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ANSI/ASAE S539 MAR1994 (R2008)

Media Filters for IrrigationTesting and Performance


Reporting

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T ASABE is a professional and technical organization, of members worldwide, who are dedicated to advancement of

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engineering applicable to agricultural, food, and biological systems. ASABE Standards are consensus documents
developed and adopted by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers to meet standardization
needs within the scope of the Society; principally agricultural eld equipment, farmstead equipment, structures, soil
and water resource management, turf and landscape equipment, forest engineering, food and process engineering,
electric power applications, plant and animal environment, and waste management.

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ASABE, 2950 Niles Road, St. Joseph, MI 49085-9659, USA ph. 269-429-0300, fax 269-429-3852, hq@asabe.org
ANSI/ASAE S539 MAR1994 (R2008)
Approved October 1995; reaffirmed February 2008 as an American National Standard

Media Filters for IrrigationTesting and Performance


Reporting

Developed by the ASAE Microirrigation Committee; approved by the Soil ASAE EP405.1 DEC93, Design and Installation of Microirrigation
and Water Division Standards Committee; adopted by ASAE March Systems
1994; revised editorially July 1994; approved as an American National ASAE EP458 DEC93, Field Evaluation of Microirrigation Systems
Standard October 1995, reaffirmed December 1998; reaffirmed by ASAE ASAE S526, Soil and Water Engineering Terminology
December 1999; reaffirmed by ANSI June 2000; reaffirmed by ASAE ASA/SSSA monograph, Methods of Soil Analyses, Part 1, Particle Size
January 2001, December 2001, February 2003; reaffirmed by ANSI Analyses
February 2003; reaffirmed by ASABE and ANSI February 2008.
Keywords: Filters, Irrigation, Testing 3 Definitions and terminology
3.1 backwash: A procedure that flushes clean water through a filter tank
in reverse direction to the normal operating direction so as to remove
1 Purpose and scope captured organic and inorganic particulates from the filter media. Filtered
1.1 This Standard has the following purposes: water from one or more tanks is used to backwash another tank. Only
1.1.1 Define a standard procedure to collect irrigation media filter test one tank is usually backwashed at a time. The process is also referred
data. to as backflush and as reverse flushing.
1.1.2 Provide procedures to classify and characterize media filter test 3.2 backwash control mechanism: A mechanism that initiates the
data from manufacturers and independent testing laboratories. backwashing action of the filter as determined by one or a combination
of physical quantities, such as pressure differential, duration of filtration
1.2 This Standard establishes a consistent basis to validate and support
interval, or volume of water filtered.
manufacturers statements on the performance, reliability, safety, and
long-term effectiveness of individual irrigation media filtration systems. 3.3 backwash flow: A recommended rate of water flow through the
Sufficient data are to be developed so irrigation system designers and media to maximize uniformity of backwashing, to maximize effectiveness
others can evaluate the suitability of a particular filter system for a of the backwashing activity, and to minimize loss of media.
specific application. 3.4 backwash pressure differential: A pressure differential between
1.3 This Standard does not establish design criteria for irrigation media two points, one upstream and one downstream of the filter tanks, that
filters or specify media. It is not intended for use in ranking different may initiate the backwashing cycle.
products. 3.5 backwash water volume: A volume of water flushed from the entire
1.4 The scope of this Standard is to describe methods for obtaining media filtration system (two or more tanks) during one backwashing
sufficient, accurate data to determine performance characteristics of operation.
media filters used for irrigation. This Standard pertains only to media 3.6 duration of filter flushing cycle: A period of time during which
filters for irrigation water. water flushes filtered material out of the media filter via the backwash
1.5 This Standard addresses the operation and performance of a system action.
of media filter tank vessels, related valves, backwash mechanism, 3.7 filtration level: The minimum particle size retained by the filters
underdrains and manifolds. These components define the containment when operated according to filter manufacturers specifications using a
and processing assemblies associated with media filtration systems that given media grade. Particle sizes should be expressed in units of
ensure proper hydraulic characteristics, flow balance, and adequate micrometers rather than screen mesh sizes.
cleaning of the media for a specific product design that has been 3.8 loading rate: The average concentration of suspended particulates
installed and operated as recommended by a manufacturer. in the inlet test fluid, expressed in milligrams (dry mass) per liter of test
1.6 The selection of the actual filtration media used inside the filtration fluid, mg/L.
system is not part of this Standard, although it is extremely important to 3.9 maximum operating flow: The highest inlet flow specified by the
overall filtration performance. The ultimate effectiveness of filtration manufacturer that insures both proper filtration and proper backwashing.
depends on the depth and type of the media bed, velocity of water
Expressed as flow per unit cross-sectional area of media, L/(sm2).
through the bed, physical composition and characteristics of the media,
and equivalent pore-size distributions. Testing of individual media for its 3.10 maximum operating pressure: The highest inlet pressure
efficiency in filtration is likewise not part of this Standard. specified by the manufacturer that insures the proper and safe
functioning of the device.
1.7 Determinations of particulate composition of the outlet test fluid are
used to assess the potential effectiveness of the entire backwash system 3.11 media: The filtration material used in a media filter. The media
in cleaning the media after extended use, and are not an evaluation of generally consists of crushed granite, silica, or quartz sieved to specific
media performance. particle sizes. Media may also consist of many other materials such as
cardboard or synthetic fibers, woven textiles of various types, or synthetic
2 Normative references particles.
The following standards contain provisions which, through reference in 3.12 media filter: A filtration device that uses a bed of media to remove
this text, constitute provisions of this Standard. At the time of publication, suspended organic and inorganic particles from the incoming irrigation
the editions indicated were valid. All standards are subject to revision, water. Each media filter is contained within a pressure vessel(s) or
and parties to agreements based on this Standard are encouraged to tank(s) that contains underlying drains (e.g., PVC plastic, stainless steel,
investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the or ceramic materials) with or without a gravel bed to facilitate the
standards indicated below. Standards organizations maintain registers of backwashing procedure. Media filter is sometimes referred to as a depth
currently valid standards. filter.

