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MILITARY DICTIONARY3
OR,

EXPLANATION OF THE SEVERAL SYSTEMS OF DISCIPLINE OF DIFFER


ENT KINDS OF TROOPS,

INFANTRY, ARTILLERY, AND CAVALRY ;


THE PRINCIPLES OF FORTIFICATION,
AND

ALL THE MODERN IMPROVEMENTS IN THE


SCIENCE OF TACTICS :

COMPRISING

THE POCKET GUNNER, OB LITTLE BOMBABDIEB;

THE MILITARY REGULATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES; THE WEIGHTS,

MEASURES, AND MONIES OF ALL NATIONS;


\
THE TECHNICAL TERMS AND PHRASES OF THE ART OF WAR

IN THE FRENCH LANGUAGE.

BARTICULARLY ADAPTED TO THE USE OF THE MILITARY INSTITUTIONS

OF THE UNITED STATES:

BY WILLIAM DUANE,
ATE LIEUTENANT COLONEL IN THE ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES,
AND AUTHOR OF THE AMERICAN MILITARY LIBRARY.

An army without discipline is but a mob in uniform, more dangerous to itself than to
its enemy. Should any one from ignorance not perceive the immense advantages that
arise from a good discipline, it will be sufficient to observe the alterations that have happen
ed in Europe since the year 1700. -
Saxe.
I am tactics of Frederic II. the causes of his superiority, of his
fully convinced that the
svstem of battles and lines, and of his most skilful movements have been wholly misun
derstood to the present time, and that the actions of this great man have been attributed
to maxims diametrically opposite to his real principles. Jomini 1808.

PHILADELPHIA:

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY WILLIAM DUANE,

NO. 98, MARKET STREET.

1810.
DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA, to wit:

BE IT REMEMBERED, that on the Tenth day of August, in tie Thirty


Fifth year of the Independence of the United States of America, A. D. 1810,
William Duane of the said district, hath deposited in this office, the title of a book,
the right whereof he claims as proprietor, in the words following, to wit: " A Mili-
"
tary Dictionary; or, Explanation of the several systems of discipline of different
"
kinds of Troops, Infantry, Artillery, and Cavalrjr; the Principles of Fortification,
*' and all the Modem
Improvements in the Science of Tactics : comprizing the Pocket Gunner, or Lit-
"
tie Bombardier ; the Military Regulations of the United States ; the Weights, Measures, and Monies
"
of all Nations ; the Technical Terms and Phrases of the Art of War in the French language. Parti-
the use of the Military institutions of the United States: by William Duane, late
"cularly adapted to
"
lieutenant colonel in the army of the United States, and author of the American Military Library.
"
An army without discipline is but a mob in uniform, more dangerous to itself than to its enemy.
'
Should any one from ignorance not perceive the immense advantages that arise from a good disci-
"
pline, it will be sufficient to observe the alterations that have happened in Europe since the year 1700.
"
Saxe. I am fully convinced that the tactics of Frederic II. the causes of his superiority, of his system
"
of battles and lines, and of his most skilful movements have been wholly misunderstood to the present
"
time, and that the actions of this great man have been attributed to maxims diametrically opposite to
"
his real principles. Jomini....\808."
conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United States, intituled " an Act for the encourage
In
ment of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of
such copies during the times therein mentioned." And also to the Act, entitled
"
an Act supplementary
'
an Act for the encouragement of
to an Act, entitled learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts,
and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies during the times therein mentioned,' and ex
tending the benefits thereof to the arti of designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints,
D. CALDWELL,
Clerk of the District of Pennsyteantc .
DC

<

ELUCIDATORY PREFACE.

WHEN the editor first undertook to prepare a Military Library _for ge


neral use, he was stimulated thereto by perceiving the total decay of military in
formation, and the gross errors, in particulars the most simple andessential, which
every where had superceded or obstructed useful knowlege. War at the mo
ment seemed to be impending. There was no organization of the militia, nor any
system established, excepting an incomplete elementary hand book, formed dur
ing the revolution, and adapted to fix those who had already some military ex
perience of the first evolutions of a battalion, in a common method.
This book, no way calculated to teach the initiatory exercises, nor to give
an idea of the combined manoeuvres of
larger bodies ; nor any method of in
struction, nor the duties of any other body than an infantry battalion, was im
properly dignified with the name of a system. The most elevated in power as
well as the most subordinate in military or militia duty, adopted this false
notion of a system, without enquiring further than that it was established. When
such a tract was held forth as sufficient by the authority of law and by the silent
indifference of those who knew or ought to know better, it is not at all surprizing
that every other object of military study was neglected, since every other was
announced to be superfluous.
This state of general indifference or unacquaintance vvith. the business of
war, gave rise to the American Military Library ; in which the editor intend
ed originally to have comprehended a vocabulary of military terms; and had
made so much progress in its preparation, as to discover that it would make a
large book, and that any thing short of a minute and comprehensive Diction
ary, would be leaving the undertaking still incomplete. The general want qf
knowlege on the subject, the inaccuracy of the notions which prevailed, and
above all the great revolutions which modern times had produced in the whole
economy and ordination of military science, decided the editor upon the neces
sity of rendering the undertaking as complete as practicable, by giving to the
public a competent book of reference, so necessary to study in the acquisition of
every species of knowlege.
After some numbers of the Library had been published, the French Military
Dictionary of 1768, and the English Military Dictionary of major James, fell in
to the editor's hands. These works rendered much of what' had been already
done superfluous, though not entirely useless ; the French work had been anti
quated long before the revolution, by the changes which took place in the French
establishment in 1788 and 1791, and still more by the total renovation which
it underwent during the revolution. The English Dictionary labored under
difficulties of another nature ; adapted to England alone, the military system
of England, called by the name of Dundas, which was only a modification of
the Prussian system of Saldern, and the French system formed in imitation of
the Prussian after the seven years war, must necessarily be to a British officer
the standard of a work published for the British army;
accordingly, although
major James, both from his fine understanding and experience," was well ac
quainted with the defects of that system, he was still under the necessity of
making it his standard.
In undertaking to give a work to the American
people, the publication of
either the French or English Dictionary,
though it might equally profit the
bookseller, would be only imposing upon the public, instead of giving the best
information^ and the most recent and approved principles and improvements in
the art of war : it was necessary therefore almost to rewrite, and to
augment to
a vast bulk the quantity of information. The whole has been, therefore,mo-
ELUCIDATORY PREFACE.

delled and adapted throughout to the modern principles of discipline and gene-
ral tactics. So much of what is old has been retained as may give some cor
\^
rect ideas of the systems of other nations ; and the body of information, as well
'

as of words of reference, renders this the most ample and particular Military

Dictionary published in the language


that has been
To the general has been added the useful little work called the Little
mass
from
Bombardier, or Pocket Gunner, originally compiled for the British artillerists
the French Manuel de I'Artilleur of Durtubie. The measures of extent and ca

pacity, and the monies of all foreign nations : under the words Tactics, Military
Schools, Topographical Depot, Money, Weights and Measures, Valor, and generally
thnmghout the work will be found a vast body of new information, particularly
adapted to the communication of correct knowlege to all who wish to compre
hend military subjects.
A too prevalent error, and the most fatal if we should ever be engaged in war,
and not acquire more perfect and general knowlege, is, that the art of war re-
this
-

quires neither study nor much attention to what is called discipline ; and
error has obtained a sort of sanctity from the triumphs of our undisciplined yeo
Hessian veterans inour re
manry over the British, Hanoverian, Wurtemburg, and
volution. Undoubtedly without an examination into the causes of the triumphs in

a more particular manner than general history presents, the assumption is very
imposing, and adapted to flatter self-love and national pride.
These natural and often useful passions must, nevertheless, be restrained like
all others within the bounds of reason ; and, in order to avoid the danger which
may flow from our prejudices, we must endeavor to consider our own circum
stances with eyes as dispassionate as we should those of strangers. We must
enquire, what was the state of military knowlege in the armies of the invaders ;
whether they exhibited any of the great qualities which constitute well disci
plined troops or great generals ; whether the whole course of their military
transactions was not a series of blunders, produced by their ignorance of our
people and country ; and even in a great degree owing to the want of talents
in the officers of the enemy, to supply by their genivis and spirit of enterprize,
the disadvantages under which they labored. It would require only an enu
meration of a few facts to shew, that although the patience with which the
American troops endured hardships and privations, afford glorious examples of
the military virtues ; that even these great virtues, conducted as they were,
by a general who united in himself the military qualities of a Fabius and a Scipio,
could not have had so much success were it not for the want of a good disci
pline, and the utter incapacity of the generals of the British army.
In the modern wars of the French revolution, the like truths have been
demonstrated as in the American contest. The British armies had been merely
taught the duties of parade, and when they came into the field, had to learn by
hard fighting and severe defeats, that their officers were generally ignorant of
the art of war ; for they were beaten once more by raw troops ably conducted
to the field by experienced officers, who possessed skill, who had made military
science their study; and, above all, who knew how to take advantage of the
incompetency of the British leaders.
Mankind in every country, educated in the same way, varies very little in
those points which are adapted to military services. It must, therefore, in a
great measure depend upon the education which is applied to military affairs, in
the discipline of armies, whether they are victors or vanquished. All nations
profess to have acted upon this opinion, though there seems not to be that
attention paid to the subject, nor to education of any kind, which the acknow-
leged importance of the case calls for. This indifference or heedlessness has at
times infected all nations, and may be considered as a disease, which if not cured
at a certain stage, ensures destruction.
The triumphs of Spain before the peace of Vervins in 1598, is a most impor
tant part of history for the study of men fond of military enquiries ; the infantry
of Spain was then the first in Europe ; we have seen in the years 1808 and 1809,
that the extinction, by the neglect of military knowlege, has left Spain, with ten
millions of people, an easy conquest. Austria and Prussia have successively shone
preeminent on the military theatre' of Europe. The daily parades at Berlin,
which Frederic II. conducted himself for many years, and from which strangers
were excluded, were only lessons of experiment and instruction by which he

fonuedhis own mind to the conviction of the power of rapid movement, and close
ELUCIDATORY PREFACE. v

i ilutions
f
by small divisions ; divisions moving in different modes, and by different
points, in apparent disorder but by the most exact laws, to one common point of
action. Here it was that he contrived those methods which he accomplished in
action afterwards, and which enabled him, with a force not equal to half the Aus
trian army, to baffle, defeat, and triumph over all Europe. It will be useful for the
man of sense to consider, whether Frederic could have
performed such wonders
in the field, without this previous practice himself, and the previous discipline
which rendered his armies of 40,000 as manageable as a battalion of 500 men.
Perhaps we shall be told that Steuben's tract renders all these considerations un
necessary.
The military triumphs of modern France have been ascribed to a multitude
of causes ; really, perhaps, the causes of her military successes may be reduced
to two. First, the necessity which arose out of what has been preposterously
called the balance of power in Europe, which under the pretence of maintaining
an
equality of nations, has been the real mask for reiterated wars, conquests,
plunder, and desolation ; Spain, Austria, and France, have been at different pe
riods held up as aspiring to universal dominion ; under the color of resisting the
aggrandizement of either, they have been for two centuries constantly engaged
in efforts to plunder each other. France, from her position, was from the pas
sions of the age, forced to be prepared for the defensive ; and in several succes
sive wars had made conquests on her extremities, which rendered it daily more
necessary to maintain a military establishment ; and at length, after suffering
great disasters, and thereby producing a succession of great generals, the pas
sions and character of the people became military.
Taught by triumphs and disasters, the causes of success and failure, her ge
nerals and statesmen directed their attention to the perfection of all the branches
of military institution ; the management of weapons, the array of troops, the
plans of marches, the supply of armies, the passage of rivers, and the simplifi
cation of every species of duty. Colleges were instituted, the sciences were
enlisted in the military service, and it was difficult to tell in which class of citi
zens the greatest military enthusiasm prevailed.. ..the nobles who alone could as
pire to command, or the privates who composed the rank and file of armies.
It is to these institutions, through which the path to honor and renown lay,
that France owes her present preeminence. Under several heads of this Dic
tionary will be found the facts upon which this opinion is sustained ; other na-
tions rather aped than emulated her institutions ; while France pursued the spi
rit of the Romans who adopted every weapon which they found powerful in the
hands of their enemies ; France adopted the prolonged line of the Austrian^, or
abandoned it to pursue the concentric movements of Prussia ; those echellons
which under another name were among the manoeuvres of Scipio and Gustavus
Adolphus, and which so many have affected to laugh at as novelties, because
they know neither their history nor their use ; were recommended by Guibert in
1763, as the column had been before recommended by Folard,- and each of whom
had been calumniated and their tactics reprobated, by the enemies of innovation,
or rather
by the blockheads of their day, a class rfbeings which some are to befund
excr) where.
The rapid principles of Frederic, and the evolutions of the ocheUon and column
adapted to the concentric method of movement, upon oblique as well as di
rect lines; and all executed with a combined precision before unusual, consti
tute the great features of the modern tactics. Simplicity of method in instruc
tion is the key to it.
It must be evident to the humblest understanding, that a great part, of the
success of armies in war must depend as much upon the knowlege of the ene
mies' mode of movement and action, as well as in the perfection, precision, and
promptitude of execution in their own. Voltaire, whose history of Europe is
alike admirable for its conciseness and authenticity, since all his information t

on military affairs was drawn from the military


depot established at Versailles,
speaking of the battle of Rosbach, attributes the defeat of the French under
Soubise to their ignorance of the new methods of movement which had been
introduced by Frederic II. The soldiers saw that the old method of bat
tle was changed; they did not comprehend the motions of the Prussians,
which were not merely novel, but as exact as the movements on a parade ; the}'
beliaved they saw their masters in the art of war, they were dismayed and fled.
ELUCIDATORY PREFACE.

This anecdote, which has many resemblances in ancient history, is 'of great
moment in directing the understanding to the consideration of military institu
tion. It leaves no doubt of the necessity of knowing the art of war as it is prac
tised by other nations, and especially the importance of practising that which
has proved superior to all others.
A fatality has attended all the efforts which have been made for several years
to introduce a suitable organization of the militia, and a correct military system.
The genius of ignorance appears to have cast a spell over all the attempts that
have been made. Like the projector who was so much occupied by the erec
tion of a weathercock, that he set about it before the foundation for the steeple
was laid, every attempt has been made at the wrong end ; apart has been mista

ken for a whole, composedof numerous parts, and the wrong part has always been
chosen first. America, which has been so original in the revolution as to give rise
to the institution of rifle corps, which have decided seven-eighths of the battles
that have been fought in Europe since ; has been led to resort constantly to the
very system of which America proved the futility, for precepts and examples ;
instead of profiting by the march of science, we have gone for instruction to the
worst military institutions of Europe. When any person intrusted with the mi
litary concerns of the U. States wants information, it is to authorities exploded
and condemned by men of military knowlege, reference is made. A minister
of England in addressing that nation in 1806, at the very moment when it was an
nounced to that nation that the bellum ad internicionem had only then
begun
that " the war was now at the foot of her- walls," had the honesty, which times
of danger extracts even from ministers, to declare...." The
military system of Eng
land was equally in want of repairs, or rather a thorough
rebuilding, even to its foun
dation stone.'" There is no truth more certain, yet it is to this tattered and
defenceless fabric we resort for models on every occasion. The bill for esta
blishing a quarter ^master general's department, which was before congress in
1809-10, is a scion of this decayed tree ; no doubt that as long as the present
apology for a system exists, the proposed department may serve, as a crutch is
of use to a body stricken with paralysis.
Military science even in France, where it has now reached the greatest
perfection, has had to struggle with selfishness and the occasional and almost
insuperable difficulties, which the appointment of ministers incompetent and
inexperienced in military affairs, threw in their wray. Folard is reputed to
have died broken-hearted, by the persecution which he
experienced from stupid
generals and ministers who looked to nothing but official patronage. Le-
vrilliere, whose admirable improvements in the various departments of artillerv
to whom is owing the red* ction of the
length and the weight of metal of
guns of the same calibre, was persecuted out of France, aBd obliged to take re
fuge in the army of Austria, where his services proved so formidable as to in
duce his recall, and the final adoption of his vast
improvements ; those improve
ments which, by the
lessening weight of artillery, have led to the powerful insti
tution of horse artillery.
Wise nations are never disposed to
reject the useful because it is not of
their own invention. The Austrians after the battle of Austerlitz
immediately
abolished their old discipline, and the archduke Charles
instituted a better sys
tern upon the of the
principles modern French. Even the French themselves
surrounded by ( numphs, have not yet deemed the science of war
of the
perfect New
dispositions column were
adopted in Egypt ; it was only in 1808 that the re
gulations for the exercise and manoeuvres of
since the
Cavalry were completed- and even
campaign which closed with the battle of Wagram, they have made
some
important alterations in the arms of their
cavalry, founded either on the
experience of inconvenience in their own, or of some
of their enemy.
superior advantages
in those
The conclusions which we draw from these facts
are, that the prevalence of
erroneous opinions on the
military institutions is a subject of very serious con
cern ; because it is
evident, that so long as a nation or a government, which has
the care of the national
concerns, and a great influence over its opinions, suffers
ignorance and prejudice to occupy the place of
be considered as the intelligence, a similar fate may
consequence, whenever the nation shall be attacked, as
odicr negligent or ignorant nations have
and capacity in the art of war.
been, by a power of superior knowlege s
ELUCIDATORY PREFACE. Vll

Nothing more plainly shews the misconception which generally prevails, es


pecially in the legislatures of the Union and the several states, than the contra.
dictory motives which are assigned for leaving the militia and military system in
their present state of disorganization. Some plead that the art of war is laid
down in Steuben ; others that Steuben carried us through the revolution ; when
in fact both Burgoyne and Cornwallis were taken before Steuben's tract was in-
troduced; others are for arming our militia with pikes alone, forgetting that an
to render pikes ef
open country is that for which pikes are best adapted ; and that
fective there must be a most perfect discipline of manoeuvre, which may render
the line as potent and firm as the column, and as easily displayed, concentrated,
and formed to various fronts as the best disciplined infantry ; when the new
modes of movement are mentioned, they are called novelties, though the princi
pal of them are as old as the battle of Pharsalia, and were in practice at the bat
tle"* of Lutzen ; other exceptions are, that besides being new, the modern disci
pline is too difficult to learn, too perplexed and fatiguing ; that the multiplied
manoeuvres require more time and labor, and must be in a great measure use
less ; and that so satisfied are the British of this that they have reduced them
all to nineteen manoeuvres. Nothing so truly depicts the want of judgment or
a proper attention to the subject, as observations like these the truth is that the
modern principles of instruction are fewer in number, more easily taught and un
derstood, and less irksome to the soldier ; better adapted to engage the soldier's
attention and afford him gratification ; that the variety and number of evolutions
is not more various than the eternal variety of ground by which military move
ments and dispositions are always governed ; and that the new discipline, by
teaching the first elements well, enables the military body to be moved by these
principles on any ground, and not only to form any disposition that it is possible?
to form, but without having been previously formed in such new dispositions ; the
elementary principles of modern discipline being peculiarly adapted to the un
derstanding, and the movements by small bodies, enabling every officer of a small
portion of troops to move hi9 particular corps by the mode best adapted to the
'
ground.
It must always be the fault of the government if its military institutions are
erroneous. If there were but a single regiment, that should be instructed ac
cording to the best principles, and made to practise whatever was most useful
and necessary in the art of war. In a nation of freemen the regular force should
constantly exhibit their exercises and evolutions, so that every citizen should be
familiar with the best practice of the use of arms andof manoeuvres. The eye
may be said to have an infallible memory, it is above all other of the organs
of sense the best medium of intelligence. The United States troops are
usually cooped up in garrisons, as if they were, like the king of Prussia, forming
a system in secret, while in fact there is
nothing worthy of the name of discipline
carried on, and in too many instances nothing understood. Perhaps- the troops
of the United States have not, as a part of discipline, fired a ball at a target for
twenty years. Field artillery, or mortar practice, probably not more frequent.
The maxim of economy is an important one in a free state, but there is an econo
my more destructive than the greatest profusion ; and that is the economy of
practical and useful knowlege.
We speak of these things reluctantly, but the evil is almost a disease, and
requires the regard of the intelligent men in all parts of the nation.
What is then requisite for the United States ?
It will be said that there is some difficulty in effecting any improvement.
Unquestionably so it is, and so it ever will be. But the government is bound not
to regard difficulties, when they are put in
competition with1 the dangers
which may flow from neglect. The government possesses the power, and the
army is bound, and the country is anxious to possess a more complete svstem in
lieu of the once useful but at present useless tract of baron Steuben. The diffi
culties are not so great as may be at first sight supposed, and
may be surmount
ed in a way rather to'serve as a pleasure than a
difficulty to the army and mili
tia. The elements of modern exercise might be first introduced,
they are nei
ther so numerous, so perplexed, nor so unnatural as the old forms ; neither are
they tiresome to the teacher or the
so
taught. They have also another advan
tage, that the soldier is not as heretofore stiffened and set up like an embalm
ed Egyptian mummy ; the modern method takes
any number from 10 to 100 men,
and places them in iA\ easy rJ0Siti0n erect without constraint of
head, or llnibs,
vih ELUCIDATORY PREFACE.

or body j and proceeds by familiarizing the earAo equal time by the action
of
the feet of the whole squad or company ; after which they are all taught to face
to either hand or about, indifferently, and never in one routine ; the mode of

moving the limbs and the time of movement is ever the same ; and the words
of command few, simple, and plain ; where they in any case differ from the
usual words of common life the teacher's duty is to explain them often, until the
ears of all are familiar with their practical meaning.
The next process is advancing, at a given length of pace in equal times >
and this is combined with facings, and at last with wheelings, in whole ranks,
or in sections of any given numbers, always varying, diminishing, and augment-
ing at discretion the numbers of the sections, by drawing from the right of each
successive section in the rear of the first, to the left of the leading section, a
number sufficient to augment the first to the number required, and so of every
section from front to rear; the drill is thus carried on always with moving feet
at the time of gay dancing music, and when marching always at a pace of 24
inches.
After thesquad of 20 or 100 is found complete in these minute branches of
marking time, advancing at time, facing and wheeling, augmenting and dimin
ishing sections, they are taught the oblique wheelings and facings, or as the mo-
dern words are half or quarter facing, or half or quarter wheeling; and to march
dressed in these several orders, so as to form exactly in the same relative posi
tion to each other when wheeled or faced to their primitive position.
Thus much may be well taught, and comprehended, and practised in two or
three weeks, employing only two or three hours at each drill, and twice each
day.
The instruction of the pivots or flank men of ranks and sections, go along with
the first wheelings ; andas soon as the uses of the pivots are generally understood,
then the whole are formed into double ranks ; and the men are prepared to ex
ecute any of the modern evolutions or manoeuvres ; it being always calculated
that the officers are equally diligent and as well drilled as the men, and compe
tent not only to comprehend but to correct an error when itoccurs.
At this stage, and not before, arms should be put into their hands ; and a
manual exercise of some kind taught, for it is not material what the motions are
so that the firing and loading motions are taught to be performed with dexterity

and ease. The drill is then manoeuvred once a day with arms, and the officer
who feels a proper sense of the importance of the habit of command, and the ad
vantage of giving troops the practice of movement, will diversify his own plea
sures and gratify his men, by moving them into all the various positions of co

lumn, line, echellons, movements by heads of sections, changing flanks and


fronts, taking new alignements, countermarching in the various modes of which
modern military works furnish such useful and abundant examples.
The elements of the first drills with minute instructions might be comprised
in a hand book of one half the compass of Steuben's tract; and this elementary --

work placed in the hands of all descriptions of troops, infantry, artillery, and ca-
valry, should be the first rule of practice for them all in common. This introduced,
the government could at leisure prepare instructions for a more comprehensive
course ol manoeuvres, and particularly hand books upon the same simple principles
of drills for artillery, riflemen, and cavalry, in their particular branches of duty.
It being to be understood as a fundamental principle, that as the movements and
action of all kinds of troops are regulated by the movements of infantry ; or in
other words, as infantry compose the main body, line, or column ; the riflemen,
aitilh rv, and cavalry must be governed in their movements by the main body,
to which they are appendages or auxiliaries ; and it is therefore required that
they should know themselves how to execute the infantry manoeuvres, in order
that they should not, like the French at Rosbach, be confounded by movements
of which they arc ignorant.
The profound mathematician may look down from the elevation of abstract
science upon the cold common place of syllabic combination and Arabic numeri
cal notation ; but he owes his first knowlege to the alphabet of language and arith
metic ; here he must have begun, and here the military man of whatever
grade must also begin. He must learn the alphabet of military knowlege at the
drill, he must take his lessons and learn them ; he must study and practice what
he has learned there, in order to teach ; and the officer must learn both to com
mand others and to obey. There is no science which may not be attained by
ELUCIDATORY PREFACE. w

earnest application and practice. But no science or art can be acquired or un


derstood without both ; and the more carefully that study is pursued and the
more frequently it is practised, the more efficient will it be in the individual and
in the regular mass of individuals. But practice is above all requisite, careful,
frequent, constant, obstinately pursued practice. ,

But this is not yet a system.


