.
5. To relieve emotional or mental stress.
6. Show the individual that is not his only or the first to face the problem.
7. To show the individual that there is more than one solution into a problem.
8. Helping individuals are happy to discuss the problem.
9. Helping individuals to plan constructive action to solve the problems they face.

What is the nature of students who need to be treated with therapy Biblio?
Implementation Procedures Bibliotherapy? Whether therapists choose individual or group
approach, the basic procedure is the same bibliotherapy implementation as follows:

1. Starting therapy sessions with individuals motivated to participate in the activities of


identification.
2. Is there enough time to read the relevant material?
3. Allowing time of reflection and evaluation.
4. Provide follow-up time for discussion facilitation techniques to guide the client or
group of clients remember all the content is read by the application, analysis,
synthesis, interpretation and evaluation.
5. Implementation of assessment and direct the individual to cover that covers
assessment and self-assessment of individual therapists.

How to use books and stories

Storytelling is an interactive process between the child and the counsellor. Usually, children don't
like writing in counselling sessions. Many of the children who come to speak to counsellors could
have previously had unsuccessful experiences when attempting to be creative by writing stories.
Because of this, we try to make story writing an easy, enjoyable and positive creative experience.
Usually, as a child develops a story, we write the story down using a felt pen and a large sheet of
paper. Sometimes we also use a tape recorder to record the story.

Children generally need some modelling by the counsellor before they fully understand the
process of story making. We usually begin by saying to the olhild, 'Today we are going to be telling
stories to each other', and 'I will begin, and sometimes I might stop, and when I stop, I would like
you to fill in the gaps.' This allows the counsellor to choose a theme and to encourage the child to
explore pertinent issues for themselves.

The counsellor can then continue by saying, 'The story will have a beginning, a middle, and an
end', and 'I will begin. Once upon a time there was a prince and this prince liked

The counsellor can then stop in mid-sentence and invite the child to say what it was that the prince
liked. The child might respond by saying 'to ride his horse in die country'.The counsellor could then
continue 'As he rode around the countryside, be realized that

Once again the counsellor can stop in mid-sentence so that the child fills in the next part of the story.
The storytelling can continue in this way until there is an outcome or an end.

When the story is complete (it has usually been taped) we like to play it back and to ask the child to
identify with any character in the story by asking,'Who would you like to be the most in this story?'

The child can be further encouraged to explore their own behaviour if we ask,'If you were a prince,
would you have done the same as him or something different?' and 'What would you have done?'

Finally, the counsellor can then thank the child for the story they have told.

An alternative is to encourage a child to tell stories about a picture they see. The counsellor might
present the child with a picture from a magazine, or a photograph, and ask the child to tell a story
about the people, animals or objects in it. It is useful, once again, to remind the child that stories
have a beginning, a middle and an end. However, these stories can be short and brief.

For children who find it difficult to make up stories, it is better to use story books, fairytales or fables
initially.This can help to familiarize the child with the way in which stories develop and can help them
to recognize the way in which stories can relate to their own personal experiences.
The classic fairytales and fables such as Little Red Riding Hood, The Three Little Pigs and
Hansel and Gretel, ( in Malaysian context, we use local stories that are suitable) although very
dated, can sometimes be useful. Caution is needed though in using such stories as they may be
troubling for some children. However, when they are deemed suitable they encourage the child to
work projectively in the first instance and then to talk directly about themselves, their family and
significant others.

The tale of Little Red Riding Hood can be very useful when used with some children because it
raises issues of disempowerment, fleeing, helplessness and rescue. We might read the story to the
child and then invite them to identify with one of the characters. After this, we might invite the child to
think of alternative solutions to different situations in the story. For example, after reading Little Red
Riding Hood, if the child identified with Grandma we might ask, 'How could Grandma have been
more powerful so she could have outwitted the wolf and not have been pushed into the cupboard?'

We might then encourage the child to think of several different alternatives by asking, 'What else
could Grandma have done when the wolf tried to push her into the cupboard?' and 'If you had been
Grandma, what would you have done?'We might then be able to affirm the child's bravery, courage
and resourcefulness.

Story books written around topics such as domestic violence or sexual abuse can be used to help a
child to understand that other children have similar experiences.This enables a child to feel the
same as some other children and to feel less of a victim. Such stories allow the child to identify with,
or to reject, similarities between themselves and characters in the story. They may also invite the
child to disclose more information about their own experiences.

We often use books as a way of educating children with regard to important beliefs and
behaviours. Books can be used to address a wide range of issues such as protective behaviours,
stranger danger, secrets and inappropriate touching. They can be used by the counsellor to help the
child to explore choices and options about future behaviour. For example, a book might encourage a
child to say 'No' to a stranger. The counsellor can then check out whether the child believes that
they have the ability to say'No', and can help the child to practise saying'No' in a loud voice. The
child and the counsellor can then engage in role plays that teach appropriate behaviours.

When using books for educational purposes, we like to give the child a copy of the book to take
home and to share with family members or care-givers.

DRAMA THERAPY
Moreno is the founder of psychodrama. It is the earliest type of drama that is used as a
therapeutic tool. Then, drama therapy emerged as an alternative that considers more
appropriate than the psikodrama because it is less verbal, less structured and less
oriented theater.
Johnson (in Nystul, 2003) defines play therapy as the use of creative drama that seeks
to achieve the goals of psychotherapy, the integration of emotional and physical
symptoms appear treatment, and personal growth. In short, drama therapy include
whatever kind of play a role in the related creative use of theater as a medium for self-
expression.

Sosiodrama is a pretend play activity that involves a lot of group interaction, where each
member plays a different role in the group. It is a play deemed as an extension to a
symbolic or pretend play. According to Piaget (1962), playing a pretend self-play is
solitary play - when a child may share his/her fantasy world themselves with toys or
imaginary friends. Besides playing by themselves, a parallel play can happen too. Here
the child involves interaction with friends as a player, and eventually transform into a
sosiodrama play.

Garvey (1972) identifies three types of common role played by preschool children in play
sosiodrama. The role of role-play in sosiodrama can be:

1. The role of the family, which plays the role of a mother, father, sister, brother,
sister, and sometimes act as a cat or other animal that is advocated.
2. Role models like superman, spiderwoman, warrior, creature from space, or
people who have been celebrated.
3. Functional roles such as cooks, teachers, drivers, firemen, policemen,
workers, and so on.

In the sociodramatic play, Ruth E. Hartley, a psychologist, identifies a number of functions.


Among the main functions of sosiodramatic is:
1. Through role-play as an adult, children are able to understand their role in the
reality of life.
2. Giving children a chance to vent their feelings about the relationship of family
members and the experience of living in their home.
3. A channel to vent unauthorized in real life.
4. Provide an opportunity to demonstrate his self-respect, for example to play a
mentoring role with the nanny or pour love for toys, animals reared or small
children who didampingnya.

Sosiodramatic play benifits children to engage in play, and improves the potential of
children in terms of affective, intellectual, and social development as a whole.

Key Concepts
Currently, drama therapy is characterized by the following key concepts:
Drama gives children the opportunity to learn from experience, whether real or in
their imagination;
Drama provides opportunities for expression of feelings, thoughts, impulses and
actions;
Conflict emotions more easily understood when transferred in action through drama.

Procedures and Results


Some of the techniques commonly used in drama therapy process include:
Play a role in spontaneous is the lifeblood of drama therapy;
Movement, mime and puppet toys engage children in action where internal conflict
can be expressed and be easier to understand.

DANCE THERAPY
The statement, the body says what words cannot, is attributed to American modern
dance pioneer Martha Graham.

Dance therapy originated from a very famous modern dance in the 20th century.
Dance/movement therapy is an expressive psychotherapy that combines the theories of
psychoanalysis and early child development to facilitate and foster positive psychological and
emotional growth for an individual. This therapeutic approach incorporates movement expression
into everyday action to provide a place for self-exploration, self-awareness and overall well-being.
The wonderful thing about dance therapy is that you don't need to speak the same language
because movement reveals so much without words

Key Concepts
Dance therapy has three main concepts as follows:
The most basic concept is the integration or reintegration right mind with the body;
Operations may reflect the mood clients while showing them the flexibility or rigidity;
Self Expressions of children born in the form of dance.

Procedures and Results

When used as a dance therapist in the counseling intervention, children can dance solo,
or with others. In addition, the dance can involve structured movement or spontaneously.
The dance is presented, guidance and counseling teachers will observe the message
conveyed, or discovered by the child in question. Also how the child interacts with others,
making them aware to the existing space, and how dance is related to a problem.

Fleshman and Fryrear (in Nystul, 2003) identified the goal of dance therapy as follows:
1. Improve motor skills;
2. Improve the relationship between the child and teacher guidance and counseling;
3. Adding a collection of children's movement to create a mood, attitude and their
ideas;
4. Giving children the opportunity to express aggressive impulses sublimation;
5. Inducing interpersonal relationships;
6. Stimulating, energizing, and soothing body of children.

SAND PLAY
Sandplay therapy is a recognized therapeutic modality for both children and adults, based
on the psychology of C.G. Jung and developed by the Swiss psychotherapist and teacher
Dora Kalff. It is particularly useful for identifying and reconciling internal conflicts that
manifest as anxiety and depression, as well as penetrating the depths of personality to
experience the Self directly.

Sandplay therapy establishes a safe and protected space, where the complexities of the
inner world are explored and integrated into the psyche for emotional healing. Clients
place miniature figurines in a small sandbox to express confusing feelings and inner
experiences. This creates a visual representation of the psyches contents and reveals
unconscious concerns that are inaccessible any other way. As materials contained in the
unconscious emerges visually and symbolically, it is integrated into a persons sense of
self and can be activated to elicit behavioral change.

The effectiveness of sandplay therapy comes with an understanding of Jungian


psychology, as well as the archetypal and personal symbolism that appear in the sand.
Knowledge of symbolic language creates a foundation not only for sandplay therapy, but
also for dream analysis and all non-verbal therapies involving art and play. It provides a
way for material from the unconscious to become visible, healed, and integrated into the
consciousness, thus allowing life to be lived in a more conscious and authentic way

Sandplay Therapy provides:

a means of self-discovery, healing and integration


a transformation or redirection of blocked energy

access to the childhood world of imagination and play, re-awakening our own
creative nature

a means by which children and adults, unable to articulate their feelings and
experiences, can find expression and integration

safe entry into the deeper archetypal, mythic and transpersonal realms of the
psyche

an activation of our natural, self-healing capacity

an opportunity for a creative non-rational experience, as a balance to society's


overemphasis on the ego's intellect

Sand therapy is rapidly evolving as a technique with radically diverse applications. Useful
with clients throughout the life span, sand therapy can be a deeply transformative
experience for the client and for the clinician Alternative theories used to understand
sandtray.
http://www.anniecreativetherapy.co.uk/phdi/p1.nsf/supppages/5718?opendocument&part=4

What happens in sandplay or sand tray work?

The sandplay process involves inviting the client to choose from among
hundreds of miniatures and then to make a picture in the sand. You will
find an incredible assortment of figurines and objects: wizards,
goddesses, buddhas, trees, monsters, wild animals, shells, aeroplanes,
sea creatures, crystals, marbles, dragons, buildings, phoenixes,
furniture, babies, birds, snakes, domestic animals, fences, religious
artifacts, bridges, cars, all manner of people, spaceships, rocks, stones,
superheroes, boats, feathers, and on and on and on ...

The picture they create represents their world: their issues, their
feelings, their relationships, or possibly a dream. The therapist provides
a safe and protected space sitting quietly nearby. Some clients choose
to talk, while others work (play) in silence. Sandplay is like another
language, a non-verbal way of communicating and expressing inner
feelings, conflicts, fears and problems. There is no right or wrong way to
do sandplay or sand tray work.