ASABE STANDARDS 2008 ANSIASAE S539 MAR1994 R2008 1


3.13 media filtration system: A system of two or more media filter and construction material (e.g., PVC, stainless steel, ceramic) of
tanks manifolded together so filtered water from one tank can be used to underdrain assembly;
backwash the other(s) by actuation of valves. total underdrain open area;
3.14 media grade: The classification of the media with respect to underdrain slot opening or pore dimensions, if applicable;
particles and their size distribution (percent of total mass).
other descriptive information pertinent to the particular filters being
3.15 minimum operating flow: The lowest flow into the filter system tested.
specified by the manufacturer that insures both proper filtration and
proper backwashing functions. Expressed as flow per unit cross-sectional Descriptive schematic diagrams (front, top and side views) of the filter
system with dimensions should be included.
area of media, L/(sm2).
3.16 minimum operating pressure: The lowest inlet pressure specified
by the manufacturer that insures proper functioning of the device, 5 Site conditions and test equipment
including backwashing without an additional higher pressure source. 5.1 Filter media and all necessary components shall be installed
3.17 nominal pressure loss: The normal pressure loss measured according to the manufacturers instructions. Media filter testing results
through a back-flushed, clean filter for efficient, long-term operation of the shall be determined at three standardized inlet test fluid compositions.
filter system. 5.1.1 Filtering site. The filters shall be placed on a flat, level, and stable
3.18 outlet test fluid: The suspended organic and inorganic particulates surface.
in the test fluid that have passed through a filter and may also include 5.1.2 Test fluid. The test fluid shall be water containing various standard
particles from the media. May also be referred to as the filtrate. concentrations of test particulates.
3.19 suspended solids: Organic and inorganic particulates suspended 5.1.2.1 Inlet test fluid temperature. Recommended test fluid
in a moving water stream. Total suspended solids, TSS, is a measure of temperature range shall be 10 C to 38 C. Average water temperature
the concentration of suspended solids in the water expressed as mg/L. during the test shall be reported.
3.20 test fluid: The fluid used for testing the filter system. 5.1.2.2 Inlet test fluid salinity. The electrical conductivity, EC, of the
3.21 test particulates: The solids in the test fluid that enter a media inlet test fluid as introduced into the filter shall be not less than 0.25 dS/m
filter under test. or more than 2.0 dS/m.
5.1.3 Inlet test fluid composition. After the test particulates have been
added, the inlet test fluid shall contain not less than 2 mg/L and not more
4 Irrigation media filter description than 5 mg/L organic matter by dry mass of total suspended material. Test
4.1 Number of tests. To establish a set of typical test data, at least one particulate inorganic particle size distribution shall be 0200 m, 60%
filter set of each model and size should be tested under the same 2% by dry mass; 200400 m, 30% 2% by dry mass; and greater
operating and temperature conditions. Each test shall be recorded and than 400 m, 10% 2% by dry mass. The added suspended test
reported separately, although tests on identical models may be combined particulates shall not change either the specific gravity or viscosity of the
in reports. water by more than 2% of the unaltered test fluid.
4.2 Selection of filters for testing. Filters used for testing and analyses 5.1.3.1 Inlet test fluid reproducibility. The inlet test fluid composition
shall be randomly selected from normal production runs. Unless specific shall be consistently reproducible (total suspended solids, TSS, particle
conditions or manufacturers recommendations warrant otherwise, testing size distributions and concentrations).
of two tanks per tested media filter system set is adequate.
5.1.3.2 Inorganic particles. Inorganic particles shall be stable in water,
4.3 Selection of media. The specific composition, depth of the media and shall not change size during the testing process by fracturing,
bed, velocity of water through the bed, physical composition, size cracking, or disintegration.
distribution, and geometric characteristics of the media particles are
specified by the manufacturer. 5.1.3.3 Organic matter. Organic matter (e.g., ground plant material or
pulverized newspaper) is often fibrous but should pass through a 400 m
4.4 Tank safety factors. Design safety factor for the tanks should be dry sieve.
stated as a ratio of the bursting pressure to the maximum recommended
operating pressure (e.g., 4:1). 5.1.3.4 Inlet test fluid supply tank. The inlet test fluid supply tank shall
maintain a uniform concentration of test particulates to the inlet side of
4.5 Description of filter. Each media filter system shall be described so the filtration system. Mechanical agitation of the tank(s) will usually be
specific references can be made to each system as tested at later dates. required.
The system description shall include, but not necessarily be limited to,
the following: 5.1.4 Maximum inlet water pressure. Maximum inlet pressure used in
testing shall be at 100% of the manufacturers suggested maximum
name of manufacturer; operating pressure or 80% of the maximum pressure rating of the tanks,
approximate date of manufacture; whichever is less.
model name and number; 5.1.5 Pressure rating of tanks. Tanks should be certified to withstand
date of testing; at least 1.5 times the maximum operating pressure for safety
considerations. Otherwise, the tanks shall be static pressure tested to at
nominal inlet and outlet pipe sizes;
least 1.5 times the maximum operating pressure for 30 min before
material of tank construction (e.g., stainless steel, epoxy-coated initiation of the tests. Successful completion of the pressure test shall be
steel with type and thickness of epoxy, painted steel, fiberglass, determined by the absence of leaks in any of the welds and/or
PVC); connections. Results of the pressure test shall be reported. Pressure
nominal diameter of tanks; rating of tanks determined in accordance with other standards (e.g.,
dimensions, cross-sectional area or diameter, and type of ASTM) shall be clearly identified by reference or full description of the
inspection/filling and/or cleaning/media removal access port specific procedures used in establishing the rating.
assemblies (e.g., clamps, threaded, bolted with gaskets); 5.1.6 Test station piping. The upstream and downstream piping shall
type of backwash automation, if applicable; conform to the recommended sizes and length requirements on the filter
connections for that particular test. Inlet and outlet pipes shall be of the
description of backwash control mechanism; same material and general condition. The inside surface shall be free of
description of filtered water collector on tank bottom including type flaking rust, mill scale, and irregularities that could cause excessive