Wc have exhibited the elementary branch of military instruction first, mere
ly because it is the point at which every military body must commence ; be
cause this is what is now most wanted, and because while it is
carrying into
practical use, the general system containing all the purposes and uses of an effi
cient military establishment may in the mean time be prepared and digested ,

Having treated so much on this subject, its importance will excuse the dis
cussion ofit more at large. To the perfection of a military establishment for the
U. States two things are essential.
The frst is, that it should be such as to be equally applicable in its opera
tion to the militia and to the army of the U. States, whenever the former are
called forth.
The second, that every act and duty appertaining to the military establishment
should be transacted by none other than men subject to military order, control,
and responsibility ; and liable to be put in motion or brought to account for delay
or
neglect inmilitary manner.
a

These two principles lead to the consideration of what would be an efficient


military organization ; and here we have a host of formidable enemies, ignorance,
a disorderly mass ; indolence and idleness, hanging on the flanks ; the
steady ha
bits of old prejudice ever alarmed for its patronage or its place ; all immedi
ately exclaim, would there not be great confusion produced by abrogating
some duties and introducing others. We shall not skirmish with this motley and
unmilitary groupe ; we shall come to the point. In considering the subject, it will
be found that the present war department in fact corresponds with what is called
the general staff in other countries; the president representing the commander in
Chief, the secretary at war chief of the staff". From this fact it will be perceived,
that whatever improvements might take place in the system, it would at first
consist only of defining and distributing the duties and details of service by the
war department

After defining and arranging the various heads of service, they should of
course be classed according to analogy or the dependency of one kind
upon ano
ther ; so that there would be several heads, under each of which the inferior bran
ches of duty might be distributed. At the head of one of the superior branches
should be placed a responsible officer, who would have the superintendance of
all the duties, and the direction and control of all those placed in the execution of
the subordinate branches ; this officer to be responsible to the executive di
rectly in peace ; and when the arrangements became necessarily distinct in the
field, to become responsible to the commanding officer in the field. These heads
of branches should be the efficient staffof the military inst itution, it is through the
perfection of the organization of the staff, and the rigid responsibility for the due
execution and for seeing all under them duly performed, that modern tactics is
in an eminent degree indebted for its preeminency and its triumphs. Precision,
promptitude, and provident foresight, are their invariable laws, and upon these be
ing perfect depends all the success of modern military science ; but it must be
taken in connexion also with the disciplinary principles which go into action,
where the same provident foresight, the same precision, and the same celerity
of motion ensure success to all that is undertaken against any force, however
numerous and brave, destitute of a
system equally provident and combined in its
operations.
To commence an efficient system we must take the outline upon the largest
Scale; that is, in preparing an establishment, of which the end is the defence
of all the nation, we must not begin with a system which is only adapted to
a peace ; an assumption of this kind would render any military system nugatory.
To form a system complete, it must be founded in its very nature on the suppo
sition of an actual war. This would no doubt be reversing the present order of
things; since it is not to be concealed, that as it is at present constituted, the
war department is utterly incompetent to conduct a war; but such as would

Jeave the jaind of a general officer, in case of actual war, t labor ui-.kr a mor.*
x ELUCIDATORY PREFACE.

hazardous and perplexing responsibility. Possibly economy may here take the
alarm, we shall quiet this costly chimeru.
'
A peace establishment of the military department wc conceive should be
treated as the incident ; forming and fixing the principles of the institution
would not necessarily call for its immediate completion, or the appointment
even of a single officer, or the expenditure of a single dollar more than at
officers
present; the duties and functions should be defined, but no additional
employed until occasion called for them, that is war. It is necessary to offer
these precautionary ideas to prevent misapprehension, and lest the idea of
the formation of a system, that is a coherent and comprehensive regulation for
the military department, should be mistaken for a wish to immediately organize
an army and staff, and i>ut them into pay. It is barely meant that during peace
provision should be made against war, which we do not know how soon we may be
involved in we shall therefore proceed.

The military system may be said to consist of two principal branches, mill'
tary operations, and subsistence, both of which must be within the full and^ ample
command of the chief of an army. These two branches become the objects of duty
distributed among the staff; which unfolds another important truth, that
every officer who has the provision, or charge of procuring supplies of subsistence
or
clothing, should be responsible in a military manner for the execution of hi6
duty, and liable to military penalties for the abuse or the neglect of that duty. This
is a most important consideration ; and it is apprehended the scandalous state of
the clothing of the army of the U. States, which has been gradually becoming
worse for several years past, is a strong exemplification of this necessity. There
should not be a single officer of the war department, unless perhaps the account
ing officers, who should be exempt from military control, in order to assure a
due exercise of their duty between the public and the military establishment ;
as it would be in the power of men intrusted with the provision of clothing or

subsistence at any time.... to betray the army to an enemy.


The beginning should be with the organization of the general staff, and this
should be adapted, for the reasons given, to a state of war. The secretary of the
war department being in fact the chief of the staff, the rest of the staff should con

sist of an able practical general officer, a capable chief officer of the artillery, an ef
fective chief officer of the engineers, a vigilant and experienced quarter-master ge
neral, and an intelligent and experienced adjutant general, with one or two com
missioned officers, as the service might require, attached to each of these seve
ral officers as aids, who should execute under a board of war the details of duty ;
these superior officers, with others called in, should constitute this council or
board for the regulation of all the military details ; appoint inspectors of reviews ;
and such other persons as might be required to aid in the service, such as sur
geons, draftsmen, &c. They should divide their duties into the military and the
administrative, and have cognizance and control over every branch, always sub
ject to the chief of the staff or secretary at war ; they should assemble and deli
berate, and their consultations and measures, however minute, with their reason
ings or objections, should be daily recorded ; and these consultations should,
whenever required, be presented to the secretary at war, to the president, or
to congress when called for.
The military branch should be distributed under the heads
following
MILITARY I PLANS AND MEANS OF DEFENSIVE OR OFFENSIVE WAR.

1. This should comprehend a


topographical establishment; the prepa
ration of complete maps and surveys of our own
country; and a classi
fication of the surface of the Union into districts of
equal portions of
three, five, or nine parts ; and these again into lesser districts ; de
signating all the passes, roads, rivers, &c, in each, with descriptive
memoirs and references to each.
U. The police of armies.
,". Military exercises or discipline.
i. Military operations,
marchings, and encampments.
>. Movements of troops by water.
(i. Military chronology, or daily and other returns, of duties, actions,
retreats, &c. c.
ELUCIDATORY PREFACE.

FISCAL II Subsistence, pecuniary and civil administration.

1. Pay, and
receipts, expenditures, or thetreasury branch.
2. Clothing, equipments, arms.
3. Provisions, meat, bread, grain, liquors, fuel.
4. Forage, hay, oats, straw, corn.
5. Hospitals and magazines.
6. Carriages and horses for stores and artillery.
Such is the outline of a military system adapted to the circumstances and ne
oessities of the U. States. On a superficial glance, to timid or unreflecting men,
this may appear to be surrounded with difficulties insuperable ; there will be dis
cordant opinions, envy, jealousy, folly will devise objections ; no two men may
concur, however equal and able ; the objects are themselves too numerous and
complex for any one man toprepare in time or in a satisfactory manner ; the pro
position itself will be said to arise from interested motives ; from some lust of
place or profit ; it will require resolution to resist prejudice ; and the requisite
firmness to decide may not be found.
We shall close this part of our essay by stating generally, that whenever
there shall appear a disposition to adopt this or any such system, means can be
pointed out by which the insuperable difficulties shall be made appear easy to be
overcome ; discordant opinions reconciled and brought spontaneously to concur

rence ; envy, folly, and


jealousy will be allowed to prey upon themselves, without
danger of annoyance to the plan ; the variety of the objects can be made subser
vient to render them more simple, practicable, and effective; and instead of the me
rit being ascribed to any one man, every officer in the army and the militia if they
choose shall have an opportunity of laying his claim to a participation in the plan.
If the observations thrown out in this preface are well founded, the neces
sity of a work of this kind will be immediately perceived. Let it not however
be' imagined, says major James, that a Military Dictionary ought exclusively to
belong to a camp or barrack, or be found in the closets or libraries of military
men alone. The arts and sciences are so intimately connected together, that
they eventually borrow language and resources from each other, and go hand
in hand from the senate to the field, from the pulpit to the bar, and from the
desk of the historian to the bureau of the statesman or politician.
We have a few words to say on certain parts of the work. The French
phrases are adopted for their usefulness in reading, and often even in political
reading: the words and phrases in the language of the East Indies, are adopted
from the English Dictionary, in which however there were some errors w hich
the editor of this work was enabled to correct, and to-give more accurate ex
planations to many. Some subjects which might with more propriety be placed
under one letter are placed under another; the course of reading which the edi
tor commenced cotemporaneous with the preparation of the three first letters,
not affording the illustrations until the letter to which they properly belonged
had been printed. Thus under Valor will be found much of what would pro-
perly come under Courage , and under Topographical what would properly be
long to Depot. There are several similar instances.
Should the disposition be manifested to cultivate the knowlege of military
subjects generally, the editor proposes at some future day to publish gen. Grim-
oard's treatise on the Staff of armies ; the French Regulations for Cavalry of
1808 ; and the most modern'and celebrated works on Tactics, the treatise of Jo-
mini, the 4th volume of which was published in the beginning of 1810. All
these works are already translated and ready to be put to press ; beside a Dic
tionary of all the military actions recorded in ancient and modern history which
is now in great forwardness.
Military men who may be desirous of adding to the stock of useful and cor
rect knowlege, will oblige by pointing out any defects or errors, or recommend

ing any additions that are pertinent to the nature of this work, addressed to the
compiler.

Jri.v 4, 1810.
MILITARY

DICTIONARY.

A BS A B S

A BAT IS, in a military sense, is form- In the parabola, the abscissa is a third
-** ed by cutting down many entire proportional to the parameter and the
trees, the branches of which are turned ordinate.
towards an enemy, and as much as pos In the ellipsis, the square of the ordi
sible entangled one into a other. They nate is equal to the rectangle under the
are made either before redoubts, or other
parameter and abscissa, lessened by ano
works, to render the attacks difficult, or ther rectangle under the said abscissa, and
sometimes along the skirts of a wood, to a fourth
proportional to the axis, the
prevent an enemy from getting possession parameter, and the abscissa.
of it. In this case the trunks s;rve as a In the hyperbola, ihe squares of the
breast-work, behind which the troops ordinates are as the rectangles of the ab
are posted, and for that reason should be scissa by another line, compounded of the
so
disposed, that the parts may, if pos abscissa and the transverse axis.
sible, flank each other. But it must be remembered, that the
ARLECTI, in military antiquity, a two proportions relating to the
ellipsis
choice or select part of the soldiery in the and hyperbola, the origin of the abscissas +
Roman armies, picked out of those called or point from whence
they bean to be
extraordinarii. reckoned, is supposed to be the ve:tex of
ABO L LA, in military antiquity, a th curve, or, which amounts to the .-.ame
warm kind of garment, generally lined or thing, the point where the a\is meets it ;
doubled, used both by the Greeks and for if the origin of the abscissa be taken
Romans, chierly out of the city, in fol from the centre, as is often done, the
lowing the camp. above proportions will not be true.
ABORD, Fr. attack, onset. ABSENT, a term used in military
S'A BOUCHER, Fr. to parley. It forms a
returns.
part of regimental
ABOUT, a technical word to express reports, to account for the deficiency of any
the movement, by which a body of troops given number of officers or soldiers ; and
changes its front or aspect, by facing ac is usuaily distinguished under two prin
cording to any given word of command. cipal heads, viz.
Right About, is when the soldier com Absent with leave, officers with per
pletely changes the situation of his per mission, or non -commissioned officers and
son, by a semi-circular movement to the soldiers on furlough.
right. Absent ivithout leave. Men who de
Left About, is when the soldier changes sert are
frequently reported absent ivithout
the situation or' his person by a semi-cir leave, for the specific purpose of bringing
cular movement to the left. their crime unler regimeiv.al cognizance,
ABREAST, a formerly used to
term and to prevent them from being tried
express any number of men in front. At capitally, for desertion.
present they are determined by Files. ABSOLUTE Gravity, in
philosophy,
ABRI, Fr. shelter, cover. Etre a is the whole force by which a body, shell,
Vabri, to be under cover, as of a wood, or shot, is impelled towards the centre.

hillock, &c. See Gravity.


ABSCISSA, /* tniliuiry mathematics, Absolute Number, in Algebra, is the
signifies any part of the diameter or axis known quantity which possesses entirely
of a curve, contained between its vertex one side of the equation. Thus, in the
or some other fixed
point, and the inter equation, xx + io*, =
64, the number
section of the ordinate. 64, possessing entirely one side of the
2 A C A ACC

equation, is called the absolute number, and


and capacity. That at Portsmouth was
is equal th. squareof the unknown root :
to founded by George I. in 1722, for teach
x, added to io*, or to 10 times x j ing of the branches of the mathematics
ABUTMENT. See Bridges. which more immediately relate to naviga-
the
ACADEMY, in antiquity, namej
of a villa situated about a mile from the ; For the American and French Military
city of Athens, where Plato and his fol-
Academies, see School.
lowers assembled for conversing on philo ACANZI, in military history, the
sophical subjects ; and hence they acquir- : name of the Turkish ight-horse that form
od the name of Academics. the van-guard of the Grand Signior'a army
The term Academy is frequently used on a march.
ACCELE ATED Motion on oblique
among the moderns tor a society, of learn
ed persons, instituted for the cultivation er inclined planes. See Motion.
and improvement of arts or sciences, Accelerated Motion ofpendu/mus. See
Some authors confound academy w.-th
j
. Pendulums.
university; but, though m >di ihesamei Accelerated Motion of Prtjectiles,
in Latin, they are very different things in See Projectiles.
English. An university is, properly, a ACCENDONES, in military anti
body composed of graduates in the several quity, a kind of gladiators, or supernu
;

faculties ; of professors, who teach in the i meraries, whose office was to excite and
public schools ; of regents or tutors, and animate the combatants during the en

students who learn under them, and aspire gagement.


likewise to degrees ; whereas an academy , ACCENSI, in antiquity, were officers
was
originally not intended for teaching, j attending the Roman magistrates ; their
or to
profess any art, but to improve it ; j business was to summon the people to the
it was not for novices to be instructed in, : public games, and to assist the praetor
but for those who were more knowing ; i when he sat on the bench.
for persons of distinguished abilities to I Accensi, in military antiquity, was also
Confer in, and communicate their lights an appellation given to a kind of adjutants
and discoveries to each other, for their appointed by the tribune to assist each
mutual benefit and improvement The centurion and decurion. According to
first academy we read of, was established .Festus, they were supernumerary sol
'
by Charlemagne, by the adviceoi Alcuin : diers, whose duty it was to attend their
it was composed of the chief wits of the le ders, and supply the places of those
court, the emperor hims. If being a mem who were either killed or wounded. Livy
ber. ,
mentions them as irregular troops, but
Mrlit.ry Ac \demy. There are in Eng- J little esteemed. Salmasius say, they
land two rojal military academies, were taken out of the fifth class of the
onej
At Woolwich, and one at Portsmouth. I poor citizens of Rome
The first was established by king George j ACCESSIBLE, that which may be
II. in 17 ! r, endowed, and supported, for 1 approached. Wc say, in a military stile,
tUe instructing of the people belonging to; that place, or that fortress, is accessible
the military branch <r' ordnance, in the from the sea, or land, 1 e. it may be en
j .

several parts of mathematics necessary to tered on those sides.


qualify theni tor the service of the artil- An accessible height or distance, in
Icry, and the business of engineers. The geometry, is that wliich may be measured
lectures of the masters in theory were by applying a rule, Sec. to it : or rather,
then duly attended by the practitioner- it is a height, the foot whereof may be
engineers, officers, Serjeants, corporals, approacheu, and from whence any dis
private men, and cadets. At present the tance may oe measured on the ground.
gentlemen educated at this academy are Heights, both accessible, and inacces
the sons of the nobility and military of sible, 1. ay be taken with a quadrant. See
ficers. They are called gentlemen cadets, Altitude; and the article on Fielu For
and are not admined under 14 and not tifications in the American Military Libra
above 16 years of age. They arc taught ry, Thiorem 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
writing, arithmetic, algebra, Latin, One ot the objects of surveying, is the
French, mathematics, mechanics, sur measuring uoth accessible and inaccessible
veying, leveling, and fortification, to distances.
gether with the attack and defence ; g n- ACCLIVITY, in a military sense, is
nery, mining, laboratory works, geogra the steepness or si >pe of any work, in
phy, perspective, fencing, dancing, &c. clined to the horizon, reckoned
upwards.
The mastei -general of the ordnance is Si<me writers on fortification use
acclivity
always captain of the company of gentle as synonymous with talus;
though talus
men cadets, and some officer of merit is is commonly used to denote all manner of
always captain-lieutenant There n, be slo,.es, either in its .scendent or descen
sides, a first lieutenant, and two second ded state.
lieutenants. They are further under the ACCONTIUM, in ancient military
immediate care ot a lieutenant governor, writer , a kind of Grecian dart or javelin,
and an
;.i.-pecior, who arc ofiiceis of great somewhat resembling the Roman pilum
abilities and experience ; and the protes ACCOUTREMENTS, in a military
tors and masters are men of known talents sense, signify habits, equipage, or furnj-
AD J A FF

ture, of a soldier, such as belts, pouches, i tothe ground of the camp. He makes a
cartridge-boxes,saddles, bridles, &c. j daily report of the situation of all the
Accoutrements should be made of stout j posts placed for the safety of the army,
leather, of the spongv kind, which
not is; and of any changes made in their posts.
always stretching, and difficult to clean. viay of battle he acts as aid to the
In a
The belts are about 2i inches broad, In a siege he visits the several
general.
with two buckles to rix ihem to the posts and guards of the trenches, and re-
ouch. Pouches are made of the stoutest pons their situation, and how circum
lackened leaner, especially the outside stanced : he gives and signs all orders for
Haps, which are of such a substance as ski.mishbg parties (if time permit) and
to curn the severest rain. Cartridge- boxts has a Serjeant from each brigade to cany
are made as light as possible, with holes any orders whieh he ma\ have to send.
in each, to hold cartridges. See Car See American Mil. Lib. Article Staff.
tridge. | ADJUTANT, an officer who aids the
AC I IDES, in Roman antiquity, a| major in part of his duty, and performs it
kind ot missive weapon, with a thong j in his absence. He receives orders from
fixed to it, whereby it might be drawn the brigade-major, it in camp; and when
back again Most authors describe the in garrison, from the town-major : after
aclides as a sort of dart or javelin : but he has carried them to his colonel or offi
Scahger makes it roundish or globular, ; cer commanding the regiment, he then
with a wooden stem to poise it by assembles the serjeant- nujor, drum-ma
ACOLUTHI, in military an'iquity, ! jor and fife-major, with a Serjeant and
Was a title in the Grecian empire, given
corporal of each company, who write the
to the captain or commander of theiw orders in an orderly book, to sticw to their
rangi, or body-guards, appointed for the respective officers. If convoys, parties,
security of the detachments, or guards, are to be iur-
emperor's palace
AC'iTAN games, in antiquity, were nished, he gives the number which each
games instituted, or at least restored, by company is to furnish, and hour and lace
Augustus, in memory ot the famous vic for the assembling : he must keep aH exact
tory, at Act! um, over Mark Antouy. roster and roll of duties, and have a per
Act i an years, in chronology, a series fect knowlege of all manoeuvres, &c.
of years, commencing with the epoch < of This post is usually given to an active
the battle ot Actium, otherwise called subaltern.
the a?ra of Augustus. ADMIRAL, on the European esta.
ACTION, in 'he military art, is an blishments, when on shore, are entitled to
engagement between two armies,, or any receive military honors, and rank with
smaller bodjr of troops, or between dif generals in the' army.
ferent bodies belonging thereto. The word ADVANCE. See Pay in Advance.
is likewise used to signify some memor ADVANCED signifies some part of
able act done by an officer, soldier, de- an army in front of the rest, as in advan
tachmnt or party. ced guards, which always precede the line
ACTIVITY, in a military sense, de of march or operations of a body of troops ;
notes labonousness, attention, labor, dili aeain, as when a battalion, or guns of a
gence and study. second line are brought up in front and
ACUTE angle. See Angle. before the first l;ne. This term also ap
ADACTED applies to stakes, or piles, plies to the promotions of officers and
driven into the earth by large malls shod soldiers.
with iron, as in securing ramparts or pon ( Fosse ? See Fortifica-
toons. Advanced <Ditch $ tion.

ADDICE, a sort of axe which cuts ( Guard. See Guard.


horizontally. It is sometimes called an ADVANCEMENT, in a military
Adze. sense, signifies honor, promotion, or pre
ADIT, a passage under ground, by ferment, in the army, regiment or com
which miners approach the part they pany.
intend to sap. See Gallery. ADVANTAGE Ground, a ground that
ADJUTANT-GENERAL is a staff gives superiority, or an opportunity of
fficer, who aids and assists a general annovanci or resistance.
in his laborious duties : he forms the seve At>VlCE-oat, a vessel employed for
ral details of duty of the army, with the intelligence.
brigade- majors, and keeps an exact state ADVOCATE General. See Judge
of each brigade a..d regiment, with a roll Martial.
of the lieutenant-generals, major-generals, ./ENEATORES, in military antiquity,
colonels, lieutenant-colo.ie.s, and majors. the musicians in an army ; including those
He every day at head quarters receives who sounded the trumpets, horns, litui,
orders irom the general officer of the day, buccinx, Sec,
and distributes them to the majors of bri AFFAIR, in the military acceptation
gades, from whom he receives the num of the woid, means any slight action ox
ber of men they are to furnish for the engagement.
duty of the army, and informs them of Affair of Honor, a duel .

any detail whieh may concern them. On AFFAMER, une Place, Fr. to besieje
marching days be accompanies the general
4 AGE AGG

a place so
closely the garrison
as to starve attached to the military department ;
and inhabitants. See Blockade. they act under direct orders from the War
AFFIDAVIT, in military law, signi- Department.
fies an oath taken before some person who AGGER, in ancient military writers,
is properly authorised to administer it ; as denotes the middle part of a military road,
first, when a soldier is inlisted, when it is raised into a ridge, with a gentle slope on
stiled an attestation; secondly, byalloffi- each side, to make a drain for the water,
cers
appointed on a court-martial; thirdly, and keep the way dry.
by the i.ommissapes, or muster-masters. Agger is also used for the whole
road,
AFFRONTER, Fr. to encounter or or military
way. Where highways were
attack boldly. to be made in low grounds, as between
AF1 UT, the French name for a gun- two hills, the Romans used to raise them
carriage, and for which we have no ap above the adjacent land, so as to make
pro; riatc na .e ; the only distinction from them of a level with the hills. These
all other carriages is, that it belongs to a banks they called agseeres B.rgier men
gun. See Carriage. tions several in the Gallia Belgica, which
AGA, in the Turkish army, is the were thus raised 10, 15, or 20 feet above
same as a general with us. ground, and 5 or 6 leagues long. They
AGE. A young man must be 14 years are sometimes called
aggeres calccati, or
old before he can !;ecome an officer in the
.

causeways.
Engl.sh army, or be entered as a cndet at Agger, also, denotes a work of for
Woolwich, in the English academy. tification,used both for the defence and
Persons are enlisted for soldiers from the attackof towns, camps, Sec. in which
17 to 45. After the latter age, every in sense agger is the same with what was
habitant is exempted fiom serving L.. the otherwise called vallum, and in later times,
Brmsh militia. \agesium ; and among the moderns, lines;
By a late regulation in England, grow sometimes, cavaliers, lerrasses, Sec.
ing boys may be enlisted aRder 16 years The agger was usually a bank, or ele
of age. Tiiese recruits arc chiefly intend vation ot earth, or other matter, bound
ed for the East- India service. amis pported with timber; having some
In the United States 18 to 45 is the legal times turrets on the wherein
top, the
age for nvlitia and regulars. workmen, engineers, and soldiery, were
The Romans were obliged to enter placed. It had also a ditch, which served
theins.lv.. s in the army at th age of 17 as its chief defence. The height of the
years; at 45 riiey im:ht demand their agger was fr quently equal to that of the
dismission. Ani-mgst the Lombai is, the wail ot the place. Caesar tells us of one
age of e try war.be. wee:. i8andiQ; among he made, which was
30 feet high, and
the Saxons, at 13 330 feet broad Besides the use of aggers
AG EM A, in the ancient military art, before towns, they generally used to for
a kind ol
soldiery chit fly in the Mace tify their camps with them ; for want of
donian armies. The word is Greek, and which precaution, divers armies have
literally denotes veiiemente, to express been surprised and ruined.
the strength ami eagerne of this There were vast aggers made in towns
corps.
Som. authors will have agema to demote a and places on the sea-
side, fortified with
certain number 01 picked men, answering towers, castles, &c. Those made by
to a ie>.i'n among the Romans. Cqssarand Pompey,- at Brundusium, are
AGENCY, a certain proportion of famous Sometimes aggers were even
money which is ordered to be subtracted built across arms of the sea,
from the pay and allowances of the British morasses ; as was done lakes, and
, by Alexander be-
arnr, for transacting the business of the 1 fore Tyre, and by M. and Cas-
se ca! regiments
Antony
composing it. 'sius.
AGENT, a ;j..-rson in the civil depart- The wall of Severus, in the north of
m t or n.e British army, between the
. .

pay- England, may be considered as a


mdster-'jsenerai and the paymaster of tile agger, to which belong several grand lesser
regimes, through whom every regiment. .1 ones. Besides, the principal agger or W-
concern of a pecuniary nature must be trans
/, on the brink of the Mr. ditch, Hors-
act -d. lie gives security to government lor iey describes another on the south side of
all monies which pass through his hands
,
the
in the ca. acity of an Agent awd by the ' which he calls the

|
former, about 5 paces distant from it,
south agger ,- and
Mutiny Aet, it was provided, That it'an ; another larger one, on the north side of
Agem shall withhold the
or Soldiers lor the
Pay of Officers the
|'
ditch, called the north agger This
Space of one Month, he latter he conjectuies to have served as a
.

