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LESSON PLAN

CLASSROOM DISCUSSION
BUZZ GROUP METHOD
WATER HARDNESS

by :

Nanik Mardiana (15030194066)


Diyah Amalia Putri (15030194075)

CHEMISTRY EDUCATION PROGRAM


CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT
MATHEMATIC AND NATURAL SCIENCE FACULTY
UNIVERSITAS NEGERI SURABAYA
2017
LESSON PLAN

Level of Education : Senior High School


School : SMAN 6 SURABAYA
Class/Semester : XII/ 2
Year Lesson : 2017/2018
Subject : Chemistry
Chapter : Chemical Element
Sub Chapter : Water Hardness
Meeting :1
Time Allocation : 1 x 45 minutes (Once Meeting)

A. Main Competence
1. Appreciating and practicing the religious precept which is embraced
2. Appreciating and practicing honest behavior, discipline, responsibility,
caring (mutual assistance, cooperation, tolerance, peace), polite,
responsive and proactive and displayed as part of the solution to various
problems in interacting effectively with the social and natural environment
as well as in position ourselves as a reflection of the nation in the
association world.
3. Understanding, implicating, analyzing factual, conceptual and procedural
knowledge based on curiosity of science, technology, art, culture,
humanities, with insight into humanity, national, state, and civilization in
related causes of phenomena and events, as well as applying procedural
knowledge in a specific field of study according to their talents and
interests to solve problems
4. Processing, reasoning, presenting, and creating in the real of the concrete
and the abstract domains associated with the development of the learned at
school independently and act effectively and creatively, and be able to use
the scientific method

B. Basic Competence, Indicator and Learning objectives :


1.1 Aware of the regularity of hydrocarbon properties, thermochemistry,
reaction rates, equilibrium chemistry, colloidal solution and as a
manifestation of the greatness of God the Almighty and the knowledge
about the existence of such orderliness as a result of creative thinking the
human truth is tentative.
Indicator :
1.1.1 Grateful for the presence of the element chemical in the life as a
gift of god almighty
Learning Objectives :
1.1.1.1 Student may be grateful for the presence of the element chemical
in the life as a gift of god almighty

2.1 Show the scientific behavior (have curiosity, discipline, honest, objective,
open mind, be able to differ fact and opinion, tape, precise, responsibility,
critic, creative, innovative, democratic, communicative) in design and
doing experiment and discuss that applied in daily life.
Indicator :
2.1.1 Show curiosity attitude in the implementation of learning
activities that applied in daily life

Learning Objectives :

2.1.1.1 Student can show curiosity attitude in the implementation of


learning activities that applied in daily life

Indicator :
2.1.2 Show tolerance attitude in doing experiment that applied in daily
life
Learning Objectives :
2.1.2.1 Student can show tolerance attitude in the implementation of
learning activities that applied in daily life

Indicator :
2.1.3 Show democratic attitude in in doing experiment that applied in
daily life
Learning Objectives :
2.1.3.1 Student can show tolerance attitude in the implementation of
learning activities that applied in daily life

Indicator :
2.1.4 Show communicative attitude in the implementation of learning
activities that applied in daily life
Learning Objectives :
2.1.4.1 Student can show tolerance attitude in the implementation of
learning activities that applied in daily life

Indicator :
2.1.5 Show responsible attitude in the implementation of learning
activities that applied in daily life
2.1.5.1 Student can show responsible attitude in the implementation of
learning activities that applied in daily life

3.1 Analyzing the abundance, the tendency of physical and chemical


properties, benefits, and the process of making the main group elements
(noble gases, halogens, alkali and alkaline earth)

Indicator :
3.1.1 Analyze the way to measure water hardness based on sources
Learning Objectives :
3.1.1.1 Student can analyze the way to measure water hardness based on
sources correctly
Indicator :
3.1.2 Analyze the way to reduce water hardness based on sources
Learning Objectives :
3.1.2.1 Student can analyze the way to reduce water hardness based on
sources correctly

4.1 Presenting the data of search result properties and making main group
element ( halogens, alkali and alkaline earth)
Indicator :
4.1.1 Analyze water hardness of sample based on experiment
Learning Objectives :
4.1.1.1 Student can analyze water hardness of sample based on
experiment correctly
Indicator :
4.1.2 Present the result of experiment based on experiment
Learning Objectives :
4.1.2.1 Student are able to present the result of experiment based on
experiment

C. MATTER
Water hardness is the mineral content of minerals contained in the water
generally contains ion Ca2+ and Mg2+. In addition to the calcium ions and
magnesium, the hardness can also cause the other metal ions or salts
bicarbonate and sulfate. Hardness mainly caused by the presence of
calcium ions (Ca2) and magnesium (Mg2) in the water. Its existence in the
water resulted in the SOAP will precipitate out as salts of calcium and
magnesium, so it cannot form an emulsion in an effective manner. Other
polivalen cations can also precipitate SOAP, but because of the polivalen
cation is generally in the form of a more stable complexes with organic
matter present, then the role of the hardness can be ignored. Therefore the
determination of hardness is only directed at determining levels of Ca 2+ and
Mg2+. The total hardness is defined as the number of mili ekivalen (mek)
ion Ca2+ and Mg2+ each liter water sample.