2 ANSIASAE S539 MAR1994 R2008 ASABE STANDARDS 2008


turbulence. Construction shall provide for full pipe flow through all of a mesh sufficient to retain any media that might pass through the
instrumented sections during the tests. underdrain assemblies, but not smaller-sized particles. This filter shall be
5.1.7 Safety. The test layout shall be designed to maximize the safety of cleaned after completion of a set of tests run at one test condition and
testing personnel. Filters and/or filter installations that may create a the size distribution and composition of the contents analyzed.
potential safety problem for testing personnel shall not be tested.
Restraining rings, bolts, access port assemblies, pipe connections, etc.,
shall be checked for proper placement and installation prior to the start 7 Testing procedures
of a test. Potential safety hazards shall be identified and corrected prior
to conducting any tests. 7.1 After installation of media, the media filter system shall be filled with
the test fluid and all air bled off prior to the initiation of a testing
sequence. Media filter testing shall be done in this sequence:
6 Measurements pressure loss-flow relationships;
6.1 Pressure. Pressures at selected points in the system shall be
backwash effectiveness;
monitored and recorded for each test.
safe operation under extreme conditions.
6.1.1 Pressure measuring device(s). Pressure measuring device(s)
capable of measuring pressure with an accuracy 2% of the anticipated Tests shall be conducted following the manufacturers recommended
reading shall be used. Each instrument shall be calibrated (bench tested) specified media and general operating conditions to the fullest extent
as necessary to maintain accuracy. If two or more pressure measuring possible. Operating conditions not supplied by the manufacturer that are
devices used to determine pressure are not located in the same required for this Standard shall be identified; and, in these cases, the
horizontal plane, a correction shall be made for the difference in determination of the unspecified values shall be at the discretion of the
elevation. The instrument(s) shall be operated between 30% and 70% of testing laboratory and reported as such.
the full operating range. 7.2 Test identification. Information sufficient to identify each particular
6.1.2 Pressure taps. Pressure taps or fittings shall be provided for testing sequence shall include:
measurement of static pressure and pressure loss across the filters and test number;
across filter backwash valves. Taps shall not protrude inside the pipes. manufacturers name;
The edge of each hole shall be clean and sharp or slightly rounded. All
taps shall be identical in design. A pressure averaging ring with multiple product description as outlined in 4.5;
taps is recommended. Taps shall be located a minimum of five pipe calendar dates;
diameters downstream of any tees, elbows, valves, flow measuring times of day;
instruments, etc. Measurements shall be made at a minimum of three
testing location (organization and address);
locations: upstream of the filters; immediately downstream of the filters;
and at locations where pressures can be measured across filter name of the person in charge of the testing.
backwash valves. Additional locations may be measured at the testers 7.3 Flow. Flows used in the testing procedure are referenced to the
option. maximum operating flow and the minimum operating flow [e.g.,
6.2 Temperature. Any device that measures water temperature with an 0.6 m3/(hrm2) and 1.08 m3/(hrm2), respectively, based on the top
accuracy of 1 C of the reading may be used. This device shall be surface area of media in the tanks].
located more than five (5) pipe diameters immediately downstream of the 7.4 Inlet fluid pressure. Inlet pressure shall be the maximum allowed
system flow measuring instrument. under 5.4.
6.3 Flow. Water flow through the system and backwash flow rates shall 7.5 Inlet test fluid composition. Test particulates shall be introduced at
be measured and reported for each test. a constant loading rate throughout the test period, including during
6.3.1 Flow measuring instrument(s). The flow measuring instrument(s) backwash cycles.
shall be any device that measures flow (or volume over time) with an 7.5.1 Introduction of test particulates. Test particulates shall be
accuracy of 2% over the flow range being evaluated. The instrument(s) introduced immediately prior to the filter station so the distribution is
shall be installed with proper lengths of straight, unobstructed pipe uniform in time and density. The test particulate supply tank shall have
upstream and downstream from the instrument(s) as recommended by constant mechanical agitation.
the manufacturer of the flow measurement instrument(s). The 7.5.2 Loading rate. Tests should be repeated at inorganic inlet test fluid
instrument(s) shall be calibrated to ensure the specified accuracy. The loading rates of
instrument(s) shall operate under full pipe flow conditions. The
instrument(s) should cause minimum pressure loss. 0 mg/L (e.g., clean tap water);
6.3.2 Location of flow measuring instruments. One instrument shall 100 mg/L ( 10 mg/L) plus organic materials;
be located upstream to measure total system inflow and total volume. A 300 mg/L ( 10 mg/L) plus organic materials.
second instrument shall be located to measure backwash flow and total 7.5.3 Media. All tests of a filter system shall be conducted with a single
volume. filtration media (and support gravel if used) conforming to the
6.3.3 Throttling device. A downstream throttling device shall be used to manufacturers specified size, shape, etc. Synthetic material media shall
control flow through the test filters. Full pipe flow shall be maintained be supplied by the manufacturer and clearly described in the final
within the inlet and outlet during the testing process. There are no reports.
restrictions on the size or style of this device. 7.5.4 Changing of media. New particle or synthetic fiber media shall be
6.3.4 Sample collection. The use of a valve on the side of the outlet installed prior to initiation of each testing sequence as stated below. The
pipe is recommended for collection of water samples during a test for filters shall be thoroughly backwashed 3 to 4 times immediately after
compositional and particle size analyses. The sampling valve shall be installation of new media and prior to the initiation of any tests to remove
located on the horizontal centerline of the outlet pipe. any fines or other particulates contained in the media that could influence
6.3.5 Air relief. The location, type, and size of any air relief device used test results. After initial backwashing of particle media, the specific
or recommended by the manufacturer shall be clearly stated. particle sizes, particle size distribution, depth, volume, and the initial
mass of the new media shall be reported.
6.3.6 Downstream filtration. A screen filter shall be located
downstream of the media filters to prevent the recirculation of particles 7.5.5 Sieve analyses of particle media. Prior to the start of each
back through the media filters, and to catch lost media. This filter shall be testing sequence for filters with sand-type media, random samples of the