slu>u a be dismissed from his Office and military the


way probably, ; former, was
forfeit 100/. ; made for the inner defence, in cas- the
T.i ..nnv agency has since been incor- : enemy should beat them from
j any part of
porated witn the British war office, and I: the principal vallum, or to protect the
forms a special department. '
soldiers against any. sudden attack
from
Miutmy Agent in th. United States tne provincial Britons.
is a civu oilic. r whose duty is the trans
!j
Agcer Tarquinii, was a famous
fence
port ,, of Clothing and other articles; built by Tarquinuis Superbus, on the
and the expenditures for other services east side of Rome, to the stop incursions
AIM ALA

f the Latins, and other enemies, whereby ners, to level and direct their pieces. It
the city might be invested. is not used at present.
Agcer is also used for the earth dug AIR-GUN, a pneumatic machine for
ut of a ditch or trench, and thrown up exploding bullets, &c. with great vio
on the brink of it: in which
sense, the lence.
Chevalier Folard ihinks the word to be The common air-gun is mad; of brass,
understood, when used in the plural num and has two barrels: the inside barrel is
ber, since we can hardly suppose they of a small bore, from whence the bullets
would raise a number of cavaliers, or I are
exploded ; and a large barrel on the
There is likewise a syringe
terrasses.
Agcer is also used for bank
j outside of it.
fixed in the stock of the gun. by which
a or wall,
erected the air is injected into the cavity between
against the sea, or some
great j
river, to confine or keep it within bounds j the two barrels through a valve. The
in which sense, agger amounts to the I ball is put down into its place in the small
same with what the ancients called tumu ! barrel with the rammer, as in any other
lus and moles; the Dutch, dyke; and we, ! gun. Another valve, being opened by the
dam, sea.ivall; the Asiatics call them to come behind
j trigger, permits the air it
Aunds, &c. I the bullet, so as to drive out with great
AG1ADES, in the Turkish armies,
force. If this valve be opened and shut
are a kind of or rather field
pioneers, suddenly, one charge of condensed air may
engineers, employed in fortifying the I be sufficient for several discharges of bul
camp, Sec. lets ; but if the whole air be discharged
AGUERRI, Fr. an officer or soldier on one single bullet, it will drive it out

experienced in war ; a veteran. with uncommon f rce. This discharge


AIDE-DE-CAMP, an officer appoint is effected by means of a lock placed here,
ed to attend a general officer, in the field, as usual in other guns ; for the trigger
in winter-quarters, and in garrison ; he ] being pulled, the cock will go down and
receives and carries the orders, as occasion drive the lever, which will open the
requires. He is taken from the line, and i valve, and let in the air upon the bullet :
'

all aids-de-camp have extra pay allowed but as the expansive power of the con
for their duty. This employment is of densed air diminishes at each discharge,
greater importance than has been generally its force is not determined with sufficient
believed : it has been, however, too often precision for the purposes of war. Hence
entrusted to young officers of little experi it has been long out of use among military
ence, and of as little capacity ; but in the men.
French service they bestow great attention In the air-gun, and all other cases where
on this article. Marshal de Puysegur the air is required to be condensed to a
mentions the loss of a battle through the very great degree, it will be necessary to
incapacity of an aide-de-camp. On the have the syringe of a small bore, viz. not
English establishment, generals, being exceeding half an inch in diameter ; because
field marshals, have four, lieutenant- the pressure against every square inch is
generals ttvt, and major-generals and bri about 15 pounds, and therefore against
gadier-generals one. every circular inch about 12 pounds. If
In the United States the number is es therefore the syringe be one inch in dia-
tablished by law ; though on service the : meter, when the atmosphere is injected,
number must necessarily be equal to the I there will be a resistance of 12 pounds
exigency, or the various points to which 1 against the piston; and when 10 are in
orders must be sent. See American Mil. jected, there will be a force of 120 pounds
Lib Article Staff. to be overcome ; whereas 10 atmospheres
AIDE du Pare des Vivres, Fr. an officer act against the circular half-inch piston
in France, acting immediately under the (whose area is only ipart so large) with
commissary of stores and provisions. only a force equal to 30 pounds ; or 40
AID-MAJOR. See Adjutant. atmospheres may be injected with such a
AIGREMORE, a term used by the syringe, as-well as 10 with the other. In
artificers in the laboratory, to express the short, the facility of working will be
charcoal in a state fitted for the making of inversely as the squares of the diameter
powder. of the syringe.
AIGUILLE, an instrument used by AIR-SHAFTS, in mining. See Min
engineers to pierce a rock for the lodge ing.
ment of powder, as in a mine; or to mine ALARM, is a sudden apprehension
a rock, so as to excavate and make roads. upon some report, which makes men run
AI LE , Fr. a wing or flank of an army to their arms to stand upon iheir guard ;
or fortification. it implies either the apprehension of being
AIM, the act of bringing the musquet, suddenly attacked, or the notice given of
piece of ordnance, or any other missive such an attack being actually made ; ge
weapon, to its proper line of direction nerally signified by the firing of a cannon,
with the object intended to be struck. or rocket, the beat of a drum, Sec.
AIM FRONTLET, a piece of wood Al arm- Post, in the field, is the ground
hollowed out to fit the muzzle of a gun, appointed by the quarter-master general
to make it of an equal height with the for each regiment to march to, in case of
breech, formerly ma.de use of by the gun aii alarm.
6 ALL ALT

Alakm-Posi, in a garrison, is the onwhich is placed a piece of ordnance


place allotted by the governor for the troops with the muzzle downwards. In this
to draw up in, on any sudden alarm. situation the bore is rounded and enlarged
of of instrument which has a
False-Ai.\nMs, are
stratagems war, by means an

frequently made use of to h'arrass an very sharp and strong edge made to tra
enemy, by keeping them perpetually un verse the bore by the force of machinery
der arms. They are often conveyed by or horses, and in an horizontal direction.
false reports, occasioned by a fearful or ALLEZURES, the metal taken from
negligent sentinel. A vigilant officer will i the cannon by boring.
sometimes make a false alarm, to try if ij ALLIAGE, a term used by the French
his guards are strict upon duty. Ij to denote the composition of metals used
"

Alarm Bell, the bell rung upon any for the fabrication of cannon and mortars,
sudden emergency, as a fire, mutiny, Sec.
approach of an enemy, or the like, called ALLIANCE, in a military sense, sig
by the French, Tocsin. nifies a treaty entered into by sovereign
ALCANTARA, knights of a Spanish states, for their mutual safety and de
military order, who gained a great name fence In this sense alliances may be
during the wars with the Moors. divided into such as are offensive, where
ALERT, originally derived from the the contracting parties oblige themselves
French word alerte, which is formed of a
jointly to attack some other power ; and
and ahte. The French formerly said airte into such as are defensive, whereby the
for air ; so that alerte means something contracting powers bind themselves to
'

continually in the air, and always ready stand by, and defend one another, in case
lobe put in action. A general is said to of being attacked by any other power.
be alert when he is particularly vigilant. Alliances are variously distinguished,
To be kept upon the alert, is to be in con
according to their object, the parties ir.
tinual apprehension of being surprised. them, &c Hence we read of equal, un
Alerte, among the French, is an expres equal, triple, quadruple, grand, offensive,
sion which is used to put soldiers upon defensive alliances, Sec.
their guard. It is likewise used by a post ALLODIAL, independent; not feu
that may be attacked in the night, to give dal. The Allodii of the Romans were
notice to the one that is destined to sup bodies of men embodied on any emergen
port it ; and by a sentry to give warning cy, in a manner similar to our volunteer
when any part of the enemy is approach associations.
ing. We have had an alert, is a military ALLOGNE, the cordage used with
phrase. floating bridges, by which they are guided
ALGEBRA, a peculiar kind of arith from one side of a river to the other.
metic, in which every military man ought ALLONGE, Fr. a pass or thrust with
to be versed, but which is
indispensibly a rapier or small sword ; also a long rein
necessary for officers in the ordnance de used in the exercising of horses.
partment. ALLOY, is the mixture of metals that
ALIEN, inlaw, implies aperson born enter into the composition of the metat
in a foreign country, i.i contradistinction proper for cannon and mortars.
to a natural born or naturalized person ALLY, in a military sense, implies
ALIGNEMENT, implies any thing any nation united to another under a

strait
For instance, the alignement of a treaty, either offensive or defensive, or
,

battalion means the situation of a body of both.


men when drawn up in line.
Thcaligne- ALMADIE, a kind of military canoe,
ment of a camp signifies the relative or small vessel, about
24 feet long, made
position of the tents, Sec. so as to form a ot the bark of a tree, and used
by the
strait line, from given points. negroes ot Africa.
ALLAY. See Alloy.
Almadie, is also the name of a long
ALL.#L, in the ancient military art, boat used at Calcutta, often 80 to 100
the two wings or extremes of an army feet long, and
generally six or seven broad,
ranged in order of battle. they row from ten to thirty oars.
ALLEGIANCE, in law, implies the ALTIMETRY, the taking or measur
obedience which is due to the laws. ing altitude, or heights.
Oath o/Allegiance, is that taken by ALTITUDE, height, or distance from
an alien, by which he adopts America the ground, measured
upwards, and may
and renounces the authority of a foreign be both accessible, and inaccessible.
government. It is also applied to the oath Altitude of afgure, is the distance
taken by officers and soldiers in pledge of of its vertex irom its
base, or the length
their fidelity to the state. of a perpendicular let fall from the vertex
ALLEGIANT, loyal, faithful to the to the base. See American Mil. Lib. Art.
law. Field Fortification.
ALLEZ1 R, to cleanse the mouth of a Altitude of a shot or shell, is the
per.
cannon or other piece of ordnance, and to pendicular height of the vertex above the
increase the bore, so as to produce its horizon. See Gunnery and Projec
determined calibre. tiles.
ALLEZOIR, a frame of timber firmly
Altitude, in optics, is usually con
suspended in the air with strong cordage, sidered as th: angle subtend. d between .>
A MB AM M 7

line drawn through the eye, parallel to soldiers to surprise an enemy, by falling
the horizon, and a visual ray emitted from suddenly upon him.
an object to the eye. AME, a French term, similar in its

Altitude, in cosmography, is the per import to the word chamber, as applied to

pendicular height of an object, or its cannon, &c.


distance from the hoiizon upwards. AMENDE honnrsblt, in the old armies
Altitudes are divided into accessible of France, signified an apology for some in
and inaccessible. jury done to another, or satisfaction given
Accessible Altitude of an object, is for an offence committed against the rules
that whose base you can have access to, of honor or military etiquette ; and was
i. e. measure the nearest distance between also applied to an infamous kind of pun
your station and the foot of the object on ishment inflicted upon traitors, parricides,
the ground. or sacrilegious persons, in the following
Inaccessible Altitude of an object, is manner : the offender being delivered into
that when the foot or bottom of it cannot the hands of the hangman, his shirt strip
be approached, by reason of some impe ped off, a rope put about his neck, and a
diment ; such as water, or the like. The taper in his hand ; then he was led into
instruments chiefly used in measuring of court, where he begged pardon of God, the
altitudes, are the quadrant, theodolite, court, and his country Sometimes the
geometric quadrant, cross, or line of punishment ended there ; but sometimes
shadows, Sec. it was only a prelude to death, or banish
Altitude of the eye, in perspective, is ment to the gallies. It prevails yet in
a right line let fall from the eye,
perpen some parts of Europe.
dicular to the geometrical plane. AMMUNITION, implies all sorts of
Altitude of motion, a term used by powder and ball, shells, bullets, car
some writers, to express the measure of tridges, grape-shot, tin, and case-shot;
any motion, computed according to the carcasses, granades, Sec
line of direction of the
moving force. Ammunition, or gun-po-wder, may be
AMAZON, one ot those women who prohibited to be exported.
are fabled to have composed a nation of
'
Ammunition, for small arms, in the
themselves, exclusive of males, and to British service, is generally packed in half
have derived their name from their cutting barrels, each containing 1000 musket, or
off one of their breasts, that it might not 1 500 carbine cartridges. An ammunition
hinder or impede the exercise of their waggon will carry 20 of these barrels, and
arms. This term has often by modern an ammunition cart 12 of them: their
writers been used to signify a bold daring weight nearly 1 cwt. each.
woman, whom the delicacy of her sex The cartouch boxes of the infantry are
does not hinder from engaging in the most made of so many different shapes and
hazardous attempts. The recent and sizes, that it is impossible to say exactly
former wars with France have furnished what ammunition they will contain; but
several instances of females who have un most of them can carry 60 rounds. See
dergone the fatigue of a campaign with the word Cartridges ; and for artillery am
alacrity, and run the hazards of a battle munition, see the word Artillery, for the
with the greatest intrepidity. Several field, for the siege, and the defence of a
cases occurred also in the American Re fortified place.
volution. The French pack all their ammunition
AMBIT, the compass or circuit of any in waggons without either boxes or barrels,
work or place, as of a fortification or en by means of partitions of wood. 'I heir
12 Pr. and 8 Px. waggons will contain
campment, Sec.
AMBITION, in a military sense, sig each 14,000 musket cartridges, but their
nifies a desire of greater pests, or honors. 4 Pr. waggons will contain only iz,c?o
Every person in the army or navy, ought each.
to have a spirit of emulation to arrive at Ammunition bread, such as is con
the very summit of the profession by his tracted for by government, and served in
personal merit. camp, garrison, and barracks.
AMBUSCADE, in military affairs, Ammunition shoes, stockings, shirts,
implies a body of men posted in some stocks, Sec. such of those articles as are
secret or concealed place, 'till they find served out to the private soldiers, by go
an opportunity of falling upon the enemy vernment. Sse H alf-Mountincs.
by surprise ; or, it is rather a snare set for Ammunition iv.iggc?;, is generally a
the enemy, either to surprise him when four-wheel carriage with shafts; thesidts
inarching without precaution; or by post are railed in with staves and raves, and
ing your force advantageously, and drawing lined with wicker-work, so as to carry
him on by different stratagems, to attack bread and all sorts of tools. It is drawn
him with superior means. An ambuscade by four horses, and loaded with 1.1- -a
is easily carried into execution in woods, pound weight. Sec Wacgon.
buildings, and hollow places; bu: re- j AMMUNiTiON-cjr/, a two- wheel car
quires a more fertile imagination, and riage with .shafts; the sides of which, as
greater trouble, in a level country. well as the fore and hind parts, are inclused
j
AMBUSH, a place of concealment fori with boards !i-:sUv:l of wickc-.vork. See
Caisso-.
8 AND ANG

AMMUZETTE. See the wordGuNs. St. ANDREW, or the Thistle, a nomi


AMNESTY, in military political military order of knighthood in Scot
a or
nally
sense, is an act by which two belligerent land. The occasion of instituting this
powers at variance promise to forget and
order is variously related.
bury in oblivion all that is past. In 819, Achaius, king of Scotland,
Amnesty is either general and unlimit having formed a 'eague, offensive and de
ed, or particular and restrained, though fensive, with Charlemagne, against all
most commonly universal, without con other princes, found himself so thereby
ditions or exceptions : such as that which strong, th.it he took for fiis device the
in Germany at the peace of Osna- Thistle and the Rue, which he composed
Eassed
urg in the year 1648, and between the , into a collar of his order, and for his:
United States'and Great Britain, in 1783. motto, Pour ma defense : intimating there
Amnesty, in a more limited sense, by, that he feared not the powers of fo
denotes a pardon to persons rebellious, reign princes, seeing he leaned on the
usually with some exceptions; such as succour and alliance of the French. And
was granted by Charles II. at his restora i though from hence may be inferred, that
tion. I these two plants, the Thistle and the
AMNISTIE, Fr. Sec Amnesty. i Rue, w<rre the united symbols of one
AMORCE, an old military word for order of knighthood, yet Menenius di
'

fine-grained powder, such as is sometimes vides tiiem into two; making one whose
'

used for the priming of great guns, mor badge was the thistle, whence the knghtss
tars or howitzers; as also for small-arms, were so called ; and the motto, Nemo me
on account of its rapid inflammation. A impune laces it ; another vulgarly called
port fire, or quick match. Sertum ruta, or the garland of rue; the
AMPLITUDE of the range of a
pro collar of which v/as composed of two
jectile. See Projectile. branches or sprigs thereof, or else of seve-
AMPOULETTE, an old military | ral of its leaves : at both these collars
term used by th.' French to express the I hung one and the same jewel, to wit, the
stock of a musket, &c. figure of St. Andrew, bearing before him
AMUSETTE, a species of offensive the cruss of his martyrdom.
weapon which was invented by the cele But though the thistle has been ac-
brated Marshal Saxe. It is fired off in knowle^ed for the badg. and symbol of
the same manner us a musquet, but is I the kingdom of Scotland, even from the
mounted nearly like a cannon. It has been \ reign of Achaius, as the rose was of Eng-
found of considerable use during the war 1 land, and th; lily of France, the pome
of the French revolution, especially granate of Spain, &c. ; yet there are some
among the French, who armed some of who refer the order of the thistle to later
their horse artillery with it, and found it times, in the reign of Charles VII. of
superior to the one adopted by the Prus France ; when the league of amity was
sians from Marshal Saxe. renewed between that kingdom and Scot
ANABASI1, in antiquity, were ex land, b> which the former received great
peditious couriers, wl o carritd dispatches succour from the latter, at a period of
of great importance, in the Roman wars. extraordinary distress. Others again place
AN ACL fill CUM, in the ancient art the foundation still later, even as low as
of war, a particular blast of the trumpet, the year 1500 ; but without
any degree of
whereby the fearful and flying soldiers certainty.
were rallied and recalled to the combat. 'I he chief and
principal ensign of this
ANCIliNT, a term, used formerly to order is a gold collar, composed of thistles,
express the grand ensign or standard of an interlinked with annulets ot gold, having
a: my. pendent therer the image of St Andrew
ANC I LE, in antiquity, akindof shield, with his c.oss, and this motto, Nemo me
which fell, as was pretended, from hea impure lacetsit.
ven, in the reign of Muma Pompilius ; at Knights of St. A.ndr e w, is also a nomi
which time, likewise, a voice was heard, nal mi litary order instituted
by Peter 1 1 1 .of
declaring, that Rome would be mistress Muscovy, in 1698; the badge o; which is
of the world as long as she should pre a
golden medal, on one side whereof is re
serve this holy buckler. presented St. Andrew's cross; and on the
Authors arc much divided about its other are these words, Czar Pierre mo-
shape : however, it was kept with great narque de touie la Russie. This medal,
car* in the temple of Mars, under the di being fastened to a bice ribbon, is sus
rection of twelve priests; and lest any pended Ir >m the right shoulder.
should attempt to steal it, eleven others ANGARIA, in ancient wri
military
were made so like it, as not to be dis ters, means a guard of soldiers
posted in
tinguished from the saored one. These any place for the security of it. Vide
Ancilia were carried in procession every Vegetius, lib. i. c.
3. lib. ii. c. 10. lib
of Rome. iii.
year round the city c. 8.
ANDABA'IVE, in military antiquity, Angaria, in civil
law, implies a
a kind of gladiators, who fought hood service by compulsion, as furnishing
winked ; having a sort of helmet that horses and carriages for conveying corn
uovered the eyes and face. They fought or other stores for the army.
mounted on borse-back, or on chariots.
A NG A NG 9

ANGE, a term used by the French to by the intersection of two great circles of
express chain shot. the sphere. All spherical angles are mea
ANGEL Shot. See Chain-Shot. sured by an arch of a great circle describ
ANGLE, in geometry, is the inclina ed on the vertex as a pole, and intercepted
tion of two lines meeting one another in between the legs which form the angle.
a point. Angle lunular is an angle formed by
Sometimes angles are denoted by a the intersection of two curves, the one
single letterplaced at the point of inter concave and the other convex.
section ; but when several lines meet at Mixed- line Angle, is that compre
the same point, each particular angle is hended between a rhjht line and a curved
denoted by three letters, whereof the mid line.
dle letter shews the angular point, and Curved-line Angle, is that intercepted
the other two letters the lines which form between two curved lines meeting each
that angle. other in one point, in the same plane.
The measure of an angle is the arch of Angle of
a semi-circle is that which

a circle, described on the angular


point, the diameter of a circle makes with the
intercepted between the two lines which circumference.
form the angle, and as many degrees, &c. Angle f Incidence, is that which the
as are contained in that arch, so line of direction of a ray of light, Sec.
many
degrees, Sec. the angle is said to consist makes at the point where it first touches
of. the body it strikes against, with a line
Angles are either right, acute, or ob erected perpendicular to the surface of
tuse. that body.
A Right Angle, is that whose two Angle of interval between two places
legs are perpendicular to each other; and is that formed by two lines directed from
consequently the arch intercepted be the eye to those
places.
tween them' is exactly eo or the Angle of Refection, is the angle inter
quarter
of a circle. cepted between the line of direction of a
An Acute Ancle, is that which is less i
body rebounding, after it has struck
than a right angle, or 900. against another body, and a perpendicular
An Obtuse Angle, is that which is erected at the point of contact.
greater than a right angle. Angles; toe centre, in fortification, is
Adjacent Angles, are such as have the the angle formed at the.middle of the po
same vertex, and one common side con lygon, by lines drawn from thence to the
tained beyond the angular point. The points ot the two adjacent bastions.
sum of the adjacent angles is always equal Angle of the curtain, > -rKo. u v-

a jr. 1 a 1 That which is


t

to two right angles (13. Eucl. 1.) and Ancle of tbejlank, }


therefore, if one of them be acute, the made
by, and contained between the cur
other will be obtuse ; and the contrary : tain and the flank.
whence, if either of them be given, the Angle of the polygon, that which is
other is also given, it being the comple made by the meeting of the two sides of
ment of the former to 1800. the
polygon, or figure in the centre of the
Homologous Ancles in similar figures bastion. See Fortification.'
are such as retain the same order, reckon Angle of the triangle, is half the angle
ing from the first in both figures. of the polygon.
Vertical A k g l e s , are the opposite an Ancle of the bastion, or ? That which
gles made by two lines cutting or crossing Flanked Angle, $ is made b y
each other. When two lines cut or cross the two faces, being the utmost part of
each other, the vertical angles are equal the bastion most exposed to the enemy's
(15 Eucl. 1.) batteries, frequently called the pohit of
Alternate Angles, are those cut or ob the bastion. See Fortification.
tuse angles made by two lines cutting or Diminished Angle, only used by some
crossing each other, and formed by a right engineers, especially the Dutch, is com
line cutting or crossing two parallel lines. posed of the face of th'j bastion, and the
Alternate angles are always equal to each exterior side of the polygon.
other (18. Eucl. 1.) Ancle of the shoulder, or P Is formed
A rectilineal or right lined Ancle, is Angle of the epaule, \ by one
made by strait lines, to distinguish it from face, and one flank of the bastion. See
the spherical or curvilineal angle. Fortification.
Angles of contact. Angles of contact Angle of the tenaille, Ms made by two
may be considered as true angles, and Angle nntrant, $ lines fichant,
should be compared with one another, that is, the faces of the two bastions ex
though not with right lined angles as tended till they meet in an angle towards
being infinitely smaller. the curtain, and is that which always
Angle of elevation, in gunnery, is that carries its point towards the out-works.
which the axis of the hollow cylinder, or See Fortification.
barrel of the gun, makes with a horizon Ancle of the flank exterior, is tha:
tal line. See Elevation. which is before the centre of the curtain,
Angles oblique are those which are formed by the prolongation of the faces of
greater than right angles. the bastion, or by both the fichant .line;
Spherical Amlf, is an angle formed it
10 A NG A NI

of defence, intersecting each other on something relating to angles, or that


planning a fortification. hath angles.
Angle of the flank interior, is formed ANGON, in ancient military history,
by the flanked line of defence and the cur was a kind of dart of a moderate length,
tain ; beinfc that point where the line of having an iron bearded head and cheeks ;

defence falls upon the curtain in use about the fifth century. This sort
Angle of the line of defence, is that of javelin was much used by the French.
angle made by the flank, and the line of The iron head oi' it resembles a fleur-de-
defence. lis ; and it is the opinion of some writers,
Anolj of the face, is formed by the that the old arms of Fiance were not fleurs-
angle of the face and the line of defence de-lis, but the iron point of the angon or
produced till they intersect each other. javelin of the ancient French.
Ancle tf the base interior, is the half To ANIMATE, in a military sense,
of the figure, which the interior polygon is to encourage, to incite, to add fresh
makes with the radius, when they join impulse to any body of men who are ad
each other in the centre ; intersecting the vancing against an enemy, or to prevent
centre of the gorges of each bastion. them from shamefully abandoning their
Angle of the base exterior, is an angle colours in critical situations. Soldiers
formed by lines drawn from the centre of may be enco raged and incited to gallant
the figure, to the angle of the exterior actions net only by words, but by the
polygon, cuttin . the centre of the gorges looks and gestures of the officers, particu
of each basion. larly of their commanding one. It is by
Angle of the gorge, is that angle formed the latter alone, indeed, that any of these
by the prolongation of the curtains, inter artificial means should be resorted to ; for
secting each other, in the centre of the silence, steadiness, and calmness are the
gorge, through which the capital line peculiar requisites in the characters of
passes. subordinate officers. Whatever their pri
Angle of the ditch, is formed before vate feelings may be, a superior sense of
the centre of the curtain, by the outward duty should always prevent them from
line of the ditch. discovering the slightest symptom of per
Angle of the mole, is that which is turbation. The best effects, however,
made before the curtain where it is inter may be sometimes produced by a sort of
sected. electrical shock which is communicated
Flanked Angle. See Angle of the to the
soldiery : as, when officers, being
bastion. themselves animates and full of fire, give
Saliant Ancle, ? Is that angle which a sudden and unexpected utterance to
Ancle sortant, \
points outwards, or their sentiments ; make use of some par
towards the country. Such is the angle ticular expression by which the national
of the counterscarp before the point of a ear is captivateu, or by a
happy waving
bastion . of the hand, hat, or sword cause the most
Entering Angle, or ? An angle point- timid to become careless of danger, and
Ancle rentrant, } ing inwards, as keep up the enthusiasm of the bravest.
the saliant angle does utwards. Sucn is Many battles, both in ancient and modern
the an^ic of the counterscarp before the times, have taken a sudden turn from the
curtain most trivial circumstance of this nature.
Ancle of the counterscarp, made by two The French are very susceptible of thi.i
sides of the counterscarp, meeting before species of animation. During the present
the centre of the curtain. war they have furnished several instances
Angle at the circumference of a circle, of the power of military animation. The
is an angle formed by two chords in the success at Lodi, to which
Bonaparte owes
circumference of a circle. so much of his
reputation, was the con
Ancle of the circumference, is the mix sequence of a bold and individual exertion,
ed angle formed by an arch, drawn from when he snatched the standard, and
per
one gorge to another. sonally led the grenadiers across the
Re-entering Angle. See Entering bridge. A variety of instances might be
Angle. enumerated wherein words and
gestures
A::gle of the complement of the li;:i of de have had the most happy result. As far
fence, is the angle formed by the inter back as the cays of Cscsar there are ex
section of the two complements with amples that stand fresh upon record ; and
each other. nothing proves more forcibly the influ
Ancles of a battalion, are made by the ence which a
great reputation has upon
last men at the extremity of the ranks and common minds, than the exclamation
files. which Caesar used when he was
crossing
Front Angles, the two last men of the a branch of tlie
sea, between Brundusiuni
front rank. and Dyrrachium. He embarked by night
Rear Angles, the two l;tst men of the in the habit of a slave, and
lay on the
rear rank. boards like an ordinary As
passenger.
Dead Ant.:.j, is a re-entering angle, they were to sail down the river Annius a
consequently not defended. violent storm arose, which quite over
A:, ulak, in a general sen.'-, denotes came the art of the pilot, who
gave orders
to put back; but this, Cscsar would not
APP A P P n

permit, who discovering himself, and APPOINTE. This word was appli
taking the astonished pilot by the hand, cable to French soldiers only, during the
bade him boldly go on and fear nethii g, old of Frasce, and meant a man
monarchy
for, cried he, thou carries! Caesar and Cae who for his long service and extraordinary
bravery received more than common pay.
"
sar's fortune. Casarem vebis fortunam-
que ejus." There were likewise instances in which
ANNALS, a species of military his officers were distinguished by being stiled
tory, wherein events are related in the officiers appointes.
chronological order they happened. They The word appointc was
originally deriv
differ from ed from it being said, that a soldier was
a perfect history, in being
only a mere relation of what passes every appointed among those who were to do

year, as a journal is of what passes every some singular act of courage, as by going

day. upon a forlorn hope, &c.