Because it is a process, unknown material may be being expressed, and


we dont have to search for immediate interpretations. We dont need
to analyse and understand every sandplay, for you are effectively
allowing communication from your unconscious and this can take time.
Because you are accessing unconscious material, this allows healing to
take place at a deep level.

Many clients find this an enjoyable, creative and powerful way to work
in therapy. It is always the clients choice as to whether or not they
work in the sand.

While sandplay therapy appears to be quite simple it is a highly


complex therapeutic modality and has profound potential. Qualified
sandplay therapists undergo extensive training, personal process and
supervision in preparation for practice.
Process

Sandplay therapy is a creative psychotherapeutic approach which can be used with


children, young people and adults. It was developed by Dora Kalff, a Jungian Analyst
in Switzerland in the late 1930s and is based on Jungian psychology which believes
that we have within us the resources to bring about wholeness, thus enabling us to find Find out
peace within ourselves and relate better to the outside world. what is
Jungian
therapy.
Sandplay therapy is a non-verbal way of communicating and expressing inner
feelings, conflicts, fears and problems, by accessing the unconscious and working
at a deep level of the psyche. It is three dimensional and concrete, characterised by the
use of sand, water and miniatures in the creation of images within a free and protected
space of the therapeutic relationship and the sand tray. In the presence of a trained
professional, the client can make whatever they feel like creating in the sand tray which is
generally done in silence, with no judgement made by the therapist.

The trained therapist makes the inner exploration for the client safe by anchoring the work
into reality, whilst being respectful of the clients process. For adults and children,
sandplay bypasses thinking about issues and directly accesses the conflicts. In addition
sandplay is a form of play natural to children.

Sandplay works gently, in a simple, yet profound way to bring about emotional healing and
change. A series of sandplay images portrayed in the sand tray creates an on-going
dialogue between the conscious and the unconscious aspects of the clients psyche,
which activates a healing process and the development of the personality.

In the creation of three dimensional pictures in the sand there is a total involvement of
body, mind and soul. The bringing of psyche and soma together in the act of creation can
have a powerful healing effect. Sandplay therapy often reaches a deeper level which
often cannot be experienced in verbal therapy alone.

http://www.counselling-solutions.co.uk/sandplay-therapy/

The use of sand and miniatures gives us a symbolic way of expressing our
feelings and viewing our lives. Sandplay provides a fun, non-threatening approach
to the unconscious, and a safe space in which to explore feelings and life
situations that may feel overwhelming. The client may not have a particular focus
in mind, however, playing with the sand, making a landscape, and adding symbols
from the shelves, enables the psyche to find its own bearing, free of the ego's
influence. Using the sandtray, we are able to play out our fantasies, and to
externalize the inner world.

"Sandplay heals wounds that have blocked normal development. It enables the
constellation and positive activation of the Self and the emergence of a stable ego
capable of relating equally to the outer material and the inner spiritual worlds - to
life in the here and now, and to the transpersonal dimension. At its best, sandplay
therapy is a prime facilitator of the individuation process. At its least, it is an
invaluable adjunctive modality." - Estelle Weinrib 'Images of the Self-The
Sandplay Therapy Process'
Important for children

Children often have difficulty expressing their feelings and experiences in words.
A childs natural way of communicating is through play. Play is critical for brain
development, attachment and healthy growth and is often used in counseling
children. Play therapy gives children a natural means for self-expression. Play
allows them to express feelings that might otherwise be overwhelming. Children
are drawn to playing in the sand because it is a soothing sensory experience and
it stimulates fantasy and imaginative play. Children have always delighted in
playing in the sand, bringing their inner and outer worlds together through
imagination. Sandplay therapy is a non-verbal method of counseling that is used
with children that has been shown to help children share experiences and feelings
that have been frightening or hurtful and too difficult to put into words. It combines
play, art and sensory activities. Sandplay therapy is a simple and effective play
therapy that can be used with all age groups of children. Children who have
difficulty drawing may be more comfortable with making a picture with toys.

Sandplay provides the children distance from their feelings and allows them to
express their feelings through the toys. In other words, children use play to safely
disguise their own feelings. The counselor is trained to understand the
metaphorical and symbolic meaning of the sandplay picture and relate it directly
to childrens feelings and experiences. The counselor also acts as a guide in In
addition, children can make a picture that shows frightening experiences and
problems without telling on others that may be hurting them. This is important for
children who do not feel safe to directly talk about their abuse or that may have
been threatened not to tell anyone. Sandplay is also used with childrens groups
and families to improve communication and to learn problem solving skills.
Sandplay is helpful in working with the wide variety of cultures and languages
spoken

in order to express some of the thoughts, feelings or stories that would otherwise
stay hidden in their subconscious mind or dreams.

The Sand Play therapist creates an inviting space, respects the clients
attempts at expression, and intervenes as little as is necessary, to allow
his or her free expression to flow.

As in any form of art, SandPlay allows clients to move beyond words alone, as a
means of expression. In SandPlay however, artistic skill is not important and there is
freedom to mold, to burrow, to bury, to break down, or to embellish our creations as
little or as much as they choose.
Molding the sand with their hands to create images and structures, encourages clients
to access their insights and intuition. While their ideas and stories may have felt
inexpressible before, they become more real and tangible in the sand tray.

What reaction is a child (or adult) likely to have when introduced to the sand-tray
for the first time?

When introduced to SandPlay well, most clients enjoy the experience of switching off their
disturbing thoughts or difficult emotions, and allowing their hands and creative
imaginations to take over. Most children and young people find it easier to engage with
their SandPlay therapist when there is something in front of them to talk about.
Most adult clients become more relaxed as they are given an activity which reminds them
of a time when life was simpler, and many troubling issues were resolved through play.

How does SandPlay help with anger, grief, anxiety, depression, attention deficit
(ADD) etc?
When work in the sand-tray work is facilitated well, the thinking-mind is by-passed, and
clients describe a freeing or unburdening experience.
http://www.aswegrow.com.au/services/sandplay-therapy/

How Sandplay Therapy Works


The clients work in the sand tray is image based and pre-verbal. It accesses the right
hemisphere, allowing the client to bypass left hemispheric rationality and to deal directly
with the image, symbol and feeling-rich content. Clients will frequently comment that they
have no idea why they did what emerged in the sand tray. Some will say, My hands just
led me. We now know from current research in neuroscience that all learning and
development occurs first in the right hemisphere and is subsequently integrated into the
conscious knowing of the left hemisphere.

Researchers at the Boston Change Study Group determined that the words exchanged in
psychotherapy have very little effect on the clients healing and development. Rather it is
the understanding exchange between the mirror neuron circuits of client and therapist that
effect therapeutic change (2010 Siegel, D.) In sandplay the right hemisphere guides the
selection and placement of the images and symbols that the client chooses from the
collection. They thus become three dimensional and concrete in the sand tray. In addition
they are witnessed by the sandplay therapist. The sandplay client and therapist jointly see
and experience the symbolic creation in the sand tray. This facilitates a powerful circuit of
reinforcement feedback between the mirror neuron networks of client and therapist. Thus
the therapists non-verbal recognition of the clients pre-conscious work affirms its reality
and thus fixes it in place to become conscious to the client.
A little boy deals with loss
When the client works in the sand tray the psyche begins its work at its point of arrest. For
example this may be a trauma that occurred in the past. I recall one little 4.5 year old boy I
worked with who had suffered many losses including divorce in the family, the destruction
of the house by fire, death of his favourite grandmother and his mothers mortal illness.
His sandplay work began with themes of cooking and food preparation. His psyche
gathered fuel for his journey ahead. He then began to access inner strength and power. I
recall one tray where he buried a pair of silver swords. Following this he was able to
symbolically confront the loss of his home and the death of his grandmother.

I recall a phase of his grief expressed through a prominent garbage can with a witch flying
above it. He had cleverly hung the witch from a tall hook. In the left portion of the tray was
a large tornado form and on top of the hook was a silver trophy. Symbolically he
acknowledges the destructive forces beyond his control, the tornado, the evil and unfair
nature of it, the witch, and develops the capacity to contain the losses, the garbage can.
Underscoring his healing and growth the young client placed the young boy atop the ox
from the Zen Ox Herding Pictures to the left of the trash can. This is picture six from
the Ox Herding series, symbolizing the return home after a successful journey. His new
growth is also reflected in his prominently placed trophy which stands above the entire
scene.

Practicing Sandplay Therapy


On the surface sandplay appears deceptively simple. However it is one, if not the, most
powerful form of psychotherapy when practiced by a well trained and experienced
clinician. In order for sandplay to be effective and safe, the therapist must be able to
understand and safely contain the clients symbolic work in the tray (Weinrib, E.L., 2004.)
This requires extensive study of theory and practice of sandplay, undergoing the sandplay
process as a client, and a rich understanding of the cross cultural symbolism from
anthropology, fairy tale, mythology, religious traditions and rituals.

Treatment Applications for Sandplay

Sandplay therapy has shown to be beneficial across a broad spectrum of clinical


presentations. There are highly experienced clinicians in this area who do use sandplay
to help schizophrenic patients become more grounded in their material reality (Turner,
B.A. 2005.) Sandplay is an excellent medium for treatment of trauma and early childhood
wounding. Sandplay can be very effective in cases of endogenous depression or anxiety
disorders in conjunction with proper medical management.

http://www.sandplay.co.za/course-dates.html
http://appliedjung.com/jungian-themes/sandplay

Sand-Tray Work

Sand-tray work can be very useful in helping a child to tell their story.

The sand tray may be made of wood or plastic. Ideally, it is square with sides of about 1
metre in length and about 150 mm high. Wooden sand trays require a waterproof lining.

It is best if the sand is clean, washed sand. We have discovered from our own practical
experience that it is a mistake to use very light fine sand. It can create a miniature
sandstorm in the room when used by active children. A good depth of sand in the tray is
about 75 mm, with a 75-mm space between the surface of the sand and the top edge of
the tray. This makes it easy to work in the sand without the sand spilling out of the tray.

Sometimes, access to water is useful, although this is not essential. Wet sand can be
used to make caves, tunnels, hills and other shapes. We keep our sand tray on the flooi
and sit, with the child, on the floor beside it.

Symbols

The symbols used in sand-tray work consist of a variety of small objects which are chosep
because they have properties that enable them to easily assume symbolic meaning.The
symbols may be used to represent concrete things such as roads, houses, schools,
shopping centres and individual people.

A useful set of symbols might include the following items:

General items Wood


Rocks, stones and pebbles
Marbles
Feathers
A key \iper flags A padlock Trains

A torch battery Cars

A crystal ball Buttons Plastic trees

A horseshoe Planes

Gold stars Boats

A pencil Figurines and superheroes

A large nail Toy soldiers Catwoman

Shells Power Rangers

Small boxes with lids Male and female figurines

Candles Old jewellery Paper Medieval knights Batman

Ornaments A tin of spaghetti Toy animals

A small mirror Beads Farm animals Jungle animals

A small pyramid Dragons Zoo animals

A notebook Domestic animfcls

A chain Objects which have universal


symbolic meaning, for example,
Small toys those which are fumy,
frightening, endearing, magical
or religious, make ideal symbols.
Toy fences

Goals of sand-tray work


Sand-tray work provides the child with an opportunity to use symbols, withim a defined
space, to tell their story. While telling their story, the child has an opportunity to re-create in
the sand tray, and in their imagination, events and situations from their past and present.
The child may also explore possibilities for the future or express their fantasies in the sand
tray. Consequently the child is enabled to do all, or any, of the following:

1. Explore specific events - past, present and future.


2. Explore themes and issues relating to these events.

3. Act out those things which are not, or were not, acceptable to them.

4. Gain a cognitive understanding of the elements of events in their life and thus gain
insight into those events.
5. Integrate polarities.