ASABE STANDARDS 2008 ANSIASAE S539 MAR1994 R2008 3


new and backwashed (see 7.5.3) media used shall be taken from the conditions of hydraulic equilibrium. These conditions will normally occur
tanks in sufficient quantities for the sieve analyses. The data will after about 20 to 30 min as determined by monitoring pressure and flow
characterize the media. fluctuations.
7.5.6 Where support gravel is specified, provide sieve analysis, 7.7.2 Loading rate. The filter system shall be tested at each flow with
compositional purity (e.g., % silica or % quartz), chemical, physical, and clean water only (0 mg/L loading rate).
geometric description of media and any support gravel used in the testing 7.7.3 Flows. Tests shall be conducted at a minimum of seven flows
procedure. In no case should the size of the support gravel be smaller ranging in nearly equal increments from about 75% of the manufacturers
than 90% of the filtering media. minimum recommended operating flow per unit area to about 125% of
7.6 Outlet fluid composition. Samples shall be collected, and the outlet the manufacturers maximum recommended operating flow per unit area.
test fluid compositional purity shall be determined. The sample analyses All flows used shall be reported.
shall include the particle size distribution of the introduced test 7.7.4 Inlet and outlet pressures. Inlet pressures shall be maintained at
particulates in the test fluid entering the test filters, and the particle size the manufacturers maximum recommended operating levels. Inlet and
distribution in the outlet test fluid. One set of outlet test fluid samples outlet pressures shall be reported at each flow once equilibrium
shall be taken at the end of the testing period for each flow at each conditions have been established.
loading rate. The samples shall be analyzed for TSS and particle size
distribution in accordance with procedures outlined in ASA-SSSA 7.7.5 Testing sequence. Tests shall proceed from the lowest to the
monograph. Turbidity meters to determine relative outlet test fluid highest flow. Backwash, if necessary, to maintain the manufacturers
compositional purity shall not be used. recommended post-backwash pressure differentials.
7.6.1 Samples shall be collected 30 min or more after completion of the 7.8 Backwash testing. Backwash initiation and optimal cycle duration
last backwash cycle. criteria shall follow manufacturers recommended operating procedures.
These criteria shall be reported.
7.6.1.1 Sample size shall be at least 50 mL and collected into a sample
bottle that has been thoroughly cleaned, rinsed with distilled water, and 7.8.1 Test period. Each test filter shall be tested continuously for a
allowed to dry prior to the test. minimum of 48 h and have at least 20 complete backwash cycles during
the test period. The specific criteria used for each test period, general
7.6.1.2 Outlet fluid composition samples shall be collected downstream test conditions, and the total volume of test fluid that passed through the
of the filter but above the downstream throttling device and the filters during the entire test shall be reported.
downstream filtration.
7.8.2 Flows. Tests shall be conducted at two flows: the minimum
7.6.2 Removal efficiency shall be calculated in accordance with 3.4.1, manufacturers recommended operating flow per unit area, and the
3.4.1.1, 3.4.1.2, and 3.4.1.3. in ASAE EP458. This equation is: maximum recommended operating flow per unit area as defined above.
It is not necessary to replace the media between flow changes at the