ANNUNCIADA, an order of military APPOINTMENT, in a military sense,
in Savoy, first instituted by is the
knighthood pay of the aimy ; it likewise applies
Amadeus I. in the year i49; their col to warlike habiliments,
accoutrements,
lar was of 15 links, interwoven one with Sec.
another, and the motto F. E R. T. sig APPREHEND, in a military sense,

nifying frtitudo ejus Rhodum tenuit. Ama implies theseizing or confining of any
deus VIII. changed the image of St. i-erson. According to the articles of war,
Maurice, patron of Savoy, which hung every person who apprehends a deserter,
atthe collar, for that of the Virgin Mary ; and attests the fact duly before a magis
and instead of the motto abovementioned, trate, is entitled to receive a reward.
substituted the words of the angel's salu APPROACHLS. All the works arc
tation. Now extinct. generally so called that are carried on to
ANOLYMPIADES. See Olym wards a place which is besieged ; such as
piad. the first, second, and third parallels, the
ANSE desPieces, a French term for the trenches, epaulements with and without
handles of cannon. Those of brass have trenches, redoubts, places ot arms saps,
two Tho!>e of iron seldom any these

galleries, and lodtments. See these words


handles serve to pass cords, handspikes, more
particularly under the head Forti
or levers, the more easily to move so fication.

heavy a body, and are made to represent This is the most difficult part of a siege,
dolphins, serpents, Sec. and where most lives are lost The ground
ANSPESADE. See Lance Cor. is disputed inch by inch, and neither gain
foral. ed nor maintained without the loss of
ANTEMURAILLE, in the ancient men. It is of the utmost importance to
military art, denoted what now the mo make yourapproaehes with great caution,
derns generally call the outworks. and to secure them as much as possible,
ANTESTATURE, in ancient fortifi that you may not throw away the lives of
cation, signifies an intrenchment of palli- your soldiers. The besieged neglect no
sades or sacks of earth, thrown up in thing to hinder the approaches ; the be
order to dispute the remainder of a piece siegers do every thins- to carry them on ;
of ground. and on this depends the taking or defend
ANTHONY, or Knights of St. An ing of the place.
thony, a military order instituted by Al The trenches being carried to their
bert, duke of Bavaria, Holland, and Zea glacis, you attack and make yourself mas
land, when he designed to make war ter of their covered- way , establish a lodg

against the Turks in 1382. The knights ment on the counterscarp, and effect a
wore a collar of gold made in the form of breach by the sap, or by mines with se
a girdle, from which hung a stick
hermit's veral chambers, which blow up their in-
like crutch, with a little bell, as they
a trenchments and fougades, or small mines,
are represented in St. Anthony's pictures. if they have any.
APPAREILLES, are those slopes that You cover yourselves with gabions,
lead to the platform of the bastion. See fascines, barrels, or sacks ; and if these
Forti fication. are wanting, you sink a trench.
APPAREILLEUR, Fr. an architect You open the counterscarp by saps to
who superintends the workmen in the make yourself master of it ; but, before
construction of fortifications, sluices, Sec. you open it, you must mine the flanks
APPEAL, might formerly have been that defend it. The best attack of the
made, by the prosecutor or prisoner, from place is the face of the bastion, when by
the sentence or jurisdiction of a regimental its regularity it permits regular
approaches
to a general court-martial. and attacks according to art. It the place
APPEL, Fr. a roll call; a beat of be irregular, you must not observe regu
drum for assembling ; a challenge. lar
approaches, but proceed according to
Appel, in fencing, a smart beat with the irregularity of it ; observing to hu
your blade on that of your antagonist on mor the
ground, which permits you to
the contrary side to that you have engag attack it in such a manner at one place,
ed, generally accompanied with a stamp as would be useless or dangerous at
of the foot, and used for the purpose of another ; so that the engineer who directs
procuring an opening. the attack ought exactly to know the pan
32 AR13 ARC

he would attack, its


proportions, its force ARBALETE ajalet, a stone bow.
and solidity, in the most geometrical ARBALETRIER, Fr. a cross-bow
manner. man.

Approaches, in a more confined sense, ARBALETRIER d'une Gatire, Fr.


signify attacks. that part of a galley where the cross-
Counter Approaches, are such trench bowmen were placed during an engage
es as are carried on by the besieged, against ment.
those of the besiegers. BORER, Fr. to plant. Arborer
AR
APr RENTI, Fr. Apprentice. I'etendart, to plant the standard.
In France they had apprentices or sol ARC, Fr. a bow; an arch in building.
diers among the artillery, who served for ARCH, in military architecture, is a
less pay than the regular artillery men, vault or concave building, in form of a
until they became perfect in their profes curve, erected to support some heavy
sion ; when they were admitted to such structure, or passage.
vacancies as occurred in their respective Triumphal Arch, in military history,
branches. The system is changed. is a
APRON, in gunnery, a square plate of a
stately monumentor erection
semicircular form, adorned with
generally
of lead that covers the vent ot a cannon, sculpture, inscriptions, &c. in honor of
to keep the charge dry, and the vent clean those heroes who have deserved a tri
and open. umph.
A pros s
of lead for guns, according to ARCHERS, in military history, kind a
Deturbie lbs. ox.. of militia or soldiery, armed with bows
Large foot long 10 in. wide 8 4

I
and arrows. They were much used in
Small 6 inch.

4J 1 12 former times, but are now laid aside, ex


Their dimensions are as follow, viz.
cepting in Turkey, and in some parts of
for a 42, 32, and a 24 pounder, 15 inches Asia.
by 13; for an 18, 12, and a 9 pounde., ARCHERY, is the art of shooting
12 inches
by io; for a 6, 5i, 3, and i& with a bow and arrow. The ancient Eng
pounder, 10 inches by 8. They are tied lish were famous for being the best
fast by two strings of white marline, the archers in Europe, and most of their
length of which, for a 42 to a 12 pounder victories in France were the purchase of
inclusive, is 18 feet, 9 feet each string; the long-bow. The statuses made in
33
for a 9 to i pounder, 12 feet, 6 feet for Hen. VIII. relative to this exercise, are
each. worth perusal. It was forbidden, by sta
APPUI Ptinte d'appui, or
point of tute, to shoot at a standing mark, unless it
bearing, direction, or support, is any
or should be for a rover, where the archer was
particular given point or body, upon to change his mark at
every shot. Any per
which troops are formed, or by which son above 24 years old was also forbidden
they are marched in line or column. to shoot with
any prick-shaft, or flight,
Atiera /'Appui, Fr. to go to the assist at a mark of eleven score
ance of any body, to second, to back.
yards or under.
33 Hen. VIII. chap. o. The former
Hauteur d'Aervi, Fr. breast-height. was a provision for
making good marks
AQUEDUCT, a channel to convey men at sight; the latter for giving
water from one place to another.
Aque strength and sinews. The modern rifle
ducts, in military architecture, are gene has rendered the bow an useless weapon.
rally made to bring water from a
spring
or river to a fortress, Sec. thev are likewise
ARCHITECTURE, in a military
sense, is the art of erecting all kinds of
used to carry cana's over low grpund, and
over brooks or small rivers : they are built military edifices or buildings, whether (b>.
habitation or defence.
with arghes like a
bridge, only not so All litary
ARCHITECTURE, instructs US
wide, and covered above by an arch,
are in the method of
fortifying cities, sea
to prevent dust or dirt from being thrown ports, buildings, powder maga
camps,
into the water there are also subterranean

zines, barracks, Sec. Military architecture


aqueducts, such as pipes of wood, lead, is divided into regular and
irregular fortifi-
or iron. See Midler's Practical Fortifica cat:on.
tion.
The Romans had aqueducts which ex
Rrgular fortification consists in having
all its sides and angles
tended 100 miles. That of Louis XIV. equal among
themselves.
near Maintenon, which carries the river
Irregular fortification is composed of
Bute to Versailles, is 7000 toises long.
parts where th. sides and angles are not
ARAIGNEE, in fortification. See uniform among themselves.
Gallery equal or
This species of fortification is
permanent
ARBALET, in the ancient art of or
temporary.
war, a cross-bow, made of steel, set in The permanent one is constructed for
a shaft of wood, with a
string and trigger, th--
purpose of remaining a long time,
bent with a piece of iron fitted for that and tor the protection of
large towns.
purpose, and used to throw bullets, large The temporary one is that which is
arrows, darts, &c. Also a mathematical erected in cases of
instrument called a Jaab's Staff, to mea
emergency. Under this
denomination are contained all sorts of
sure the
height of the stars upon the works which are thrown up to seize a
pass
horizon. or
gain an eminence, or those which are
ARM ARM 13

made in circumvallations and or detachment, provided with


counter- litary corps
] arms
vallations, viz. redoubts, trenches, and and ammunition, ready for an en
batteries. See Fortification. I gagement.
Field Fortification is the art of forming Armed, in the sea language. A cross
temporary works of defence, such as bar- shot is said to be armed, when some
trenches, redoubts, breastworks, epaul- rope-yarn, or the like, u rolled about the
ments, chevaux defrixe, trous de loup, Sec. nd of the iron barvvhich runneth through
See Field Fortification. the shot.
Naval Architecture, is the art of i Armed ship, is a vessel taken into the
building the hull, or body of the ship, } public service, and equipped in time of
distinct from her machinery and furniture I war, with artillery, ammunition, and
for sailing ; and may properly be compre warlike instruments : in the Br tish ser
hended in three principal articles, i. To vice an armed ship is commanded by an
give the ship such a figure, or outward officer who has the rank of master and
commander in the navy, and upon the
form, as
may be most suitable to the ser
vice for which she is intended, i. To same establishment with sloops of war,

find the exact shape of the pieces of tim having a lieutenant, master, purser, sur
ber necessary to compose such a fabric. geon, Sec
3. To make convenient apartments for ARMEE, Fr. See Army.
the artillery, ammunition, provisions, and ARMEMENT, Fr. a levy of troops,
cargo :
together with suitable accommo- equipage of war, either by land or sea.
datiot'S for the officers and men. ARMES a l'Epreuve,'a French term
ARCHITRAVE, the master beam, or for armor of polished steel, which was
chief supporter, in any part of a subter against the sword or small arms;
raneous fortification. Eroof
ut its weight so encumbered the wearer,

AREA, the superficial content of any that modern tacticians have wholly re
rampart, or other work of a fortification. jected its use.
ARIGOT, Fr. a fife or flute. Armes a la legere, Fr. light-troops,
ARM Military writers use this word

who were employed to attack in small
to signify a particular species of troops bodies, as opportunity occurred. See
thus the artillery is an arm, and the Riflemen, Sec.
cavalry, and infantry, and rifle men are Armes dei Pieces de
Canon, the French
each called an arm ; but this use of the term for the tools used in practical gun
word is now deemed quaint. nery, as the scoop, rammer, sponge, Sec.
Arm, in geography, denotes a branch of ARMET, Fr. a casque or helmet.
the sea, or of a river. ARMIGER, an esquire or armor-
Arm is also used figuratively to denote bearer, who formerly attended his knight
power. or chieftain in war, combat, or tourna
To Arm, to take arms, to be provided ment, and who carried his lance, shield,
against an enemy. or other weapons with which he fought.
ARMADA, a Spanish term, signifying ARMILUSTRIUM, in Roman anti
a fleet of men of war, applied particular quity, a feast observed among the Roman
ly to that great one fitted out by the Spa generals, in which they sacrificed, armed,
niards, with an intention to the sound of trumpets, and other war
to
conquer Eng
land in 1588, and which was first
disper like instruments.
sed by a terrible storm, several of the ARMISTICE, a temporary truce, or
ships wrecked on the coasts of England cessation of arms for a very short space of
and I reland, and many overtaken and de time only.
feated by the English fleet, under admi ARMORY, a warehouse of arms, or
rals Howard and Drake. a place where the military habiliments
ARMADILLA, a Spanish term, sig are kept, to be ready for use.

nifying a small
squadron. ARMOR, denotes all such habiliments
ARMATURA, in ancient military his as serve to body from wounds,
defend the
tory, signifies the fixed and established especially darts, a sword, a lance, &c.
military exercise of the Romans, nearly A complete suit of armor formerly con
in the sense we use the word exercise. sisted of a helmet, a shield, a cuiras, *
Under this word is understood, the throw coat of mail, a gantlet, &c, now almost

ing of the spear, javelin, shooting with universallylaid aside.


bows and arrows, Sec. ARMOR BEARER, he that carries
Armaturajs also an appellation given the armor of another.
to the soldiers who were light-armed. ARMORER, person who makes or
a

Aquinus seems without reason, to re deals in armor, or arms ; also a persou


strain armatura to the tyrcnes, or young who keeps them clean.
soldiers. ARMS, in a general sense, signify all
Armatura was also a denomination kinds of weapons, whether used for of
given to the soldiers in the Roman empe fence or defence.
ror's retinue. Fire- Akms, are cannon, mortars, how
ARMED, in a general sense, denotes itzers, grenades, firelocks, rifles, fusils,
something provided with, or
carrying carbines, guns, and pistols ; or any other
arms. machine discharged by inflamed pow
An Armed body of men, denotes a mi* der.
14 A R M ARM

Arms may properly be classed under But by the common law of England now
two specific heads
it is an offence for persons to goor ride arm-*
Arms of offence, which include mus ed wi'h danwerous weapons ; but gentle
quet, bayonet, sword, pistol, rifle, &c. men, both in and out ot th army, may
Arms of defence, which are shields, hel wear common armor, according to their

mets, coats of mail, or any species of re


quality.
pulsive or impenetrable covering, by Arms of parade, or courtesy, were those
which the body of a man is protected. used in the ancient justs and tournaments ;
Asms
Small w ich were commonly unshod lances,
swords without ed*,e or point, wooden
swords, and even canes
Belli of Arms, or Bell Tents, a kind of
U Mr-c^'-'^j-'-'OO
1- o tents in the shape of a cone, where a com
-Suimcii^c^ooO
M
pany's arms are lodged in the field. They
are generally painted with the colour of
NMi-OOOOO
the facing of th regiment ; they have gone
'3
.
HOI
much out of use.
J^oo -
mwnooo Pass of Arms, a kind of combat, when
o
o
anciently one or more cavaliers undertook
t-t l-t -1
to defend a ,>ass against all a. tacks.
N(^-OOOoO
o
Place of Arms. See Forti fication.
Stand of Arms, a complete set of arms
E ' 2 for one soldier.
!oco>-no uioo
3 o o 7; Cn i^-c uyo to in
Arms, in artillery, arc the two ends of
Q
| e
an axletree.

Carriage.
See Axletree, under the word

C'OlO O (1 OO tl ARMY, a laree number of soldiers,


sot; consisting of artillery, foot, riflemen,

-J pa j Tj" Wirt M C*5^ horse, dragoons, and hussars or light
horse, completely armed, and provided
with enginers, a train of artillery, am
munition, provisions, staff, forage, Sta
long
com n Carbine
and under the command of a general, hav
ing lieutenant-generals, major-generals,
the Rifle
piec s brigadier-generals, colonels, lieutenant-
colonels, majors, captains, and subal

Wal Musqet Carbine Pistol,Dito,Rifle,Short terns, and the suitable staff to each por
tion. An army is composed of legions, or
corps, brigades, regiments, battalions, and
squadrons ; and is generally divided into
In a legal sense, arms may extend to three or more co-operating corps.and form
any thing that a man wears for his own ed into three lines ; the first of which is
defence, or takes in his hand, and uses in called the front line, a part of which forms
anger, to strike, throw at, or wound the van guard ; the second, the main
another. It is supposes!, that the first body ; and the third, the rear-guard, or
artificial arms were of wood, and only em corps of reserve. The centre of each line
ployed against beasts ; and that Belus, the is generally possessed by the foot ; the
son of Nimrod, was the first th.t waged cavalry and light troops form the right
war; whence, according to some, came and left wings of each line; and some.
the appellation bellum. Diouorus Siculus rimes a squadron of horse is posted in the
takes Belus to be the same with Mars, intervals between the battalions. When
who first trained soldiers p n> battle. an
army is drawn up in order of battle,
Arms of stone, and even of brass, appear the hcrse are frequently placed at five
to have been used before they came to feet from e.ich other, and the foot at three.
iron and steel. Josephus assures us, that In each line the battalions are distant
the patriarch Joseph fir.->t taujit the use from each other about 180 feet, which is
of iron arms in Ejiyp", arming tlie troops nejrly equal to the extent of their front ;
of Pharaoh with a 'casque and buckler. and the sane rule holds good of the
squa
The principal arms of the ancients were drons, which have about 300 feet dis
hatchets, scythes, lances, swords, and tance, being the extent- f their own front.
bucklers : the Saxons used the halberd, These intervals are left for the squadrons
bow, arrows, cross-bow, &c. By the and battalions of the second line to range
ancient laws of England, every man was themselves against the intervals of the
obliged to bear arms, except the judges first, that both may more readily march
and clergy. Under Henry VIII. it was through those spaces to the enemy. The
all persons to be re front line is generally about 300 feet from
expressly enjoined on
gularly instructed, even from their tender the centre line; and the centre line as
years, in the exercise of the arms then in much from the rear, or corps of reserve ;
use, viz. the long bow and arrows; and that there may be sufficient room to rally
to be provided with a certain number of when the squadrons or battalions are
then). broken. European armies anciently were
ARQ ART 15

a sort of militia; composed chiefly of the ARRAY, order of battle. See Bat
vassals and tenants of the lords. When tle-Array.
each company had served the number of ARRAYERS, officers who anciently
days or months enjoined by their tenure, had the charge of seeing the soldiers duly
or the customs of the fees they held, they appointed in their armor.

returned home. ARREARS, in the army, were the


Armies in general are distinguished by difference between the full pay and sub
the follow, ng appellations
sistence of each officer, which v,as direct
ed to be paid once a year by the agent. See
The grand army.
Pay.
A covering army.
A blockading army. ARREST, a French phrase, similar
in its import to the Latin word retinacu
An army of observation.
lum. It coi sists of a small piece of steel
An arm\ of reserve.
or iron, which was formerly used in the
A flying army.
construction of fire-arms, to prevent the
The grand army, is that which is the piece from going off. Ce pistolet est en ar
armies acting at dif ret is a familiar phrase
principal of several among military men
ferent points remote from each other. in France. This pistol is in ar.est, or is
An army is said to cover a place when stopped.
it lies encamped or in cantonments for the ARREST, is the exercise of that part
protection of the different which of military jurisdiction, by which an offi-
passes ceris noticed for misconduct, or put into a
lead to a principal object of defenc..
An army is said to blockade a place, situation to prepare for his trial by a gene
when, being well provided with heavy ral court-martial.
ordnance an< other warlike means, it is ARRESTE of the glacis, is the junc
to invest a town for the direct tion of the talus which is formed at all the
,

employed
and immediate purpose of reducing it by angles.
assault or famine. ARRIERE, Fr. the rear.
An Army of observation is so called be Arriere Ban, Fr. See Ban.
cause by its advanced positions and desul ARRiERE-g-an/c, Fr. the rear-guard.
tory movements it is constantly employed En A r r i e r e marche ! Fr. to the rear

in watching the enemy: march !


An Army ofteserve may not impr.per- ARROW, a missive weapon of offence,
ly be called a general depot for effective slender and pointed, made to be shot with
service. In cases of emergency the whole a bow.

or detached parts' of an army of reserve art Arrow. See Fortification.


generally employed to recover a lost day ARSE.mAL, is a large and spacious
or to secure a victory. It is likewise buiiding,or number of buildings, in which
sometimes made use of for the double pur are deposited all kinds of arms, and other

pose of secretly inoeasiiig the number of warlike implements ; such as cannon,


active forces and rendering the aid neces mortars, howitzers, small arms, and every
sary according to the exigency ot the mo oth.-r kind of warlike engines and instru
ments if death.
ment, and of deceiving the enemy with re
spect to its real strength. Such was the ART. Military art may be divided in
army at Dijon, before Bonaparte entered to two
principal branches. The first
Italy. branch relates to the order and arrangement
Flying Army, a strong body of horse which must be observed in the manage
and foot, commanded for the most part by ment of an army, when it is to fight, to
i lieutenant-general, which is always in maith, or to be encamped. This branch
motion, both to cover its own garrisons, is called tactics, and derives its appellation
nnd to the enemy in continual alarm. from tactic, which signifies order.
keep
A naval or sea Army, is a number of The same appellation belongs to the
ships of war, equipped and manned with other branch of mditary art, and includes
sailors, mariners, and marines, under the the composition and the application ol
command of a superior officer, with the warlike machines.
requisite inferior officers under him. ARTICLES OF WAR, are known
ARNAUTS, Turkish light cavalry, rules and regulations for the better go
whose only weapon was a sabre very vernment of an aimy. The articles of war
much curved. Some are in the Russian of the Uniteu States underwent an altera
service. tion in 1806, a.,d are of date 10th April ol
ARQUEBUSES Cw, an old piece of that year; they consist of 103 articles;
fire-ar.ns, resembling a musquet, but all that relates to the army not compre
which is supported on a rest by a hook of hended therein, are published in general or
iron, fastened to the barrel. It is longer ders or in established regulations, issued
than a musquet, but of larger calibre, and fr m time to time frcm the War Depart
was formerly used to fire through the loop ment, or by the commanding officer of
holes of antique fortifications. the army, copies ot which arc delivered
ARQUEBUSIER, a French term, for to the officers of the army. In Eng
merly applied to all the soldiery who land they may fee altered and enlarged
fought with fire arm^ whether cavalry at the pleasure of their king. And in cei-
or infantry. tain cases extend to civiliansas when
16 ART ,
ART

by proclamation any place shall be put year 1517, the same number of troops
under martial law ; or when
people fol brought aeo pieces into the field, includ
low a camp or army for the sale of mer ing mortars and howitzers.
chandize, or serve in any civil capacity. It At the battle of Jemappe, which was
is ordained, that the articles of war shall fought between the French and Austrians
be read in the circle of each regiment or on the 6th of November, 1792, the latter
company mustered once every month, or had 120 pieces of cannon disposed along
oftener if the commanding officer thinks the neights of Framery, whilst their effec
proper. A recruit or soldier is not liable tive force in men did not exceed 28,qoo.
to be tried
by a military tribunal, unless The French on this occasion brough, near
j
it can be proved that the articles of war i ly the same quantity of ordnance, some in
have been duly read to him. deed of extraordinary calibre, but their
ARTIFICE, among the French, is un- ; strength in men was above j4o,ooo, and
derstood as comprehending every thing composed of young men who had never
which enters the composition of fire seen service, nor had any more than a few
works; as the sulphur, salt-petre, char- days discipline.
eoal,&c. See Fire Works. A Brigadeof Art i ll e r y generally con
ARTIFICER or Artificier, he sists of 8 or 10 pieces of cannon, with all
who makes fire works, or works in the the machinery, and officers to conduct
artillery laboratory, who prepares the them, and all the necessary apparatus
fuses, bombs, grenades, Sec. It is also thereto belonging.
applied to the military smiths, collar- The Park if Artillery is that place
makers, &c. and to a particular corps appointed by the general of an army, toen-
hi an army. caraip the train of artillery, apparatus, am
ARTILLERY, in a general sense, munition, as well as the battalions of the
signifies all sorts of great guns or can artillery, appointed for its service and de
non, mortars, howitzers, petards, and the fence. The figure of the park of artillery,
like ; together with i 11 the and is that of a parallelogram, unless the situa
apparatus
stores thereto belonging, which are not tion of the ground renders another neces
only taken into the field, but likewise to sary.
sieges, and made use of both to attack and The park of artillery is gererally placed
defend fortified places . See Ordnance. in the centre ot the second line of encamp
Artillery, in a particular sense, sig ment, and sometimes in the rear line, or
nifies the science of aitillery or gunnery, corps of reserve. In both places the muz
which art includes a knowlege of survey zles of the guns are in a line with the fronts
ing, levelling, geometry, trigonometry, co of the Serjeants tents of the regiments of
nic sections, laws of motion, mechanics, artillery and infantry. Some generals
fortification, and projectiles. choose to place the park, about 300 paces
The Train of Artillery consists of before the centre of the front line of the
an unlimited number of pieces of ord army. But let the situation be where it
nance; such as 24 pounders, 18 pounders, will, the manner of forming the park is
j 2, 9, 6, 4, and 3 pounders ; mortars from almost every where the same,
except that
13 to 8 incites diameter ; besides royals and some artillery officers differ in the disposi
cohorns; howitzers of every denomina tion of the carriages; others again divide
tion, mounted on their pro.er carriages the equipage as well as the guns into bri
and beds. Sec. There is moreover attach gades, placing the first in the front line,
ed to the tiain a sufficient quantity of the second in the next, and so on. How
horses, spare carriages, spare mortar-beds, ever the most approved method, is to di
block-carriages, limbers, waggons for am vide the whole into brigades, placing the
munition and stores, shells, round and guns of the first to the right of the front
grape shot, bullets, powder, cartridges, line, and their ammunition behind them,
port-fires, intrenching-tools, artificers in one or more lines. The different bri
tools, miners tools, gins, capstans, forges, gades should be all numbered, as well as
small stores, laboratory-stores, pontoons, every waggon belonging to them. Exam
pontoon-carriages, with their requisites ; ple, 1st brigade, front line, No 1, 2, Sec.
tumbr.-ls, aprons of lead, budge-barrels, 1st brigade, 2d line, No. 1,
2, Sec. 2d bri
chevaux de frize, pallisades, platforms, gade, front line, No 1,2, &c. and so of
chandeliers, blinds, prolonges,dra^-ropes, all the rest. This method prevents confu
flints, harness, powder-measures, fuze- sion in the forming and breaking up of the
engines, fuzes, tents, Sec. The train of park, a also on a march : besides, accord
artillery is, or should be, divided into bri ing to the numbers, the stores therein con
gades, to which belong not only the offi tained are known.
cers of the regiments of artillery, but even Artillery
The proportion of artil
the civil-list, such as comptrollers, com- lery and ammunition necessary to accom
missarits of stores, clerks of stores, artifi pany an army in the field, to lay siege to
cers of all denominations, conductors, a fortified
place, or to defend one, must
store-keepers, waggon-masters, drivers, depend upon so many circumstances, that
Sec. The increase of artillery clearly de it is almost impossible, in a work of this
monstrates its-great utility ; lor in the year kind, to lay down any positive rules as
1 5C0, an ;irmy of 50,000 men had only 40 guides on the subject : the following prin
<A -.innon in the field ; and in the ciples are drawn from the best authorities ;
p,-.-
ART ART 17

ist. Aktillekv for the Field.


