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Geochronology and geochemistry of volcanic


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Group, Lushan area, SE...

Article in Precambrian Research November 2013


DOI: 10.1016/j.precamres.2013.09.016

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Geochronology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks from the Shaojiwa


Formation and Xingzi Group, Lushan area, SE China: Implications for
Neoproterozoic back-arc basin in the Yangtze Block
Longming Li a,b , Shoufa Lin a,c, , Guangfu Xing d , Donald W. Davis e , William J. Davis f ,
Wenjiao Xiao b , Changqing Yin a,b
a
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada
b
State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, PR China
c
School of Resources and Environment, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230026, PR China
d
Nanjing Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, Nanjing 210016, PR China
e
Department of Geology, University of Toronto, 22 Russell Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3B1, Canada
f
Geological Survey of Canada, 601 Booth Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0E8, Canada

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: We present a systematic SHRIMP zircon UPb geochronological, geochemical and Nd isotopic study on the
Received 10 May 2013 Shaojiwa basalticrhyolitic suite and Xingzi amphibolites in Lushan area, Yangtze Block. The protoliths
Received in revised form 2 September 2013 of the amphibolites are low potassium tholeiitic basalts. Rhyolite and amphibolite yield SHRIMP zircon
Accepted 6 September 2013
UPb ages of 828 6 Ma and 811 12 Ma respectively. These ages suggest that the Xingzi Group formed in
Available online xxx
the Neoproterozoic rather than Paleoproterozoic as previously suggested. The basalts from the Shaojiwa
Formation have slightly positive Nd (t) values (0 to +0.7) and exhibit signicant enrichment in LILE and
Keywords:
LREE and strong depletion in HFSE, similar to arc-like volcanics. These geochemical and isotopic signatures
Neoproterozoic back arc basin
Shaojiwa Formation
suggest that the basalts might have been derived from a slightly depleted mantle source metasomatized
Xingzi Group by uid/melt released from a newly subducted slab with high degree of mantle melting. The rhyolites
Jiangnan Orogen exhibit similar Nd isotopic ratios as the associated basalts and show subparallel REE patterns which
Yangtze Block can be explained by fractional crystallization of the basalt magma. In contrast, the amphibolites from
the Xingzi Group have relatively high Nd (t) values (+3.4 to +4.0) and are characterized by nearly at
REE distributions with slight LREE depletion and generally similar contents of moderately incompatible
elements to those of the average N-MORB, but with relative enrichment in LILE, similar to the Mariana
back-arc basin basalt (BABB). The precursor magma of the amphibolites might have been originated
from an N-MORB source modied by slab-derived uids with relatively low degree of mantle melting.
The geochemical afnity to arc (or intra-continental BABB) of the Shaojiwa basalts and intra-oceanic
BABB of the Xingzi amphibolites appears to support the development of a Neoproterozoic incipient to
mature back-arc basin in the southeastern Yangtze Block during the 828 6 to 811 12 Ma period in
response to the rollback of subducted slab. Widespread Neoproterozoic igneous rocks in the Jiangnan
Orogen with ages older than 800 Ma most likely occurred in an arc-back-arc environment
2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction NEE-trending Jiangnan Orogen located on the SE margin of the


Yangtze Block is a key area for investigating and understanding
Understanding the formation and evolution of the Precambrian Precambrian tectonic evolution of SCB. This orogen is commonly
continental crust of South China Block (SCB) is essential for recog- assumed to be a collisional zone between the Yangtze and Cathya-
nizing the mechanisms and timing of the continental cratonization sia Blocks (Guo et al., 1980; Chen et al., 1991; Xu et al., 1992;
and destruction (Zheng and Zhang, 2007). The 1500 km long Zhou and Zhu, 1993; Shu et al., 1995; Charvet et al., 1996; Li
et al., 1997, 2002b; Li and Mu, 1999; Zhao and Cawood, 1999)
and contains a large proportion of igneous rocks (e.g., Wang et al.,
2004, 2006; Li et al., 2008, 2013; Zheng et al., 2008; Zhang et al.,
Corresponding author at: Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences,
2013). The geological record of the whole or part of the tectonic
University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Canada.
Tel.: +1 519 888 4567x36557; fax: +1 519 746 7484. cycle from subduction, back-arc rifting, to continental accretion
E-mail address: shoufa@uwaterloo.ca (S. Lin). and post-orogenic extension is preserved in this arc-continent

0301-9268/$ see front matter 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2013.09.016
2 L. Li et al. / Precambrian Research 238 (2013) 117

Fig. 1. (a) Simplied geological map of China showing the location of Jiangnan Orogen. (b) Simplied geological map of Yangtze Block showing the main strata in Jiangnan
Orogen (modied after Li et al., 2007; Zhao and Cawood, 2012). (c) Geological map for Lushan area showing the Shuangqiaoshan Group, Shaojiwa Formation and Xingzi
Group (modied after Tang and Liu, 2002).

collisional orogen, specically in the igneous rocks. However data their petrogenesis. They also can constrain in which stage of the
showing diverse geochemical characteristics and different ages tectonic cycle these volcanic rocks formed thus providing better
have led to very different interpretations of the tectonic history understanding of the Neoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the SCB.
of SCB (e.g., Greentree et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2008b; Zhao et al.,
2011). Some researchers proposed that the subduction started at 2. Geological background
ca. 930890 Ma, as indicated by eruption of the Shuangxiwu arc
magmatism in the far eastern part of the Jiangnan Orogen (Li et al., South China Block is composed of the Yangtze Block in the north-
2009b), and the nal assembly happened at ca. 880 Ma, as inferred west and the Cathaysia Block in the southeast. Jiangnan Orogen is
by occurrence of obduction-related granite (Li et al., 2008). Accord- located in the middle of the SCB (Fig. 1a). The folded basement
ing to these authors, after the nal assembly, extension occurred sequences along the Jiangnan Orogen, including the Sibao Group
at ca. 825 Ma, caused by a superplume which induced the breakup in Guangxi Province, the Fanjingshan Group in Guizhou Province,
of the Rodinia supercontinent (e.g., Li et al., 1995, 1999, 2003a,b, the Lengjiaxi Group in Hunan Province, the Shuangqiaoshan Group
2004; Wang and Li, 2003; Wang et al., 2007a). In contrast, other in Jiangxi Province and the Xikou Group in Anhui Province, show
workers suggest that subduction lasted to 830 Ma or even younger similar depositional, deformational, metamorphic and structural
(e.g., Wang et al., 2007b; Li et al., 2011; Zhao et al., 2011; Zhang et al., characteristics (BGMRGX, 1985; BGMRHN, 1988; BGMRJX, 1984;
2012b; Yin et al., 2013), and subsequent extension occurred dur- BGMRAH, 2008) which are different from the overlying Neopro-
ing 800760 Ma and resulted from post-orogenic relaxation (Wang terozoic sedimentary strata (e.g., the Danzhou/Banxi/Shangshu
et al., 2012b) or intra-continental rifting (Zheng et al., 2006, 2007, Group) (Fig. 1b). Lushan area which is located on the northern side
2008). One of the most important issues is determining which stage of the central part of Jiangnan Orogen comprises mainly three Pre-
of the tectonic process these igneous rocks produced. cambrian basement strata, the Xingzi Group, the Shuangqiaoshan
Recently Neoproterozoic back-arc basins that are closely linked Group and the Shaojiwa Formation (Fig. 1c). Xingzi Group was pre-
to the plate subduction process have been identied in South Anhui viously regarded as the only high-grade metamorphic Precambrian
(Zhang et al., 2012a; Yin et al., 2013) and Northeast Hunan (Zhang crystalline basement in the southeastern Yangtze Block (BGMRJX,
et al., 2013) providing another perspective to constrain the Pre- 1984; Zhang et al., 1999) besides the Archean to Paleoproterozoic
cambrian tectonic evolution of SCB. However back-arc basin basalt high-grade metamorphic Kongling complex located near the Three
(BABB) has rarely been reported in the whole Jiangnan Orogen and Gorges (Gao et al., 1999; Qiu and Gao, 2000; Zhang et al., 2006).
Yangtze Block. Our recent investigations identied a typical BABB It is underlain by both the Shuangqiaoshan Group and the Shao-
developed in Lushan area which is located on the northern side of jiwa Formation (Xie et al., 1997; Liu and Tang, 1999), although the
the central part of Jiangnan Orogen. contact is not preserved due to later shearing (Tang and Liu, 2002).
In this paper, we carried out a SHRIMP zircon UPb geochrono- The Xingzi Group is exposed as a NE trending belt in the
logical and geochemical Nd isotopic investigation on the volcanic Xixiansi-Guizongsi region, Lushan area. It primarily consists of
rocks of the Shaojiwa Formation and Xingzi Group in the Lushan metamorphosed psammites and pelites intercalated with minor
area. These data provide precise age constraints for the Shaojiwa metamorphosed basalt (Zhang et al., 1999). The main rock types
and Xingzi volcanic succession and enable us to better understand include garnet two-mica schists, staurolitegarnet schists, quartz
L. Li et al. / Precambrian Research 238 (2013) 117 3