6. Alter their story, as created in the sand tray, by projecting their fantasies on to it.

7. Experience a sense of power through physical expression.

8. Gain mastery over past and current issues and events.

9. Think of what might happen next.

10. Find resolution of issues through the development of insight.

How to use the sand tray

Because of the tactile and kinaesthetic experience of working in the sand tray, most
children seem to engage readily in the task. We usually start by inviting the child to use
any of the symbols they wish to make a scene or picture in the sand. In inviting the child to
make their picture, we take into account goals for the counselling session. Here are
several different examples of instructions which might be useful when starting sand-tray
work.

Example one

Sometimes we leave the child with freedom to make whatever picture they choose without
any specific direction. This non-directive approach can be useful because it allows the
counsellor to observe the way in which the child engages in the task and constructs the
picture. The counsellor can then look for any themes and issues that emerge during the
creation of the picture so that these can be discussed with the child. Osing this approach :
the counsellor might start the sand-tray work by saying, Id like you to use these things
[symbols] to make a picture in the sand.'

Example two

In some cases, the counsellor may suspect that the child's issues concern relationships
with others.The counsellor can then be more specific and might say,'Make a picture about
all the people that you know.'
As the picture develops, the counsellor can notice the qualities of the various
relationships, taking particular notice of strengths, weaknesses, distances, closeness and
boundaries. Additionally, the counsellor can note any absences of significant others from
the picture. The use of feedback statements by the counsellor will then help to raise the
child's awareness of their situation so that they can deal with related issues.

Example three
Some children present with a very high level of anxiety. With these children it can be
useful to give them the following instruction: 'Make a picture about the things that frighten
you most.'
Later, as the picture develops, the counsellor might say, 'Find something that reminds you
of ... [ghosts, spiders, or whatever is relevant].'
These instructions can be useful for the child because by concretizing the fear itself, the
child can then deal with it symbolically. For example, the child might bury it or put it
outside the sand tray.

Example four

Some children who have been emotionally deprived when younger present with issues
related to rejection and abandonment. It is important for these children to explore their
perceptions of the way in which they were nurtured. In such cases the counsellor might
say, 'Make a picture about what it was like when you were a baby.'
Through constructing the picture, the child may be enabled to recognize and experience
the pain associated with not having had closeness and nurturing as a young child. By
owning and experiencing this pain, the child may, with help from the counsellor, be
enabled to discover ways to nurture themselves. Sometimes, in cases where a mother
has been absent or neglectful, the child may recognize that another person did provide
some nurturing. After dealing with the pain related to their mother's behaviour, the child
may be able to gain positive feelings as a consequence of recognizing the nurturing they
received from the other person.
As a result of the counsellor's instructions, the child is likely to begin to create a
miniature picture, in the *and tray, of their perception of part of their present, or past or
future world. While this is happening, the counsellor stays quietly alongside the child,
without interrupting the child's story unnecessarily. As a counsellor, be aware of the
developing story and support its evolution. Try not to interpret, but instead try to recognize
the symbolic representation in the way that the child understands it.

Sand-tray work is powerful because it provides a visual structure in the form of a sand-
tray picture, together with feedback from an observer (the counsellor). Hence,

Counselling skills when using the sand tray

When intervention is necessary while the child is telling their story, the counsellor can
make use of the counselling skills described in Part 3. The skills detailed below are most
useful and relevant to sand-tray work:

1 Observation
2 Use of statements

3 Use of questions

4 Giving instructions

5 Termination skills when using the sand tray.

Observation

A counsellor can learn a great deal afcout a child, the child's life and the c n issues by
observing the child as they tell their story while working in the san
The counsellor can use the observed information by making feedback statements to the
child so that the child is able to get more fully in touch with troubling issues and
developments in their life.You might find it useful to bear in mind the following, while
making your observations:

1. 1 Notice which symbols the child chooses.


2. Identify the special qualities and meanings which the child attributes to the
symbols.

3. Be aware of any commonly used or collective meanings of some symbols and


consider whether these are relevant.

4. Observe the placement of symbols in the sand tray: which are in the middle and
which are at the edges of the sand tray. Notice which symbols are separated from
others and which symbols are close to others. Take note of any symbols which
are buried and of any symbols which are in dominating positions.

5. Notice any vacant spaces in the sand tray because these may be significant.

6. Observe how the child works. Do they work spontaneously, hesitantly,


lethargically, aggressively or forcefully?

7. Observe the way in which the symbols are chosen. Are they chosen thoughtfully
and carefully or are they snatched and carelessly placed?

8. Identify emerging themes such as nurturing, secrecy, disintegration, victimization


and power.

9. Observe inconsistencies in the child's story.

Use of statements

Sometimes, while a child is working on their picture, they will talk about it spontaneously
generally, the counsellor observes quietly as the child creates their picture. However, if the
child does not talk about what they are doing, after observing for a while it is appropriate
for the counsellor to indirectly invite the child to talk about their story by using a statement
to feed back what the counsellor has observed. For example, the counsellor might
say,'You've been very careful when making your picture', or 'Your picture looks very
crowded', or 'Your picture is very busy'.

These statements are non-intrusive and are likely to encourage the child to talk about
the picture, without directing them to one particular part of the picture. Sometimes,
however, statements like the above are not sufficient and a question may be needed.

Feedback statements not only allow the child to talk about the picture, but also raise the
child's awareness of their internal processes as they construct the picture.
Their awareness of issues, thoughts and feelings is intensified and consequently they
are able to bring these into focus so that they may be addressed.

Use of questions

Before asking questions, it is important for the counsellor to remember to sit quietly and to
observe, rather than to interrupt the natural flow of the child's process. Flowever, at
appropriate times, during pauses, questions can be used to help the child to explore more
fully or in more depth certain parts of their picture or story.

Here are some examples of the use of questions:

When using the sand tray it can be helpful to ask a general question such as, 'Can
you tell me about your picture?'
If there are empty spaces in the sand tray, the counsellor could draw attention to The s
by pointing to an empty space and making a comment such as,'I wonder what's
happening over here?'

If the sand-tray picture contains symbols and figures which are big and strong, the
counsellor might say to the child,'These things look big and strong. Do you ever feel
big and strong?'

Giving instructions

Earlier in this chapter we gave examples of instructions which may be used to invite the
child to start to create a picture or to tell by using the symbols in the sand tray. During the
process, other instructions may be inquired. Consider the following examples.

Example one
A child might develop their story by making verbal suggestions about what might happen
next. However, they may not move the symbols in the sand tray to illustrate the change.
For example, the child may have set up a scene where children are prlaying in the park.
Later, they may talk about the children going home. However, the child may have left the
symbols set up the way they were when the children wtre playing in the park. In this case
the counsellor might say,'Show me what happens when they go home.' The child is likely
to rearrange the symbols and to continue telling their story. As a consequence, new and
important issues might emerge which otherwise could have been missed.

Example two
If a child were to show more interest in, or to concentrate on, a particular part of then
picture, the counsellor might ask 'Tell me about what is happening here', or 'Tell nu about
this shell [where the shell is in the relevant part of the picture]'.

Termination skills when using the sand tray


The counsellor judges when the time is appropriate for ending a piece of work in die sand
tray. Good indications of this are if:

the child stops work spontaneously;


the child is unable to develop the story any further; or

the time allocated for the counselling session is drawing to an end.

PUPPET PLAY
Puppets and Soft Toys

When working with young children, puppets and soft toys can be useful at any phase.The
way we use puppets and soft toys is to invite the child to create and direct a drama in
which the puppets and soft toys are the characters. In the drama, the child projects their
own ideas onto the puppets and soft toys, gives them their personalities, chooses their
behaviours and puts words into their mouths.

Children enjoy using puppets and soft toys because they are easy to manipulate. They
require very little preparation and are familiar toys for most children.

It is important for a new counsellor to understand the difference between the drama
created when using puppets and soft toys and the drama involved in imaginative pretend
play. In imaginative pretend play (see Chapter 29), the child role-plays, identifies with, and
effectively becomes a character, or some characters, in the drama. By contrast, when
using puppets and soft toys, the child uses stories and other dramatic events and projects
ideas from these onto the puppets and soft toys. The child sees them as separate from,
and external to themselves, and can, without restraint, attribute to the puppets and soft
toys, beliefs, behaviours and personalities which they believe are quite different from their
own.

There are also differences between the use of puppets and soft toys and the use of
stories. Stories give the child an opportunity to express fantasies and to explore conflict
situations. They also enable the child to deal with important issues and feelings even
when it is too difficult for the child to talk about these directly. Puppets and soft toys are
similarly useful and also add an extra dimension to storytelling. Through puppets and soft
toys, the child becomes directly involved in creating and speaking the dialogue of the story
and in manipulating the puppets and soft toys to act out the story. By doing this the child
becomes involved in and personally connected with the story. This enables them to more
easily make the link between their own emotional feelings and those of characters in the
story.
The dramatic sequences when using puppets and soft toys provide children with a way
of dealing indirectly with issues which might be difficult for them to own as personally
theirs. The indirect approach of puppetry protects the child's inner pain from direct
exposure; instead it is disguised as belonging to the puppets or soft toys. At the same
time, the child can gain confidence in talking about relevant issues and has the
opportunity to develop the courage to directly own and confront those issues when ready
to do so.

The drama allows the child to project their beliefs, behaviours and personality
characteristics, and those of significant others, onto the puppets and soft toys. For
example, the child creates the dialogue of the drama, they can replicate the personality
and behav-tc-iours of a hated person or of a loving friend from whom they may have been
separated. Consequently, puppets and soft toys provide a safe outlet for the expression of
fantasies with regard to the interactions of others and the child's own interactions with
them.

During the drama the counsellor can intervene to help the child to express, understand
and work through their issues, thus bringing about change. Some individual puppets and
soft toys have inherent symbolic attributes. For example, wolves can be dangerous,
monkeys can be entertaining and mischievous, and policemen may be helpful or
authoritarian. Teddy bears are soft, cuddly and nurturing, or may need to be nurtured.

Goals when using puppets and soft toys

Puppets and soft toys can be used to achieve the following goals:

1. To gain mastery over issues and events.


2. To be powerful through physical expression.

3. To develop problem-solving and decision-making skills.

4. To develop social skills.

5. To improve communication skills.

6. To develop insight.

1. To gain mastery over issues and events

When using puppets and soft toys, the child has an opportunity to re-enact unpleasant
experiences. Through doing this the child can gain mastery over the experience. For
example, in the actual life experience the child may have been passive and diseimpow-
ered. In the re-enactment, the puppet or soft toy onto which the child projects their
experience may behave in a more powerful and active way.The drama can be rept :<lte^
several times, with the puppet becoming progressively more successful in dealing the
situation, until the child becomes satisfied.

By using puppets and soft toys in combination with familiar fables, lairytales and' stories,
the child can restructure past events so that victims are empowered, conse quences are
just and opportunities are given for issues and feelings to be expressed. This process is
useful to the child psychologically: it moves them from a psychological space where they
feel helpless and powerless into a new space where they have a sense of their own inner
power and a sense of an improved ability to col' triol their own actions and responses. Thus
the child moves from being disempow' towards empowerment.