Field Artillery is divided into Batta Proportion of Ammu
v. V

lion Guns, Artillery of the Park, and Horse 1? >"


Artillery.
nition and Stores
P *>
The Battalion Guns include all the light (Continued.) ^ 4,15 rt a.
pieces attached to regiments of the line, *
which they
accompany in all manoeuvres, tc lb.
to cover and support them.
c u
r 4 120 00 00 00
00
The following kinds of field ordnance
a >
3* -
00 00 00

are attached to battalions of


infantry, by 2 -
00 120 00 00

different powers in Europe: o


~ 2
00
30 00 00

French two4 Prs. per battalion. n -


00 00 188 00
u ->

English two 6 do. do.



-
- so- r i* -
00 00 68 00

Danes 73. * 10 oz. 00 00 00


two 3 do.

do.

- -
125
Austrians three 6 do.
do.
- -
v- 41 1 lb. 00 00 00 144
Prussians two 6 Prs. to a battalion in
12 oz. 00 00 00 28
the first line. Cartridges flan, empty 12 12 100 ia

two 3 Prs. to a battalion in



Ditto of paper for
00 00 00 120
the second line. bursting 10 oz.
Hanoverians two 3 Prs. Tubes of tinN. P. 172 178 560 190
per battalion.

The Artillery of the Park is composed of Portfires--long small 18 18 62 18


all kinds of field ordnance. It is destin Fuses- -drove 00 - - 00 00
132
ed to form batteries of position ; that is to Powder, mealed lbs. 00 00 00
6ay, to occupy advantageous situations, Travelling carriages
from which the greatest effect may be pro and limbers - -
1 121

duce*, in supporting the general move Aprons of lead - 1 121


ments of an army, without following it, Spunges with staves
like the battalion guns, through all the de and heads -
- 2 242
tail of its manoeuvres. The
park of ar Wad hooks, with staves 1 1 2 00

attached to an army in the field, ge Handspikes, traversing 2 242


tillery with collars
nerally consists of twice as many pieces of TompionsHanoverian 1 1 2 1
different kinds, varied according to the Trucks, 00 1 2 1

country in which it is to act, as there are Straps for lashing side


battalions in the army. Gribauvale pro arms - - - - 00
3 8 00

poses the following proportion between Tarpaulins, gun - 1 121


the different kinds of artillery for the park limber 00 121
or reserve, viz. two-fifths of 12 Frs. two Lintstocks with cocks 1 121
ilfths of 8 Prs. and one-fifth of 4 Prs. or Drag ropes with pins,
reserve for battalion In a difficult pairs - - -
2 242
guns.
.

country he says, it may be i of 12 Prs. Padlocks with keys 2


of 8 Prs. and | of 4 Prs. and for every 100 Match, slow lbs. 28 28 56 28
pieces of cannon he allots 4 Howitzers; SDikes 5.Pring
$ common
_ 1 2 1
spates
but this proportion of Howitzers is much ^ 2 4 2.
smaller than what is generally given. Punches for vents 2 4 2
Ammunition for Field Artillery, Barrels budge - - 1 I I

Couples forchain traces 00 12 6


A proportion of Ammunition and Stores for Spare heads, spui.ge 1 2 I
each Species of Field Ordnance, viz. 1 rammer 1 2 I
Medium 12 Pr.* I heavy 6 Pr.
2 light
Hammers, claw -
1 2 I
6 Prs. as they are Priming irons, sets
always attached to Bat 1 2 I
talions of Infantry -.and one 5 J inch How Draught chains, prs. 2
3 2.
itzer ; according to tie British Service. Powder horns, N. P. 00 CO 00

Water buckets French 1 2 I

Intrench'g tools,
*>
felling axes, 1 2

Prtportion ofAmmuni R 5t "* 3f> pick axes, - 1 2

tion and Stores 3>3 st hand


bills, - 1 2
.
j isj ^ ^3
-M $ spades, 2 4
0 vo Marline, tarred-skeins 1 1

Twine, lbs.
00 00 00
Hambro' line do.
1 1 1
bottoms-case ** 3 68 24
$ Packthread do.
oc 00 00
round 120 120 188 00 Grease firkins
- 1 1 1
Shells fixed
- - 00 00 00 24 boxes -
2
^ 00
- -
empty 00 00 120 Tallow lbs. -
1
Carcasses - -
fixed 00 00 00
4 Lan thorns, dark -
1

* ThePrs. which have a frnall box on their


i*
Jacks, lifting -
-
1

limbers, carry 6 round (hot and 2 cafe Ihot, with handscrew i 00 00 00


6 carttidges of 4 lbs. and 2 of 3 1-2 lbs. of
pow Waggons with hps. p
der, more than the above proportion. and painted covers, > 3
Flanders pattern >
18 ART ART

, 12 Medium
Pr. Has no limber

Proportion of Ammu boxes,* but has two waggons attached to


nition and Stores it, and the ammunition and stores divided
between them.
6 Pr. Heavy Carries 36 round, and
(Continued.)

H
14 case shot in limber boxes, with a pro
portion of the small stores ; and the re
Wad niiltilts - - 1 1 2 mainder is carried in one waggon.
Tanned hides - _
1 x a 6 Pr. Light Carries 34 round, and 16

Men's harness case shot on the limber, with a


(12 to a propor
set) sets - - - I 00 00 tion of the small stores for immediate ser
f New C RoP 6 do. iett 00 00 00 vice; and, if acting separately, must have


I
I
P- <
tern. J
Chain, 6 do. sett 00 I 00 00 a waggon attached to it, to carry the re
mainder. But two 6
a .' Com- | 'Thill
. Truce, 4 do. ieti
- - - 00
2
eo
1
2
1
00
3
a battalion,
pounders attached tc
have only one waggon be
-
S, tnon
tween them.
[ Trace -
00 00
4 00

o I "rn (_ Bit halter* -


00 00 6 00 5J Howitzer, Licht Has 22 shells, 4
* case shot, and two carcasses in the limber-
', Wanties - - 2 1
3 2

LHemp halters -
14 10 10 12 boxes, with such of the small stores as
are required for immediate service
Whips, long - -
00 00 2 00 ; and
... short - -
7 5 a 6 has two waggons attached to carry the rest.
Nose bags - - -
14 10 IO 13 One common pattern ammunition wag
Com sacks - - -
3 2 S 3 gon carries the following numbers of
Forage cords, sets 3 a rounds of ammunition of each kind :
S 3
Rope, tarred, 2 inch Kind*. No. of Rounds
fathoms 00 10 00 I* l'r. Medium,
71
. ....

Linch 6 Pr. Heavy, --.... 120


g* r
pin6 2 1 a
6 Pr. Light, 156
., j Clouts, body 4 2 a 4 J Pr. -
288
3P) linch 4 1 a 4 51-2 Howitzer, 7X
(Cloutnails.fi/. 64 3* 32 64 8 Inch Howitzer*,
24
- - - -

Spare ladle staves 1 Musquet*, aooeof


6 6 The waggons, however, attachsd to the diifer.
Horses, for guns ent parks of
for waggons artillery in England, which have not
4 4 been altered from the old establishment, are load
Drivers, for guns 3 2 ed with only the
following number, and dravrn by
for waggons I three horses:
'

Tube boxes, with Kind*. No. of Rounds.


straps 4 12 Prs. Medium, .....
66
Portfire sticks 4 6 Pr*. Heavy, 120
6 Prs. Light, -

Cutting knives -138


- . .
- 1 2
j 1-2 Howitzer, .....
60
Drawing do. 00 00 00 1

Scissars, pairs x 1 a 1 The horse


artillery having waggons of a
Worsted, ounces i $ 1 i particular description, carry their ammu
Needles, large 2 4 2 nition as follows :

Cartouches of leather 2 4 a
Shot.
f4 oz. 2 00

' l 00 oc 00
1 2 00
KIND*.
&5 II 4 lb.
. Ii 00 00 00
.0 .
I z- , sets
Thumb stalls -
224
12Prs. light, on
Perpendicular - co 00 00
the limber
Quadrant of brass 00 00 00
Do. in one
Diagonal scale - 00 00 00
waggon.
Copper salting box 00 00 00
6 Prs. light, on
Pincers for drawing
the limber.
fuzes, pairs - 00 CO 00 I
Do. in one 15
00
Sheepskins - 00 00 2
Funnels of 00 00 00 I waggon.
copper 5j In. How'ron
Compasses of steel, the limber.
Pairs ... 00 00 00 1
Do. in one 73
Saw, tenant 00 00 00 I

Files, square 00 00 00 waggon.


-
s
3 Prs. heavy,
Rasps, half round 00 00 00 2
curricle.
Flax, oz. - -
00 00 00 8
00
Do.-

ammu 36
Tow, oz. o 00 4 100 24
00 00 00
nition cart.
Saw set - - I
A imall limber bnx hat
Mallets of wood o CO 00 I lately been idtled tnfhm

Setters do. - 00 00 00 2 SBF." Fr.V Proportion


Which '"rie.6 round .hot and 6
of the small rtore*: e
\h c..e

tr i note

This of ammunition aid t Though the waggon! will contain 00,000 cartridn>s.
proportion It it euttomary to load them with
only ig a*lf hymtt '
stores is carried in the following manner : 1000 ech, *nd I blf barrel* of niatJ.
ART ART 19

the following Proportion of Artillery, Am quantity of ammunition with each piece


munition, and Carriages, necessary for four of ordnance, and the number of rounds of
French Armies of different Degrees of musquet ammunition carried for the in
Strength, and acting in very different fantry; for each waggon in the French
Countries, is attributed to Gribauvale, and service, having its particular allotment of
is extracted from Durtubie, on Artillery, ammunition and stores, it needs but to
know the number of waggons of each de-
ARMIES. scription, to ascertain the quantity of am
munition and stores with an army. The
following is the number of waggons usu
dumber of battalions 80 28 32 48 ally attached to each piece of ft Id ord
nance in the French service, and the quan

Battalion guns . . 160 5<5 64 94 tity of ammunition carried with each.


)i2 Prs. 3* 12 12 id J5

Park or C8Prs. 24 32 48 .H
fO 00

Reserve, f 4 Prs. 4o 16 16 24 ti M H

Join. How. 8 4 4 8 2 X 0 0 O 0
0 0 O 0
0
f 0 r^
Total pieces of ord. 312 112 128 192
0 0 O O O O *
' f Case. 0 cl D W 0 m
Carriage 12 Prs. 36 14 18
for ord. I 8 Prs. 81
2l 8
30 54
Round. <* * s $
including I 4 Prs. 215 78 90 129
.
*| <o m o o *

sp. ones . oln.Howtz. 9 5 5 9


r<*>*r* rs+s* r\/*f\ f\*s^ r\y^y

1 C
Total ord. carriages 341 124 145 210
] (j

^12 Prs 36 48 c a
_,_
Ammu. / a8 Prs.
Prc
96 3S '=*
nition
nmon >
r 0 .
144 48 24 96 3 <~
u
> **
-
80
waeeonsQ4 Prs-
waggons
20 72 120 Jr o o
Mo b
)6InHow 24 12 8 24
D
Wags, for musq. cart. 120 42 48 7? 0
-9 Jb w
>eSF o
DC C

acG 5 6C. o ft J3 o
Large wags, for park 10 6 5 _ E o

"g 3 2

594 216 241 368 2 00 r. <*C rl


O

Smiths t. 8 The French horse artillery waggon,


Large .
14 3 3
called the wurst, carries 57 rounds for 8
forges. { Small .
3 3 4
pounders ; or 30 for 6 inch howitzers.
Total 6 6 The following is a proportion of am
forges 14 12
munition for one piece of field artillery
of each kind, by difterent powers in
1
jj^ / Antillery 27 10 16 Europe.
1
*j| C The army 20 10 16

6 31
New iron . . 6 *j cj

Wo ;d for spr
%1 I 7
I car. 9 7 KINDS.
I Anchors, Sec . for
pontoons . 4 3
>
Total store carriages 66 28 32 49 Case. s

Pontoons upon their IC VO * 00


5'
18 Round. 3
carriages ...
36 18 36 0 4> 0<4>-

Spare pontoon carri


2
ages ....
4 24 10 WW
0000
>
Case. 7
c
en
Total pontoon carri'gs 40 20 20 40

RECAPITULATION.
0 0 e 0
Round. I"
Ordnance

pieces 31a 11a 128 192


kjx -os> *-ase.
os 1
0
.
f Ordnance carri'gs 341 124 145 210 M
3
216
3
j Ammunition 594
66
241 368 M M

Round.
n
m
a< Store ... 28 32 49 OiCDO-l
5 I Pontoon . . 40 20 20 40
(^ Forges ... 14 6 6 12
0 0 000 Case.
Cenl. total of carri'gs 1055 394

This tabic contains, beside the propor


tion of ordnance with each army, also the
444679 M
m 01
09^0
M -

4^cn
M

Roun'i. rians. Hanove


20 ART ART

Of the movements and


positions of again, the guns will retire likewise, but
field artillery.
only as far as the second half, and so
Battalion Guns ; the following are the on.
usual positions taken by battalion guns, When in hollow square, the guns will
in the most essential manoeuvres of the be placed at the weakest angles, and the
battalion to which they are attached ; but limbers in the centre of the square. In
the established regulations for the move passing a bridge or defile in front, the
ments of the
infantry in the British ser guns will be the first to pass; unless from
vice, take so little notice of the relative any particular position they can more
situations for the artillery attached to it, and thereby
effectually enfilade the defile ;
that they afford no authority for a guide on better open the passage for the infantry.
the subject. In review, both guns are to But in retiring through a defile, the guns
be placed, when in line, on the right of will remain to the last, to cover the re
the regiment ; unlimbered and prepared treat.
for action. The guns 10 yards
apart, and General rule with very few variations,

the left gun 10 yards from the right of the the guns should attend in all the move
battalion. Nos. 7 and 8 dress in line ments of the battalion, that division of it,
with the front rank of the regiment. The to which they are particularly attached ;
officer, at open order, will be in front of and every attention should be paid in thus
the interval between his guns, and in line adapting the movements of the guns to
with the officers of the regiment. When those of the r giment, that they be not
the regiment breaks into column, the entangled with the divisions of the line,
guns will be limbered up and wheeled by and never so placed as to obstruct the
pairs to the left : the men form the line view of the pivots, and thereby the just
of march, and the officer marches round formation of the line ; but should always
in front of the guns In the review of a seek those positions, from which the ene
single battalion, it is usual after marching my can be most annoyed, and the troops
round the second time, fo> one of the to which
they are attached, protected.
guns to go to the rear, and fall in at the If at anv time the battalion guns of
rear of the column.
Upon the regiment several regiments should be united and
wheeling on the left into line, the guns, if formed into brigades, their movements
separated, will be unlimbered to the right, will then be the same as those for the
but if they are both upon the right, they artillery of the park.
must be wheeled to the right, and then Artilleryo//^ Park The artillery
unlimbered ; and afterwards run up bv of the park is generally divided into bri
hand, as thereby they do not interfere with gades of 4, 6 or 8 pieces, and a reserve, ac
the just formation of the line, by obstruct cording to the force and extent of the
ing the view of thi* pivots. front of an army. The reserve must be
The usual method by which the guns composed of about one-sixth of the park,
take part in the firings while in line, i by and must be placed behind the first line.
two discharges from -.ach If the front of the army be extensive,
piece, previous
to : he firing of the regiment; but this is the reserve must be divided.
usually regulated by the commanding of The following are the principal rules
ficer, before the review. Though the guns for the movements and positions of the
when in line with a regiment in review, brigades of artillery: they are mostly
always remain >n the intervals ; in other translated from the Aide Momoire, a new
situations of more consequence, every French military work.
favorable spot which presents itself, from In a defensive position, the guns of the
which the enemy can be more effectually
largest caliber must be posted in those
annoyed, should be taken advantage of. points, from whence the enemy can be
In column, if advancing, the guns must discovered at the greatest distance, and
be in front; if retreating, in re rear of from which may be seen the whole ex
the column If in open column of more tent of his front.
than one battalion, the guns in the centre In an offensive position, the weakest
must be between the divisions, and when of the line must be strengthened
the column is closed, these guns must Coints
y the largest calibers ; and the most
move to the outward flank of that divi. distant from the enemy : those heights on
sion of the column, which leads the regi- which the army in advancing may rest
m. nt to which they are attached. In its flanks, must be secured
by them, and
changing front, or in forming the line from from which the enemy
may be fired upon
column, should the guns be on that obliquely.
flank of the battalion on which the new The guns should be much
line is to be formed, they will commence
placed as as
possible under cover ; this is easily done
firing formation
to ..over the
upon heights, by keeping them so far
In retiring by alternate wings or divi back that the muzzles are only to be seen
sions, the >;uns must be always with that over them :
by proper attention many si
b. dy nearest the enemy. That is, tuations may be found of which advan
they
will not retire with the first half, but will tage may be taken for this purpose, such
remai. in their position till 'he second half as
banks, ditches, &c. every where to be
retires; and will then only retire to the met with.
flanks of the first half; and when it retires A battery in the field should never be
ART ART

discovered by the enemy till the very mo high may be thrown up, to cover the
ment it is to open. The guns may be carriages.
masked by being a little retired ; or by Artillery should never fire against artil
being covered by troops, particularly ca lery, unless the enemy's troops are cover
valry. ed, and his artillery exposed; or unless
To enable the commanding officer of your troops suffer more from the fire of
artillery to choose the proper positions for his guns, than his troops do from yours.
his field batteries, he shoul.l of course be Never abandon your guns till the last
made acquainted, with the effect intend extremity. The last discharges are the
ed to be produced ; with the troops that most destructive; they may perhaps be
are to be supported ; and with the
points your salvation, and crown you with
that are to be attacked ; that he may place vxtory.
his artillery so as to support, but not in parks of artillery in Great Britain
The
commode the infantry; nor take up sich arecomposed of the following ordnance ;
situations with his guns, as would be 4 medium 12 pounders ; 4 desaxuliers 6
more advantageously occupied by the pounders ; and 4 light 5J inch howitzers.
line. That he may not place his batteries
The following is the proposed line of
too soon, nor too much exposed ; that he
march for the three brigades when acting
may cover his front and his flanks, by with different columns of troops, asset-
taking advantage of the ground; and that in 1798.
he may not venture too far out of the pro tied,
tection of the troops, unless some very
decided effect is to be obtained thereby.
12 Pounders. 1 6 Pounders. Howitzers.
The guns must be so placed as to pro
duce a cross fire upon the position or the 4 Guns. 4 Guns. 4 Howitzers.
8 Ammuni 4 Ammuni 8 Ammuni
onemy, and upon all the ground which he
must pass over in an attack. tion Wag tion Wag tion Wag
They must be separated into many gons. gons. gons.
small batteries, to divide the fire of the 1 Forge Cart 1
Forge Cart. 1 Forge Cart.
enemy ; while the fire from all these bat 1 Store Wag 1 Store Wag \i Store Wag
teries, may at any time be united to pro gon, with gon. gon.
duce a decided effect against any particular a small
points. proportion
These points are the debouches of the of stores

enemy, the heads of their columns, and and spare


the weakest points in the front. In an articles.
attack of the enemy's position, the cross 1 Spare Wag 1 Spare Wag 1
Spare Wag
fire of the guns must become direct, before gon. gon. gon.
it can impede the advance of the troops ; 1 Waggon to 1
Waggon for 1
Waggon
and must annoy the enemy's positions carry bread bread and with bread
nearest to the point attacked, when it is and oats. oats. and oats.
no longer safe to continue the fire upon 2 Waggons 2
Waggons 2
Waggons
that point itself. with mus with mus with mus
The shot from artillery should always quet ball quet ball quet ball
take an enemy in the direction of its cartridges. cartridges. cartridges.
greatest dimension ; it should therefore
take a line obliquely or in flank ; but a 18 Total. 14 Total. I 18 Total.
column in front.
The artillery should never be placed in 2d. Artillery and Ammunition for
such a situation, that it can be taken by a siege.
an enemy's
battery obliquely, or in flank, Necessary considerations in forming an
or in the rear; unless a
position under estimate for this service.
these circumstances, offers every prospect The force, situation, and condition of the
of producing a most decided effect, before place to be besieged ; whether it be suscep
the guns can be destroyed or placed bars tible of more than one attack ; whether lines
de combat. of circum vallation or counter vallation will
The most elevated positions are not the be necessary ; whether it be situated upon
best for artillery, the greatest effects may a height, upon a rocky soil, upon good
be from a height of 30 or 40 ground, or in a marsh ; whether divided
produced
yards at the distance of about 000, and by a river, or in the neighborhood of one ;
about 16 yards of height to 200 of whether the river will admit of forming
distance. inundations ; its size and depth ; whether
Positions in the rear of the line are bad the place be near a wood, and whether
for artillery, because they alarm the ,
that wood can supply stuff tor fascines,
troops, ana offer a double object to the gabions, Sec. whether it be situated near
fire of the enemy. any other place where a depot can be
Positions which are not likely to be formed to supply stores for the siege.
shifted ; but from whence an effect may j Each of these circumstances will make a
be produced during the whole of an ac very considerable difference in proportion
tion, are to be preferred ; and in such po ing the stores, &c. for a siege. More ar
sitions a low breast work of a or 3 feet J tillery will be required for a place suscep-
22 ART ART

tible of two attacks, than for the place Case and Grape shot, at one round p*ff
which only admits of one. For this last gun, per day, of each: 61bs. per charge.
there must be fewer pieces of ordnance, Shells for guns, two rounds do.
but more ammunition for each piece. In Flannel cartridges, for the case, grape;
esse of lines being
necessary, a great quan and shells.
tity of intrenching tools will be required, Tin tubes for the case and grape.
and a numerous fisld train of artillery. In Quill tubes for the round shot.
case of being master of
any garrison in the Spare, one tenth.
neighborhood of the besieged town, from 28
10 Inch mortars, on iron beds, at
whence supplies can readily be drawn, $0 shells each per day, for the whole
this must be regarded as a second park : siege. 3lbs. of powder charge ; albs. xO
and too great a oz. for bursting.
quantity of stores need not
be brought at once before the besieged Pound shot; ioo to a charge ; 50 rounds
place. The number of hatteries to be per mortar each day for 10 mortars 7 days ;
opened before the place must determine albs, of powder each.
the number of pieces of ordnance ; and on Hand granades ; 25 to a charge; the
the quantity of ordnance must depend the same as the
pound shot.
proportion of every species of stores for Carcasses, round; 1
per mortar, ptr
the service of the artillery. day.
There must be a battery to enfilade every 88 Inch howitcers, on travelling car
face of the work to be besieged, that can riages.
in any way annoy the besieger* in their 30 Shells for each per day, during the
approaches. These batteries, at least siege.
that part of them to b allotted for guns, Case th.t 5 rounds per day each.
;
need not be much longer than the breadth Carcasses; 1 per day each.
of the rampart to be enfiladed, and will Powder; lib. per charge; ilb. 1402.
not therefore hold more than 5 or 6 heavy for bursting.
juns ; which, with two more to enfilade 20 5 J Inch mortars, on wooden beds.