Fig. 2. Field and microscope photographs for the basalt (a, b) and rhyolite (c, d) of Shaojiwa Formation and amphibolite (e, f) of Xingzi Group in Lushan area.

schists and leptites, locally intercalated with amphibolites. All these part of the Shaojiwa Formation with the rhyolitic rocks in the upper
rocks have experienced amphibolite facies metamorphism and PT part.
calculations indicate that peak metamorphism took place at tem- The samples in this study were collected from the Shaojiwa
peratures of 550680 C and pressures of 57 kbar (Tang and Liu, Formation and Xingzi Group, near Shaojiwa and Guizhongsi respec-
2002). The Xingzi Group was intruded by Late Proterozoic gneissic tively. The basalts of Shaojiwa Formation are grayish green and
granites (Li et al., 1998) and Mesozoic granites (Lin et al., 2000). show a pillow structure with amygdaloidal texture (Fig. 2a). The
Pegmatite dykes accompanied the intrusion of Mesozoic magmas, mineral assemblages of the basalts include 3040% phenocrysts and
and intersect the schistosity cleavages of the Xingzi Group at a high 6070% matrix, with phenocrysts being plagioclase and clinopy-
angle (Liu and Tang, 1999). Xingzi metamorphic rocks have also roxene and matrix containing ne grained plagioclase and minor
been regarded as the main part of the Lushan metamorphic core chlorite, calcite and titanite (Fig. 2b). The rhyolites of the Shaojiwa
complex (Xiang et al., 1993, 1994; Yin and Xie, 1996) which was Formation are gray with ow structure (Fig. 2c). The mineral assem-
caused by Mesozoic lithosphere extension and thinning (Zhu et al., blages of the rhyolites include 4050% phenocrysts and 5060%
2010). Much work has been done on chronostratigraphy, tectonic matrix, with phenocrysts being plagioclase and quartz (Fig. 2d).
environment and metamorphism of the Xingzi Group (Xiang et al., The amphibolites of the Xingzi Group are deep green and mas-
1993; Xie et al., 1997; Zhang and Zhang, 2003; Guan et al., 2010). sive (Fig. 2e). The mineral assemblages of the amphibolites include
The Shuangqiaoshan Group is in fault contact with the Xingzi amphibole, plagioclase and biotite with minor chlorite and titan-
Group and comprises the dominant basement strata in this region, ite (Fig. 2f). Two samples were collected for zircon UPb dating
equivalent to folded sequences in the western part of southeast- including one rhyolite from Shaojiwa Formation and one amphibo-
ern Yangtze Block. It is mainly composed of a thick pile of pelitic lite from Xingzi Group. Forty samples were collected for analyses
and sandy sedimentary rocks, with lesser volcanic rocks meta- of whole-rock major and trace elements, and fteen were further
morphosed to greenschist facies (Huang et al., 2003; Wang et al., selected for SmNd isotope analyses.
2008a). The Shaojiwa Formation is in fault contact with both the
Shuangqiaoshan Group and the Xingzi Group. Xie and Deng (1996)
rst dened the Lushan Ridge Group which consists of Shaojiwa 3. Analytical methods
and Hangyangfeng Formations in Lushan area. In contrast with
the Hangyangfeng Formation which mainly contains of subaerial Zircon concentrates were separated using standard density and
volcanic rocks, the Shaojiwa Formation is chiey composed of magnetic separation techniques. Zircon samples were embedded
basalticrhyolitic suite erupted in a shallow marine environment. in a polished epoxy mount and imaged by backscattered elec-
Field relationships show that the basaltic rocks occur in the lower tron (BSE) and cathode luminescence (CL) (Fig. 3). Both BSE and
4
Table 1
SHRIMP UPb zircon data for Shaojiwa rhyolite sample 08XQW-3 and Xingzi amphibolite sample 08XZ-4.

Grain U Th/U %Com. Ratios (common-Pb corrected) Erra Ages (common- Pb corrected, Ma)
206
Pb 207
Pb/206 Pb 1 (%) 207
Pb/235 U 1 (%) 206
Pb/238 U 1 (%) 208
Pb/232 Th 1 (%) 207
Pb/206 Pb 1 206
Pb/238 U 1 208
Pb/232 Th 1

08XQW-3: rhyolite from Shaojiwa Formation


1 174 0.65 20.7 0.06870 1.3 1.31227 1.9 0.13854 1.4 0.7 0.04424 3.5 890 28 836 11 875 30
2 98 0.61 11.4 0.06861 3.1 1.28248 3.5 0.13558 1.7 0.5 0.04025 6.9 887 64 820 13 798 54
3 176 0.57 20.5 0.06877 1.4 1.29212 2.0 0.13627 1.4 0.7 0.04316 3.8 892 29 824 11 854 32
4 75 0.63 8.7 0.07240 5.8 1.34393 6.0 0.13463 1.5 0.3 0.04469 7.2 997 119 814 12 884 62
5 152 0.58 18.0 0.06772 2.5 1.28725 2.8 0.13786 1.4 0.5 0.04480 4.4 860 51 833 11 886 38

L. Li et al. / Precambrian Research 238 (2013) 117


6 145 0.63 17.4 0.07047 1.5 1.35891 2.1 0.13986 1.4 0.7 0.04742 3.8 942 31 844 11 936 35
7 144 0.53 17.1 0.06567 2.9 1.24800 3.2 0.13783 1.4 0.4 0.04009 5.0 796 60 832 11 795 39
8 79 0.56 9.2 0.06725 2.3 1.25066 2.7 0.13489 1.5 0.5 0.03984 5.7 845 47 816 11 790 44
9 99 0.48 11.4 0.07063 3.6 1.29736 3.9 0.13322 1.5 0.4 0.04381 6.2 947 73 806 12 867 53
10 120 0.48 14.5 0.06695 1.6 1.29263 2.1 0.14003 1.4 0.7 0.04680 4.4 836 33 845 11 924 40
11 133 0.69 15.8 0.06523 1.7 1.24448 2.2 0.13837 1.4 0.6 0.04640 3.8 782 36 835 11 917 34
12 109 0.66 13.0 0.06453 3.3 1.22849 3.6 0.13806 1.5 0.4 0.04114 4.9 759 70 834 11 815 39
13 145 0.61 16.4 0.06930 3.1 1.26083 3.4 0.13195 1.5 0.4 0.03919 4.9 908 63 799 11 777 38
14 166 0.69 19.3 0.06689 1.4 1.25068 2.2 0.13561 1.7 0.8 0.04170 3.7 834 30 820 13 826 30

08XZ-4: amphibolite from Xingzi Group


1 78 1.47 8.8 0.06126 5.2 1.10615 5.5 0.13096 1.5 0.3 0.03716 4.2 648 113 793 11 738 30
2 269 0.52 30.4 0.06615 1.1 1.20186 2.0 0.13177 1.7 0.8 0.04199 3.3 811 24 798 12 831 27
3 133 0.94 15 0.06910 1.5 1.27550 2.2 0.13387 1.7 0.8 0.04299 4.9 902 30 810 13 851 40
4 75 0.35 9 0.08261 14 1.59613 15 0.14013 3.4 0.2 0.04510 31.3 1260 278 845 27 892 273
5 184 1.01 21 0.06705 4.9 1.20719 5.3 0.13059 2.1 0.4 0.03741 5.2 839 102 791 15 742 38
6 134 0.35 20 0.08007 2.5 1.92529 3.5 0.17439 2.5 0.7 0.04760 12.9 1199 49 1036 24 940 118
7 1215 0.46 139 0.06531 0.9 1.20104 1.5 0.13337 1.2 0.8 0.03812 3.5 784 20 807 9 756 26
8 515 0.77 63 0.06668 1.0 1.31412 1.6 0.14294 1.3 0.8 0.04581 3.1 828 21 861 10 905 28
9 250 0.53 29 0.07102 2.0 1.33222 2.6 0.13604 1.7 0.6 0.04597 6.2 958 41 822 13 909 55
10 527 0.67 62 0.06570 2.4 1.23913 2.7 0.13678 1.3 0.5 0.04225 3.7 797 50 826 10 836 30
11 256 0.72 44 0.08105 3.6 2.23274 3.9 0.19980 1.5 0.4 0.06535 5.0 1223 71 1174 17 1280 62
12 345 0.58 40 0.06770 1.8 1.26758 2.3 0.13580 1.5 0.6 0.04216 5.2 859 37 821 11 835 42
13 96 0.73 11 0.06290 4.7 1.15255 5.1 0.13289 2.1 0.4 0.04041 12.1 705 99 804 16 801 95

Data in this table were calculated after 204 Pb corrections. The common Pb compositions were estimated from 204 Pb counting, assuming an isotopic composition of Broken Hill lead related to surface contamination (Nelson, 1997).
All errors are 1sigma (1).
a
Err represents error correlation coefcient.
L. Li et al. / Precambrian Research 238 (2013) 117 5

times of about 20 min per spot. The common Pb component was


estimated from 204 Pb counts, assuming a typical terrestrial com-
mon Pb composition for the indicated age (Stacey and Kramers,
1975). Analytical procedures for the SHRIMP II instrument at the
Geological Survey of Canada are described in Stern (1997). Data
processing used SQUID software by Ludwig (2001). UPb zircon
data are listed in Table 1. Data are plotted on Fig. 4 with a concordia
age calculated using Isoplot software (Ludwig, 1998, 2003). Uncer-
tainties on individual analyses are reported at 1 level and mean
ages for pooled 206 Pb/238 U results are quoted at 95% condence
level.
Major element contents of whole rocks were determined using
a Rigaku RIX 2000 X-ray uorescence spectrometer (XRF) at the
Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sci-
ences, on fused glass beads. Based on the measured values of
rock standards (BHVO-1 and AGV-1), the analytical uncertainties
are estimated to be better than 3% for all the major elements.
Trace elements were measured by a VG PQ Excell inductively cou-
pled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) in the Department of
Earth Sciences, University of Hong Kong. Sample solution prepa-
ration and analytical procedures were similar to those described
by Li et al. (2009a). A set of international standards including
BHVO-1, G-2, GSR-3 and AGV-1 was used to estimate the accu-
racy and precision of the analyses. The analytical precision for
most trace elements is better than 2%. The results are presented
in Table 2.
SmNd isotopic analyses were carried out at the Guangzhou
Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Nd iso-
topic compositions were determined using a Micro Mass Isoprobe
Multi-collector Mass Spectrometer (MC-ICPMS). The analytical
procedures are similar to those described by Li et al. (2004). The
results are presented in Table 3.