2. To be powerful through physical expression

An ideal way for the child to express feelings of power and strength is through the
selected characters or puppets. Unlike with puppets, we cant change the facial
expresses of soft toys. However the puppets do have the advantage that it is easy to use
several of them at the same time. It is useful to have a variety of puppets and soft toys so
that different types of characters.

family figures suitable for representing a mother, father, grandmother, sibling, baby
uncles, and so on;
fantasy figures, including a devil, a ghost, witches, fairies and a magician;wild
animals, farm animals and domestic animals; for example, wolves, sharks, bears
elephants, horses and rabbits; and

Some soft toys which have a degree of disguise. These might include a masked
person a clown and a faceless person.

How to use puppets and soft toys


Because we use puppets and soft toys similarly, we will only refer to puppets in the
following discussion, although this discussion applies equally to soft toys. There are four
ways of using puppets:
1. Allowing the child to use the puppets spontaneously.
2. Inviting the child to create and direct a puppet show.

3. Combining the use of puppets with well-known fairy stories or fables.

4. Using puppets in dialogue with the counsellor.

1. Allowing the child to use the puppets spontaneously

We usually begin by letting the child know that we are going to play with the puppets We
invite the child to select whatever puppets appeal to them. This can give valuable
information. For example, children tend to pick up most of the puppets and then to discard
them after checking out their shape, size and other features. When the chilcj has selected
some puppets, they will usually spontaneously start up a dialogue between some of them.
If they don't, we model this by selecting a puppet and talking through the puppet to the
child. For example, when counselling a child called Samantha, we might select the puppet
bear, speak as though the bear were talking and say, Hollo, Samantha. Have you come to
play with me today?'We can then invite the child to begin their puppet show by introducing
the characters. We might ask. Why dont you show me all of the characters in your play
and introduce them to me one by one.

As the child introduces the characters, the counsellor can engage in conversation ^ each
character is presented. For example, the counsellor might say, Flello Teddy, Jour looking
forward to this show. Are you?' or 'Hello Teddy, nice to meet you. I like^om-big red bow
tie.this participation by the counsellor helps the child to feel more <-onto fortable about
the activity, sets the scene and allows the child to project themselves the characters.

Some children find it easy to make up a story and to act it out. Others find it more
difficult. With these children we usually suggest themes for them to use, which are likely to
address issues or events relevant for the child. For example, we might suggest themes
concerned with being moved from the family home into care, or regarding access visits
with an absent parent, or themes which reflect helplessness, fear or abandonment.

With some children we use a more formalized puppet show approach as discussed in
the following paragraphs,

2. Inviting the child to create and direct a puppet show

We start to create a puppet drama by saying to the child, 'Together, we are going to make
up a play using these puppets and soft toys.You can choose the characters in the play.
One of the characters is very lonely, frightened and uncertain about what is going to
happen to him. Another character is strong and powerful and the boss. There are three
other characters in this play. Would you like to choose the characters now?'

After the child has introduced the characters (as discussed previously), the counsellor
can then help the child devise a theme and to start the puppet show. The content of the
story that emerges will give clues about the child's preoccupations and their ways of
dealing with these.

We usually invite the child to act out their puppet 'show', or puppet 'play', on a table with
the child sitting on the floor behind the table, which serves as a miniature stage. Some
children like to use props in their drama such as sticks, balls, pillows and blankets.
However, too many props can lead the child into dramatic imaginative pretend play (see
Chapter 29) instead of helping the child to focus on projecting ideas onto the puppets or
soft toys.
Generally, we sit opposite the table like an audience watching the child's dramatic play.
Naturally, we intervene to ask questions, make comments and to assist with the creation
of the drama, when appropriate.

At different times during the drama, the counsellor might intervene and talk directly to
one of the characters in an attempt to discover more about that character's behaviour
within the play. For example, the counsellor might ask the bear,'What does it feel like to be
left outside the house while the others are having a party?'

Children will inevitably project different aspects of themselves onto the various
characters. For example, a child may project the mischievous part of himself onto the
monkey who causes trouble between others, and at the same time project his wish to
magically change the situation onto the wizard. During the process the counsellor might
encourage the characters to persevere with particular behaviours so that the child
becomes aware of the way in which other characters respond. For example, the
counsellor might say, 'Wizard, do that again because I think it might work this time.'This
gives the child an opportunity to evaluate the consequences of particular behaviours and
to make decisions with regard to suitable responses for other characters in the play.

An alternative to the above idea is for the counsellor to suggest a change in the
behaviour of one of the characters. For example, the counsellor might say to the
wizard,'Wizard, I don't think that what you are doing is working. I wonder what else you
could do.'

Some children resent intrusions from the counsellor and with these chidren the
counsellor may need to watch a puppet show without interrupting. However, following
completion of the show, the counsellor might discuss with the child vuious parts of the
drama, or aspects of the drama. A discussion such as this could be startelihv the
counsellor asking questions such as,'Who, of all the people or things in the story, would
you most like to be?' or 'Who in the story would you not want to be?'ilt\wauld not be helpful
to ask a child 'Who are you in this story?' Such a question could be confusing because
clearly a child will project parts of themselves on to all of the characters. Sometimes,
asking a child what happens to the characters in the story after the play has finished can
be useful in helping a child to look at outcomes.

3. Combining the use of puppets with well-known fairy stories or fables

With some children, when using puppets, we make use of well-known fairy stcfo rjes fables
to directly address specific issues. When doing this, the child is invited to puppets to act
the story out. We then help the child to restructure the story so that it is more satisfactory
outcomes are achieved. For example, a victim may become empowered, or alternative
solutions to a problem situation may be discovered. A 'counsellor might get a child to act
out the story of Little Red Riding Hood using puppets or soft toys. After the drama has
finished, the counsellor might ask,what else could Grandma have done when the wolf
decided he was going to eat her?'The child might suggest that Grandma could have run
out of the house to seek help. The counsellor can then encourage the child to act the
drama out once again using this alternative idea.

4. Using puppets in dialogue with the counsellor

Sometimes, by using a technique of dialogue between a puppet and the counsellor, a child
may be enabled to discover solutions to their own problems.

Soft toys and puppets can also be used in direct one-to-one interaction with a child. We
sometimes use a particular teddy bear, which we describe as being wise, experience,
knowledgeable and magical. This soft toy can be helpful to a child who is having difficulty
discussing certain issues. For example, a child may be frightened about going to school
for fear of being bullied, but not feel comfortable enough to talk about this. We can
suggest to the child that Teddy is often pretty good at knowing what children, are thinking.
We might say, 'Teddy sometimes knows what children are thinking. If he sits on your lap,
he might be able to tell me about the things that are troubling you.

We can then ask the child to hold the bear on their lap and direct the following
comments to it:'Teddy, Jenny is having some problems. I wonder if you know what they
are.' The child is then invited to respond on behalf of the bear: 'Jenny, can y>u tell me
what Teddy is saying?'

Some children may not feel comfortable doing this. In this case, the counsellor can hold
the bear so that its mouth is close to their own ear and pretend to be listening to the
bear.The counsellor can then repeat what the bear is supposed to have said and might
say, 'Teddy says that he thinks that your problem might be about going to school. I wonder
if he's right or if he's wrong?'

The child can then be encouraged to engage in ongoing dialogue between the
counsellor, the bear and themselves. The child can be asked to listen to the bear and to
repeat what he 'tells' them. Thus they become the voice of the bear and are enabled to
say what they would like through the bear.

Suitability of puppets and soft toys

Puppets and soft toys are useful when working with pre-school and primary school
children. Interestingly, some early adolescents find them appealing; however, they are
generally more suitable for the younger age group.
Puppets and soft toys are ideal to use in individual counselling sessions, but can also
be used in groups where each child selects and characterizes a particular puppet or soft
toy. Using puppets and soft toys allows the child to explore and expand their thinking and
encourages them to be interactive and sometimes adventurous. Puppets and soft toys can
also be used to convey moral messages and to educate: for example, concepts of
protective behaviours can be explored.

Suggested Readings:
How Puppet Therapy Can Help a Child Recover from Sexual
Abuse at http://voices.yahoo.com/how-puppet-therapy-help-child-
8873041.html?cat=25

Puppet therapy for children at


http://www.recoveryconnections.ca/puppet-therapy-for-
children.html
Adlerian play therapy intervention at ;
http://plaza.ufl.edu/ttbailey/Adlerianplaysessions.html
Fifteen effective play therapy techniques at ;
http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~drbryce/Play%20Therapy
%20Techniques.pdf

Chapter References

Nystul, M.S. (2003). Introduction to counseling: An art and science perspective (2 nd ed.). Boston:
Allyn and Bacon.

Orton, G.L. (1997). Strategies for counseling with children and their parents. California:
Brooks/Cole Publishing Company

Slate, C. N., & Scott, D. A. (2009). A discussion of coping methods and counseling
techniques for children and adults dealing with grief and bereavement. Dimuat turun pada
November 6, 2010 daripada counselingoutfitters. Com/vistas/vistas09/Slate-Scott. doc

Storytelling 101 for funders & neighborhood leaders. Dimuat turun pada November 3,
2013

Storytelling and research. Dimuat turun pada November 5, 2010 daripada


alumni.media.mit.edu/~brooks/storybiz/Storylistening Effect.doc

Thompson, C.L., Rudolph, L.B. & Henderson, D.A. (2004). Counseling children (6th ed.).
USA: Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning.

www, grassroots grantmakers. or g/FileDownload.cfm?file= Storytelling 101...

Glossary
Chapter 7

Group counselling
At the end of the lessons of this chapter, you should be able to:
o describe the basic concepts of clusters and choose the appropriate group to group
counseling;
o identifying the types of groups;
o describe the process of group counseling;
o describe the concept nad the role of facilitating group counselling;
o identifying the characteristics of group dynamics
o determine appropriate strategies for group counseling;

7.0 Introduction

When deciding whether or not to use group work, the personalities of the children
concerned, the nature of their problems, and their own and their family's preferences are
important considerations. It is important for leaders to be aware of the advantages of
group counselling, and have a conviction that group work can be used to foster healthier
functioning and development and become a catalyst for growth (Kymissis, 1996). Because
groups can mirror the wider social environment they are often able to promote change,
which may be difficult to achieve through individual counselling.

7.1 Advantages in counselling children in groups

Where a counsellor has a number of children as clients who have similar problem* or have
had similar experiences it can be advantageous to work therapeutically with them in a
group setting. By working in a group setting the children discover that are not alone but
that other children have also encountered similar problem* or experiences. This discovery
can be very empowering in enabling the children to open up and talk freely with their
peers in the group about their personal issues. This can be very useful therapeutically.

Establishing a group of children with common problems or experiences is usually not


difficult, because among children who come for counselling there are certain to be
children who have had similar experiences. For example, there will be those who have
experienced family dysfunction, family break-up, domestic violence, the problems of
blended families, the loss of significant others through death or separation, or who have
suffered neglect or physical or emotional abuse. Including children who all fit into one of
these categories in a counselling group enables them to share with each other, learn from
each other, and learn from the input of the counsellors who are leading the group.
Another significant advantage of counselling children in a group is that a group provides
a social setting which helps the children to learn from their social interactions within the
group. This can be particularly useful for children who have problems with social skills, as
they can receive feedback from the other children in the group and from the group leaders
about the effect of their behaviours on their interactions, and thus learn to use more
helpful behaviours. Although some gains can be made through individual counselling in
helping a child to improve their social skills, the benefit of learning social skills through
practising new behaviours within a group setting has considerable advantages. In our
experience it is likely to produce change more quickly and more effectively than working
individually with a child who has poorly developed social skills.