the opposite branch of the covert way, 50 Shells for each, per day, for the
will give the number of guns for each whole siege; charge 8 02 ; 12 oz. for
ricochet battery. As the breaching bat bursting.
teries, from their situation, effectually Flannel cartridges, for | the number of
mask the fire of the first or ricochet bat rounds.
teries, the same artillery generally serves Tin tubes in the same proportion.
for both. Having thus ascertained the
Portfires, one half the numberof rounds
number of heavy guns, the rest of the with tubes.
ordnance will bear the following propor Fuzes, one tenth to spare.
tion to them : Match, 50 cwt.
Mortars. From 8 inch to 13 inch,
Spare carriages for 24 Prs. seven.
about i. 2 Devil carriages.
Small Mortars. About J. 6 Sling carts.
Heavy Howitzers. About . 6 Block carriages.
The fewer kinds of ordnance which 3 Forge carts.
Compose the demand the better, as a great 3 Store waggons, with iron and coals.
deal of the confusion may be
prevented, 3 Triangle gins, complete.
which arises from various kinds of am 6 Laboratory tents.
munition and stores being brought to 2 Small
petards.
gether. 4 Grates for heating shot.
The carriages for the ordnance are Of the arrangement of
follows:
gene Artillery at a
rally as
siege.
For 24 Prs. 5-6 the numberof The first arrangement of the artillery at
guns.
For Mortars, 8-9 the number of mor a siege is to the different batteries raised
tars. near the first parallel, to enfilade the faces
For Howitzers, the number of how- of the work on the front attacked, which
itzers. fire on the approaches. I f these first bat
For Stone Mortars, 6-7 the number of teries be favorably situated, the artillery
mortars.
may be continued in them nearly the
Ammunition for the ordnance. whole of the siege; and will save the
24 Prs. At 1000 rounds per gun. erection of any other gun batteries, till the
Mortars, howitzers, and stone mortars, besiegers arrive on the crest of the glacis.
at 800 rounds per piece of ordnance. It however from lo
The following proportion of frequently happens,
artillery cal circumstances, that the besiegers can
and ammunition was demanded by a not avail themselves of the most advan
very
able officer, for the intended siege of Lisle,
tageous situations for the first batteries.
in 1794. which place was thought sus There are four situations from which the
ceptible of two attacks. defences of
any face may be destroyed ;
6424 Prs. with carriages complete, at but not from all with equal facility. The
3j round shot per gun, per day, for the best position for the first batteries, is
whole siege ; half of them en ricochet, with per.
pendicular to the prolongation ot the face
-lbs. of powder; the other half with the of the work to be enfiladed. If this
i;ril charge of 81bjs. po
sition cannot be attained, the next that
ART ART 28

iresents on that side of the prol


itself is, for the manner of constructing batteries,
Iongation which takes the face in reverse ; see the word Battery ; also the words Rice.

and under as small an angle as possible. cbet, Breach, Magazine, Platform, Sec,
From both these positions the guns must
fire en ricochet. But if the ground, or 3d. Artillery and Ammunition for
the defence of a Fortified Place.
other circumstance, will not admit of
either of these being occupied by ricochet OOMMMClflOlOO W

batteries, the battery to destroy the fire of CO


O <">
*
O
0
""
M

a face must be without the prolongation,


so as to fire obliquely upon the outside of
the face. The last position, in point of OOi-i>-<f^C*00 O m
O & O W! "
advantage, is directly parallel to the face. Q
H
O
H
"

From these two last positions the guns


must fire with the full charges.
OOm-wcIOOO O .
The second, or breaching batteries at a 0 n 000
siege, are generally placed on the crest of 0

the glacis, within 15 or 18 feet of the co


vert way; which space serves as the
SOdilHtKOO
0 0
0 c*

paulment : but if the foot of the revete- m


0 0 r>

ment cannot be seen from this situation,


they must be placed in the covert way,
within 15 feet of the counterscarp of the O O rt d (% *<> O O O M
ditck. These batteries must be sunk as Q *- 2 0 0
<t O O M U-|

low as the soles of the embrasures, and


are in fact but an enlargement of the
sap,
run for the lodgment on the glacis or in OortrtrtTtrtOO O cl
O 00 M O 0 O
the covert way. In constructing a bat 0 O
00
O
U1
O m

tery on the crest of the glacis, attention


must be paid that none of the embrasures
O 0 P> C *1^ MOO O *t
open upon the traverses of the covert
O >
O
M O
O N
O O
CN
way. These batteries should consist of O O
at least four guns ; and if the breadth be
tween the traverses will not admit of this O O rf^ 't^O MOO 0 >o
OO n O O O -

number, at the usual distances, the guns - O X O t*> ci


m
be closed to or 12 feet from each r Cn
must
other.
15
^1
The mortars are generally at first ar .
} .

ranged in battery, adjoining the first gun


.

&c. .

. Gins . Sizes carts,Pioners Axes BiUh'ksS


.
.

batteries, or
upon the prolongation of the .

capitals of the works ; in which place they


.
*A
Hi
arc certainly least exposed. Upon theesta-

complet
w

Carts cariges
blishment of the half parallels, batteries i

of howitzers may be formed in their ex


V3
<
) Sf

Garison Triangle SlingJacks Truck Amunito To ls To ls Cuting Forges


tremities, to enfilade the branches of the U
of for for
covert way ; and upon the formation of
the third parallel, batteries of howitzers
and stone mortars may be formed to enfi
lade the flanks of the bastions, and annoy
the besieged in the covert way. In the The guns will be of the following cali
lodgement on the glacis, stone and other bres: one-third f 18 prs. ; one-third of
mortars may also be placed, to drive the 12 prs. ; and one-third of 24, 9, and 4
besieged from their defences. A great pounders in equal proportions. If the
object in the establishment af all these place does not possess any very extraor
batteries, is to make such an arrangement dinary means of defence, it will be very
of them, that they mask the fire of each respectably supplied with 80c rounds of
other as little as possible ; and particular ammunition per gun for the two larger
ly of the first, or ricochet batteries. This calibers, and 900 for each of the others.
may very well be prevented till the esta Gun Carriages ; one-third more than the
blishment on the crest of the glacis, when number of guns.
it becomes in some degree unavoidable: Mortars ; about one-fourth the number
however, even the operations on the glacis of guns in the three first classes ; and one-
maybe so arranged, that the ricochet bat fifth or one-sixth in the other classes. Of
teries be not masked till the breaching these two-fifths will be 13 or 10 inch
batteries be in a great state of forwardness : mortars, and the rest of a smaller nature.
a very secure method, and which prevents Howitzers ; one-fourth the number of
the soldiers in trenches being alarmed by mortars.
the shot passing over their heads, is to Stone Mortars ; one-tenth the number of
raise a parados, or parapet, in the rear of guns.
the trenches, at such parts where the fire Shells ; 400 for each of the 10 and 13
from the besieger's batteries crosses them. inch mortars, and 600 for each of the
F*r further derails on, tins subject, and smaller ones.
24 ART ART

Beds for mortars ;one-third to spare. I whole of the barbette guns are ready to act
Carriages for howitzers ; one-third I in any direction, till the side of attack is
to
spare. determined on ; and with the addition of
j
Hand Grenades ; 4 or 5000 for the two j the reserve, 49 pieces may be opened upon
first classes ; 2000 in the three following | the en. my th< very first night the> begin
classes ; and from 1500 to 600 in the three to work upon the trenches.
last classes. The day succeeding the night on which
Rampart Grenades ; 2000 for the first the trenches are opened, and the side to be
class ; 1000 for the four following classes ; attacked determined, a new arrangement
and 500 for the sixth class ; none for the of the artillery must take place. All the
two last. 24 and 18 prs. must be removed to the
Fuzes ; one -fourth more than the num front attacked, and the other bastions, if
ber of shells. required, su plied with 12 prs The bar
Bottoms of wood for stone mortars ; 400 bettes of the bastions on this front may
per mortar. have each 5 guns, and the twelve 18 prs.
Sand Bags ; 500 for every piece of ord may be ranged behind the curtain. The
nance in the large places, and one-fourth six mortars in reserve must be placed, two
less in the small ones. in each of the salient anjries of the covert
Handspikes ; Io per piece. way of this front, and with those already
Tackle Falls for gins; 1 for every 10 there mounted as howitzers,* to fire down
pieces to spare. the prolongations of the capitals. Three
Musquets ; i per soldier, and the same 4 pounders in each of the salient places
number to spare. of arms of the ravelins on the attacked
Pistols, pairs ; one half the number of fronts, to fire over the palisading, and five
musquets. 9 ;>rs. in the ravelin of this front. This
Flints ; 50 per musquet, and 10 per arrangement will bring 47 guns and 18
mortars to fire on the approaches after the
pistol.
Lead or Balls for small arms ; 39 pounds first night ; and with a few variations will
per musquet. be the disposition of the artillery for the
Powder for small arms ; 5 "pounds for second period of the siege. As soon as
every musquet in the, garrison, including i the enemy's batteries are fairly established,
the spare ones. it will be no longer safe to continue the
The above proportions are taken from guns en barbette, but embrasurest must
Durtubie's Manuel De l'Artilleur. be opened for them ; which embrasures
The following method of regulating the must be occasionally masked, and the
management of the artillery, and estima guns assume new directions, as the ene
ting the probable expenditure of ammu my's firs grows destructive; but may
nition in the defence of a fortified place, is again be taken advantage of, as circum
extracted from a valuable work on fortifi stances offer. As the enemy gets near the
cation lately published at Berlin. It is third parallel, the artillery must be with
particularly applied to a regular hexagon : drawn from the covert way to the rave
the siege 13 divided into three periods, lins, or to the ditch, if dry, or other fa
viz. vorable situations ; and, by degrees, as
1st. From the first investiture to the the enemy advances, to the body of the
first opening of the trenches, about 5 days. place During this period of the siege,
2d. From the opening of the trenches the embrasures must be prepared in the
to the effecting a lodgement on the glacis, flanks, in the curtain whjch joins them,
about iSdays. and in the faces of the bastions which
3d. From this time to the capitulation, flank the ditch of the front ravelins.
about 5 days. These embrasures must be all ready to
First Period. Three guns on the bar open, and the heavy artillery mounted in
bette of each bastion and on the barbettes them, the moment the enemy attempts a
of the ravelins in front of the gate ways, lodgement on the glacis.
half 24 prs. and half 18 pis.* three Every effort should be made to take ad
9 prs. on the barbette of each of the other vantage of this favejable moment, when
ravelins. the enemy, by their own works, must
Twelve 12 prs. and twelve 4 prs. in mask their former batteries, and before
reserve. they are able to open their new ones.
One 13 inch mortar in each bastion. The expenditure of ammunition will
Six of 8 inch in the salient angles of the be nearly us follows :
overt way. First period of the siege ; 5 rounds per
Do. in reserve. gun, per day, with only half the full
Ten stone mortars. charge, or one-sixth the weight of the
The 12 prs. in reserve, are to be ranged shot, and to. only such guns as can act.
behind the curtain, on which ever side Seco/ij period ; 20 tounds per gun,
per
they may be required, and the 4 prs. in
* The iron
the outworks; all to fire en ricochet over mortars, on iron beds, all admit of being
fired at low angles.
the parapet. By this arrangement, the + A German author proposes that the mounds of
earth which enable the guns to fire en Barbette, should
firs. >n the French work, we have said 18

* For lo be so arranged, that the embrasures may be opened
r'-s....f<>r &t prs. 9 prs.. ..for lzinch mortars, 13 inch: betwicn them; and when the guns descend to the em
1. xl.icti they nearly answer, our measures biii(j gene- brasures, the barbettes will serve as traversers.
the sar-e at tfce Engl. lb. I
n".y
A RT ART 25

day, with one-sixth the weight of the right of the whole, and they rate by se
shot. niority, so that the two youngest are next
Third period ; 60 rounds per gun, per but one to the centre or park : the two
or one-third the
day, with the full charge, companies next to the :>ark, are the miners
weight of the shot. on the;
right, and the artificers on the left.
Mortars ; at 20 shells per day, from the In the rear of, and 36 feet from the park,
first opening of the trenches to the capitu are
encamped the civil list, commissioners,
lation. cierks, Sec. all in one line.
Stone Mortars; 80 rounds per mortar, The breadth between the front tent- pole
for every 24 hours, from the establish of one company, and that 01 another, call-
ment of the dem -parallels to the capitu e<i the streets, will depenvl on the size and
;o the
lation ; about 13 Jays. capacity of the tents ; but aecor- ing
old
and Fire balls ; five every niijht, mode du in the revolution o. 1776,

Light,
for each mortar, from the opening of the when the American arrny had tents, 36
trenches to the eighth day, and three from feet to each was the interval .

that tune to the end of the siege. FEET.

These amount to about 700 for guns. From the front pole of officers tent
of the quarter-guard, or guard of the (
)
400 for mortars.
1000 for stone do.
34
army, to the centre of the bells of 1
This proportion and arrangement is arms of ditto )
.however made upon a supposition, that To the parade of the quarter- }
12
the place has no counti rinines to retard guard 5
the progress of the besiegers, to a period To the first line of the regimental ?
150
beyond what is abovementioned ; but the parade 5
same author estimates, that a similar To the centre of the bells of arms 90
place, with tin covert way properly coun From thence to the front poles of P
12
termined beforehand, and those counter Serjeants tents $
mines properly disputed, may retard a For pitching 12 tents of artillery, 1
siege at least 2 months ; and that if the with their proper intervals at 9 feet> 108
other works be likewise effectually coun each )
termined and defended, the siege may be From the rear of companies tents, ?
6o
&till prolonged another month. to the front of the subalterns tents \
The above proportion is therefore to be From the front of the subalterns, ?
further regulated, as the strength of the 7*
to that of the captains $
place is increased by these or any other From the front of the captains, to ?
means. These' considerations should like that of the field officers $ 7-
wise be attended to, in the formation of From the front of the field offi- j
an estimate of ammunition and stores for cers, to that ot the colonels *J 36
the siege of a fortified place. See Carri From the front of the colonels, to ?
\ 48
age, Platform, Park, and the different that of the staff officers
kinds of artillery, as Gun, Mortar, Howit From the front of the staff officers, ?
to the front row of batrnans tents 54
zer, Sec. $
The ammunition for small arms is esti From thence to the first row of ?
0
mated by this author as follows : pickets for horses $
i of a pound of gunpowder, or 10 rounds From thence to the second row 36
per day, per man, for all the ordinary From thence to the second row of )
0
guards. batrnans tents $
ii lbs. or 50 rounds per man, per 12 From thence to the front or theP
42
hours, tor all extraordinary guards. grand suttler's tent $
i of a pound, or 25 rounds for every From thence to the centre of the ?
the 60
man on picket, during period of his kitchens 5
duty. From thence to the front of petit- ?
Artillery, in a military acceptation suttler's tents 5 45
of the term, signifies every species of light From thence to the centre of the ?
or heavy ordnance. It is classed under bells of arms of the rear-guard $ 45
specific heads ; the most important of
which are
Total depth 789
Field A r t 1 l l e r y , which includes every
requisite to forward the operations of an The army guard is in the front of tlie
army, or of any part of an army acting of park, opposite the alarm-guns, in a line
fensively or defensively in ihe held. Field with the artillery quarter-guards, that are
artillery may be divided into two distinct placed on the right and left of the artillery
elasses Field Artillery, commonly called

companies.
the Park, aid Horse Artillery. When there are bells of arms they front
Encampment ofa regiment o/Artillery. the poles of Serjeants tents.
Regiments of artillery are always encamp The colours are placed in the centre of
ed, half on the right, and half on the left the front line of guns, in the interval of the
of the park. Tne company of bombar two alaim-kuns, in line with the bell>
-

diers (when they are formed into compa of arms of the companies.
nies, which they are in European na The lieutenant-colonels and majors t;m
tions excepting England) always takes the
26 ART ART

front the of the second streets from I


centres of English royal artillery, before that time
the left of the regiment. it was only call.d the train of artillery. It
right and j
The colonel's tent is in a line with the' then consisted only of 4 companies, under
colours and guard of the army, facing thei the command of general Borgard. From
same. that period it gradually increased to 6 bat-.
The staff-officers front the centres of the talions, each battalion consisting of 10

second streets, on the right and left of the companies, beside 1 invalid battalion
angles of the park . equal in its establishment to the others,
The batmen's tents front towards their but confined in duty to the home garri
horses. j sons, or to Jersey, Guernsey and Bermu
The rear-guard fronts outwards. The da, commanded by a colonel commandant,
front poles are in a line with the centre of 1 colonel en second, 2 lieutenant-colonels,
the bells of arms, and each is 18 feet dis 1 major, who have no companies. Each
tant. The parade of the rear-guard is 12 company in time of war generally consisted
feet from the bells of arms. of 120 men, commanded by 1 captain, 1
In the rear of the rear guard, and 80 feet captain lieutenant, 2 first, and 1 second
distant from their parade, the artillery- 1 lieutenant. In time of peace the compa
'

horses and drivers tents are placed, in two nies were reduced to 50 men each.

or more lines, parallel with the line of Frederick the second of Prussia, found
j
Suns, extending from the right and left of his army in a very good condition, except
the whole. ing the corps of artillery and engineers,
It sometimes happens, that a very large little esteemed by the rest of thearm\ , ar.d
train of artillery is in the field, with two the officers without commissions. Know
or more regiments : in that case the oldest ing how necessary it was to have a good
takes the right of the park, the next oldest corps of artillery and engineers, and how
the left, and the youngest the centre : the impossible it was to secure that important
centre or grand street is 63 feet broad, op object without having officers learned in
posite to which the tent of the command every branch of military mathematics;
ing officer is placed. In the centre of this immediately diaughted all the illiterate
street, the colours are placed in a line with officers into the garrison regiments, sup
the bells of arms, and the artillery quar plying their places with persons of capa
ter-guard is in the front of the colours at city ; and giving them all commissions,
the same distance as before mentioned. with rank equal to that of the officers of
For further particulars of camps, see the guards, and an extraordinary
pay.
American Mil. Lib. Vol. II. Art. Camps. This method of proceeding established the
Regiment of Artillery. The corps of use ana reputation of that
corps ; induced
artillery, with all its dependencies, is, as the nobility and men of ranic
it werj, the general instrument of the
(provided
they had capacity) to engage in it sooner
army. It is impossible to attack fortified than elsewhere ; which brought it to that
or to defend them, without artil summit of high renown, it since enjoyed.
places,and
lery ; an army in the field, which The Prussian army consisted of 12 bat- '

wants artillery, can not so well makeh.ad talions, 8 for the field, and 4 for gairison.
against one that is well provided with it. Each battalion had 12 companies,
namely,
For this reason it is, that at all times go 1
company of bombardiers, 1 of miners, 1
vernments have taken great care to pro of artificers, and 9 of artillurists. Thefirst,
vide proper officers of learning and capa or bombaidier
companies, were composed
city to govern, repair and keep in order, of 1 captain, 2 lieutenants, 3
upper and 6
this essential part of military force. under fire- workers, 2 Serjeants,
4 corpo.
The strength of a regiment of artillery rals, 2 drummers, and 60 bombardiers.
depends upon the circumstances of the The miners had the same commissioned
countiv, the quantity of troops to main officers, with 3 Serjeants, 6 corporals, a
tain, 1 !u number of fortifications and points drummers, 33 miners, and 33 sappers.
to be defended. It had always been the The artificers had the same officers and
custom, to regulate the of artillery
corps' non-commissioned officers as the miners,
according to the French method ; but, the with 30 artificers, and
celebrated kin>; of Prussia fixed his regi
36 pontoneers.
All the artillery companies had commis
3
ments of artillery on another plan, and sioned and 6 non-commissioned
officers,
produced a great change, upon which the 2
drummers, and 60 artillerists. The co
French have since improved, and are again lonel, lieutenant-colonel, and major'*
followed by all nations. The British me companies, had each a captain-lieutenant ;
thod, from which we borrowed in the re and each batuhon had
further, 1 in, chapl.
volution, may be useful to know as well 1 auditor, 1
adjutant, 1 quarter-master, 1
as the Prussian.
doctor, 3 surgeons, 1 scrjeant-major, 1
In 1628, and probably long before, the
drum-major, 6 musicians, and 1 provost
artillery had sundiy privileges, from which By the law of the 16th March, 1802,
the rest of the army were excluded, viz. sect. 2, the United States
of having the first rank and tiie best quar of five battalions,
artillery consists
consisting of 1 colonel,
ters ; neither could any carriage or wag 1 lieutenant colonel, 4niajors, 1
adjutant,
gon presume to march before theirs, ex 20
companies, each composed of 1
cap
cept that belonging to the treasurer. tain, 1 first
lieutenant, 1 second lieuten
In 1705, we find the first mention made ant, z cadets, 4 Serjeants, 4 corporals, 4
ART ART 27

musicians, 8 artificers, and 56 privates ; must always march at the head of the ar
two teachers of music were added by the tillery, and of each column of equipage or
law of February 28, 1803. baggage.
March ofthe Artillery The marches ] If the enemy be encamped on the right
of the artillery are, of all the operations of I flanks of the march, the art llery, &c.
war, the most delicate ; because they should march to the left of the troops,
must not only be directed on the object ; and vice versa. Should the enemy ap
'

you have in view, but according to the pear in motion, the troops front that way,
movements the enemy make. Armies ge by wheeling to the right or left by divi
nerally m rch in 3 columns, the centre co sions ; and the artillery, which man lies in
lumn of which is the artillery: should a line with the columns, passes through
the army march in more columns, the ar their intervals, and forms at the head of
tillery and heavy baggage march neverthe the front line, which is formed of the co
less in one or more of the centre columns ; lumn that flanked nearest the enemy,
the situation of the enemy determines ,
taking care at the same time that the bag
this. If they are far from the enemy, the ,
gage be well covered during the action.
baggaee and ammunition go before or be- 1
Though we have said armies generally
hind, or are sent by a pa ticular road ; an ' march in 3 columns, yet where the coun
army in such a case cannot march in too try will allow it, it is better to march in a
many columns. But should the march greater number ; and let that number be
be towards the enemy, the baggage must , what it will, the artillery must form the
absolutely be all in the rear, and the whole centre columns. See American Mil. Lib.
artillery form the centre column, except on the march of troops.
some brigades, one of which marches at Line of march of the Artillfry for a
the head of each column, with guns load large army, as established before the
ed and burning matches, preceded by a de French revolution :
tachment for their safety. The French 1. A guard of the army; the strength
almost invariably place their baggage in of which depends on the commander in
the eentre. chief.
Suppose the enemy's army in condi
a 2. The companies of miners (excepting
tion to march towards the heads of your a detachment from each, dispersed in va
columns : the best disposition for the rious places, to mend the roads) with
march is in 3 columns only ; that of the tumbrels of tools, drawn by 2 horses, as
centre for the artillery ; for it is then easy sisted by pioneers.
to form it in order of battle. Hence it is 3. The brigades of artillery's front-
equally commodious for each brigade of guard, with four light 6 pounders loaded,
artillery to plant itself at the head of the and matches burning.
troops, in the place marked for it, in such 4. The trumpeters on horse-back.
a manner, that the whole disposition being 5. The flag-gun, drawn by 12 horses,
understood, and well executed, thelineof and ten 12 pounders more, by 4 horses
battle may be quickly formed in an open each.
country, and in the presence of any enemy, 6. Twenty waggons with stores for the
without risquing a surprise; by which said guns, and 1 spare one, by 4 horses
method the artillery will always be in a each.
condition to act as soon as the troops, pro 7. All the pontoons, with the waggons
vided it march in brigades. thereto belonging.
If your march should be through a 8. Eight 9 pounders, by 3 horses each,
country full of defiles, some cava.ry and 9. Fifteen waggons with stores for said
other light troops must march at the head guns, by 4 horses each, and 2 spare ones.
of the columns, followed bv a detachment 10. Gins and capstans, with their pro
of grenadiers and a brigade of artillery ; per workmen, 3 waggons, with 2 horses
cannon being absolutely necessary to ob each
struct rhe enemy's forming into order of n. A forge on four wheels, and 1 wag
battle. gon, 4 horses each.
When you decamp in the face of the! 12 Twelve heavy 24 pounders, by 16
enemy, you must give most attention to horses each.
your rear-guard. On such occasions, all 13. Sixteen waggons with stores for
the baggage, ammunition, provisions, and ditto, and 2 spare ones, by 4 horses each.
artillery, march before the troops ; your 14 A waggon with tools, and pioneers
best I grit troops, best cavalry, some good to mend the roads

brigades of infantry, together with some 15. Nine light 24 pounders, by 8 horses
brigades of artillery, form the rear-guard. each.
Cannon is of infinite use for a rear-guard, 16. Twelve waggons with stores for
when you are obliged to pass a defile, or a ditto, and 2 spare ones, by 4 horses each.
river ; and should be placed at tUe entry 17 A for^e and waggon, by 4 horses
of such defile, on an eminence, if there be each,
one, or on any other place, from whence j 18. Nine 24 pounders, by8 horses each.
they can discover the ground through 19. Twelve waggons with stores for
which the enemy must march to attack ditto, and 2
spareones.
the rear-guard. j 20. Twelve u pounders, by 8 horsei
A detachment of pioneers, with tools, j each.
28 ART ASP

21. Sixteenwaggons with stores for 61. Four 2 and 1 pounders, by 1 horse
ditto, and 2
spare ones. each.
22. Sixteen 5.8 inch mortars, by 2 62. A hundred waggons with stores, and
horses each. 3 spare ones.
23. Twenty-five waggons with stores 63. Two hundred waggons, and 2 spare
for ditto, ,and 2 ones.
spars ones.
24. Ten 8 inch mortars, by 4 horses 64. Two hundred and fourteen waggons-
each. belonging to the artillery baggage ; some
25. Twenty waggons with stores for with 4, 3, and 2 horses each.
ditto, and 2 spare ones. 6e. Tlie artillery rear-guard.
26. Six to inch howitzers, by 6 horses 60. The rear-guard from the army.
each. Hor.e Artillery. The French horse ar