4. Dating results
Fig. 3. Cathodo-luminescence (CL) images for analyzed zircons from Shaojiwa rhy-
olite (08XQW-3) and Xingzi amphibolite (08XZ-1).
4.1. Shaojiwa Formation

CL images were used to select areas for analysis, preferentially Rhyolite sample 08XQW-3 (N 29 30 05.1 , E 115 55 37.7 ) col-
targeting primary, uniform crystal domains and avoiding cracks lected from the Shaojiwa Formation in Lushan area, Jiangxi
and alteration. Zircon UPb isotopic analyses were undertaken Province is used for SHRIMP zircon UPb dating. All zircons from
using the SHRIMP-II ion microprobe at the Geological Survey of this sample are short to long euhedral, transparent, colorless
Canada in Ottawa. A primary ion beam diameter of about 20 m with abundant axial round melt inclusions, ranging from 100
(K120 Kohler aperture) was used for all grains with analysis to 200 m in lengths, and have length to width ratios between

Fig. 4. Zircon SHRIMP UPb Concordia diagram for the dated Shaojiwa rhyolite (08XQW-3) and Xingzi amphibolite (08XZ-1) in Lushan area.
6 L. Li et al. / Precambrian Research 238 (2013) 117

Table 2
Major and trace element data for volcanic rocks in Lushan area, SE China.

Sample 08XZ-4 08XZ-5 11XZ-1-1 11XZ-1-2 11XZ-1-3 11XZ-1-4 11XZ-1-5 11XZ-1-6 11XZ-1-7 11XZ-1-8

Xingzi amphibolites

SiO2 50.13 50.23 49.35 49.19 50.06 49.29 49.79 50.82 49.67 51.96
TiO2 1.45 1.48 1.30 1.26 1.25 1.30 1.30 1.18 1.29 1.31
Al2 O3 13.7 13.1 13.2 13.1 13.8 12.8 13.0 14.4 13.8 13.3
Fe2 O3 T 13.2 13.3 12.6 12.6 11.4 12.5 12.5 11.5 12.6 11.7
MnO 0.21 0.22 0.21 0.21 0.19 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.21 0.21
MgO 6.83 6.59 8.25 8.33 7.89 8.49 8.10 6.71 7.12 6.82
CaO 10.2 10.6 10.9 11.3 11.2 11.3 10.9 11.4 11.1 10.4
Na2 O 3.13 3.21 2.90 2.67 2.88 2.61 2.87 2.66 2.67 2.94
K2 O 0.08 0.11 0.16 0.16 0.24 0.16 0.15 0.10 0.10 0.14
P2 O5 0.11 0.12 0.12 0.11 0.10 0.12 0.12 0.11 0.12 0.12
LOI 0.52 0.50 0.61 0.63 0.67 0.83 0.73 0.57 0.90 0.80
Total 99.46 99.46 99.62 99.61 99.62 99.61 99.63 99.59 99.61 99.63
V 400 391 442 443 445 452 463 433 493 461
Cr 241 237 99.0 97.8 246 135 103 57.6 53.9 80.2
Co 39.8 40.0 51.7 53.7 49.4 51.0 50.7 43.5 50.1 42.2
Ni 43.9 43.9 77.8 82.2 84.3 82.8 75.4 51.0 51.9 43.6
Ga 17.4 16.5 3.85 3.84 3.89 3.55 3.48 3.72 3.66 3.23
Rb 3.02 2.83 3.71 3.56 4.93 3.44 3.35 3.18 3.18 3.37
Sr 113 110 129 128 133 124 131 192 179 126
Y 30.6 28.3 30.8 30.8 30.6 28.3 31.0 25.9 29.9 29.4
Zr 52.1 81.2 59.7 60.5 55.4 51.9 57.7 48.6 58.5 56.0
Nb 1.49 1.41 1.89 1.89 1.92 1.75 1.93 1.77 1.98 1.85
Cs 0.43 0.39 0.21 0.19 0.33 0.23 0.22 0.30 0.23 0.21
Ba 15.0 15.3 48.2 45.4 47.4 37.4 39.5 23.7 24.8 26.0
La 3.84 3.69 3.11 3.17 3.06 2.95 3.18 2.86 3.14 3.20
Ce 10.1 9.98 7.87 7.98 7.58 7.47 8.13 7.12 8.05 8.11
Pr 2.10 2.02 1.40 1.41 1.38 1.32 1.46 1.29 1.43 1.45
Nd 10.5 10.3 8.43 8.37 8.28 8.15 8.77 7.73 8.53 8.69
Sm 3.67 3.49 3.00 3.01 2.99 2.93 3.14 2.75 3.05 3.10
Eu 1.15 1.12 0.73 0.74 0.75 0.69 0.76 0.68 0.70 0.73
Gd
Tb 0.82 0.79 0.60 0.59 0.60 0.58 0.63 0.54 0.60 0.62
Dy 5.91 5.71 4.84 4.75 4.85 4.74 5.07 4.36 4.90 5.02
Ho 1.33 1.28 1.06 1.05 1.07 1.04 1.11 0.96 1.07 1.09
Er
Tm 0.68 0.66 0.43 0.44 0.44 0.42 0.45 0.39 0.44 0.44
Yb 4.11 4.15 2.69 2.67 2.70 2.57 2.82 2.40 2.71 2.74
Lu 0.56 0.57 0.41 0.42 0.42 0.40 0.43 0.38 0.42 0.42
Hf 2.16 2.73 2.05 2.04 1.95 1.90 2.08 1.80 2.03 2.06
Ta 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.13 0.15 0.13 0.14 0.14
Pb 4.49 4.35 1.87 1.57 1.77 1.70 1.88 3.17 2.65 1.46
Th 0.75 0.71 0.49 0.49 0.44 0.43 0.47 0.41 0.46 0.47
U 0.18 0.18 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.11 0.13 0.11 0.11 0.12

Sample 11XZ-1-9 11XZ-1-10 08XQW-1 08XQW-2 12JX-9-1 12JX-9-2 12JX-9-3 12JX-9-4 12JX-9-5 12JX-9-6

Xingzi amphibolites Shaojiwa basalts

SiO2 52.02 49.57 55.18 54.27 59.63 59.53 49.14 54.15 52.20 51.11
TiO2 1.29 1.26 1.14 1.23 1.43 1.54 0.97 1.10 1.19 1.22
Al2 O3 13.3 13.2 15.1 16.4 11.5 12.2 13.9 15.7 15.8 16.4
Fe2 O3 T 11.9 12.3 8.73 9.01 9.10 8.48 13.12 7.25 8.43 10.1
MnO 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.17 0.13 0.11 0.19 0.10 0.11 0.12
MgO 6.78 7.71 4.78 4.99 4.34 3.80 6.79 4.73 5.80 5.14
CaO 10.1 11.37 7.17 5.58 7.28 7.22 8.71 7.14 7.84 7.20
Na2 O 3.05 2.65 4.53 4.93 2.15 2.51 2.56 5.46 4.69 3.62
K2 O 0.15 0.16 0.20 0.23 0.48 0.55 0.68 0.48 0.36 1.03
P2 O5 0.12 0.11 0.17 0.20 0.27 0.29 0.05 0.17 0.20 0.20
LOI 0.67 1.03 2.43 2.55 3.02 3.09 3.31 3.09 2.80 3.22
Total 99.64 99.62 99.54 99.53 99.37 99.37 99.37 99.37 99.37 99.37
V 456 462 263 276 191 194 283 170 152 234
Cr 73.7 166 109 84.8 213 189 276 72.6 83.4 82.7
Co 41.7 53.3 31.0 26.4 30.5 28.2 47.9 26.8 29.0 29.8
Ni 42.0 81.7 49.1 44.3 54.0 49.4 68.1 42.9 43.9 47.4
Ga 3.28 3.63 18.1 18.5 20.0 18.9 21.5 16.3 17.7 30.4
Rb 3.34 4.31 3.96 6.05 11.4 11.8 6.79 11.7 8.36 25.1
Sr 128 138 106 197 120 132 155 157 199 261
Y 30.0 27.6 27.4 28.5 37.7 36.8 62.3 28.4 31.5 34.4
Zr 58.9 49.6 162 151 172 189 238 146 159 172
Nb 1.88 1.78 4.49 4.52 7.61 7.73 9.93 6.01 6.43 6.80
Cs 0.26 0.35 1.28 1.97 0.80 0.89 0.61 1.05 0.69 2.64
Ba 26.3 35.2 91.1 86.8 179 155 93.4 147 156 363
La 3.07 2.76 14.6 15.0 13.7 15.0 22.8 16.0 22.1 23.5
Ce 7.82 7.01 35.4 36.1 36.2 37.5 48.2 38.4 44.5 44.0
Pr 1.37 1.26 5.24 5.42 5.25 5.26 6.97 5.15 6.12 5.87
L. Li et al. / Precambrian Research 238 (2013) 117 7