E r 100* 1 S inflow
S outflow
,
same loading rate. Tests shall proceed from lowest to highest flows.
7.8.3 Loading rate. Backwash effectiveness shall be tested for two
loading rates (100 10 mg/L and 300 10 mg/L). Loading rates shall
where: proceed from lowest to highest loading. Each loading rate sequence
should start with newly replaced and backwashed media.
7.8.4 Pressure differentials. Pressure losses across the media filter
Er is the removal efficiency; system shall be measured and reported for each flow at the two loading
S outflow is outlet concentration of suspended solids in mg/L; rates (see 7.5.2).
S inflow is the inlet concentration of suspended solids in mg/L.
7.8.5 Backwashing. The filters shall be backwash between each test
7.6.3 An example of reporting TSS in the outlet water for each size condition until the manufacturers recommended post-backwash pressure
range of the test particulate material after a typical test might be differential is achieved.
(assuming no media was removed from the tanks by the backwash 7.8.5.1 Backwash valve closure. In multi-tank systems, the time
process): required for the backwash valve to close following backwash (e.g., dwell
Particle Inlet Outlet time between tanks) shall be reported for each flow and pressure
size concentration concentration combination used in the testing sequence.
0200 m 60 mg/L 20 mg/L 7.8.5.2 Backwash valve pressure losses. Backwash valve pressure
200400 m 30 mg/L 5 mg/L losses during normal filter operation as well as during backwash shall be
>400 m 10 mg/L 2 mg/L measured and reported.
Organic 5 mg/L 1.5 mg/L 7.8.5.3 Backwash initiation. Initiation of individual backwash operations
for a filter system shall be in accordance with the manufacturers criteria
Total concentrations 105 mg/L 28.5 mg/L with respect to
Removal efficiency, E r 72.9% specified timing (e.g., h) between backwash events;
achieving a specified pressure drop across the filter system;
7.6.4 The data from 7.6.2 will be used to determine (calculate) the both timing and pressure drop.
particle size for which 90% of the total mass of particles (test particulates
and media) passing the filter are smaller. 7.8.5.4 Backwash interval. The times (h:min) between individual
system backwash cycles and the average frequency (during the entire
7.7 Pressure loss-flow testing. Data of pressure loss vs. flow shall be testing sequence) of backwashing required to clean the filtering media to
reported for the purpose of establishing pressure-flow relationships the manufacturers recommended post-backwash pressure differential
across the filter system. Backwash initiation (if necessary) and optimal shall be determined and reported for each tested loading rate.
cycle duration criteria shall follow manufacturers recommended
operating procedures. The specific criteria used for each test period and 7.8.5.5 Backwash duration. The duration (time) required for actual filter
general test conditions shall be reported. The pressure loss vs. flow tests system backwash operations shall be reported for all backwash
shall be conducted with newly installed, backwashed media. conditions. Backwash duration of an individual filter system backwashing
operation shall be in accordance with the manufacturers criteria with
7.7.1 Test period. The duration (time) for testing each pressure-flow respect to specified flushing times (min) for individual tanks and post-
combination depends on the time required for the entire system to reach