Like working with children who have social skills deficits, counselling groups can be
used to facilitate personal growth in children who have a poor self-image, low self-esteem,
or particular behaviour problems. Groups can be particularly useful in addressing self-
esteem issues, because poor self-esteem is often the result of a child's failure to interact
positively with peers. The intended outcome of groups targeting self-esteem is to enable
the children to identify with others in the group, to value and enhance their personal
abilities, strengths and skills, and to learn more effective ways of relating. A group can
provide the opportunity for a child to experiment with new behaviours in a safe and
supportive environment, and then to experience success in interacting positively with other
children. As such a group develops it is likely to provide the participants with a sense of
belonging, and this can have a positive effect on the children's feelings of self-worth.

Counselling groups can also fulfil a supportive role for children who live in difficult
situations. Examples of children who might benefit from belonging to a counselling support
group are the children of alcoholics, latch-key children, children in foster care, and children
with parents who have mental health problems.
Limitations of group work with children

Unfortunately, group work may be unsuitable for particular groups of children, for a variety
of reasons. Certainly, counselling children in a group setting would be problematic for
children who lack impulse control and cannot control their exuberance and
aggressiveness (Kraft, 1996), and for children who quickly display aggressive behaviour
and are destructive to property. Additionally, working in a group is unlikely to be successful
with children who suffer from psychotic disorders which might predispose them to
decompensate as a result of the stress of the social exchanges required in a group, or
those children who have expressive or mixed receptive-expressive language disorder and
may have difficulty expressing their frustration other than with aggressive outbursts (Gupta
et al., 1996).

Another limitation of the work is that it is not feasible to spend a significant amount of
time addressing the individual and personal needs of one child in a group. Children who
have high levels of emotional disturbance are likely to need individual counselling,
although in some cases it can be useful to include a child in a group programme while
concurrently counselling them individually.

7.3 Basic group

Types of counselling groups for children

There are two common types of counselling groups for children, depending on the
particular membership needs and aims of the group. One type of group is basically a
therapy group, which aims to bring about change through the use of the group. Such
groups enable the participants to work through troubling emotional issues by talking about
them in the group setting, and engaging in activities which allow them to express their
feelings and then change their thinking and behaviour. The other type of group aims to
bring about change primarily through the use of psycho-educational input. Additionally,
there are those groups that combine group counselling with the psycho-educational input,
followed by group discussion of the input.

Therapy groups

Therapy groups are particularly useful for those children who have been diagnosed with a
mental health disorder or are suffering from severe emotional distress and/or psychiatric
disturbance; for example, children suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (Shelby,
1994), children with schizophrenia (Speers and Lansing, 1965), children with anxiety
disorders, depressive disorders, disruptive behaviour disorders, conduct disorder,
oppositional defiant disorder and specific developmental disorder (Gupta et al., 1996).
Therapy groups are also useful for those children who do not have severe emotional
distress or psychiatric disturbance but are experiencing some difficulty in coping with the
stressors produced by life's challenges. In these groups the primary focus is usually on
the exploration and resolution of troubling issues. These groups enable the children
involved to get in touch with and release disturbing emotions, and then modify their
beliefs, attitudes and behaviours. Such groups are extremely useful for preventing the
development of more serious problems, as participants have the opportunity to share their
personal experiences, thoughts and feelings, before major issues develop. They may
receive support, encouragement and feedback, relating to their issues, behaviours, beliefs
and attitudes, as a result of which they may discover more about themselves and realize
that they have more choice than they imagined with regard to changing attitudes and
behaviours.

As when counselling children individually, counsellors running therapy groups for


children will usually make extensive use of media and activity to engage the children in
ways that enable them to talk about difficult issues.

Pycho-educational groups

Other counselling groups tor children might be more specifically psycho-educational in


nature. The purpose of these groups is to provide the children with information, which will
help them adjust their responses to their lite situations and to behave in more adaptive
ways. Because psycho-educational groups emphasize the acquisition of information and
knowledge, these groups are generally more structured than therapy groups. They may
develop content in accordance with a structured curriculum. They usually have specifically
defined goals and explicit expectations of group members. Although the focus is on
learning, the process usually involves group interaction, with members of the group
sharing and discussing thoughts, feelings, experiences, attitudes, beliefs and values,
particularly as these relate to relevant topics.

As with therapy groups, counsellors running psycho-educational groups for children will
usually make extensive use of media and activity to engage the children and to help them
in their discussion of the psycho-educational material presented.

Planning to run a group

Before planning to run a particular children's group, a decision needs to be made as to


whether running a group for the children concerned will be more appropriate than working
individually with each child. Some children are best helped individually whereas others will
benefit more by participating in a group programme, or by simultaneously engaging in
individual counselling and counselling and a group programme.
Before planning to run a particular children's group, a decision needs to be made as to
whether running a group for the children concerned will be more appropriate than working
individually with each child. Some children are best helped individually whereas others will
benefit more by participating in a group programme, or by simultaneously engaging in
individual counselling and a group programme.

When counselling a child individually a significant relationship is purposefully developed


between the child and the counsellor. Although such a relationship is helpful for children
who can cope with a degree of intimacy with an adult, other children may act out, much as
they would in other close relationships. For such children group counselling may be the
best option, as it diffuses the intensity of the relationship with the counsellor. Strong
relationships do develop in a group, but for many children these tend to be directed more
to peers than to the leaders (Swanson, 1996).

Some parents worry about their child entering into a one-to-one relationship with an adult
in a situation where they are not present themselves. In these cases the parent's anxiety
is likely to be an obstacle to effective outcomes. In such cases it may be advantageous to
include the child in a group, as a similar level of parental anxiety is less likely to occur in
this situation.

Sometimes it can be useful to include a child in a counselling group while personal


counselling for the child is also being undertaken. This can enable the child in the
individual counselling sessions to deal with emotional issues which might arise for them as
a result of the group interaction. Often such issues might be too difficult for the child to
raise within the group setting.

It is important for counsellors who plan to run groups for children to have a very clear idea
of the needs of the children, the aims of the group, and make decisions about the
therapeutic process to be used. If appropriate, a specific programme of topics and
activities can be designed to run over a series of sessions.

Planning to run a counselling group

Initially, when deciding to run a group, it is important to make decisions about how many
children will be involved in the group, the location, the length of individual sessions, and
the overall duration of the group programme.

There is no general rule regarding group size, because this will depend on the goals of the
programme, the age of the children, degree of acting out, manifestation of disturbance and
the activities that are planned- Rose and dleson (1987^. "Referring to therapy groups,
suggest groups usually range in size from three to eight children, as larger groups make it
difficult for every member to get their needs met a group session. However, it is fairly
difficult to work with fewer than four children in a group, because with three children there
may be joining between two of the children to the exclusion of the third.

Considerations for setting up the group room include: sufficient space and furniture to
allow the planned activities to be carried out; free from visual and auditory distractions
from outside; and free of materials which could be distracting or be a danger to the
children.

The length of each group session will depend on the needs of the target group, the
activities to be undertaken, and the age range. Schnitzer de Neuhaus (1985) suggests
that generally young school-age children can only handle 45 minutes in a group, while for
older children 60 to 90 minutes may be acceptable. While agreeing that this may be true
for those groups which rely heavily on verbal interaction with little activity, we have found
that, for most children, one-and-a-half hours or even two hours can be a comfortable
length for a group. We believe this is true provided that the group programme is designed
appropriately to include the use of media and activity, and allow for appropriate changes in
tasks for the children, and changes to the pace at which the group is operating.

For most counselling groups with children we find that eight to ten weeks' duration
seems to be the minimum useful period for a group if they meet for one or two hours each
week. This timeframe allows for the development of group processes such as the
establishment of group cohesion, and maximizes the opportunity for group processes to
contribute to positive outcomes of the group.

Designing a group programme

Once the needs of a particular target group of children have been recognized, it can be
both useful and satisfying for counsellors running groups to design specific programmes to
meet the needs of the particular target group in question. In this process, we suggest
starting by developing an overall programme for a series of group sessions and then
designing specific programmes for each individual session.

A number of authors including Malekoff (1997) and Rose (1998) support our belief that,
as with counselling children individually, it is important to use activities and media when
counselling children in groups. The range of media used might include art materials,
games, worksheets, puppets, miniature animals, videotapes or DVDs, craft materials, clay
and construction materials. Activities might include free play, playing organized games
with rules, and role play. The use of media and activity helps to engage the children's
interest and can promote a sense of competence, a sense of belonging to the group, self-
discovery, invention and creativity. As a result of the children's interactions while engaged
in an activity, they can learn about the way their behaviours affect their personal
relationships with their peers, provided that the group leader uses the appropriate
counselling skills.
An important point to remember is that it is not the particular activity or outcome from
the activity that is important in a group, but rather the way the activity is processed in
terms of resulting behaviours and emotions. Skills for processing an activity will be
discussed in Chapter 18.

Counselling skills and facilitation skills required in children's groups

Counselling children in groups is clearly very different from counselling children


individually. The counsellor not only draws on knowledge about how to use those
particular counselling skills which are relevant for use in a group situation, but also
knowledge on how to facilitate the group process. An outline of information relating to
group facilitation and group counselling skills is provided in Chapter 18.

KEY POINTS

Where a number of children have similar problems or have had similar experiences it
can be advantageous to work therapeutically with them in a group setting.
Group work is particularly useful for children with social skills problems as a -group
piovides a safe environment in which the child can experiment with, practise, and
'ream ways* of relating.

Counselling groups can fulfil a supportive role for children who live in difficult
situations.

Therapy groups are particularly useful for many children who have been diagnosed
with a mental health disorder or are suffering from severe emotional distress. They
are also useful for children who do not have these severe problems but are
experiencing difficulty in coping with the stressors produced by life's challenges.

Psycho-educational groups are useful in providing children with information that will
help them to adjust to life situations and behave in more adaptive ways.

As when counselling children individually, counsellors running children's groups will


usually make extensive use of media and activity.

The suitability of a child for inclusion in a particular group can be assessed through
clinical observations and/or psychometric measures, or both.

Planning to run a counselling group includes consideration of goals for the group,
programme design, group composition, group size, length of the group sessions, and
the suitability of the environment in which the group is to be held.

7.4 Selecting group members


The most relevant variables in forming groups are age, gender, problem, and size of
group. Some counselors prefer a balance of boys and girls in the same group unless the
presence of the opposite sex would hinder discussion. Other counselors prefer to
eliminate tension by holding same-sex groups.

Homogeneity may be desirable for common-problems groups, such as children whose


parents are divorced. However, a homogeneous group of underachieves or drug users
probably would be counterproductive because no peer model and peer reinforcement for
improved behaviors would be present. Riva and Haub (2004) also caution that a group
format may increase the likelihood of early adolescents learning deviant behaviors unless
more socially adept young people are also included in the groups. Parents and adult
caregivers should also be part of that type of treatment. For children who act out or
withdraw, a heterogeneous group provides active discussion and role models.

The counselor should seriously consider the possible consequences of including children
with highly dissimilar interests or maturity levels and extremely dominating, manipulative,
gifted, or mentally retarded children. Children with extreme behaviors may be better
candidates for individual counseling, especially during the initial stages of therapy. Riva
and Haub (2004) suggest that extremely shy or anxious young people may find the group
format too stressful.

7.4.1 FORMING A GROUP

Counselors may begin by recruiting members for groups. Ritchie and Huss (2000) suggest
that counselors avoid labeling groups with names that imply a diagnosis or dysfunction.
Children may be identified by offering adults behavioral checklists, having children
volunteer, or from responses to needs assessments. Corey and Corey (2006) remind
counselors that some children are not ready to be members of groups. Counselors need
to establish clear criteria for all group participants.

Some reports of people being verbally attacked and hurt in groups that use extreme
methods may leave parents or children with reservations about participating in a group.
Counselors should explain fully the purpose of the group and the experiences planned to
ally fears.