Table 2 (continued )

Sample 11XZ-1-9 11XZ-1-10 08XQW-1 08XQW-2 12JX-9-1 12JX-9-2 12JX-9-3 12JX-9-4 12JX-9-5 12JX-9-6

Xingzi amphibolites Shaojiwa basalts

Nd 8.17 7.67 20.6 20.9 21.7 21.5 28.7 20.3 24.1 23.1
Sm 2.91 2.74 4.88 5.15 5.82 5.63 7.88 4.94 5.88 5.66
Eu 0.67 0.72 1.14 1.17 1.10 1.14 2.11 0.91 1.09 1.63
Gd 4.36 4.62 5.92 5.67 8.10 4.80 5.69 5.68
Tb 0.58 0.55 0.83 0.86 1.07 1.03 1.48 0.83 0.98 0.97
Dy 4.70 4.47 5.25 5.66 6.78 6.47 9.26 5.10 5.88 6.06
Ho 1.02 1.00 1.15 1.27 1.35 1.30 1.85 1.03 1.14 1.21
Er 3.00 3.20 3.98 3.85 5.35 3.01 3.28 3.53
Tm 0.42 0.40 0.59 0.59 0.57 0.55 0.76 0.43 0.46 0.51
Yb 2.62 2.51 3.40 3.57 3.68 3.59 4.87 2.77 2.97 3.29
Lu 0.40 0.39 0.50 0.51 0.55 0.54 0.72 0.41 0.44 0.49
Hf 2.03 1.80 4.42 4.49 4.31 4.31 5.57 3.57 3.81 4.14
Ta 0.14 0.13 0.39 0.42 0.66 0.53 0.69 0.43 0.45 0.48
Pb 1.41 1.92 18.2 17.10 7.74 8.07 7.24 3.97 5.06 7.38
Th 0.46 0.39 5.34 5.63 4.13 4.03 5.27 4.85 5.14 5.65
U 0.12 0.11 1.21 1.21 0.94 0.92 1.25 1.08 1.17 1.18

Sample 12JX-9-7 12JX-9-8 12JX-10-1 12JX-11-1 12JX-11-2 12JX-11-3 12JX-11-4 12JX-11-5 12JX-11-6 12JX-11-7

Shaojiwa basalts

SiO2 54.98 51.88 49.32 53.29 52.97 53.06 53.65 54.03 48.57 51.28
TiO2 1.13 1.17 2.42 1.23 1.19 1.23 1.15 1.24 1.73 1.46
Al2 O3 15.8 15.4 15.5 15.9 15.3 15.6 15.0 15.2 16.2 15.6
Fe2 O3 T 7.77 9.92 12.9 9.74 9.22 9.93 9.77 9.83 12.0 11.5
MnO 0.09 0.12 0.18 0.16 0.18 0.14 0.15 0.15 0.17 0.15
MgO 4.91 5.10 5.46 5.36 5.21 5.47 5.56 5.60 6.47 6.31
CaO 6.05 7.89 7.52 6.05 7.07 7.39 7.56 7.09 4.65 4.84
Na2 O 4.72 3.30 2.95 4.67 4.60 3.09 3.17 3.15 4.38 4.64
K2 O 0.82 0.95 1.15 0.16 0.16 0.30 0.38 0.39 0.17 0.15
P2 O5 0.21 0.18 0.30 0.19 0.19 0.20 0.18 0.19 0.34 0.28
LOI 2.92 3.44 1.65 2.68 3.29 2.98 2.83 2.52 4.76 3.13
Total 99.37 99.37 99.37 99.37 99.37 99.37 99.37 99.37 99.39 99.37
V 138 225 221 211 202 246 266 247 242 205
Cr 78.9 77.2 48.3 76.5 75.0 98.9 132 95.6 132 174
Co 27.9 27.8 38.6 24.0 26.6 30.5 30.3 28.8 32.2 30.7
Ni 45.9 44.3 45.3 46.3 53.1 55.6 62.9 55.2 36.5 37.6
Ga 22.5 26.3 27.0 16.8 16.5 25.1 27.4 26.6 20.8 17.8
Rb 17.1 22.6 29.5 3.24 3.90 6.93 11.1 10.5 5.03 3.17
Sr 158 249 265 253 256 354 328 307 226 210
Y 25.4 33.8 50.7 29.8 26.8 34.5 33.2 31.6 55.0 35.0
Zr 151 163 263 160 165 181 174 164 261 211
Nb 6.08 6.56 10.8 6.42 6.56 7.13 6.94 6.59 10.3 8.10
Cs 1.58 2.41 3.46 0.42 0.44 1.06 2.03 2.03 1.19 0.68
Ba 278 284 243 79.9 98.6 200 281 294 63.0 54.2
La 13.5 17.3 18.0 16.2 11.6 17.8 16.8 15.7 29.2 14.9
Ce 35.4 40.6 47.9 39.2 33.7 42.6 41.4 39.2 57.4 39.6
Pr 4.84 5.47 7.08 5.34 4.51 5.85 5.65 5.35 8.03 5.57
Nd 18.9 21.6 29.5 21.0 18.4 23.3 22.4 21.3 32.4 22.6
Sm 4.57 5.39 7.79 5.08 4.76 5.77 5.52 5.34 8.25 5.90
Eu 0.76 1.67 1.87 0.97 0.91 1.40 1.18 1.17 1.88 1.18
Gd 4.32 5.40 7.60 4.95 4.65 5.75 5.44 5.24 8.16 5.80
Tb 0.76 0.95 1.39 0.87 0.84 1.01 0.96 0.92 1.45 1.04
Dy 4.68 5.91 8.56 5.36 5.30 6.31 6.03 5.79 8.97 6.53
Ho 0.94 1.19 1.70 1.08 1.07 1.25 1.21 1.15 1.79 1.32
Er 2.80 3.47 4.98 3.21 3.18 3.70 3.61 3.44 5.19 3.92
Tm 0.40 0.50 0.71 0.46 0.45 0.53 0.52 0.49 0.74 0.57
Yb 2.64 3.23 4.57 3.02 3.00 3.51 3.41 3.22 4.77 3.74
Lu 0.40 0.48 0.68 0.46 0.44 0.53 0.51 0.49 0.72 0.57
Hf 3.70 3.92 5.90 3.88 4.08 4.50 4.31 4.08 6.19 4.99
Ta 0.43 0.45 0.71 0.44 0.80 0.53 0.49 0.47 0.72 0.57
Pb 3.94 7.08 5.99 5.80 6.20 10.4 9.77 8.80 3.01 2.94
Th 4.93 5.25 3.40 4.98 3.84 5.89 5.70 5.35 6.62 5.27
U 0.99 1.08 0.69 1.19 1.24 1.41 1.34 1.28 1.53 1.22

Sample 12JX-11-8 08XQW-3 12JX-12-1 12JX-12-2 12JX-12-3 12JX-12-4 12JX-12-5 12JX-12-6 12JX-12-7 12JX-12-8

Shaojiwa basalt Shaojiwa rhyolites

SiO2 51.92 79.87 76.04 72.52 74.56 70.88 75.02 76.17 67.82 70.04
TiO2 1.38 0.28 0.29 0.31 0.28 0.38 0.30 0.31 0.43 0.39
Al2 O3 15.4 11.1 12.7 13.5 12.4 14.2 12.2 11.2 14.7 13.9
Fe2 O3 T 10.7 0.77 2.22 3.37 3.11 3.80 2.95 2.37 3.91 3.46
MnO 0.14 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04
MgO 5.99 0.14 0.41 0.84 0.59 1.03 0.60 0.54 1.37 1.22
CaO 5.54 0.30 0.44 2.98 3.26 1.13 2.95 3.59 0.47 0.40
8 L. Li et al. / Precambrian Research 238 (2013) 117

Table 2 (continued )

