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# Learning Outcome

## -Student should be able to make

between two location by using Mann -
Whitney test
Mann-Whitney test was proposed by Henry
Berthold Mann and Donald Ransom Whitney.
The test is sometimes also referred to as the
Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test.
a) The data consist of a random sample of
observation X1,X2,.,Xn1 from population 1
with unknown median Mx and another
random sample of observations Y1,Y2,.,Yn2
from population 2 with unknown median My.
b) The two sample are independent
c) The variable observed is a continuous
random variable
d) The measurement scale employed is at
least ordinal
e) The distribution functions of the two
populations differ only with respect to
location, if they differ at all.
Case A Case B Case C
(two-sided) (one-sided) (one-sided)

H0 : Mx = My H0 : M x M y H0 : Mx My

H1 : Mx My H1 : M x < M y H1 : Mx > My
1) Combine two samples.
2) Rank all sample observations from
smallest to largest.
3) Sum the ranks observations from
population 1(that is, the Xs).
Test statistic is :

## Where S is the sum of the rank assigned to

the sample observations from population 1
Case Hypotheses Reject H0 for Reject H0 if

A H0 : Mx = My Either sufficiently or
(two-sided) H1 : Mx My small or sufficiently Where,
large values of T

B H0 : Mx My Sufficiently small
(one-sided) H1 : Mx < My values of T

C H0 : Mx My Sufficiently large
(one-sided) H1 : Mx > My values of T Where,
Newmark et.al* have reported the results of an attempt
to assess the predictive validity of Klopfers Prognostic
Rating Scale(PRS) with subjects who received behavior
modification psychotherapy. Following psychotherapy,
the subjects were separated into two groups: improved
and unimproved. Table 3.6 shows the PRS score for
each subject before therapy.

*Newmark, Charles S., William Hetzal, Lilly Walker, Steven Holstein, and Martin Finklestein,

Predictive Validity of the Rorschach Prognostic Rating Scale with Behavior Modification Techniques, J. Clin. Psychol.,
29(1973), 246-248
We wish to see whether we can
conclude on the basis of these data
that the two represented populations
are different with respect to their
medians. Let = 0.05
Improved subjects Unimproved subjects
Subject Score(X) Subject Score(Y)
1 11.9 1 6.6
2 11.7 2 5.8
3 9.5 3 5.4
4 9.4 4 5.1
5 8.7 5 5.0
6 8.2 6 4.3
7 7.7 7 3.9
8 7.4 8 3.3
9 7.4 9 2.4
10 7.1 10 1.7
11 6.9
12 6.8
13 6.3
14 5.0
15 4.2
16 4.1
17 2.2
1) Hypotheses
H0: Mx = My
H1: Mx My (claim)
2) Test statistic
- Rank all sample observations from smallest to
largest.
- Sum the ranks observations from population 1
(that is, the Xs)
XScore Rank YScore Rank
2.2 2 1.7 1
4.1 6 2.4 3
4.2 7 3.3 4
5.0 9.5 3.9 5
6.3 14 4.3 8
6.8 16 5.0 9.5
6.9 17 5.1 11
7.1 18 5.4 12
7.4 19.5 5.8 13
7.4 19.5 6.6 15
7.7 21
8.2 22
8.7 23
9.4 24
9.5 25
11.7 26
11.9 27
Total 296.5
By using formula:

## Where S = Sum of rank in sample X = 296.5

n1 = Sample size of X = 17
3) Decision
Table A.7 shows that
for
Thus, by equation:

Where

We reject H0
4) Conclusion
There is enough evidence to support the claim
that the two population of parameters are
different.
For present example, we consult Table A.7 for
n1=17, n2=10 and we find that the computed of
our test statistic, 143.5 between
(17)(10) 26 = 144
and
(17)(10) 35 = 135
Consequently, for this test
2(0.005) > P > 2(0.001) or
0.010 > P > 0.002
Only consider if n1 or n2 > 20
Using Z test,
West conducted an experiment with adult aphasic subjects,
in which each was required to respond to one 62 commands.
Five subjects received an experimental treatment program,
and five controls received conventional speech therapy.
Table 3.8 shows the percentage of correct responses of each
subject in the two groups following treatment. Do these data
provide sufficient evidence to indicate that the experimental
treatment improves the proportion of correct responses? Let
= 0.05.
Table 3.8 : Percentage of correct responses to 62
commands by aphasic subject in two treatment groups.

## Experimental (x) Experimental (Y)

73 50

42 23

90 68

58 40

62 45
Table 3.9 shows the tidal volume of 37 adults
suffering from atrial septal defect. In 26 of these,
pulmonary hypertension was absent, and in 11 it was
present. The data were reported by Ressl et al. do
these provide sufficient evidence to indicate a lower
tidal volume in subjects without pulmonary
hypertension? Let = 0.05.
Table 3.9: Tidal volume, in millimeters, in two groups of subjects.

Pulmonary Case 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Hypertension
absent
(x) 652 556 618 500 500 526 511 538 440 547 605 500 437

Case 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

(X) 481 572 589 605 436 724 515 552 722 778 677 680 428

Pulmonary Case 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
hypertension
absent
(Y) 876 556 493 348 530 780 569 546 766 819 710
To study the effects of prolonged inhalation of cadmium,
Princi and Greever exposed 10 dogs to cadmium oxide,
while 10 dogs serving as controls were not exposed to this
substance. At the end of the experiment, they determined
the levels of hemoglobin of the 20 dogs, shown in Table
3.45. Let =0.05 and use the Mann-Whitney test to
determine if one may conclude that, on the average,
inhalation of cadmium causes a reduction in hemoglobin
levels in dogs.
Table 3.45 : Hemoglobin determinations, grams, in twenty dogs

14.6 15.5
15.8 17.9
16.4 15.5
14.6 16.7
14.9 17.6
14.3 16.8
14.7 16.7
17.2 16.8
16.8 17.2
16.1 18.0