27. Twenty waggons with stores fori tillery consists of 8 Prs. and 6 inch How
ditto, and 2 spare ones. ! itzers.
28. A waggon with tools, and men to The English of light 12 Prs. light 6
mend the roads. Prs. an light 5J inch Howitzers.
29. A for*e and waggon, by 4 horses The Austrian and Prussian horse artil
each. lery have 6 Prs. and 5J inch Howitzers.
30. Ten 8 inch mortars, by 4 horses : The United States by a law of April 12,
each. 1808, authorised the raising of a regiment
31. Twenty waggons with stores for of horse arrillery often companies, of the
ditto, and a spare one. same number of officers and men as the
32. Sixteen 12 inch mortars, by 8 artillery regiment of the old establish
horses eai h. ment to the company.
33. I ( irty waggons with stores for. Officers of Artillery. The com
ditto, and 2 spare ones. I mander of the army is commander in chief
34. Eight 18 inch stone mortars, by 10 of the artillery ; the colonels of artil
I
horses each. ] lery act under his orders ; they are entrust
35. Sixteen waggons with stores for; ed with one of the most laborious employ
ditto, and a spare one. ments, both in war and peace, requiring
36. Eight 9 pounders, by 3 horses each. the greatest ability, application, andexr

37. Si teen waggons with stores for pcrience. The officers in general should
ditro, and a spare one. be good mathematicians, and engineers,
38. Twenty 6 pounders, by 2 horses should know all the powers of artillery,
each. the attack and defence of fortified places;
39 Twenty waggons with stores for in a word, every thing which appertains
ditto,and a spare one. ! to that very important corps.
40. Two sling- waggons, and 2
truck-, ARTI L'LEUR, Fr. an officer belong
carriages, 4 horses each. ing to the French service.
41. Twenty 3 pounders, by 1 horse ARTJLLIER, Fr. a man who works
each. on pieces of ordnance as a founder
; or one
42. Ten waggons with stores for ditto, who serves them in action.
and a spare one.
ARX, in the ancient military art, a
43. A waggon with tools, &c. fort, castU, &c. for the defence of a place.
44. A forge and waggon, by 4 horses ARZEGAGES, Fr. batons or canes
each. with iron at both ends. They were car.
45. Twelve 2 and 1
pounders, b> 1 horse ried by the Estradiots or Albanian cava
each. liers who served in France under Charles
46. Six waggons with stores for ditto. VIII. and Louis XII.
47. Sixteen 6 pounders, by 2 horses ASAPPES, or Azapes,
each.
auxiliary
troops which are raised
among the Chris
48. Ten waggons with stores for ditto. tians subject to the Turkish
for various
empire,
49. Twenty spare carriages, These troops are generally placed in the
calibres. front to receive tjie first shock of the
50. Eighteen ditto. enemy.
51. Fifty spare limbers. See Gunnery. ASCENT.
52. Ten 18 pounders, by 6 horses each. is the view or profile of
ASPECT,
53. Twenty waggons with stores for coast, and land
contains the figure or
or
ditto, and 2 spare ones. representation of the borders of any par
54. Twenty waggons with ammunition ticular part of the sea. These figures and
ami hiores.
repiesentations may be found in all the
55. Two 12 pounders, by 4 horses charts or directories* for the sea coast.
cacti. The Italians call them demonstration. By
56. Four waggons wjth stores for ditto. means of this knowlege you may ascer
57. Fifty waggons with stoves. tain whether the land round the shore be
"38. A wa gon with tools, and men to high ; if the coast itself be steep or slop
mend the roads. ing ; bent in the form of an arc, or ex
59. A forge and wanton, by 4 horses i tended in strait lines ; round at the top,
each or rising to a
j
point. Every thing, in a
bo. A hundred waggons with stores, and word, is brought in a correct state be
# spare ones. |
fore the eye, as far as regards
harbors,
ASS ATT 29

tranquility therein, against foreignor do


swamps, bogs, gulphs, adjacent church
es, trees, windmills, Sec. See Recon mestic enemies.
noitring in Amer. Mil. Lib. ASTRAGAL. SeeCANNON.
A menacing Aspect. An army is said ATTACH. Officers and non-commis
to hold a menacing aspect, when by ad sioned officers are said to be attached to
vanced movements or positions 't gives the respective army, regimant, battalion,
the opposing enemy cause to apprehend troop, or company with which they are
an attack. appointed to act.
A military Aspect. A country is said ATTACHE, Fr. the seal and signa
tohavea military aspect, when its general ture of the colonel-general in the old
situation presents appropriate obstacles or French service, which were affixed to the
facilities for an army acting on the offen commissions of officers after they had been
sive or defensive. duly xamined.
An imposing Aspect, An army is said ATTACK, any general assault, or on
to have an imposing aspect, when it ap set, that is Riven to gain a post, or break
pears stronger than it really is. This ap a body of troops.
pearance is often assumed for the purpose Attack of a siege, is a furious assault
of deceiving an enemy, and may not im made by the besiegers by means of trench
properly be considered as a principal ruse es, galleries, saps, breaches, or mines,
de guerre, or feint in war. &c. by storming any part of the front
ASPIC, Fr. a piece of ordnance which attack Sometimes two attacks are car
carries a 12 pound shot. The piece itself ried on at the same time, between which
weh'hs 42 50 pounds. a communication must be made. See
ASSAILLIR, Fr. toattack; to asail. Siece.
This old French term applies equally to False Attacks are never carried on
bodies of men and to individuals. with that vigor and briskness that the
ASSAULT, a furious effort to others are ; the design of them being to
carry
a fortified
post, camp, or fortress, where favor the true attack, by amusing the
the assailahts do not screen themselves by enemy and by obliging the garrison to
any works. While an assault during a severer duty in dividing their forces, that
6iege continues, the batteries cease, for the true attack may be more successful.
j
fear of killing their own men. Anassault ! Regular Attack, is that which is car-
is sometimes made by the regiments that i! ried on in form, according to the rules of
guard the trenches of a siege, sustained I art. See Siege, approaches, Sec.
by detachments from the army. To Attack in front or flank, in forlifi.
To give an Assault, is to attack any '

cation, means to attack the saliant angle,


post, &C. or both sides of the bastion.
To repulse an Assault, to cause the This phrase is familiarly used with re
assailants to retreat, to beat them back. spect to bodies of men which attack each
To carry by Assault, to gain a post by other in a military way.
storm, Sec. Attack and Defence. A part of the
ASSAUT, Fr. See Assault, drill for recruits learning thesword exer
ASSIEGER, Fr. to besiege. cise, which is commenced with the re
ASSEMBLEE, Fr. the assembling to cruit stationary on hors back, the teacher
gether of an army. Also a call, or beat riding round him, striking at different
of the drum. See Assembly. parts as openings appear, and instructing
ASSEMBLY, the second beating of the the recruit how to w-.ird his several at-
drum before a march ; at which the men tacks ; it is next executed in a walk, and,
1

strike their tents, if encamped, roll them ! as the learner becomes more perfect, in
up, and stand to arms. See Drum. in th? latter under the idea of a
{speed;
ASSESSMENT, in a military sense, ! pursuit. The attack and defence in line
signifies a certain rate which is paid in and in speed form the concluding part of
England by the county treasurer to the the sword exercise when practised at a
receiver general of the land-tax, to in review of cavalry. It is to be observed,
demnify any place for not having raised that although denominated in speed, yet
the militia; which sum is to be paid by when practising, or at a review, the pace
the receiver-general into the
exchequer. of the horse ought not to exceed three
The sum to be assessed is five pounds for quarters speed.
each man, where no annual certificate of ATTENTION, a cautionary word
the state of the militia has been trans used as a preparative to any particular ex
mitted to the clerk of the peace: if not ercise or manoeuvre. Garde-a-vous, which
paid before June yearly it may be IcvieJ is pronounced Gar-avous, has the same
on the
parish officers. Such assessment signification in the Frerch service.
where there is no county rate is to be rais ATTESTATION, a certificate made
ed as the poor's rate. by some justice of the peace of the enlist
ASSIETTE. Fr. the immediate scite ment of a recruit This certificate is to
or position of a camp. bear testimony, that the recruit has been
ASSOCIATION, any number of men brought before him in conformity to law
embodied in arms for mutual defence in and has declared his assent or dissent to such
their district; and to preserve the public enlist. nent; and, if according to the law
| he shall have bccn> and is duly enlisted-,.
30 A XL B AL

that the proper oath has been adminis


tered to him by the said magistrate. B.
ATILT, in the attitude of thrusting
with a spear, &c. as was formerly the
case in tournaments, Sec. BACK-.S>/>, the retrogade movement
AVANT, Fr. foremost, most advanc of a man or body of men without chang
ed toward the enemy, as ing front ; it is half the forwarJ step.
A v \Nr-chemin-couverr, Fr. The ad BACKWARDS, a technical word made

vanced covert- way which is made at the use of in the Britishserv'ce to


express
foot of the glacis to oppose the approaches the retrogade movement of troops from
of an enemy. line into column, and vice versa See
AvANT-duc, Fr. the pile-work which Wheel.
is formed by a number of youngtrc?s on BAGGAGE, in military affairs, sig
the edge or entrance of a river. They are nifies the clothes, tents, utensils of divers
driven into the ground with battering rams sorts, and provisions, Sec. belonging to an
or strong
pieces of iron, to form a level army.
floor, by means of strong planks being BAGOAcz-Waggons. See Wagcons,
nailed upon it, which serve for the foun BAGPIPE, the name of a musical
dation of a bridge. Boats are placed warlike instrument, of the wind kind,
wherever the avant-duc terminates The used by the Scots regiments, and some
avant-duc is had recourse to when the times by the Irish. Bagpipes were used
river is so broad that there are not boats by the Danes ; by the Romans, and by
t ufficient to make a bridge across Avant- the Asiatics at this day; there is in Rome
ducs are made on each side of the river. a most beautiful
bas-relievo, a piece of
As kut -fosse, Fr. the ditch of the Grecian sculpture of the highest
antiquity,
counterscarp next to th.- country. It is which represents a bag-piper playing on
dug at the foot of the glacis. See For his instrument exactly like a modern
tification. highlander The Greeks had also ai in
strument composed of a
Av ant -garde. See Van Guard. pipe and blown-up
Av kui-train, Fr. The limbers of a skin. The Romans in all probability,
fteld piece,on which are placed one or borrowed it from them. The Italians still
t wo boxes containing ammunition enough use it under the names of piva and cornu.

for immediate service. musa. The Bagpipe has been a favorite


AUDITOR, the person who audits instrument among the Scots. There are
two varieties: the one with long pipes, and
regimental or other military accounts
AVENUE, in fortification, is any kind sounded with the mouth ; the other with
of opening or inlet into a fort, bastion, or short pipes, filled with air by a bel
out -work. lows, and played on with the fingers:
AUG ET, or Aucette, Fr. a wooden the first is the loudest and most ear- pierc
pipe which contains the powder by which ing of all music, is the genuine highland
amine is set fire to. pipe, and is well suited to the warlike
AULNE de Paris, a French measure, genius of that people. It formerly roused
44 inches, used to measure
containing their courage to battle, alarmed them when
sand- bags. secure, and collected them when scatter
ed : solaced them in their long and painful
AUTHORITY, in a general accepta
tion of the term,signifies a right to com marches, and in times of peace kept up
the memory of the gallantry of their an
mand, and a
consequent right to be obeyed.
Th-; appointment of officers in the army cestors, by turn's composed after signal
of the United States is in the nomination victories. The other is the Irish bagpipe.
t/ the president, andapprovedby a majo. BAGS, in military employments, are
ri'ty of the Senate. The used on many occasions : as,
president
may
Sand Bags, generally 16 inches diame
however dismiss at his discretion. The
king of Great- Brit an has the ter, and 30 high, filled with earth or sand
power to repair breaches, and the embrasures of
to exercise military authority without
con'roul, as far as repards the army ; and batteries, when d maged by the enemies
may appoint or dismiss officers at his fire, or by the blast of the guns. Some
times they are made less, and placed three
pleasur.'.
AUXI LI ARY. Foreign or subsidiary together, upon the parapets, for the men
furnished to fire through.
troops which are to a belliger
Eartb-U.\ cs, containing about a cubical
ent power in consequence of a treaty of
foot of earth, are used to raise a parapet
alliance, or for pecuniary considerations.
Of tfee latter description may be consi in haste, or to repair one that is beaten
dered the Hessians that were employed down. They are only used when the
by Great- Britain to enslave America. ground is rocky, and does not afford earth
AWARD, the s ntenoe or determina enough to carry on the approaches.
tion ofa military couit. BALANCE, Fr. a term used in the
French artillery to express a machine in
AXLE-TREE, a transverse beam sup
which stores and ammunition are weighed.
porting a carriage, and on the ends of
which the wheels revolve. See Car- BALL, in the military art, compre
hends all sorts of balls and bullets for
fire-arms, from the cannon to the pistol.
B A L BAL 31

herbs, made up into balls, as mentioned


Balls of Lead, of difterent kinds.
in L/g/.>/-BALL3, agreeably to the size of
Number Diameter No. made the mortar out of which you intend to
KINDS. to one in from om ton
throw them.
Pound. Inches. of Lead Poisoned Balls. We are not sure that
they have ever been used in Europe; but
Wall pieces 61 14,760 the Indians and Africans have always been
.68 ?2,48o very ingenious at poisoning
several sorts of
Musquets Their
Carabine 20 .60 44,800 warlike stores and instruments.
Pistol 34 78,048 composition is mealed powder 4, pitch 6,
46* .46 104,160 rosin 3, sulphur 5, assa-foetida 8, extract
7 Brl. guns
of t6ad's poison 12, other poisonous sub
Lead balls are packed in boxes contain stances 12, made into balls as above di
of lead
ing each 1 cwt. About 4 pounds rected. At the commencement of the
in the cwt. are generally lost in casting. French Revolution poisoned balls were
See Shot. exhibited to the people said to have been
Ca#e-BALLs are of iron ; and musket fired by the Austrians, particularly at
and pistol-balls are of lead. Cannon- the siege of Lisle. We have seen some
their
balls are always distinguished by of this sort. They contained glass, small
respective calibres, thus, pieces of iron, Sec. and were said to be
A 4z1 f 6,684 inches. concocted together by means of a greasy
32 f 6,105 composition which was impregnated with
5,547 poisonous matter. In 1792, they wera
it pound ball, the | 4.403
I 5,o4 deposited in the Archives of Pans.
> diameter of which
Red-hot Balls are fired out of mortars,
^ 4,000
howitzers, or cannon. Use which you
3,498 will, the ball must be made red-hot,
2,775 which is done upon a large coal fire in a
2,423 6 feet
.

square hole made in the ground,


iJ Li,923 every way, and 4 or 5 feet deep. Some
Fire- Balls, ? of whic h t here are va- make the fire under an iron grate, on
J Their composition is
which the shell or hall is laid ; but the
various purposes. best way is to put the ball into the mid
mealed powder 2, saltpetre i, sulphur 1, dle of a clear burning fire, and when red-
rosin 1, turpentine 25. Sometimes they
hot, all the fiery particles must be swept
are made of an iroi: shell, sometimes a oAL Whatever machine you use to throw
stone, filled and covered with various coats
the red-hot ball out of, it'must be elevated
of the above composition, until it con according to the distance you intend it
glomerates to a proper size ; the last coat shall range, and the charge of powder
But the best
being of grained powder. must be put into a flannel cartridge, and
sort in our opinion, is to take thick brown a good wad upon that ; then a piece of
and make a shell the size of the
paper, wood of the exact diameter of the piece,
mortar, and fill it with a composition of and about 3$ inches thick, to prevent the
an
equal quantity of sulphur, pitch, ball from setting fire to the powder; then
rosin, and mealed powder; which being place the ball on die edge of the mortar,
well mixed, and put in warm, will give a Sec. with an instrument for that purpose,
clear fire, and burn a considerable time. and let it roll of itself against the wood,
When they are intended to set fire to
and instantly fire it off. Should there be
magazines, buildings, Sec. the composi- a ditch or parallel before such a battery,
tion must be mealed powder 10, saltpetre with soldiers, the wood must not be used,
2, sulphur 4, and rosin 1 ; or rarner meal as the blast of powder will break it to
ed powdt-r 48, saltpetre 32, sulphur 16,
pieces, and its own elasticity prevent it
rosin 4, steel or iron filings 2, fir-tree saw from flying far; it would in that case
dust boiled in saltpetre ley 2, birch- wood either kill or wound your own people.
charcoal 1, well rammed into a shell for For this deficiency the wad must be
that purpose, having various holes filled double. See American Mil. Lib article
with small barrels, loaded with musket- Artillery.
balls ; and lastly the whole immerged in Chain-B alls are two balls linked to
melted pitch, rosin and turpentine oil.
gether by a chain of 8 or 10 inches loiv.:,
Smoke-B \lls are prepared as above, and some have been made with a cha n of
with this difference, that they contain 5
3 or 4 feet long ; they are used to desiroy
to 1 of pitch, rosin and saw-dust. This the pallisadoes, wooden bridges, and clic-
composition is put into shells made for vaux-de- friezes of a fortification. They
that purpose, having 4 holes to let out arc also very destructive to the ringing of
the smoke. Smoke-balls are thrown out a ship.
of mortars, and continue to smoke from Balls are some called balls'
Stang- by
*5 to 30 minutes. of two heads; tbey are sometimes made
Stink-B alls are prepared by a compo of two half-balls joined together by a bar
sition of mealed powder, rosin, saltpetre, of iron from 8 to 14 inches long ; they are
pitch, sulphur, rasped hoises and asses likewise m.tde of two entire bailo ; tney
hoofs, burnt in the fire, assa-fcetida, sera are for the same
purpose as the before-'
phim gum or ferula, and bug or stinking mentioned.
32 BAN BAN

Anchor-BALLs made in the same


are made by the sound of drums, trumpets,
way as the and filled with the
light-balls, and tamboiines, either at the head of a
same
composition, only with this addi body of troops, or in quarters. Some
tion, that these are made with an iron bar times to prevent the men from quitting
two-thirds of the ball's diameter in length, camp, at others to enforce the rigor of mi
and 3 or 4 inches
square. One half is litary discipline; sometimes for the pur
fixed within the ball, and the other half pose of receiving a new commanding offi
remains without; the exterior end is made cer, and at others to degrade a military
with a grapple-hook. Very useful to set character.
fire to woopen bridges, or any thing made BANDER, Fr. to unite, to intrigue
of wood, or even the rigging of ships, &c. together for the purposes of insurrection.
for the pilu end being the heaviest, flies BAND E RET, in military history, im
foremost, and wherever it touches, fas plies the commander in chief of the troops
tens, and sets all on fire about it. of the canton of Berne, in Switzerland.
Message- Balls. See Shells. BANDES, Fr. bands, bodies ol in
BALLIUM, a term used in ancient mi fantry.
litary history. In towns the appellation Bandes Francoises. The French in
of ballium was given to a woik fenced with fantry was anciently called.
so The
pallisades, and sometimes to masonry, term, however, become less general and
was confined to the Prev&t des Bandes, or
covering the suburbs ; but in castles it
was the space immediately within the the Judge or Prevost marshal that tried
outer wall. the men belonging to the French guards.
BALLOON, a hollow vessel of silk, BANDIERES, Fr. Une Armee ran-
varnished over and filled with inflamma gceen front de bandieres, signifies an army
ble air, by which means it ascends in the in battle array. This disposition 01 the
atmosphere. It has during the war been army is opposed to that in which it is
used by the French in reconnoitering, and cantoned and divided into several bodies.
with great success at Fleurus. BANDOLEER, in ancient military
BALOTS, Fr. sacks or bales of wool, history, a large leathern belt worn over
made use of in cases of great emergency, the right shoulder, and hanging under the
to form parapets or places of arms. They left arm, to carry some kind of warlike
are likewise adapted for the defence of weapon.
trenches, to cover the workmen in saps, Bandoliers were likewise little
and in all instances where promptitude is wooden cases covered with leather, of
required. which every musqueteer used to wear 12
BAN, or Bann, a sort of proclamation hanging on a shoulder- belt ; each of them
made at the head of a body of troops, or contained the chaige of powder for a mus
in the several quarters or cantonments of quet.
.in army, by sound of trumpet, or beat of BANDROLS. ; c n

CampColors'
drum; either for observing martial disci BANNEROLS. SSee
pline, or for declaring a new officer, or BANDS, properly bodies of foot,
punishing a soldier, or the like. At pre almost out of date.
though
sent such kind of proclamations are given Train-B a nds. In England the militia
out in the written orders of the day. of the City of London were generally so
BAN and Arriere Ban, a French called. The third regiment of Foot or
military phrase signifying the convocation I the Old Bulls were originally recruited
of vassals under the feudal system. Me from the Train bands, which circum-^
nage, a French writer, derives the term stance gave ihat corps the exclusive
pri
from the Gernrun word ban,, which means vilege of 111. rching through London with
publication ; Nicod derives it from another drums beating and colors flying. They
German term which signifiesfield. Boret lost their colors in America, which arc
from the Greek pan which means all, now in the war-office at Washington.
because the convocation was geneial. In Band of Music. The term band is ap
the reign of Charles VII. the ban and ar- plied to the body of musicians attached
rieye ban had different significations. For to any regiment or battalion, with wind in

merly it meant the assembling of the or struments.


dinary militia. After the days of Charles Band is also the denomination of a mi
VII. it was called the extraordinary mili litary order in S; am, instituted by '>!-
tia. The first terved more than the lat phonsus XI. king of Castile, for the
ter; and each was distinguished accoiding younger sons of the nobility, who, be
to the nature of its particular service. fore their admission, must serve 10 years,
The persons bel ngim; to the arriere-ban at least, cither in the arm> or
during a
were at one period accoutred and mounted war ; and are bound to take
up arms in
like light-horse; but there were occa defence of the Catholic faith, against the
sions on which tin. v served like the infan- infidels.
,rr. Once under Francis I. in i jA5> and BANERET, Fr. a term derived from
again under Lewis XI If. who issued out Baniere, This appellation was attach
un order in 1637, that the Arriere-Ban ed to any lord 01 a lict who had vassals
should serve on foot. utfn ient to unite them under one Sanies
Ban likewise signified during the an- or banner, and to become chief of t\w
.itrtt monarchy of France, a proclamation 1
rcops or company.
BAR BAR 33

Un Chevalier Baneret, or a Knight , Barrack- Allowance, a specific allow-


Banbret gave precedence to the troop ance of bread, beer, wood, coals, Sec. to
er company which he commanded over the regimei ts stationea in barracks See
that of a baneret who wa^ not a k isjht or Ration.
chevalier ; the latter obeyed the forrner, B.\RRACK-Guard, when a regiment is
and the banner of the first was cut into in .barracks, the principal guard is the
fewer vanes than tha of the second. barrack-; ard ; the otiic r being respon
B\NNERET, Knights-bannerets, ac sible for the regular ty of the me in bar
cording to the English acceptation of the racks, and for all prisoners dulv commit
term, are pe sons who for any particular ted to his charge while mi that dutv.
act of valor were formerly knighted en Barrack Master General, a staff of
the field of battle ficer at the head of thr barrack depart
BANQUET. SeeBRiDCEs. ment ; he has a number of barrack -mas

BANQUETTE. See Fortifica ters and deputies under him, who arc
tion. stationed at the difflient barracks; he
BAR, a long piece of wood or iron. has an office and clerks for the dispatch
Bars have various denominations in the of business; to this office all reports, Sec.
construction of artillery carriages, as respecting the barrack department are
sweep and cross bars for tumbrils : fore, made. This is a British sinecure ffia .

hi: d and under cross bars, for powder Barrack-O^cc- the office at which
carts ; shaft bars for waggons, and dowel all business relating to the Barrack de
bars used in mortar beds. partment is transacted.
BArt Shot, two half bullets joined to BARRELS, in military aft irs, are of
gether by an union bar, forming a kind of various kinds.
double headed shot. Fire-iAXRZLS are of different sorts:
BARB, the reflected points of the head some are mounted on wheels, filled w th

of an arrow. The armor for horses was composition and intermixed with loaded
so called. See C <v*ar ison. grenades, and the outside full of sharp
BARBACAN, or Barbican, a spikes : some are placed under ground,
watch-tower, for the ourpose of descrying which have the effect of small mmes :
an enemy at a ^reat distance : it also im others are used to roll down a br.-ach, to
plies an outer defence, or sort of ancient prevent the enemy's entrance. Compo

fortification to a city or castle, used espe sition, corned powder 301b. Swedish
cially as a fence to the city or wads ; also \ pitch 12, saltpetre 6, and tadow 3 Not
an made in the walls of a fortress ; used now.
aperture
to fire through upon the enemy.
Itisj Thundering-BARRi.Ls are for the same
sometimes used to denote a fort at thei purpose , filled with various kinds of
entrance or" a bridge, or the outlet of a! combustibles, intermixed wirh small
citv, having a double wall with towers. shells, grenades, and other fire-works.
|
BARBETS were peasants of Piedmont, j Not used now.
who abandoned their dwedings when an Fow^-Barrels are about 16 inches
j!
enemy has taken possession of them. \ diameter, and 30 or 32 inches long, hold
They formed into bodies and defended the ing 100 pounds of
powder.
Barrels for powder
Their dimen*
Alps.
Bahiit- Battery, in gunnery, is when sions.
the brcst-work of a battery is only so
high, that the guns may fire over it with t "

out being obliged to make embrasures : in M Q\0 &>


such cases, it is said the guns fire en bar s fc
bette. See Battery. &$ "

BARDEES d'eau, Fr. a measure sed

in the making of saltpetre, containing 0 1


w CI
"i

C*J
three half- hogsheads of water, which are ^-s 5 #

ino'f1 O
tubs for the purpose of refin
poured into
Four half- hogsheads are some
5
ing it. 5 s
r-i r-t M M

times thrown in.