Sample 12JX-11-8 08XQW-3 12JX-12-1 12JX-12-2 12JX-12-3 12JX-12-4 12JX-12-5 12JX-12-6 12JX-12-7 12JX-12-8

Shaojiwa basalt Shaojiwa rhyolites

Na2 O 4.65 4.58 5.75 0.77 0.95 1.26 1.33 1.02 0.41 0.30
K2 O 0.09 2.31 0.88 3.36 2.77 4.74 2.61 2.37 8.50 8.12
P2 O5 0.26 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.07 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.05
LOI 3.25 0.38 0.52 1.57 1.37 1.80 1.30 1.75 1.61 1.43
Total 99.38 99.82 99.36 99.36 99.36 99.37 99.36 99.37 99.36 99.36
V 208 2.94 1.59 3.14 2.40 4.19 2.21 1.81 6.14 5.74
Cr 153 -1.04 3.81 265 8.99 15.63 4.88 5.93 5.60 6.04
Co 27.4 3.87 2.77 3.60 2.70 2.49 2.21 2.40 3.27 2.99
Ni 35.7 3.84 n.d. 114 2.80 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Ga 19.2 10.8 3.02 13.2 11.63 14.4 12.41 8.96 20.2 16.1
Rb 1.52 33.1 39.1 159 111 183 113 92.7 315 290
Sr 243 27.6 35.3 347 253 172 221 311 27.8 24.1
Y 38.1 43.7 38.8 80.7 87.1 93.1 87.0 66.9 114 97.3
Zr 220 368 389 432 378 399 402 413 530 476
Nb 8.07 9.10 12.9 14.8 13.1 13.3 13.6 13.9 15.9 14.6
Cs 0.31 5.06 6.99 7.64 5.80 10.5 6.16 3.93 19.0 16.5
Ba 78.2 413 129 879 731 1124 806 583 1392 1324
La 17.4 23.8 38.2 53.0 42.9 64.1 39.9 51.9 57.6 49.1
Ce 43.8 67.4 75.2 106 94.5 122 87.7 101 119 108
Pr 6.09 8.34 9.06 12.5 11.0 14.4 10.4 12.0 14.4 12.7
Nd 24.6 32.6 34.1 47.3 40.7 55.5 39.2 45.8 55.2 48.3
Sm 6.30 8.07 8.07 11.4 9.93 13.2 9.73 10.9 13.6 11.7
Eu 1.40 0.97 0.99 1.90 1.66 2.27 1.65 1.52 2.06 1.73
Gd 6.20 6.61 7.65 11.1 9.86 13.4 9.81 10.7 13.2 11.4
Tb 1.12 1.36 1.32 2.00 1.87 2.36 1.85 1.87 2.45 2.08
Dy 7.04 9.09 7.94 12.6 12.4 14.4 12.3 11.4 16.0 13.5
Ho 1.41 2.00 1.55 2.53 2.57 2.75 2.56 2.21 3.32 2.83
Er 4.19 5.14 4.54 7.59 7.51 7.78 7.62 6.52 10.3 8.74
Tm 0.61 1.10 0.65 1.12 1.07 1.11 1.11 0.95 1.53 1.33
Yb 4.02 6.79 4.25 7.42 6.78 7.27 7.12 6.24 10.0 8.75
Lu 0.60 0.94 0.63 1.10 0.98 1.08 1.06 0.92 1.46 1.27
Hf 5.24 10.8 9.61 11.2 9.65 10.4 10.5 10.6 14.5 12.8
Ta 0.58 0.85 0.96 1.11 0.95 1.04 1.02 1.06 1.41 1.26
Pb 3.58 7.97 19.7 35.9 20.9 26.4 23.0 27.2 18.7 19.2
Th 5.57 14.7 12.7 15.9 14.6 16.2 15.4 14.9 22.8 20.3
U 1.29 2.92 3.17 3.93 3.98 3.77 4.12 3.67 5.18 4.39

2:1 and 3:1. CL images reveal the presence of oscillatory zon- Fig. 4a), which is interpreted as the formation age of the rhyo-
ing in all the zircons and no inherited zircon was observed lite.
(Fig. 3a). Fourteen gains were analyzed. Their Th concentrations
range from 43 to 111 ppm, U from 75 to 176 ppm, and Th/U 4.2. Xingzi Group
ratios from 0.48 to 0.69. Except three relatively dicordant anal-
ysis (spots 4, 6, 9), eleven analyses form a single, concordant Amphibolite sample 08XZ-4 (N 29 25 48.6 , E 115 55 13.4 ) col-
group with a Concordia age of 828 6 Ma (n = 11, MSWD = 3.5, lected in Guizongsi, Xingzi County is used for SHRIMP UPb dating.

Table 3
SmNd isotope data for the volcanic rocks from Xiaojiwa Formation and Xingzi Group in Lushan area, SE China.

Sample Sm (ppm) Nd (ppm) 147


Sm/144 Nd 143
Nd/144 Nd 2 m Nd (t)

Rhyolites
12JX-12-2 11.4 47.3 0.146480 0.512339 0.000010 0.5
12JX-12-4 13.2 55.5 0.144506 0.512314 0.000008 0.8
12JX-12-6 10.9 45.8 0.145203 0.512400 0.000010 0.8
12JX-12-7 13.6 55.2 0.149516 0.512375 0.000010 0.1

Basalts
12JX-9-5 5.88 24.1 0.148515 0.512400 0.000008 0.5
12JX-9-8 5.39 21.6 0.151576 0.512429 0.000010 0.7
12JX-11-2 4.76 18.4 0.157721 0.512424 0.000009 0.0
12JX-11-3 5.77 23.3 0.151126 0.512423 0.000010 0.6
12JX-11-7 5.90 22.6 0.159252 0.512437 0.000011 0.0
12JX-11-8 6.30 24.6 0.156013 0.512454 0.000010 0.7

Amphibolites
11XZ-1-2 3.01 8.37 0.219277 0.512931 0.000007 3.4
11XZ-1-3 2.99 8.28 0.219824 0.512939 0.000007 3.5
11XZ-1-5 3.14 8.77 0.218246 0.512940 0.000007 3.7
11XZ-1-7 3.05 8.53 0.217737 0.512936 0.000006 3.6
11XZ-1-10 2.74 7.67 0.217484 0.512954 0.000008 4.0

Chondrite uniform reservoir values, 143 Nd/144 Nd = 0.512638, 147 Sm/144 Nd = 0.1967 are used for the calculation (Jacobsen and Wasserburg, 1980). Nd (t) is calculated by
assuming 828 Ma and 811 Ma for Shaojiwa bimodal volcanic rocks and Xingzi amphibolites respectively.
L. Li et al. / Precambrian Research 238 (2013) 117 9

Fig. 5. (a) Nb/Y vs Zr/TiO2 diagram (Winchester and Floyd, 1976) and (b) AFM diagram (Irvine and Baragar, 1971) for classication of the Shaojiwa and Xingzi volcanic rocks.