SIZE OF GROUP

The number of children in the group depends on age, maturity, and attention span. Young
children ages 6 and 8 years have very short attention spans and are unable to give much
attention to others' concerns. Counselors may want to limit group size at this age to three
or four and to work with the children for only short time periods at frequent intervalsfor
example, 20 minutes twice a week. Counselors can work with a larger number of older,
more mature children for longer periodsfor example, six children, ages 10 to 12, for 30
minutes twice a week. The maximum number of children in a group that functions
effectively seems to be eight. However an ideal group counselling members should not
exceed 8 members per group.

Stages in group counselling

Gladding (2003) and Corey (2000) have identified four stages of group counseling.
The initial stageorientation and explorationis one of getting acquainted, determining
the structure of the group, and exploring the members' expectations. Group leaders focus
on creating a safe environment for the participants. Members are somewhat tentative and
reserved at this point; therefore, the leader should focus on making sure they feel included
and on developing trust. The leader and the group establish ground rules and group
procedure. In almost all groups, the leader should clarify the purpose of the group and the
responsibilities of the group members. The leader should emphasize the need for
confidentiality and other crucial guidelines. Some common procedures for groups with
children include having only one person speak at a time, listening to the speaker, taking
turns, and not making fun of each other. During the beginning of the group, the goal is for
members to build rapport and to learn to participate in the group. In summary, the early
stage of group process involves getting acquainted, warming up to other members,
learning about expectations, and building trust. Jacobs and Schimmel (2005) recommend
that group leaders pay attention to the ways group members relafg 8 each other, as well
as their connection with the purpose and content of the group in this and all other stages
of the group.

The transition phase of the group involves members testing each other. They
experiment with the new relationships and with the process of the group to determine who
and how much to trust. Corey (2000) characterizes this phase as one of dealing with
resistance, in which feelings of anxiety may increase and the group leader may be
challenged. The members will test the leader to determine whether the counselor can be
trusted and decide whether to get involved. The leader structures the group, clarifies the
purpose, and models trust.

As the members begin to accept each other, they move to the working stage. This is
the stage of cohesion and productivity. During this stage the members focus on identifying
their goals and concerns, and they are willing to work both in the group and outside to
address these concerns. As they focus on the issues on which they are working, they
explore and clarify the concerns, set goals, and practice new behaviors.

The last stage of group work includes the members evaluating what has been
accomplished and then exiting the group experience. The final stage= consolidation and
terminationis extremely important, according to Corey (2000), because consolidation of
learning takes place and members must be able to transfer what they have learned to
other situations outside the group. There may be some anxiety and reluctance to
terminate; therefore, the leader must deal with these feelings and any other unfinished
business, and then prepare members to use their new skills in their daily lives. The leader
should make arrangements for some follow-up and evaluation of the group process to
determine the effectiveness of the group and its effects on the member. A final group
session, an individual session, or a questionnaire may be used for this purpose.

GROUP SETTING

A room away from noise and traffic is the best setting. In addition, children should not fear
being overheard if they are expected to talk openly about their concerns. Groups should
be conducted with all members sitting in a circle so that everyone can see everyone else's
face. Some counselors prefer to have the children sit around a circular table; others think
tables are a barrier to interaction. Many counselors prefer to have groups of children sit in
a circle on a carpeted floor, which provides easy access for counselors to move the group
into play therapy.

GROUP STAGES

The iintenctions in groups change as participants continue to meet. Several authcors have
explained these different group stages and most include a move-mentt thnugh stages of
beginning, transition, working, and leaving.

Skills for Counselling Children in Groups

Counselling children in a group requires additional skills to those required when working
with children individually, as the counsellor has to facilitate the group process as well as
attending to the needs of individual children. Thus the counsellor has to do several things
simultaneously while the group is running. While facilitating group activities they have to
observe, notice and respond to issues concerning the group as a whole, while continuing
to attend to the iindivjd mal needs of group members. Consequently it is certainly
preferable, and we think ^essential, to have two group leaders who work together in each
counselling group.

Leadership

Two leaders offer two sets of observations, two perspectives and a broader experience
may complement each others strengths and weaknesses, and their relationship can serve
as a successful role model for relationships for the children (Siepkership Kandaras,
1985). Having two leaders is especially sensible for those groups where there is a high
degree of disturbance in a group. It is a necessity for groups where there the possibility of
disruptive or violent behaviour. For children's groups in general, the are considerable
practical advantages in having two leaders, as one can attend to the bole group while the
other attends to individuals with specific needs.

Leaders and sweepers

Where there are two leaders, before the start of a group session it is essential that they
agree about their individual roles and responsibilities. Our preferred model is for one
leader to take the primary role of leader and the other to take the role of sweeper. Each
time the group meets the leaders can, if they wish, reverse roles, so that the group does
not associate the primary leadership with one person. We believe that this is particularly
important when the co-leaders are of opposite gender.
The leader's role involves directly organizing and processing group activities. It is the
leader who makes decisions about what to do next, and is generally seen to be in charge.
The sweeper s role is different, but equally important. The sweeper's role includes being
supportive of the leader, attending to individual problems when these cannot be dealt
within the whole group setting, fetching and carrying materials, and attending to issues
that may arise as a result of a group process. An example of an issue which might be
dealt with by a sweeper is dealing with the difficult behaviour of one individual, if dealing
with this in the whole group setting might be counterproductive for the child concerned, or
might seriously intrude on an important group process.

Leadership style

Every leader will have their own personal leadership style, but that style is influenced by
the counselling model to be used. For example, when running a group using Cognitive
Behaviour Therapy, the style of leadership will tend to be didactic and directive, whereas
when running a group using a humanistic/existentialist counselling approach the leader
will be more likely to focus on the use of reflection and feedback of observations.

The leadership style also takes into account the needs of the particular group of children
involved. For example, when running a group for children with Attention Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), leaders may need to contain behaviours and be
predominantly authoritarian, whereas when running a group for anxious children a gentler
approach might be more suitable.

Whatever style is used, the leader's role is to take action to ensure the emotional and
physical safety of group members and to maximize the potential for achieving change.

It is important for leaders to take account of their own personality traits so that the style of
leadership they use is authentic and genuinely matches their individual personalities. They
can choose to use a predominantly democratic, or authoritarian, or laissez-faire leadership
style. However, we prefer to use a proactive approach involving a combination of these. In
the proactive approach, the leader is flexible, so that spontaneous movement from an
emphasis on one style to another occurs. Thus, during a group session, and over the life
of a group, we vary our style to maximize opportunities occurring in the group, and also to
suit the mood and activity of the group at any particular time.

Usually our proactive approach to leadership will make use of a democratic leadership
style as the predominant style to allow individuals in the group to feel free to make choices
within limits set by the group, while at the same time providing safety. However, being
proactive allows leaders to be authoritarian when appropriate, in order to ensure
compliance with group rules, and to ensure that goals are met. At other times leaders may
deliberately use a laissez-faire style for a while to allow children in the group more
freedom. During this period of freedom, they can observe the group's interactions,
behaviours and social skills, which can then be discussed or 'processed', as described
later.

Debriefing and supervision

Naturally, when there are two leaders, it is essential that they have a good working
relationship with each other. To achieve this, it is good practice to talk through any
negative feelings which arise. Debriefing also enables leaders to provide feedback and
support tor each other and to deal with issues with regard to group processes. During
debriefing leaders can discuss the emerging needs of the individual children and changes
which may be required in the way the group is facilitated to meet these needs.

As applies for counselling generally, it is essential for leaders to have ongoing


supervision from an experienced counsellor.

Group facilitation

While attending to issues which develop for the whole group, leaders also attend to the
issues of individual children. Some individual children may have unexpected and
excessive to a group programme. For example, they may demonstrate high
Levels of anxiety, become dissociative, regress, and/or withdraw as a consequence of the
programme content and/or the responses of other children. For some of these children, it
may be possible to attend to their needs in a whole group setting by using appropriate
intervention strategies and counselling skills. For other children this may not be possible. I
this case while the leader continues to address the needs of the group, the co-leader (the
sweeper) may need to attend separately to the

Group facilitation

While attending to issues which develop for the whole group, leaders also attend to the
issues of individual children. Some individual children may have unexpected and
excessive responses to a group programme. For example, they may demonstrate high
levels of anxiety, become dissociative, regress, and/or withdraw as a consequence of the
programme content and/or the responses of other children. For some of these children, it
may be possible to attend to their needs in a whole group setting by using appropriate
intervention strategies and counselling skills. For other children this may not be possible.
In this case, while the leader continues to address the needs of the group, the co-leader
(the sweeper) may need to attend separately to the child in question by exploring that
child's personal feelings and issues which have been triggered by the group programme.
As a consequence of such an intervention, the child may be able to readjust to the group
programme, or the child's membership of the group may need to be reassessed.

When running a group, it is sensible to plan the group programme in advance so that
activities can be deliberately selected to encourage the group to interact in ways that will
promote the achievement of specific goals. Examples of group programmes for children in
specific target groups are given in our book working with Children in Groups: A Handbook
for Counsellors, Educators and Community Workers (Geldard and Geldard, 2001).

During group sessions the leaders observe and influence the group processes so that
goals for individual children and the group can be met. Central to a leader's role is the
orchestration of the group programme in such a way that the children experience a
process which has a natural and comfortable flow as they participate in meaningful activity
and discussion. Effective facilitation creates an atmosphere of safety and containment so
that the children become free to explore, express themselves and gain from their
experience. The group leader gives directions and instructions, introduces and organizes
activities, facilitates discussion, gives support to individual children when required,
teaches, gives advice, and models appropriate behaviour. Additionally the leader also
deals with group issues as they arise. For example, when a child drops out of a group or a
new child joins the group the leader's role is to help the group to readjust.

During group sessions the leaders observe and influence the group processes so that
goals for individual children and the group can be met. Central to a leader s role is the
orchestration of the group programme in such a way that the children experience a
process which has a natural and comfortable flow as they participate in meaningful activity
and discussion. Effective facilitation creates an atmosphere of safety and containment so
that the children become free to explore, express themselves and gain from their
experience. The group leader gives directions and instructions, introduces and organizes
activities, facilitates discussion, gives support to individual children when required,
teaches, gives advice, and models appropriate behaviour. Additionally the leader also
deals with group issues as they arise. For example, when a child drops out of a group or a
new child joins the group the leader s role is to help the group to readjust.

Recognizing and dealing with confidentiality issues

In counselling groups for children the participants need to be able to trust that there will be
some level of confidentiality. If this is not so, they may not be willing to participate freely
and to disclose information which relates to their issues.

The confidentiality issue is complicated, as parents or carers have the right to


information about their children. It is therefore sensible for leaders to discuss the issue of
confidentiality with parents at the stage where the child is being assessed for suitability for
inclusion in the group as discussed in Chapter 10. Also, it is important to acknowledge that
group leaders cannot ensure that children in a group will respect the confidentiality of
others.

When counselling children in a group there is a possibility that group members may
disclose abusive behaviours by parents or others. If this happens, the information may
have to be reported to parents/carers, and/or the appropriate authorities, to ensure the
ongoing safety and protection of the child. In particular, it is imperative that any legal
requirements regarding reporting are observed.

When discussing issues of confidentiality with children in a group it is important to be


open about the limits to confidentiality, and early in the group programme to be clear about
any conditions and exceptions that might apply with regard to confidentiality.

Introducing and organizing activities

When activities are organized or introduced it is important for group leaders to explain
clearly what is expected. Often, some children in a group will be familiar with a particular
activity, whereas others will not. While introducing activities, it is usually sensible to
explain how the activity relates to the purpose of the group.