4 ANSIASAE S539 MAR1994 R2008 ASABE STANDARDS 2008


backwash pressure differentials across the system (inflow-outflow: by the testing organization. Supplemental data describing the conduct of
nominal pressure loss). The differential pressure loss and/or flushing time the test may be included on the testing forms or in the test report. Copies
criteria shall be reported for each tested loading rate. of all laboratory test results shall be made available on request.
7.8.5.6 Backwash volume. The total volume of test fluid used for 8.2 Sufficient data should be recorded and retained to support published
backwashing shall be measured (see 6.3.2) and recorded. The average performance specifications so perceived or apparent conflicts can be
volume of test fluid used per backwash cycle shall be calculated and resolved or further evaluated. The use of photographs of the testing
reported for each flow and loading rate. setup is highly recommended.
7.8.5.7 Visual inspection of particle media. Upon completion of each 8.3 Interpolation of data. No interpolation between filter sizes or
set of backwash tests at each loading rate, as stated above, the particle models shall be used for the standard specifications. Each size and
media shall be visually inspected for the appearance of dishing, model shall have its own test record.
depressions, uneven upper surface media, channeling, tunneling, or
other problems that may reduce the filtration effectiveness. The
existence, nature, depths, and sizes of these occurrences shall be
measured, recorded, and reported.
9 Published data
9.1 Data obtained and recorded in accordance with the methods and
7.8.5.8 Loss of particle media. Upon completion of each set of
procedures as described by this Standard may be published as the
backwash tests at each loading rate, as stated above, the mass of
minimum performance specifications of specific irrigation media filters.
particle media remaining in the tanks shall be measured. The loss of
Much of the requested information in this clause is supplied by the
media per backwash cycle shall be reported as mass of media lost
manufacturer and is not part of the testing process, however, it is
divided by the total number of backwash cycles and as a percent of initial
necessary to have it combined into one document for making appropriate
fill media mass. The downstream screen filters shall be inspected and
design decisions.
amount (dry mass) of any media or media-sized particles present shall
also be measured and reported. 9.2 Units. Results shall be presented in SI units; however, the
manufacturer may also include inch-pound system units.
7.8.5.9 Percent of residue remaining in media. Upon completion of
the backwash test at each loading rate, media shall be examined for 9.2.1 Pressure. Data shall be listed in kilopascals, kPa.
accumulated, filtered (trapped) residues. Extracted, residual particle 9.2.2 Flow. Flow shall be listed in liters per second, L/s, and/or cubic
sizes remaining in the media shall be reported for the same distributions meters per hour, m3/h. Data shall be listed to at least the nearest 1 L/s,
specified in 7.6, as well as a percentage of the total mass of media and 0.06 m3/h, for flow over 15 L/s, 0.9 m3/h. Otherwise, flow shall be stated
residue in the filters. to within 2% of the actual flow.
7.8.5.9.1 These analyses should be determined by extraction of four 9.2.3 Flow velocity. Flow velocities through the media shall be reported
cores (two near the center and two at the sides of the tank) that are at as flow divided by cross-sectional area, m3/hm2.
least 5 cm in diameter for approximately the full depth of any particle or