Basically the water hardness can be distinguished into two types:

1 Temporary Hardness
Hardness is caused by the presence of bicarbonate salts, such as
Ca(HCO3)2, Mg (HCO3)2. While this may be hard/easy dieliminize
with heating (boiling), so the CaCO3 MgCO3 or sediment formed
Reaction:
Ca(HCO3)2 -heated> CO2 (g) + H2O (l) + CaCO3 (s)
Mg(HCO3)2 -heated> CO2 (g) + H2O (l) + MgCO3 (s)
2 Permanent Hardness
Hardness is caused by the presence of chloride salts, sulfates and
carbonates, MgSO4, CaSO4 missal, CaCl2, Mgso4. Permanent
Hardness can be reduced with the addition of aqueous soda lime
(consisting of a solution of sodium carbonate and magnesium
hydroxide) so that the formed deposits of potash (solids/sediment) and
magnesium hydroxide (deposits) in water
Reaction:
CaCl2 + Na2CO3 > CaCO3 (s) + 2 NaCl (aq)
CaSO4 + Na2CO3 > CaCO3 (s) + Na2SO4 (aq)
MgCl2 + Ca(OH)2 > Mg(OH)2 (s) + CaCl2 (aq)
MgSO4 + Ca(OH)2 > Mg(OH)2 (s) + CaSO4 (aq)

Factors Affecting Hardness


1. Geology

Soft waters are mainly derived from the drainage of igneous rocks,
because these rocks dont weather very easily and so dont release
many cations. Hard water is often derived from the drainage of
calcareous (calcite-rich) sediments, because calcite (CaCO 3) dissolves,
releasing the calcium. Calcium, magnesium, and other polyvalent
cations such as iron and manganese may be added to a natural water
system as it passes through soil and rock containing large amounts of
these elements in mineral deposits.

2. Mining

Drainage from operating and abandoned mine sites can contribute


calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, and other ions if minerals
containing these constituents are present and are exposed to air and
water. This can increase the hardness of a stream.

3. Industrial Discharge

Some industrial processes may also produce significant amounts of


calcium and manganese that are later discharged into streams.

4. Sewage Outflow

The effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) can add


hardness to a stream. The wastewater from our houses contains
calcium, magnesium, and other cations from the cleaning agents, food
residue, and human waste that we put down our drains. Most of these
cations are removed from the water at the WWTP before being
discharged to the stream, but treatment cant eliminate everything.

Reduce Hardness
1. Heating
Heating can eliminate the temporary hardness. At high
temperatures, hydrogen carbonate salts of Ca (HCO 3) 2 will be
separated, so that the ion Ca2 will settles as CaCO3
Ca(HCO3)2(aq) CaCO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
2. The addition of carbonate ions.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, is also known as washing soda. It can
remove temporary and permanent hardness from water. Sodium
carbonate is soluble but calcium carbonate and magnesium
carbonate are insoluble. The carbonate ions from sodium carbonate
react with the calcium and magnesium ions in the water to produce
insolubleprecipitates. For example:
calcium ions + sodium carbonate calcium carbonate + sodium
ions

Ca2+(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) CaCO3(s) + 2Na+(aq)

The water is softened because it no longer contains dissolved


calcium ions and magnesium ions. It will form lather more easily
with soap. However, the calcium carbonate and magnesium
carbonate precipitates to form limescale. As well as being unsightly
on your taps, it can also clog up pipes in heating systems (causing
them to break down). This makes treatment with sodium carbonate
suitable for softening water only in certain circumstances - such as
softening water for hand washing clothes.

3. Ion-exchange

Ion-exchange resins can also soften both temporary and permanent


hard water. The resin is made into small balls around 12 mm in
diameter, which are packed into a tube or column. The ion-
exchange resin starts with sodium ions stuck to it.

As the hard water passes through the column, sodium ions come off
the resin and go into the water, while calcium ions come out of the
water and stick to the resin. In effect, calcium ions that do cause
hardness are swapped for sodium ions that do not cause hardness.

Dishwashing machines contain ion-exchange resin to soften the


water used to wash the dishes. The resin needs recharging with
dishwasher salt (sodium chloride) once it becomes full of calcium
ions.

The disadvantages of hard water are:

1. Lime scale furring of kettles and pipes. The fur is the insoluble
carbonate formed during heating water with temporary hardness.
The deposits of lime scale can build up on the inside of the
piperestricting the flow of water or causing a blockage.This can
happen in industry where hot water is used or in domestic heating
systems (like the hot water in your house).Lime scale deposits can
be removed using a weak acid.Lime scale in pipes can be prevented
using a water softeneror a scale inhibitor.

2. Soap is wasted because more soap is required for washing. Soap in


hard water forms a "scum" from reacting with the calcium or
magnesium compounds in the water.Other detergents which do not
contain soap do not form wasteful scum during washing.

3. It is not advisable to use hard water in washing white fabrics since it


tends to stain white fabrics by making them appear grey. More often
than not when you use hard water to wash your white clothes, you
are going to see the clothes turning grey after you have washed
them. This is what hard water often does to white fabrics.

4. Hard water is not good for dyeing materials. This is why the dyeing
industry doesnt use it to work.
D. Learning Method
Approach : Problem-Based Discussion
Model :Discussion with Buzz group type
Method : Discussion

Media and Sources


Media :
1. Power point
2. Experiment
Source of Learning :
1. Student worksheet
2. Chemistry Book for Senior High School grade X
G. Assessment

1. Spiritual Attitude
a Assessment Techniques : Self assessment
b The form of assessment : Self assessment sheet (Attached)

2 Social Attitude
a Assessment Techniques : Observation , Self assessment
b The form of assessment : Observation sheet , Self assessment sheet
(Attached)

3 Knowledge
a Assessment Techniques : Written Test
b The form of assessment : Essay (Worksheet)

4 Skills
a Assessment Techniques : Observation
b The form of assessment : Observation Sheet (Attached)

Surabaya,..............................
Knowing
Headmaster of SMA/MA Teacher

........................... ...................................
NIP/NIK. NIP/NIK.