Facilitating discussion

To facilitate discussion, a leader's role includes guiding the verbal exchanges between
and among the children in the group. While a discussion is taking place the counselling
skills described later can be used to provide the children with the opportunity to share their
thoughts, feelings and ideas on relevant topics. Leaders may need to deal with
monopolizing behaviour and interruptions, and to encourage children who are not
participating to contribute. Leaders may also need to deal with diversions and
inappropriate contributions from children.

Counselling skills for use igbfn children's groups

The counselling skills selected for use when running a group will depend on the type of
group and the theoretical approach of the leaders. However, the counselling micro-skills
most commonly used in counselling groups for children include;

Observation

Active listenin
Summarizing
Giving feedback
Using questions
Confrontation
Giving instructions
Processing skills.

Observation

When using observation skills, leaders may usefully observe not only current behaviours
and social skills, but also changes in these over the life ot the group. The group
programme may then be adjusted, if necessary, to meet changes in perceived needs.

Active listening
Active listening skills include non-verbal responses, minimal responses, reflection of
content and feeling, and summarizing. These skills are particularly useful when
encouraging children to self-disclose and share personal information with a group.

Summarizing

The skill of summarizing is especially useful when working in groups as it enables a leader
to feed back to the group a concise synopsis of what has been discussed, so that the
children are able to grasp the central themes of the discussion. Sometimes, where a child
has rather poor communication skills, or has made a lengthy statement, it can be useful to
summarize the content of what the child has said so that it becomes clear to other
members of the group.

Giving feedback

GivjGiving feedback helps individual members and the group as a whole become aware of
the behaviours that are occurring in the group. Feedback may be given to the group as a
whole by using a comment such as,'I notice that there is a lot of interrupting in the group',
or, by say saying to an individual,'Annette, you are very active'.

Sometimes, feedback will be given with the intention of drawing attention to a group
process, which may be affecting two or more people. For example, a leader might say,'
Aminah, I notice that whenever Jasmine says anything, you give a big sigh.this might
allow Aminah to talk about her feelings towards Jasmine, might encourage Jasmine to
look at own behaviour, or might give other members of the group the opportunity to
comment on their perceptions and feelings related to the group process.

Rose amid Edleson (1987) provide sensible guidelines for giving feedback to children who
have been rehearsing new behaviours by role-playing.They suggest giving positive
feedback first so that the child receives reinforcement for engaging in the role play and is
then more open to receiving criticism. It is important for feedback to be specific, and that
criticism is couched in terms of actions or statements that could have been used as
alternatives. For example, a leader might begin by saying,'Mary, you did well in that role
play; it was difficult but you managed it", and then follow up by saying,you used a gentle
approach by hinting at what you wanted. An alternative to what you did would have been
to have asked Jimmy directly for what you wanted. That might have been more effective.'

Using questions

Whereas questions are best used sparingly when counselling children individually, they
can be very useful in group work, where a range of suitable types of question from a
number of different theoretical approaches can be employed. Examples of these are:

Questions to heighten a child's awareness: These questions help the child to recognize
and own feelings and thoughts. Examples are: 'What are you feeling emotionally right
now?','What is happening inside you right now?' and 'What are your tears saying?'
Follow-up questions to elicit more information: Questions such as,'Can you tell me
more?' and 'Is there anything else you can tell me about ...?' are useful in encouraging
children to continue in the disclosure of information which might otherwise be censored.

Circular questions: Circular questions are directed to one child, but ask that child about
the thoughts or feelings of another child or other children. Thus, they invite individual
group members to think about other children, and their behaviours, thoughts and feelings.
Often, the use of circular questions will promote useful discussion between children and
this may enhance group cohesion. Examples of circular questions are: 'Glenda, what do
you think Tom feels when April ignores him when he is talking to her?' and 'Keith, if you
had a guess, what do you think Billy might be thinking now that he's handed over the
leadership of his team to Kate?'

Transitional questions: Transitional questions help children return to the content of a


previous discussion which has been interrupted.They are particularly useful in children's
groups where children easily deflect away from topics which may be difficult to talk about.
Examples are:'Earlier, Brenda, you talked about your Mum and Dad separating; I wonder
how you feel about that right now?' and 'A while back, Eric was telling us about the time
when his brother attacked his father with a knife. Has anyone else in the group had a
frightening experience like that?'

Choice questions: These questions are useful when processing the outcomes of
incidents which arise in a children's group. Examples are: 'What would have been a better
choice for you to have made at the time when Hannah snatched your pencil?' and 'If the
same situation arises again, what do you think you will do?'

Cheer-leading, accenting and amplifying questions: These questions recognize and


affirm that desirable behavioural change has occurred. They make the change
newsworthy so that Confrontation

At times it is necessary for leaders to be confronting. They may wish to draw a child's, or
the groups attention, to incongruities between what is being said and what is being done
or being expressed non-verbally. They may also need to confront a child or the group with
regard to unacceptable behaviour.

A rule of thumb when confronting is that, before confronting a child, a leader tries to
ensure that the confrontation is done as a conscious deliberate act rather than as a knee-
jerk response to unconscious triggers (Spitz, 1987). It is important that confrontation be
designed to achieve a specific result, usually in the 'here and now'. Appropriate
confrontation is simultaneously tough and tender, in an empathic atmosphere of genuine
concern and caring (Rachman and Raubolt, 1985).

Giving instructions
When children join a group they are naturally uncertain about their leaders' expectations
of them. In order to feel safe, they need to be confident that someone is in charge, and
that the person in charge will take control and give directions and instructions when
necessary. It is also important for children to be clear about group rules and
responsibilities and issues related to confidentiality.

Processing skills

We think that processing interactions and activities is an essential part ot group work. You
may be wondering what we mean by processing, so we will explain. Processing; an
activity, or an interaction or discussion between members of a group, involves verrbally
exploring what each child, and the group as a whole, experienced while engaged in the
activity, interaction or discussion. Processing is an intervention that is deliberatelly used by
a leader in order to bring into focus what has occurred in the group, and tto raise the
children's awareness of their emotional feelings, thoughts, opinions and belitefs with
regard to what has occurred.

Processing usually involves the use of counselling skills. What the leader does, to
process an activity or interaction, is to ask questions and use feedback of observations to
discover what emotional feelings, perceptions, thoughts, opinions and beliefs, each child
experienced while engaged in the activity or interaction.

Additionally, processing may bring into the open factual information about behaviours or
group and/or individual processes. Through processing, children learn to take notice of
their feelings and thoughts and to recognize the influence of these on their beliefs,
attitudes, cognitive processes and behaviours. With this increased awareness, changes in
beliefs, attitudes, cognitive processes and behaviours may occur. Importantly, children
may recognize the influence of behaviours, thoughts and feelings on themselves and
others.This, in turn, may influence the ways they communicate and their relationships with
others. Processing not only offers the means for group members to learn about
themselves as individuals but also to learn about themselves as members of a group (Ehly
and Dustin, 1989).

Practice Questions
Chapter References
Glossary
Chapter 8

Career and Understanding Students own self

After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

Explain the career path and other trelated terms

Explain the concept of lifestyle based on several theories

Relate lifestyle with career choices;

Clarify the role of interest in future career planning;

Compare and contrast between different types of career interest test;

Explain the role of values in future planning and carrer

Identify the value of a career in career selection

Introduction
8.1 The concept of building a lifestyle
8.2 Exploring career interest and values
8.3 Individual evaluation by applying individuals psychological inventory
8.4 Role of counsellors in schools
8.5 Basic programmes in schools
8.6 Inventories used in schools
8.6.1 Free
8.6.2 Licenced
8.7 Conclusion

8.1 BUILDING LIFESTYLE CONCEPT

This chapter will focus on how children build their concept of lifgestyle and how it helps in their career. To some it is
career, and others see it as career development- they are all just a term. You need to understand what is lifestyle, and
then look at the relationship between the concept of building a career and a lifestyle.

Career Concepts and Career Development

A career means work that we do throughout the life span (Hoyt, in Sciarra,2004). In the context of the working work,
career refers to a person's overall work experience in a particular job category. For example, teaching, accounting,
medicine, engineering, sales, management, and so on.

In recent times, we find the importance of guidance and counseling services as a source of imformation to career
development. In fact, career education is starting to be absorbed in the formal curriculum at the primary school level.
Building a lifestyle concept

1. Logic Personal and Individual Lifestyle


According to Alder (1870-1937), private logic here refers to the ideas and beliefs, experiences of an individual. An
individual builds his lifestyle based on his unique perceptions, unique interpretation which describe the personality and
behavior of himself. This means that individuals act based on what they believe based on previous experiences.
Individuals develop their self-concept and the concept of life which can provide them guidance and lifestyle patterns. In
short, the behavior is determined by the perception of which they believe to be true .

Adler believes that Individual lifestyles are formed by the children at the age of 5 years. He opined that this lifestyle is a
strategy where individuals organize and use them to deal with their inferiority complex. Individual then can be shaped
into being artistic or intellectual, dominate or bully, malingering as a weapon to get attention and affection, and so on.
According to Alder, personality development is influenced by an individual's position in the family, including family size
and the means of child care by their parents.
There are several factors that contribute to negative self concept, like physical illness, negelect, lack of extreme love
abd affection during childhood.

1. Inferioriti Complex with individual Lifestyle

Inferioriti complex materialises when ideas and feelings arise in response to an individuals shortcomings in life. (Adler)
The term inferiority complex is widely used to represent the feelings of worthlessness, including shortcomings that led to
disastrous loss of self esteem or aggressive behavior. Individuals who are poor, do not socialise will strive to motivate
themselves to gain self esteem or superior to compensate for the shortcomings. However if these efforts fail, the
individual then suffer inferioriti complex.

2. Interests and Social Values of Individual Lifestyle

Social interest like the value of altruism is lush and nurtured in the family. Children who do not have a social interest face
social and emotional problems, including depression. Many people who seek counseling services consist of individuals
who frequently feel lonely and sidelined by others.

Mental health is measured by the quantity of social values belonging to an individual. In addition, the characteristic of
mental health is working with others as a member of the community, the confidence to interact with any group or social
situations, and be able to contribute to her community interaction, including the value of courage. Based on the Adlers
terms, courage include the social activities and interests. Individuals who have social interest are sually encouraged to
act with social interests. So they have dignity and self-confidence because of their actions are based on social interest
and not self-interest. Based on the discussion, individuals with stable mental health and social interests will be
conceptualized themselves as equal social standing and ready to make a meaningful contribution to the family,
8.2 Exploration of Working Interests and Values Career

Career concepts

Career is the whole area of work that is managed by an individual throughout his life. Career development is a
comprehensive development in the aspects of what he learned, and prepare the world for him to enter the field of
employment as an employee. Careers are work activities or tasks performed by an individual at a particular time. The
career education is the experience of education and job skills to progress until the individual is ready to enter the world
of their chosen profession or occupation.

Theories of Career

Selection Career Development Theory: Ginzberg and Super

Behavioral Theory of John Krumboltz

Structure Theory: John L. Holland

1. Career selection Development Theory

Ginzbergs Theory prioritise career period in the development , progression and Supers theory of self-concept and its
implementation.

a. Ginzbergs theory

Ginzberg noted that the process of selecting one's career includes three stages, namely fantasy, trial or tentative, and
realistic.

The Fantasy (6-11 Years)

In early years, a boy would do career selection based on the nearest adults ooccupation to him without understanding
the real situation.

The Trial / Tentative (11-18 Years)

The student begin to make a selection based on what they are passionate about. They think about whether it's
appropriate chosen career or not. Between the ages of 15-16 years, they began to relate selections existing career
interests and values. SPM students start thinking about the selection of either continuing education matriculation, or
sixth, or pursuing professional courses to suit their ambitions.