Zircons from the sample are generally subhedral to rounded in trace element diagrams show remarkable troughs in Ti, P and Sr,
shape with clear oscillatory zoning and most grains are less than and strong negative NbTa anomalies (Fig. 6d).
100 m in length (Fig. 3b). The Th concentrations range from 26 The amphibolites from the Xingzi Group have unique geo-
to 539 ppm, U contents from 75 to 1215 ppm, and Th/U ratios chemical features. They display small variations in some major
vary from 0.35 to 1.47 of the thirteen dated zircons. Two analy- oxide compositions, with SiO2 = 49.252 wt%, CaO = 10.111.4 wt%,
ses show older 206 Pb/238 U ages of 1174 14 Ma and 1036 24 Ma FeOt = 11.513.2%, Al2 O3 = 12.814.4 wt%. They have moderate TiO2
respectively. According to their characteristics and the nature of (1.181.45 wt%), Na2 O (2.893.68 wt%) contents and low K2 O
the amphibolite, they are most likely xenocrystic zircons captured (0.080.24 wt%), P2 O5 (0.10.12 wt%) contents. They are relatively
from wall rocks. Two analyses plot on the Concordia and give rel- primitive in composition with MgO as high as 8.49 wt% (Mg# range
atively older 206 Pb/238 U ages of 861 10 Ma and 845 27 Ma. The from 50.9 to 58.1). Cr and Ni contents vary from 54 to 241 ppm
remaining nine analyses are equivalent within their uncertainties and 40 to 54 ppm, respectively. Their MgO and TiO2 contents
and yielded a Concordia age of 811 12 Ma (n = 9, MSWD = 1.5, are similar to those of MORB-derived magmas but are higher
Fig. 4b) which is interpreted as the formation age of the protolith. than those of arc volcanics. SiO2 , A12 O3 and K2 O are lower than
those of arc volcanics. Chondrite-normalized REE concentrations
5. Geochemistry of amphibolites show they have MORB-like, LREE depleted pat-
terns (La/YbN = 0.590.79) (Fig. 6e) similar to those volcanic rocks
Major-element and trace-element data are listed in Table 2. from Central Lau basin, SW pacic (Tian et al., 2008). The amphi-
Because of high LOI contents in some samples, totals for major bolites exhibit up to 10 N-MORB values of Sun and McDonough
oxides of the mac to intermediate rocks are recalculated to 100% (1989) in LILE (e.g., Rb, Ba and Th), but show variable degrees of
(volatile free) for presentation in plots. On the Zr/TiO2 Nb/Y dia- depletion in HFSE (Nb, Ta and Zr) (Fig. 6f). Overall, the amphi-
gram (Fig. 5a), the mac rocks of this study classify as basalts, and bolites have both MORB- and arc-like trace-element distribution
the felsic rocks classify as rhyolites. In a plot of SiO2 and total alka- patterns.
lis (Na2 O + K2 O), these samples are classied as subalkaline rocks Basalt samples of the Shaojiwa Formation display uniform
(not shown). The AFM diagram is used to provide further classi- SmNd isotopic compositions with 143 Nd/144 Nd varying from
cations. The bimodal volcanic rocks of the Shaojiwa Formation 0.512400 to 0.512454 and Nd (t) values ranging from 0 to +0.7 and
show a transition from tholeiitic to calc-alkaline tendency, while the rhyolite samples have 143 Nd/144 Nd varying from 0.512314 to
the amphibolites of the Xingzi Group basically have a tholeiitic 0.512400 and have slightly depleted to weakly enriched Nd (t) val-
trend (Fig. 5b). ues ranging from 0.8 to +0.8. In contrast, the amphibolites samples
The basalts of Shaojiwa Formation exhibit fractionated of the Xingzi Group have 143 Nd/144 Nd varying from 0.512931 to
LREE patterns (La/SmN = 1.412.53), generally at HREE pat- 0.512954 and Nd (t) values ranging from +3.4 to +4.0. Such Nd iso-
terns (Gd/YbN = 1.031.54) and moderately negative Eu anoma- topic compositions are slightly enriched compared with the MORB
lies (Eu/Eu* = 0.530.96) on chondrite-normalized REE diagrams source, but stronger depleted relative to arc volcanic rocks (e.g.,
(Fig. 6a). Normal-MORB normalized spidergrams show strong Ohki et al., 1994; Shuto et al., 2006).
enrichments in LILE (e.g., Rb, Ba, Th and U), but show variable
degrees of depletion in HFSE (Nb, Ta and Ti). The trace-element 6. Discussion
distribution patterns are basically similar to those of typical
continental-arc basalts or intra-continental BABB, but rather dif- 6.1. Age of Xingzi Group and its signicance
ferent from those of oceanic-island basalts (OIB) (Fig. 6b).
The Shaojiwa rhyolites generally have high SiO2 contents As mentioned above, Lushan area comprises mainly three Pre-
ranging from 67.8 to 79.8 wt%. They are rich in total alkalis cambrian basement strata, the Xingzi Group, Shuangqiaoshan
(K2 O + Na2 O = 3.398.91 wt%), but poor in most other major Group and Shaojiwa Formation that were previously considered to
elements, with TiO2 = 0.280.43 wt%, MgO = 0.141.37 wt%, be of Paleoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic age
CaO = 0.33.59 wt% and Al2 O3 = 11.114.7%. On the chondrite- respectively. However, the 811 12 Ma UPb zircon ages obtained
normalized REE diagram (Fig. 6c), they are strongly enriched in from the amphibolite in this study together with the geochrono-
light rare-earth elements (LREE) (La/SmCN = 1.82.96), with mod- logical data of the intruding diabase swarm and gneissic granites
erately negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.390.53). These rhyolites (Li et al., 1998) clearly show that the Xingzi Group was deposited
are characterized by extreme enrichments in most incompatible during the Neoproterozoic, not in the Paleoproterozoic as previ-
elements such as Rb, Th, Ba and U, but are depleted in Nb, Sr, Ti ously suggested (e.g., Xie et al., 1997). More recently, based on a
and P relative to their neighboring elements. Consequently their study of detrial zircons from the leptite, Guan et al. (2010) also
10 L. Li et al. / Precambrian Research 238 (2013) 117

Fig. 6. (a), (c) and (e) Chondrite normalized REE distributions for the volcanic rocks of the Shaojiwa Formation and Xingzi Group. (b), (d) and (f) Primitive mantle normalized
spidergram of the Shaojiwa and Xingzi volcanic rocks. OIB, Chondrite and primitive mantle-normalize values are from Sun and McDonough (1989). Data for the Okinawa
Trough BABB, Mariana arc, Mariana Trough BABB and Central Lau BABB are from Shinjo et al. (1999), Pearce et al. (2005) and Tian et al. (2008).

constrained the Xingzi Group as Neoproterozoic. The new age data suggested that the amphibolites faces metamorphism might have
presented in this study indicate that the Xingzi Group should not be taken place in the Mesozoic.
regarded as old crystalline basement of the Yangtze Block. The only The Shuangqiaoshan Group in Jiangxi Province and its equiv-
occurrence of old high-grade metamorphic rocks in the Yangtze alent Xikou Group in Anhui province have yielded SHRIMP UPb
Block is in the Kongling area near Three Gorges, Hubei Province. ages of ca. 842825 Ma (Yin et al., 2013; cf. Wang et al., 2008a),
These Archean to Paleoproterozoic (Zhang et al., 2006) metamor- indicating that they are also Neoproterozoic, rather than Mesopro-
phic rocks of granulite facies, possibly represent the real crystalline terozoic as previously suggested. Therefore, the chronostratigraphy
basement of the Yangtze Block. The grade of metamorphism of the in the Lushan area should be re-evaluated. Combined with the
Xingzi Group reaches amphibolites facies and is higher than that of 828 6 Ma age of the Shaojiwa Formation, which is identical within
the surrounding Shuangqiaoshan Group and Shaojiwa Formation. error to the 833 4 Ma obtained by Gao et al. (2012), the Precam-
This is probably due to Mesozoic thermal metamorphism caused brian basement of the Lushan area is entirely Neoproterozoic in
by Cretaceous granitic intrusions (e.g., Lin et al., 2000) or due to age, and from bottom to top should be the Shuangqiaoshan Group,
the formation of a Mesozoic metamorphic core complex caused by the Shaojiwa Formation and the Xingzi Group. In the western part
lithosphere extension and thinning (e.g., Zhu et al., 2010). Based of the Jiangnan Orogen, UPb dating of detrital zircons indicates
on the lower intercept on the UPb Concordia diagram of detrital that the maximum depositional age of the basement sedimentary
zircons from the leptite of the Xingzi Group, Guan et al. (2010) also rocks (i.e., the Sibao/Lengjiaxi Group) is ca. 860 Ma (Wang et al.,
L. Li et al. / Precambrian Research 238 (2013) 117 11

2007b). Zhang et al. (2012b) further constrain the age of the Lengji-
axi Group to 850830 Ma and Wang et al. (2012a) constrain the
age of the Sibao Group to 835830 Ma. Therefore we suggest that
the Xingzi Group and the Shaojiwa Formation probably formed
in the same depositional environment as the Shuangqiaoshan
Group and its temporally equivalent basement sequences (i.e., the
Sibao/Lengjiaxi/Xikou Group) along the whole Jiangnan Orogen.

6.2. Source nature and magma process

6.2.1. Shaojiwa bimodal volcanics


Signicant enrichment in LILE and depletion in HFSE with neg-
ative NbTa anomalies (with (Nb/La)N of 0.280.58) suggest that
the corresponding source for Shaojiwa basalts has compositional
similarity with a mantle wedge. High Ba/Nb, La/Nb and low Nb/Th
ratios are distinctive from those for the intraplate volcanic rocks but
rather similar to arc volcanics. The arc-like geochemical signature is
usually explained by derivation from either an ancient lithospheric
source or a newly metasomatized source. However, the observed
Nd isotopic compositions for the Shaojiwa basalts indicate that the
mantle source is depleted, thus the possibility of derivation from
an ancient lithospheric source can be eliminated. The distinctive
geochemical characteristic of LILE concentrations higher than HFSE
in subduction zone magmas is widely attributed to their selec-
tive addition by uid and/or melt from the newly subducted slab
(e.g., Tatsumi et al., 1986; Hawkesworth et al., 1995; Ryan et al.,
1995; Tatsumi and Eggins, 1995; Turner and Hawkesworth, 1997).
Thus we propose two magma sources to account for the geochem-
ical features of the Shaojiwa basalts, including a depleted mantle
source and a subduction component. Compared to N-MORB derived
magma, the Shaojiwa basalts are more enriched in Ba, Th, U and
REE and strongly depleted in Nb, Ta and Ti (Fig. 6a and b) and
have relatively lower Nd (t) values (0 to +0.7). The involvement
of enriched continental mantle or previously subducted sediments
tends to lower Nd (t) values for the derived magma. Modeling
results show that the addition of variable proportions of pelagic
sediments into the MORB-derived magma can explain the Nd iso-
topic compositions of the Shaojiwa basalts (e.g., Vroon et al., 1993;
Seghedi et al., 2001, 2004). However, the relatively constant Nd (t)
values of these rocks are inconsistent with signicant involvement
of enriched sources. The appropriate interpretation for the source of
the Shaojiwa basalts, which have slightly positive Nd (t) values with
an addition of crustal component, is most likely from a slightly
depleted mantle source contaminated by uid/melt released from
the subducting slab at a convergent margin. These basalts have
(Hf/Sm)N and (Ta/La)N ratios ranging from 0.93 to 1.30 and 0.34 to
1.16 respectively, which plot along the trajectory between MORB
and arc component modied by uid-related and melt-related
subduction metasomatism in the (Hf/Sm)N vs (Ta/La)N diagram
(Fig. 7a). The melt-related subduction metasomatism is consistent
with the relatively high Th/Nb and low Ba/Th component of the
Shaojiwa basalts which suggests addition of a small amount of sub-
ducted sediments (Fig. 7b) because Ba can be released over a wide
range of subduction temperatures and is very mobile in uid, Th
is immobile in low temperature uid but mobile during melting
of sediment and mantle, and Nb is almost always immobile (Tian
et al., 2008).
Fig. 7. (a) (Ta/La)n vs (Hf/Sm)n (after LaFlche et al., 1998), (b) Ba/Th vs Th/Nb and
Although the rhyolites of the bimodal volcanic rocks may be (c) Ti8 vs Ba/Nb (after Tian et al., 2008) diagrams for the Shaojiwa and Xingzi volcanic
interpreted as resulting from melting of continental crust or unal- rocks.
tered basalt that was underplated at the base of crust (e.g., Atherton
and Petford, 1993; Tura et al., 1998; Brewer et al., 2004; Li et al.,
2002a, 2013), the neutral Nd (t) values (0.8 to +0.8) of the Shao- ratios which are comparable to those of the basalts, e.g., they have
jiwa rhyolites suggest that partial melting of crust material is most Nb/Ta = 11.313.7 and Zr/Hf = 36.540.5, whereas the mac rocks
unlikely. The rhyolites have similar Nd isotopic ratios and dis- have Nb/Ta =8.2315.2 and Zr/Hf = 39.944.6. These characteristics
play REE patterns subparallel to those of the associated basalts suggest that the rhyolites could be generated by fractional crystal-
(Fig. 6c and d). They also have highly incompatible trace element lization of basaltic magmas (e.g., Shinjo and Kato, 2000; Peccerillo
12 L. Li et al. / Precambrian Research 238 (2013) 117