synthetic media. The media cores shall be evaluated for organic matter 9.2.4 Outlet test fluid composition. Measurements of the particulate
content, silts, clays, etc. Particle media will require drying, sieving, and sizes and their distribution in the outlet test fluid should be listed in
measuring volume and sizes of the material that was not a part of the micrometers, m.
media prior to initiation of the test as compared to the media particle size 9.2.5 Water temperature. Water temperature shall be reported in C.
analyses. 9.3 Supplemental data. In addition to the information listed in 4.5, the
7.8.5.9.2 Analyses of synthetic fiber media shall utilize methods to following data (see 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, and 7.9) shall be reported:
remove any accumulated material consistent with the chemical 9.3.1 General test information and conditions including:
composition of the media (describe methodology). Particle characteristics
date;
of the extract shall be analyzed and described.
location;
7.8.5.10 Backwash valve operation. The operation of backwash
control valves during backwashing operations shall be observed. The inlet test fluid temperature;
creation of water hammer in the backwash discharge system due to the electrical conductivity (dS/m) of the inlet test fluid;
valve operation under testing conditions shall be reported. test period (h);
7.8.6 Rinse cycle valves. Some media filters may have rinse cycles loading rates;
after the backwash process to prevent carry-over of contaminants into
the irrigation system. The operation of rinse control valves as well as the flows.
volume of water used for this operation shall be observed and reported. 9.3.2 Maximum pressure rating, kPa, of the tanks and manifolds
The creation of water hammer in the piping system due to the valve including the designed safety factor (ratio of the bursting pressure to the
operation under testing conditions shall be reported. maximum recommended operating pressure) and a description of the
7.9 Safe operation under extreme conditions. Starting with new method (or identifying national or international standard) by which it was
media, a backwash test shall be conducted at only the highest loading determined.
rate (see 7.8) for both the manufacturers maximum and minimum 9.3.3 Filtering media (sand, silica, gravel, synthetic material, etc.).
recommended flow rates per unit area. Backwashing shall be manually 9.3.3.1 The media shall be determined by the manufacturer and shall be
initiated when the filter system has developed a pressure differential of clearly specified and labeled as manufacturers recommended filtering
not less than 0.5 times the manufacturers maximum recommended media.
operating pressure to ensure backwash valve operation and safety under
extreme conditions. These data shall be recorded and also presented in 9.3.3.2 Manufacturers recommended media bed depth and nominal
the pressure loss table section of the testing report. Other testing cross-sectional area of filtration media in tanks.
parameters and reporting criteria contained in 7.8 also apply to these 9.3.3.3 Description of the manufacturers recommended media and
tests. support gravel (if applicable) to be used. Particle media should include
particle size distributions, geometric and physical definitions of media.
9.3.3.4 Manufacturers recommended media replacement intervals and/
8 Test records and data reduction or criteria to be used to determine media replacement needs.
8.1 Information to be reported. The information requested in clauses 9.3.4 Manufacturers recommended minimum and maximum system
4, 5, 6, and 7 shall be recorded on suitable forms selected or designed flow.