The Realistic (17-20 Years)


At this stage, the Form Sixth students or diploma students would consult a teacher or counselor for the purpose of
information and experience that will help them to make choice of careers.

Ginzberg (1972) reviews the theory and found that the process of career development does not stop at the age of 20
years. Instead, it is lifelong process.

Super Self Theory

Donald E. Super found three elements in the selection of the career development process. The process starts from the
childhood and continues until the time after retirement. Each element in the development process of career choice are:

Development of Self Concept


The process of formation self-concept occurs when a person appreciate the difference himself and others , such as
identifying people who often visited the house along with their role . This provides experience to build their self-
concept .

Translating the Self Concept of Employment Terms


Identify the role of people nearby and becoming aware of the ability in a job.

Realization of Self Concept of Career


They are aware of the needs of the professional training of a selected career. For example , a career in teaching
requires one to attend teacher training in Teacher Traiining Instituites and so on.

Development Stages Career Selection


Growth Stage ( 4-14 Years )
# Fantasy (4-10 years)
# Interests ( 11-12 years)
# Ability ( 13-14 years)
At this stage, an individual's self-concept is formed to make career choices.

Exploration Stage (15-24 Years )


# While ( 15-17 years)
# Transition ( 18-21 years)
# Trial ( 22-24 years)

At this stage, the individual is exploring himself to know the world of work . First career choice? They would talk among
friends to search for information about a chosen career. In the transition stage, they begin to realize the prospect of a
real career path and strive to set a career they choose.
Reinforcement stage ( 25-24 Tahunj
* Trial (25-30 years)
* Stability (31 -44 years)

At this stage, problems will occur because individuals will try to get a more secure career. It is possible that individuals
will change jobs. Selecting suitable job becomes more apparent, then the efforts to develop and strengthen themselves
in job will take.

The retention or preservation (45-64 Years)


At this stage, an individual's position in a career is stable. Therefore, he will try to maintain his career. Generally, at this
stage, the individual may have reached the perfection of self -actualization. However, Individuals who have not reached
stability in a job at, may experience frustration.

The decline and deterioration ( 65 years)

* Descending (65 years)


* Descending rapidly (65-70 years)
* Retired (71 years)

At this stage, the physical and mental process will be slowing down due to age. An individual begins to change his job
as doing part-time work. There are also individuals who have a lot of difficulty and frustration of not being able to face
the retirement with being more useful.

Super also pointed out that the decision of a lifetime career choice relates to the determinants of economic, social and
psychological. The economic determinants such as economic changes, changes in technology and warfare. Social
factors are like socio-economic status, education, nationality, race, religion and gender. Psychological determinants
include heritage breed intelligence, special talents, interests and values.

This development process not only involves external factors between individual and the world of work, but also the
internal compromise between the needs of individuals , parents and cultural influence .

John Krumboltzs Behavioral Theory

Krumboltz (1928 ) social learning relates to fulfilling ones education and then decision-making process of courses and
careers.

Factors Influencing the Process of Making decisions


(a ) Genetics and Special Abilities

i. Genetic dispositions and special abilities will limit the selection of an individual seducation and employment.

ii. Environmental Condition

iii. Environmental conditions including employment, training opportunities, changes in technology and education
system.

iv. Learning Experience

v. The learning experience includes instrumental learning experiences that emphasize the strengthening of the
ideas and experiences of learning. These individuals will be watching all the real behavior, either in accordance
with the desired career .

vi. Skills Approach Tasks

vii. Skills include values clarification task approach , information problem , alternatives , information search ,
alternative evaluation , selection and planning alternatives .

The counselling implication

The choice of a career is a process that involves interaction and the influence of various elements in long run. The role
of career counselors is to help clients to make dcareer choices decision-making by exploration and self assess their
potential, capabilities, abilities.

3. Theory of Structures: Theory Dr. John L. Holland

This theory emphasizes matching individuals with jobs. John L. Holland suggested four assumptions in the theory,
namely :

i. All individuals can be categorized into six types of personality, which is realistic, intellectual, artistic, social,
industrial and conventional

ii. There are six types of models of the environment is closely linked to six types of personalities.

iii. Individuals explore nature that allows them to develop the skills, attitudes, values and personality.

iv. Individual behavior is determined based on the interaction between personality type and characteristics of the
environment.

Lately there have been a number of instruments on the market that can be used as a career assessment profile in order
to obtain a robust and comprehensive planning and selection of a career. There are psychological instrument in the form
of inventory, where an individual are able to evaluate themselves , including interests, values, and personality traits in
relation to career fields of interest and what to get involved later.
One such instrument is the Self- Directed Search ( SDS ), which was created in 1971 by Holland Vocational
Preference Inventory based on [ VPI ] , an inventory that assesses personality career . SDS can be considered as a
catalyst to stimulate the person concerned to make active career exploration.

For Holland , SDS has two functions as follows :

a. assessment instruments , and


b. career interventions , also known as simulated counseling .

SDS is a career inventory are self-governance that can be taken online. Based on the scores obtained, the
interpretation will be made by experts for the purpose of preparing a detailed report. This report is sent to the person
concerned for further action.

SDS scores based on six human personal style, also known as career themes, namely:

Realistic ( R ) ;
Investigative ( I) ;
Artistic ( A) ;
Social ( S ) ;
Initiative ( E ), and
Conventional ( C )

Career Interest Inventory

Interest is the result of individual efforts to modify or audience - tasikan need to achieve a certain level of self-
satisfaction. Darley & Hagenah (1955) stated that an interest in the job is part of an individual's personality development.
Holland (1997) argues that career interests are similar to the selection of a career that can be interpreted as an
expression of individual personality. Thus, interest inventories can be interpreted as a personality inventory.

According to the theory of career development, interest in the work, including the work, the needs and traits, personality
traits of an individual will determine the involvement, concentration, and retention in employment on the basis of a field
goal kendirinya satisfaction.

Career Interest Inventory

There are different types of career interest inventory designed to measure individual career interests. Among the most
commonly used are:

1. Self- Directed Search (SDS)

2. Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI)

Both inventory, SDS and VPI, was built by John L. Holland.


Self Directed Search (SDS) is a career interest inventory consists of 192 items by using the response " Yes "or " No, to
gauge ones interest in work or personality type. The items are then grouped into 6 main categories , namely : Realistic (
R ) , investigative ( I) , Artistic (A ) Social ( S ) , Enterprising ( E ) , and Conventional ( C ) .

Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) is a career interest inventory containing 160 names of jobs to identify
vocational interests and personality traits, individual traits .

Responses to the items comprising the primary scale and scale Sounders.
Primary Scale is used to measure six personality types and areas of interest in the job , the realistic ( R ) , investigative (
I) , Artistic (A ) Social ( S ) , Enterprising ( I) , and Conventional ( C ) .

Meanwhile , the secondary scale is used to measure Self- Control ( SC ) , masculinity - Feminiti ( MF ) , Status ( ST ) ,
Infrequency ( INF ) , and Acquiescence ( AC ) .

Inventory for Self Understanding Pupil 1 . Personality Inventory

Personality Inventory is a testing tool used to identify traits - traits or characteristics of an individual's personality.

Kathleen (1978) personality inventory classify individuals into two categories, namely:

1 Projective personality inventory.

2 Non - projective personality inventory

Projective personality inventory is a subjective test that mengguflakgfl pictures and drawings to identify the
personality of the individual.

Meanwhile, non - projective personality inventory is an objective test because it uses the responses to those items
that are built with features or traits, personality traits. Andres (1983 ) argues that non - projective personality inventory is
an objective test because it contains two specific features , namely :

It uses two clear response, which is: Yes and " No" only.

It is designed based on the characteristic or trait, personality traits accurate and generally accepted.

Personality Inventory

There are many different types of personality inventory developed based different needs. .

a. Sidek Personality Inventory ( SRI )

Sidek Personality Inventory (PEI) using a rational approach was developed by Dr. Sidek Mohd Noah in 1987. IPSs
response to items identified individual personality traits - traits is Yes or " No" only.

Mooney Problem Check list (Mooney Problems Check List)


Mooney Problem Checklist is designed to identify the problems that interfere with young people at the High School. The
problems are divided into 11 categories and contains 220 items. For example, here is the Mooney Problem Checklist
modified by Tang Chee Yee (1996) and adapted by Mok Soon Sang (2007).In this checklist, Mooney (1950 ) divides the
problems that interfere with young people at the High School into 11 categories, each category consists of 20 items , as
revealed in the form of delinquency record on the following pages .

Uses Mooney Problem Checklist

1. To assist counselors counseling session with students after seeing the list of problems and give proper attention
to the problems to be discussed.

2. Understand the problems of students and identify students in need of counseling and career curriculum
development purposes.

3. Used as the basis for a career cluster and program orientation

4. To stimulate students to quickly understand and analyze its requirements.

5. To improve understanding of classroom teachers on the problems of pupils in his class.

6. Conduct research in the problems of students in the school.

7. To identify the changes and significant differences in terms of age, gender, social background, patterns and
other interests.

8. To measure the changes resulting from the reduction program implemented pupil problems

Step Checklist Managing the Questionnaire

Determine the objectives of the questionnaire


Determine the respondents in the study
Prepare an inventory of tools and questionnaires.
Distribute checklist followed by a presentation on the respondent to answer.
Collect back and do a mental checklist
Provide a report with recommendations to overcome the parties concerned.
Follow-up

SUMMARY OF CHAPTER
Among the key points discussed in this chapter are as the following
Career refers to the overall experience of one's work in a public job categories
Adler defines lifestyle as basic orientation of the individual to his life and cover assembly patterns recurring theme
throughout the life span
Theme lifestyle advocated by Adler composed of Interest - owned social; By : Charge ; Want recognition , and Be
careful .
Adler asserts that indirectly reflect or represent keijaya a whole lifestyle.
Career Interests reflect five components: personality; motivation or encouragement; view of self-concept or
identification; breed, and environmental influences.
Careers that we serve is consistent with the values we hold to the satisfaction and well-being
There are cutting across various types of career interest test and the career that you can take online.
According to Holland , the man and the work environment can be divided into six types, namely : Realistic ( R ) ,
investigative ( I) , artistic (A ) , social ( S ) , enterprising ( E ) , and Conventional ( C ) .
The better the match of personal style with the work environment, the more satisfying work environment.
Test Self- Directed Search (SDS) is a career inventory are self- governance that can be taken online in some test
centers.
SDS consists of three essential ingredients, namely: ( i ) Interpretation of the Book (Form R ) , (ii ) interpretation
report , and (iii ) Job Search .

Guidance and Counseling for Children

Model Holland Hexagon is a six - border geometric shapes are used to show the similarities and differences
between the six themes of work and RIASEC.
Follow-up action should be taken based on the interpretation of the resulting report seeks to obtain additional
information important in establishing educational and career planning to get involved later.

Practice Questions
Chapter References
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Prentice Hall.
Leong, F.T.L., Hartung, P.J., Goh, D., & Gaylor, M. (2001). Appraising birth order in career assessment: Linkages to
Holland's and Super's models. Journal of Career Assessment, 9(1), 25-39.
Nystul, M.S. (2003). Introduction to counseling: An art and science perspective (2 nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Sciarra, D.T. (2004). School counseling: Foundatioms and contemporary issues. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Watkins, C.E., Jr. (1993). Psychodynamic career assessment: An Adlerian perspective. Journal of Career Assessment,
7(4), 355-374.
Watkins, C.E., Jr. (1984). The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler: Toward an Adlerian vocational theory. Journal of
Vocational Behavior, 24, 28-47.
Laman Web
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