et al., 2003; Li et al., 2009a; Tian et al., 2010). Extensive fractionation


of plagioclase, apatite and FeTi oxides is responsible for the large
negative Eu, Sr, P and Ti anomalies, respectively. The high Rb/Sr
ratios of these rocks are also consistent with fractional crystalliza-
tion of plagioclase.

6.2.2. Xingzi amphibolites


The Xingzi amphibolites generally show at REE patterns with
slightly LREE depletion, distinct from typical arc volcanics. The
observed Nd isotopic compositions (+3.4 to +4.0) for the Xingzi
amphibolites display an afnity to a MORB source. In comparison
with the N-MORB derived magma, they show similar contents of
moderately incompatible elements (e.g., Tb, Dy, Y, Yb and Lu) but
are more enriched in Rb, Ba, Th and Sr contents and slightly depleted
in Nb, Zr (Fig. 6e and f). In addition, the Nb/Ta (9.314) and Nb/Yb
(0.340.72) ratios are lower than those of N-MORB (17and 0.76,
respectively). Such arc-like geochemical signatures and highly pos-
itive Nd (t) values suggest that the Xingzi amphibolites are most
likely from a N-MORB-like source contaminated by uid released
from the subducting slab. (Hf/Sm)N and (Ta/La)N ratios of the
amphibolites range from 0.84 to 1.12 and 0.67 to 0.81 respectively.
These data plot along the trajectory between N-MORB and arc com-
ponent modied by uid-related subduction metasomatism in the
(Hf/Sm)N vs (Ta/La)N diagram (Fig. 7a). The uid-related subduc-
tion metasomatism is consistent with the relatively high Ba/Th and
low Th/Nb component of the Xingzi amphibolites, which indicates
the inuence of low temperature aqueous uid derived from the
dehydration of altered oceanic crust or dewatering of sediments
(Fig. 7b).
The uxing of the mantle source by aqueous uids places an
important control on the degree of mantle melting (e.g., Stolper
and Newman, 1994; Taylor and Martinez, 2003; Kelly et al., 2006;
Langmuir et al., 2006). The variations in the degree of mantle melt-
ing can be constrained by the TiO2 and FeO contents of lavas (e.g.,
Klein and Langmuir, 1987; Taylor and Martinez, 2003). Generally,
large degree of melting lowers the contents of incompatible ele-
ments such as TiO2 (or Na2 O e.g., Gaetani and Grove, 1998; Falloon
and Danyushevsky, 2000). So, a greater aqueous uid input results
in a greater amount of mantle melting, which lowers the concen-
tration of the moderately incompatible and subduction immobile
element Ti. The values of Ti8 (Taylor and Martinez, 2003) of basalts
generated by a higher degree of mantle melting in subduction zones
are lower compared to those generated by a lower degree of man-
tle melting (e.g., Tian et al., 2008). The Ti8 values of Xingzi lavas
are higher compared to those of Shaojiwa lavas indicating that
Xingzi lavas were generated by a lower degree of mantle melt-
ing than that of Shaojiwa. This is probably due to the addition of
subduction components which increases the degree of melting by
lowering the mantle solidus (Davies and Bickle, 1991). As discussed
earlier, the greater the subducted aqueous uid input, the greater
the Ba/Nb values and the lower the Ti8 . This is consistent with the
data shown in Fig. 7c. Lavas from the Xingzi Group, on average,
have lower Ba/Nb ratios, indicating relatively small amount of sub-
duction component contribution. In addition, they have higher Ti8 , Fig. 8. Tectonic discriminant diagrams for the Shaojiwa and Xingzi volcanic rocks.
indicating lower degree of partial melting of the mantle, relative (a) La/10Nb/8Y/15 diagram (after Cabanis and Lecolle, 1989); (b)TiZr diagram
(after Pearce and Thorpe, 1982; Condie, 1989); (c) TiO2 vs FeO*/MgO diagram (after
to the Shaojiwa lavas. Considering the above geochemical and iso-
Shuto et al., 2006).
topic features, the Xingzi amphibolites were most likely derived
from relatively low degree partial melting of the less crustally
metasomatized mantle source (similar to N-MORB type mantle). that a back-arc basin regime may be possible for the southeastern
margin of the Yangtze Block where a great deal of arc magmatic
6.3. An incipient to mature back-arc basin rocks and ophiolites are present (e.g., Xu and Qiao, 1989; Chen
et al., 1991; Li et al., 1994; Zhang et al., 2012a).
The geochemical characteristics of both MORB and arc-like A back-arc setting is closely linked to the plate subduction pro-
end-members, as suggested for the BABB from Mariana, east cess, and this makes back-arc basin magmatism chemically and
Scotia, Lau and Manus basins (e.g., Pearce et al., 1995; Gribble physically more variable than magmatism generated at mid-ocean
et al., 1998; Fretzdorff et al., 2002; Sinton et al., 2003) indicate ridges. In the YLaNb plot of Cabanis and Lecolle (1989), the
L. Li et al. / Precambrian Research 238 (2013) 117 13

Fig. 9. (a) Th/Yb vs Ta/Yb (after Pearce and Peate, 1995), and (b) Ce/Nb vs Th/Nb (after Sandeman et al., 2006) for the Shaojiwa and Xingzi volcanic rocks. Fields of the Mariana
Trough BABB, and Okinawa Trough BABB are from and Pearce et al. (2005) and Shinjo et al. (1999).