ASABE STANDARDS 2008 ANSIASAE S539 MAR1994 R2008 5


9.3.5 Manufacturers recommended minimum and maximum operating 9.3.9.12 Safe operation under extreme conditions (see 7.9).
pressure. 9.3.9.13 Manufacturers recommended size of pipe and valves for
9.3.6 Manufacturers recommended minimum and maximum flow disposal of backwash water.
velocities. 9.3.9.14 Requirements for valves to isolate the filter system from the
9.3.7 Manufacturers recommended allowable pressure drops (head irrigation system during backwashing.
loss) across the irrigation media filtration system: 9.3.10 Estimated lifetime (years) and resistance of tanks, fittings, valves
at the above maximum recommended flow for clean media; etc., to abrasion and corrosion under adverse water conditions.
at the above minimum recommended flow for clean media. 9.3.11 Other pertinent, supporting data as specified in this Standard.
9.3.8 Expected outlet test fluid composition. 9.4 Other supplemental data may be published in the manufacturers
9.3.8.1 The particle size for which 90% of the total mass of particles (test performance specifications. However, such data shall not be referenced
particulates and media) passing the filter are smaller. to this Standard.
9.3.8.2 The particle size distributions of material in the outlet test fluid.
9.3.8.3 Removal efficiency calculated for the selected loading rates.
10 Certification
9.3.9 Backwashing performance according to the manufacturers
operational recommendations. 10.1 Published performance specifications should be revised if product
design changes alter the performance of that particular filter model and
9.3.9.1 Ratio of backwash volume to total filtered volume at selected configuration.
loading rates.
10.1.1 Certification statement. Company name, testing laboratory or
9.3.9.2 Volume of backwash water required at selected loading rates. testing service certifies that pressure, flow rate, composition of
9.3.9.3 Maximum and minimum backwash flows as rates and velocities discharge water, removal efficiency, pressure drop through system, and
through the specified media. backwash requirements for this product (model identification,
9.3.9.4 Backwash duration: length of time required for proper backwash. manufacturer) were determined and listed in accordance with ASAE
S539, Media Filters for IrrigationTesting and Performance Reporting on
9.3.9.5 Recommended backwash frequency (days and hours).
(testing dates). These results are representative of performance of
9.3.9.6 Maximum allowable pressure differential across the media filter production filters at the time of this publication. Actual product
system to initiate backwashing. performance may differ from the published specifications due to normal
9.3.9.7 Particle size distribution, composition (e.g., organic and manufacturing variations and test sample selection. All other
inorganic), and mass of residue remaining in media as a percent of total specifications are solely the recommendation of Company name.
mass of media at the end of a test. Copies of specific testing results for this filter (actual test identification
9.3.9.8 Mass of original particle media that has been lost from the tanks numbers, etc.) may be requested in writing from the above Company.
and results of visual inspection of particle media. 10.1.2 Data certification. The statement in 10.1.1 shall appear on each
9.3.9.9 Backwash valve pressure losses. specification page referencing ASAE S539. Each model complying with
this procedure shall be appropriately referenced to this statement.
9.3.9.10 Characteristics of backwash valve operation including closure
rates, dwell time, occurrence of water hammer, and leakage during 10.1.3 Each tank shall bear markings in accordance with this Standard.
operation. 10.1.4 A declaration as to whether the filter is equipped with some type
9.3.9.11 Maximum allowable pressure differentials for automatic of protective mechanism to prevent repeated, unnecessary back-
backwashing when using system water to backwash adjacent tanks. washings, if automated.

6 ANSIASAE S539 MAR1994 R2008 ASABE STANDARDS 2008