Shaojiwa basalts straddle the continental basalts and calc-alkaline 2000; Ishizuka et al., 2002) whereas the Xingzi Group volcanism
basalts elds while the Xingzi amphibolites straddle the elds of with both N-MORB and arc characteristics formed in the later stage
volcanic arc tholeiites, back-arc tholeiites and N-MORB (Fig. 8a). On of back-arc spreading similar to the Mariana trough back-arc basin
the discrimination diagrams of Zr-Ti (Pearce et al., 1995) most Shao- (e.g., Gribble et al., 1996, 1998; Pearce et al., 2005). We therefore
jiwa basalts plot in the eld of volcanic arc basalts (VAB) indicating suggest that the southeastern margin of the Yangtze Block was an
a strong arc-related afnity and the Xingzi amphibolites straddle active continental margin during Neoproterozoic time, along which
the volcanic arc basalts and the MORB elds (Fig. 8b). The overlap some back-arc basins were developed in the continental hinterland
with the island arc and the MORB elds occurs because basalts gen- in response to the rollback of subducted slab. The Shaojiwa-Xingzi
erated in the back-arc region of an island arc often have HFSE and back-arc basin opened in two tectonic stages: a progression of rift-
REE signatures similar either to MORB or to IAB (island arc basalt) ing accompanied the earliest stages of back-arc basin extension at
(Pollar et al., 2001). In the FeO*/MgO vs TiO2 diagram (Miyashita 828 6 Ma followed by seaoor spreading on propagating rifts that
et al., 1995; Shuto et al., 2006), all the Shaojiwa basalts and Xingzi was initiated at 811 12 Ma as shown in Fig. 10.
amphibolites exclusively plot in the eld of BABB (Fig. 8c).
Generally, back-arc basalts can have geochemical features tran- 6.4. Tectonic implications
sitional from arc or calc-alkaline basalts to N-MORB (Saunders
and Tarney, 1984) and this depends on during which stage of In the Jiangnan Orogen, a clear angular unconformity
the evolution the volcanics were generated in the back-arc basin occurs between the Precambrian basement sequences
(Abu El-Enen, 2008). The early stage basalts exhibit arc-like pat- (e.g., the Sibao/Lengjiaxi/Shuangqiaoshan/Xikou Group) and
terns whereas the later stage basalts exhibit N-MORB like patterns. the overlying Neoproterozoic sedimentary strata (e.g., the
Such contrasting features are typical for BABB (e.g., Gribble et al., Danzhou/Banxi/Shangshu Group). This angular unconformity
1998; Lawton and McMillan, 1999; Rolland et al., 2002; Pearce was previously interpreted to mark the nal amalgamation of
and Stern, 2006). The intra-continental BABB with continental the Yangtze and Cathaysia Blocks along the Jiangnan Orogen (Li
basement from the western Pacic usually exhibit E-MORB-like et al., 2002b; Wang et al., 2007b). Relative absence of low-T/high-P
elemental and isotopic compositions with (La/Yb)n > 3, Ba/La > 10 metamorphic rocks which are the most reliable indicators of
and Sm/Nd < 0.3 (e.g., Hickey-Vargas et al., 1995; Shinjo et al., 1999). collisional orogeny makes it difcult to develop a well-constrained
In contrast, the intra-oceanic BABB without continental basement model for nal amalgamation of the two blocks. Considering the
from the western Pacic are geochemically indistinguishable from presence of 950 Ma NE Jiangxi ophiolites (Xu and Qiao, 1989;
N-MORB and have (La/Yb)n < 2, Ba/La < 10 and Sm/Nd > 0.3 (e.g., Chen et al., 1991; Li et al., 1994), 880 Ma obduction-type Xiwan
Hawkins, 1995; Hickey-Vargas et al., 1995). The Shaojiwa basalts leucogranite that crops out within the NE Jiangxi ophiolites (Li
have (La/Yb)n = 2.675.33 and Sm/Nd = 0.230.27 similar to those et al., 2008) and a laser 40 Ar/39 Ar metamorphic age of 1.0 Ga
of the intra-continental BABB from the western pacic. They show for the Tianli schist (Li et al., 2007), some researchers believed
similar REE patterns and spidergrams to those of the Okinawa that the closure of the back-arc basin and the termination of the
Trough BABB (Fig. 6a and b) formed by extension within continental continental amalgamation between the Yangtze and Cathaysia
lithosphere behind the Ryukyu trench (Shinjo et al., 1999), and plot Blocks occurred before 880 Ma (ca. 1.00.9 Ga) (e.g., Li et al., 2007,
near the eld of the Okinawa BABB in the plots of Th/Yb vs Ta/Yb 2008, 2009b; Greentree et al., 2006; Ye et al., 2007). However,
and Th/Nb vs Ce/Nb (Fig. 9a and b). In contrast, the Xingzi amphi- recently a ca. 840820 Ma back-arc basin has been identied in
bolites have (La/Yb)n = 0.640.86 and Sm/Nd = 0.340.36 similar to the eastern part of the Jiangnan Orogen (Zhang et al., 2012a; Yin
those of the intra-oceanic BABB from the southwestern pacic. They et al., 2013) and a 850 Ma back-arc basin in the western part
show similar REE patterns and spidergrams to those of Mariana (Zhang et al., 2013). Our results also reveal that there is a 828 6
trough BABB, Central Lau Spreading Center BABB and Lesser Cau- to 811 12 Ma back-arc basin in the Lushan area. Therefore the
caus BABB (Fig. 6e and f) which are considered to be generated in deposition of the basement sequences of the Jiangnan Orogen may
an intra-oceanic back-arc environment (e.g., Gribble et al., 1998; continue to 811 12 Ma, at least in the central part of Jiangnan
Pearce et al., 2005; Tian et al., 2008; Rolland et al., 2009), and plot Orogen, and back-arc extension over the whole Jiangnang Orogen
near the eld of the Mariana trough BABB in Fig. 9a and b. may have played an important role during that period.
Considering the above geochemistry features of the volcanic It is widely accepted that back-arc basins at convergent plate
rocks from the Shaojiwa Formation and Xingzi Group and their spa- boundaries are produced by the roll-back of subducted plates
tial and temporal relationship, we suggest that Shaojiwa bimodal in response to the interplay between the convergence of tec-
volcanism with strong arc features formed in the earlier stage of tonic plates and the velocity of subduction (e.g., Dewey, 1980;
back-arc rifting at a continental margin comparable to Okinawa Morgan et al., 2008). The preceding oceanic subduction and
trough back-arc basin (e.g., Shinjo et al., 1999; Shinjo and Kato, earliest subduction-related arc magmatism occurred at ca. 970 Ma
14 L. Li et al. / Precambrian Research 238 (2013) 117

Fig. 10. Sketch cartoon model for the evolution of the South China Block during ca. 828811 Ma. (a) A progression of rifting at the earliest stages of back-arc basin extension.
(b) Seaoor spreading on propagating rifts at the later stages of back-arc extension.

represented by the basaltic rocks of the Pingshui Formation (Zhang (Shangshu and Puling Group) have been considered to be the result
et al., 1990; Chen et al., 2009) which were followed by the ca. of post-orogenic extension (Wang et al., 2012b). From above, a
930890 Ma volcanic rocks of Shuangxiwu Group (Li et al., 2009b) more reasonable evolution history of the southeastern margin of
and the 910900 Ma arc-related granitoids that intruded the the Yangtze Block is provided from subduction, back-arc rifting, to
Pingshui Formation (Ye et al., 2007) in the far eastern part of the continental accretion and post-orogenic extension constrained by
Jiangnan Orogen. these igneous rocks in the Jiangnan Orogen.
Apart from the Shuangxiwu arc volcanic rocks, igneous rocks
with ages of ca. 880850 Ma reported in the Jiangnan Orogen
7. Conclusions
are relatively rare (Li et al., 2003a; Wang et al., 2007b, 2008b)
but large volumes of volcanic rocks and granitic intrusions with
Geochronological and geochemical data indicate that the Shao-
UPb ages of around 850810 Ma occurred in the Sibao, Lengjiaxi,
jiwa bimodal volcanic rocks were formed at 828 6 Ma during
Shuangqiaoshan and Xikou Groups (e.g., Li et al., 2003a; Li, 1999;
the early stage of back-arc extension while the Xingzi volcanic
Wu et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2006; Ma et al., 2009; Bai et al., 2010;
rocks were formed at 811 12 Ma during a later stage of back-arc
Gao et al., 2010; Zhao et al., 2011; Yin et al., 2013; this study). Dif-
extension. These ages indicate that the Xingzi Group formed in the
ferent hypotheses (mantle plume vs post-collisional extension vs
Neoproterozic rather than the Paleoproterozoic as previously sug-
back-arc spreading) have been postulated for these Neoprotero-
gested and should not be regarded as the crystalline basement of
zoic igneous suits. Quite a few workers have proposed that all the
the Yangtze Block. The identication of a 828 6 to 811 12 Ma
igneous rocks, even S-type granites, are related to an extensional
back-arc basin in the central part of Jiangnan Orogen together with
tectonic environment (e.g., Li, 1999; Wang et al., 2004; Wu et al.,
approximately coeval back-arc basins in the eastern and western
2006; Zheng et al., 2008). Given the evidence for the widespread
part of the Jiangnan Orogen indicate that the southeastern mar-
presence of back-arc basins over the whole Jiangnan Orogen during
gin of the Yangtze Block was still an active margin during that
that period, we suggest that most of these Neoproterozoic igneous
time and that the widespread Neoproterozoic igneous rocks with
rocks were produced within an arc-back-arc extensional environ-
ages older than 800 Ma most likely occurred within an arc-back-arc
ment in response to the rollback of subducted slab. The geochemical
environment.
difference between these igneous rocks related to the slab rollback
most likely depends on during which stage of the back-arc basin
were developed. Acknowledgements
The back-arc basin between the Yangtze Block and the arc
terrane was rapidly closed following arc-continental collision at We appreciate the assistance of Tom Pestaj for SHRIMP anal-
about ca. 800 Ma along the Jiangnan orogen (Zhang et al., 2012a). ysis, H.Y. Geng and J. Wong for geochemical analyses, J.L. Ma for
The relatively short time for the arc-continental collision orogeny Nd isotopic analyses. M.G. Yu, X.L. Zhao and Z. Duan are thanked
is roughly comparable with the suggestion of Dewey (2005). for their help in the eld. Critical and constructive reviews on this
An age of 800 Ma was recommended for the lower boundary paper by two anonymous referees and Prof. Guochun Zhao are
age of the Sinian System in A Geological Time Scale 1989 by gratefully acknowledged. This work was nancially supported by
Harland et al. (1990). In the Jiangnan Orogen, the Sinian System China Geology Survey Grants (1212011121116), China NSFC Grant
refers to the overlying late Neoproterozoic (post-Jiangnan Orogen) (40725009) and Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council
sedimentary strata. Bimodal volcanic rocks erupted at 800760 Ma of Canada.
L. Li et al. / Precambrian Research 238 (2013) 117 15

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