BARILLER, Fr. an officer employed -<o -
CO to
among thegallies,whose chief duty was to 1! -C -O
Q\ CO "4 "O
superintend the distribution of bread and 3

> i:
V

water.
Bar acks, are places 3Q *
BARRACKS, or
erected for both officers and men to lod^e U s
in ; they are built different ways, accord eu.2f-~
ing to their different situations. When .
O
*-.n-a
3 C

there is sufficient room to make a large


Kd
square, surround d with buildings, they
the soldiers
are
very conve .ient, because j: 0
are easily contained in their quarters ; and
the rooms being contiguous, orders are v 3
executed with privacy and expedition ; and Qd !

the soldiers have no connection but with


those who instruct them ip their duty.
34 B A S BAT

The whole barrels are made to contain base line, or appui which each successive
too
pounds, and the half barrels 50 division 1 rolongs.
Base- ring. See Cannon.
pounds of powder; but of late only 90
pounds have been put into the barrels, BASILISK., an ancient name given
and 45 into the ha -f barrels; which, by to a 43 pounder. See Cannon.
leaving me powder room to be shifted, BASIS, the same as Base
preserves it the better. BASKET-//'//, the hilt of a sword,
Budge Barrels, hold from 40 to 60 somade as to contain, and guard the
whole i and.
pounds of powder; at one end is fixed a
leather bag with brass na;ls : they arc- IJASK.ETS, in military affairs, are
used in actual service op, the batteries, smiple baskets, frequent 'y used in s- ges.
to keep the ;:owder from firing by -ccu They are filitd with eartb, and placid on
dent, for loadinc the gnus and mortars. the parapet of th trend., or any other
Thev are gei.eraliy about a loot
Budge-Barrels contain 38 lbs., part
hooped and a naif in diamt ter at the top, and
Weight of barrel

copier
10 lbs. eight inches at the bottom, and a foot
Weight of barrel hazle hooped 61bs.
and a half in height ; so th ', bein.' plac
Length of barrel hazle hooped io

ed on th-. parapet, a kind of embrasure
inches is formed at the bottom, throu I: which
Diameter of barrel hazle hooped 1 the soldiers fire, without beinv -xposed
foot 1 inch. to the shot of the enemy. Sec Gabion.
BARRICADE. To barricade is to Baskets. Ballast, bushel weight

fortify w til trees, or branches of trees, 5 lbs.


cut down for that puruosc, the brushy Diameter, 1 foot 6 inches length i

ends towards the enemy. Ca-ts, wag toot.


gons, Sec. are sometimes made us. of for BAST11.IE, Fr. any place fortified
the s.sruo pur, iose, viz. to keep back both with towers.
hoi se and root for some time. Abatis. Bastillf, a state prison which stood
BARRIER, in a gen; ral sense means neaTemple in Paris, aid was de-
th.
any fortification, or strong pLure on the ifservecily destroyed by the inhabitants of
frontiers of a country. It is likewise a .! that capital on the 14th of July, 1789.
kir.d of fence composed of stakes, anil ,1 BASTINADO, a punishment among
transmits, as ovcrthwart rafters, ere.-wd || the Turkish soldiers, which s performed
to defend the rnrrince of a passage, re by beating tLcm with a cane or Hat of a
trenchment, or the Ike. In the middle sword on the soles of their feet.
of tli e barrier is a moveable bar of wood, BASTION. See Fortification.
which is opened and shut at pleasure. It BASS TL-Ehc einte. See \ a vssz-Braye..
also implies a gate made of wooden bars, BASSINET, Fr. the pan of a mus
about 5 feet long, perpendicular to the quet.
horizon, and kept together by two long BASSON or BASSOON, a wind in-
bars going across, and another cross. ng blown with a reed, performing
stiuinent

diagonally: i?arr.ers are used to stop the the base to alt martial music, one or two
cut made through the esplanade before of which are attached to each regimental
the gate of a town. band.
I! iRRif.a-7w, in military history, BAT de Mulet, a pack-saddle used
wcic Met in, Dendcpnond, Ypres, Tour- on service when mules are
cmplojed to
nay, fvlons, Namur, and lUacstricht. carry stores, &c.
Th.se towns were formerly garrisoned BATAGE. Fr. the time employed in
halt by trench or Imperial, and half by reducing gun- powder to its proper con
Du h troops. sistency. The French usually consumed
BARM, or Berm. SeeBEKM. 24 hours n pounding the materials to
BASCULE, Fr. a counteipoise which makt g.ocd gun-pow;:er; supposin. the
serves to hi'r up the draw bridge of a mortar to contain 16 pound* of con po
town. Likewise a term used in fortifi sition, it would require the application
cation- to express a door that shuts and of the pestle 3500 fines each hour, i he

opens like a trap door. j| labour required in this process is lea in


'BASE, or Basis, in fortification, the j summer than in
winter, becaus the water
exterior part or side of a polygon, or that 1 is setter.

:.ii::igin.iry line which is drawn from the | BATAILLE, Fr. a battle.


rianked.in.de of a bastion to the angle op Cheval i/cBAtA'ai, Fr a w.;r horse,
i|
posite to it.
j] or charter. This expn ssion is used rijju-
Base signifies aLo the level line on
which any work stands that is even with ji somce.
ijrati'cly as a sheet anchor or last re-
tae ground, or other work on which it is
BATAILLER, Fr. to strug Je hard.
erected. Hence the base 01 a parapet is BATARDE, French 8 pounders were
the ram put. | so called.
Bass, an ancient ur.ru for the smallest BATARDE AU, in fortification, is. a
( anuoi. Se Cannon.'

massive perpendicular pile of ma or.ry,


Baie-//w, the line on which troops in w! ose length is equal 'o the breadth of
column move, tlu first division that the ditcii, inundati 01 any part of a
j.
Kiarches into the alignement forms the n fortification where the water cannot be

,
BAT BAT 35

in your
kept in without the raising of these sorts | by fits and starts, to be undecided
of works, which are described either on plans otatti.ck, &c.
the capitals prolonged of the bastions or BATOON, a truncheon, or marshals
half-moons, or upon their faces. In statL
thickness it is from 15 to 1 8 feet, that it BATTAILOUS, a warlike or military
may be able to withstand the violence of appearance.
the enemy's batteries. Its height de- ATT A L I A, J ohnson adopts the word
pends upon the depth of the ditch, and from Battagha, Ital. and calls it the main
its
upon the height of the water that is ne body of an armv, distinguished f-om
cessary to be kept up for an inundation ; wings. 1 1 also implies an army or consi-
but the top of the building must always drawn up in
ays derable detachm nt of troops
be under tlie cover of the parapet of the ,; order of battle, or in any other proper form
covert wav, so as not to be See Battle.
;j
exposed to to attack the enemy. undetermined
the enemv's view. In the middle of its j BATTALION, an body
length is raised a massive cylindrical tur- il ot infantry in rejard to number, generally
the United
ret,
6 feet.
whose height exceeds the batardeau | from 500 to 1000 men. In
1 States the usage is various, as it is in all
BATESME du Tropique, Fr. achris- I other countries. The United States re-
teoin^ under the line. This is a ridicu- gnnent of artillery consists of 10 tom-
Ij
lotis ceremony which every person .& ob- panies, which form five battalions ; the
liged to go through th' first time he cros- other legimcnts infantry and artillery, con-
ses the Line on his passage to the East- I sist of ten companies of each, so that
'

Indies. Different methods of performing each regiment must form two battalions
it are observed by different nations. Eng- L ot five companies each. The militia re-
lishmen frequently buy themselves off. giments in most of the states consist of
j!
Amon^ the trench, the individual who ij
1000 men,
composing two batrali-ns of
was to be
baptized or christened, swore t 500 men each,
being perhaps the most
that he would in .ividually assist in fore- organization for a battalion.
jj perfect
iig every person hereafter, who should | The French call their military corps
be similarly situated, to go through the I! which answer to our regiments, demi bri-
some cer-mony. A barbarous usage. gades, these usually consist ot three bat.
ij
BAT -Horses, P are saggage horses he-
j
talions ot ireo men each; when two
BAW-Honcs, $ longing to the officers ll of the battalions of a demi brigade are in
actual
When on duty. j; the field the other is in quarters or re-
B.Kr-Men, were originally servants j, cruiting and disciplining the young sol-
B\w. Men, } hired in war time, to ; diers, who are thus drafted from their
take care of the horses belonging to the ij regimental depots.
train of artillery, bakery, bai^age, &c. !. On the Biitish establishment the corn-
Men who are excused regimental duty, for |! pan-esoi grenadiers and light infantry-men
the pf-citic purpose of attending to the j having been detached from their several
horses belonging to their officers, are call- corps and formed into separate battalions ;
ed bat-m-.-n. )|
the British guards at present consist of 9
ij
Knights of the BATH, an English mili- battalions. The different companies are
tary order of uncertain original. After i: Hkewi. ceo:.
siderably augmented; sorhat it
long decay, this order w_3 revived under 1 is impossible to affix any specific stand-
George I.
by a creation of a considerable lard to their complement of men. The
number of knights. They wear a red ri I English royal regiment of artillery consists
band, and thei motto is, 77/ / juncta in uno, ! of 4 battalions. Som-. tunes regiments
alluding to the three cardinal virtues which I consist each of 1 battalion only ; but if
every knight ought possess
to ! j more numerous, are divided into several
BATON, Fr. j. staff. See Staff. baaalions, according to their stren.-th ; so
B\TOru citux bouts, Fr. a quarter-staff. that every one may come within the num
Baton de commandement, Fr. an instru bers mentioned. A bat.ahon in one of the
ment of particular distinction which was
English matching regiments consists of
formerly given to generals m the French 1000, and sometiincsof 1200 men, officers
army. Henry III. oefore his access.on a;;d son-commissioned included. When
to the throne was made generalissimo of there are companies of several regiments
all the armies belonging to his brother in a garnson to form a battalion, those of
Charles the 1 X and publicly received the
.
the eldest regiment post themselves on
Baton, as a mark of high command. the right, those of the second on the left,
Baton ferrat tt non ferrat, Fr. all soits and so on until the youngest fall into the
of weapons. centre. The officers take their posts be
Obtenir son object par le tour du Baton, fore their companies, from the right imd
Fr. to accomplish one's ends by equivocal left, according to seniority Each batta
means. lion i divided into 4 divisions, and each di
Etre bien assure de son Baton, Fr. to be vision i;ito two sub-divisions, which arc
morally certam of a thing. again divided into sections. The compa
Etre reduit au Baton blanc, to be re nies of grenadiers being
unequal in all bat
duced to your last stake. talions, their post must be regulated by
A Batons rompus, Fr. to do any thing the commanding officer. See Regiment.
Triangular B a t t a j. 1 o n , i n ancient m i
-
36 BAT BAT

litarv history, a body of troops ranged in feet distance from each other ; conse
the farm of a the merlons (or that part of solid
triangle, in which tne ranks quently
exceed each othc r by an earth between the embrasures) a>e 16 feet
equal numr.er ot
f the first rank consists of one man The genouillierr
m n :
within, and 7 without.
onl\ , and the dilterence between the ranks (or part of the parapet which covers the
is omy one, then its form is that of an carriage of the gun) aie generally made 2$
equilateral triangle; and when the differ feet high from the platform to the open-
ence between the ranks is more than oi.e, in. of tlie embrasures; though this height
its fom may then be an isoscele ; bavin,. ought to be regulated according to the
semi -diameter of the wheels of the car
two sides
eq al, or scalene triangle. This
metho.i is now laid aside. riage, or the calibre of the gun. The
BATTER, a cannonade of heavy ord platforms are a kind of wooden floors,
nance, from the ist or 2d parallel of en- nLde to prevent the cannon from s.nking
into the ground, and to rentier the
trenenment, against any fortress or works. working
To Batter /* breach, implies a heavy of the guns more easy ; and are, strictly
caneo..ade of many pieces directed to one speaking, a part of the barter .
They are
part of the revatement from the third pa composed of 5 sleepers, or joists of wood,
rallel. laid lengthways, the whole length of the
BATTERING, in military affairs, im intended platform ; and to keep them
plies the firing with heavy artillery on firm in their places, stakes must be driven
some fortification or
strong post possessed into the ground on each side : these sleep

b) an enemy, in order -o cumolish the ers are then cove.ed with sound thick
works. planks, laid parallel to the parapet ; and
Batter i ng.-/>/-, are la'ge pieces of at the lower end of the pla'form, next to
cannon, used in battering a fortified town the parapet, a piece ot timber 6 inches
or
post square, called a hurter, is placed, to pre
It is jud.ed by all nat ons, that no less vent the wheels from
damaging the para*
than 24 or 18 plunders are proper for cliat pet. Platforms are generally made if
use former.) m en W^er cal bres were feet long, 15 feet broad behind, and 9 be
useu, but. as tiiey were so long and heavy, fore, with a slope of aoout 9 or 10 inches,
and very troublesome to transportand ma- to prevent the .uns from recoiling too
iiat.c, weie ior a long time rejected, till much, and tor bringing them more easily
ado -ted among the French,' who during foi ward when loaded The dimensions of
the present war have brought 36 and 42 the platf rms, sleepers, planks, hurters,
pouudeisinto tne held. and nails, ought to be regulated according
Battering-7 rain, a train of artillery to the nature of the
pieces that are to be
used solely for besieging a strong place, mounted.
inclusive ot mortars and howitzers: all The powder magazines to serve the
heavy 24, 18, and 12 pounders, come under batteries ught to be at a convenient dis
tins denomination; as likewise the 13, 10, tance torn the same, ao also from each
ai\i 8 inch mortars and howitzers. other ; the large one, at least 55 feet in
Lettering Ram. See the article the rear of tne battery , and the small ones
Ram. about 25. Sometimes the iage magazines
BAT i E Rl E ae Tambour, a French beat are made cithr to the
right or left of the
of 1 1 it drum similar to the
general in the battery, moriLr to deceive the
Br.tisli enemy f
twee
they are generally bunt 5 feet under
Batter.k en ro'uage, Fr. is used to ground; the sides and roof must be" well
dismount tic <;n. my's cannon. secured with boards, and coverei/ with
Ba VTtR it pa-. tui/:ait.ues, Fr. tiled S-
eaith, clay, or something of a similar
tharge of sever..! p cces of ordnance toge substance, to prevent the powder trom
ther, uirecttu at one
object or
place. being fired : they are guarded by centinels.
LATTLRY, in
nuhtar) ai.a.rs, im The balls are piled in readiness beside the
plies .;
y where ca... on or iuoru>r.>
pi..ce merlu s, between the embrasures.
are ;..ou;.t d, either to attack the forces The officers of tne artdler ought al
ot,thcei emy, or to batter a lep.ificatien : ways to construct their own batteries and
henc. ba:teiies i.ave varices name.-, a.ree
platforms, and not the engineers, as is I
abiy to ihe purposes tney a ede.ign uior. practised in the English sen ice ; tor cer- \
G.i/.-BATTfcR y, is a deieiice macie of
tainly none can e so
hood judges of those
earin laced with >.reeii sous o' fascines, 1 hm, s as the artillery omccrs, whose
a. .-.-.: ...i-.e* gabions tilled
inaUeoi 1U1 dany practice it is ;
earih: it Olibistjut a.6reast-work parapet,
consequently they
.
a.e the propcrest people to direct the situ
Ot e;-aulemtnt, 01 18 or 20 le. t thick at io; , ation and to superintend the
andof -2 or 24 at the foui. nation ; ot a
making of
batteries on all itcisions.
ditcli 12 feet broad at tne bottom, and i3 Aiortur- Battery. This kind of bat
to,), and 7
at ti.e ieet deep. Tiiey must tel
y cullers from a gun-battery, o::iy in
be 7^ ieet iiigti. Til- embrasure^ 2
aic
Having no embrasures. It consists ofa
feet wick witJim, and 9 without, slo, ing parapet of 18 or 20 teet thick, 7 J high in
a ht'.ie doWi.ward , 10
uej-re-s the meial trout, and 6 in the rear; ot a bean 2 or
on occasion 1 he d thee ntre
stance lie..:.,
3 feet broad, according to the quality of
of one emorasure to that ol tlie otner is he earth ; 01 a ditcli 24 .eci broau at the
18 ieet ; that is, the guns are placed at 18 top, and ao at the bottom. The beds
BAT 37
BAT

at an angle ot about
shot strike the object
must be 9 feet long, 6 broad, 8 from each which the ball glances from
and 5 feet from the parapet: the 200, alter
othe. ,
ihe gun plat he object, and recoils to some adjacent
ar not to be sloping bke
Tie m- parts.
form-;, but exactly horizontal. ?
sides of such batteries are sometim s Joint Batteries, when seve_
which Camarade Batteries, !>
sunk 2 or 3 feet into the ground, by
hose ot r.d gui.s fire on the same object at the
the .re much sbon r made than When 10 guns are fired at
ma.azinesand same time.
oannm. The powder piles
their effect will be much greater
of shelsare placed as is mentioned in the once,
than when fired separately.
article Gun-Battery. !
those whose
called by its in- Sunk Batteries are
Ricocbet-B a~te*.y, so ,
sunk beneath the level ot
venror M. Va- ban, and
first used at the 1 platforms are
in It is a method of the field ; the ground serving tor the pa
sie^-e of Aeth 1607. the embrasures are
ot ,ow- rapet ; and in it
firing wirh a very small quantity
,

made. This often happens in mortar,


der, and a little elevation ot the g-ni,
so
but seldom in gun-batteries. Battery
and then
as j 1st to fire over tiie larapet ,
ram sometimes signifies the guns themselves
the shot w II roll along tiie opposite
part, dismounting the cannon,
and driv placed in a battery.
the troops In a siege Fascine Batteries, ? are batteries
ing or destroying Gabion Batteries, ^
about 300 ieet !
they are gener Uy placed at lar to mane 01 those machines, where sods are
before the first tarall 1, perpendic loose or sandy.
scarce, and the earth very
the faces produced, which they art to en
not confined For a particular detail of all kinds of bat
filade. Ricochet practice is
No. I.
and how teries, see Toussard's Artillerist,
to cannon alone ; small mortars
c. 1.
itzers may effectually be used t<>r the same Dimensions of Batteries.
of singular use in ac Battery.

purpose. Tney are 1. Gun Batteries.


Gun Batteries

tion to enfilade an eeemy's ranks; tor


are usually 18 feet per un. Their prin-
when the men perceive the shells rolling
and bouncing about with
their fuzes cipal dimensions are as follow :
Di ch Breadth 12 feet. - -

burning; ex,>ectin>c them to burst every 8


moment, the bravest among
them will Depth - - -

Note. Thes-. dimensions give for a bat


hardlv have courage to -ait their ap feet of earth ;
and face the havoc ot their ex tery of two guns 3456 cubic
proach and must be variejt according to the quan
plosion. for the epaulment.
Horizontal Batteries are such as tity required
kpauicment Breadtr. at bottom 23 feet.
have only a parapefand ditch ; the plat at 18
form being only the surface of the hori top
Height within 7
zon made level. 6 ft. 4 in;:

wi hout
Breach Sunk Batteries are sucn
or
with a de Slope, inter or 2-7 of h'gt.
as are sunk upon the glacis, 1 2 of h'gt.
111 the
exerior
sign to make an accessible breach and Note. The above breadths at top and
feces or saliant angles of the bastion
bottom are for the worst soil; good earth
ravelin-
Batteries such as will not require a base of more tnae 20
Cross are piay
ob- feet wide, which will reduce the breadth
athwart each other against the same
ot these
the poiht of at top to 15 feet; an epaulement
lect, forming angle
an at
fol dimensions for two guns wili require
ontact ; whence greater destruction
about 4200 cubic feet of earth, and de
lows, because what one shot shakes, the
other aeats down. ducting 300 cubic feet for each ein bra zure,
leaves 3600 required for the epaulement.
Oblique Batteries or Batteries
en

In confined situations the breadth of the


Echarpe, are those whicli pLy on any
work obliquely, making an obtuse angle epaulement may be only 12 feet.
Embrazures Distance between ? xg feet
with the line 'of range, after striking the

their cent rs $
object.
Enfilading Batteries are those that Openings, interior 20 inc.
or scour the whole length it a
exterior 9 feet
sweep
the face or flank of any Height of the sole above the plat
strait line, or
'

32in<j-
-

form
work.
Note. Where the epauleme..t is made
Sweeping Batteries. See Enfiiading-

of a reduced breadth, the openings of the


Battekhs
Redan Batteries are such as flank embrazures are made with the usual

each other at the saliant and rentrant an breadth within, but the exterior op- nings
proporronably less. The embrazureseven
are
gles fa fortification. sometimes only 12 feet asunder, or
Dhect Batteries are those -situated
inten ed to be bat less when the ground is very
confined.
opposite to the place
Tne superior slope 01 th epaulement need
tered, sothatt..e bdls strike the woiks where it is not to be de
be very little,
neaily at rielit angles
Reverse Batter 12s are those whicn fended small arms. The slope of the
by
nthe rear of the troops appointee s le ol th emDra.',urcs must depend upon
play of the object to be fired at.
10 defend the place. tne height
B.VfTERtE; 8TC SUCJ1 Whose The P"n is usvsllv made 5 test wide,
ty?,-ri%
38 BAT BAT

and where the soil is loose, this breadth is


ry to ricochet with effect, should strike
increased to 4 feet. '
the water at an angle of about 4 or 5 de-
2. Howitzer Batter i es. Thedimen-

; er. es ?t the distance of 200 yards There-
sions of howitzer batteries are the same as I fore the distance of the object mi 1 si be the
those for guns, except that the interior
| radius, and the height of the battery the
openings of the embrazures are 2 feet 6 : tam;ent to this
angle of 4 or 50; which will
inches, and the soles of the embrazures be, at the above distance o 200 yards,
have a slope inwards of about 10 degrees. about 14 yards. At this height, hs say , a
1

3. Monar Batter >es Are also made



batr-ry may ricochet vessels in perfect
of the same dimensions as gun batteries, security ;_ for their ric chet bein;; only
'
but an exact adherence to those dimen from a hcieht of 4 or 5 yards, can have na
sions is not so necessary. They have no ! effect a^amst the battery. Th round -

embrazures. The mortars are commonly i in front of a batt *ry should be cut in
placed 15 feet fr-<m cadi other, andabut j steps, me more effectually to destn y 'he
12 feet from
thc-epauk-m.nt. I ricoci et of the e:my. In case a ship
Note.

Though it has b.en eeneraLy lean approach the battel v so as to fire


customary to fix mortars at 450, and to i musquetry from her to ;s, a few li ht
place them at the dist nee of 12 fe t from | pieces placed higher up on the bank, will
the epaulement, yet many ad- antages soon dislodge the men from that
position,
would often arise fr m firing them ^r low I by a f. w discharges of case s.'.ft. I' is
er angles, and which : also
m.-y be done by re easy to keep vessels at a distance by
moving them to a reater distance from | carcasses, or other fire balls, which they
the epauleiiient, but where they would I are always in dread of.
be in equal security. If the mortars | D rti'bie estirmtes., that a battery of
were placed at the undermentioned dis 4 or 5 guns, well posted, will be a match
tances from the epaulement, they mi^ht be for a first rate man of war.
fired at the angles correspondine, : To estimate the materials for a bat,
At 1 3 feet distance for firing at 30 degrees. tery.
21 - - - 20 Fascines of q feet long are the most
30 - - -
.15 convenient for forming a battery, because
40 - - - 10 they are easily carried, and they answer
ver anepaulment of 8 feet hish. to most parts of the
battery w thout cut
A French author asserts, that all rico ting. The embrazures are however bet
chetbatteries, whether for howitzers or ter lined with fascines of 18 feet The
gurs, might be made after ihis principle, following will be nearly the number re
without tie inconvenience of emnrazures; quired for a fascine batter) of two ;.,uns
and the superior slope of the epaulement or howitzes :

being inwards instead of outwards, would 90 fascines of 9 feet long.


greatly facilitate this mode of firing. 20 fascines of 18 feet for the embnv-
If the situation will admit of the bat zuies.

tery being sunk, even as low as the soles This number will face the outside as
of the embrazures, a great deal of labour well as the inside of the
epaulementj >

may be saved. Inbattries without em which if the earth be stiff, wil' not al
brazures, this method may almost al ways be necessary ; at least not higher
ways be adopted ; and it becomes in some 1 than the soles of the embrazures on the
situations absolutely necessary in rder to
outside. This will require five of 9 feet
obtain earth for the epaulement ; for when foi each merlon less than the above.
a battery is to be formed on the crest of A mortar battery will not
require any
the glacis, or on the edge of the counter long fascines for the lining of the embra
scarp of the ditch, there can be no exca zures. The simplest method of ascer
vation but in the rear of the battery. taining the number of fascines for a mor
4. Batteries on a coast generally
tar ba'. tery, or for any other
plain breast
consist of only an epaulement, without work, is to aivide the length of work to
much attention being paid to the ditch ; be fascined m feet, by the length of each
they are, however, sometimes made with fascine in fiet, for the number
required
embrazures, like gun battery ;
a common for one layer, which being
multiplied bv
but the guns more generally mounted
are the number of layers
required, will of
en traversing platforms, and fire over the course give the number of rascines for fac

epaulement. When this is the case, the ing the whole surface. If a battery be so
can seldom be placed nearer than 3$ shoukkr
guns exposed as to require a to cover
fathoms from each other. The gene it in flank, ab. ut 50 fascines of 9 feet
rality of military writers prefer low situ each will be required for each shoulder.
ations for coast batteries ; but M. Gribau- Each fascine of 18 feet will
require /
vale lays down some rules for the heights pickets.
of coast batteries, which place them in Each fascine of 9 feet will
require 4
such security, as to ena. la them to pro pickets.
duce their greatest effect. He says the 12 workmen of the line, and 8 of the
height of a battery of this kind, above the artillery, are
generally allotted to each
level of the sea, must depend upon the gun.
distance of the principal objects it has to If to the above
proportion of materials,
protect orannoy. Tlie shot from a batte J Sec. for a battery of two guns, there be
BAT BAT 39

added for e-.ch additional gun. 30 fascines merly it was to raise the batteries. This
of 9 feet, and 10 of 18 feet, with 12 work officer is now out of use.
men, the qua tity may easily be fouad BATTEURS d'Estrade. See Scouts.
for 1 battery of a -.y number of pieces. BATTLE, mplies an action, where
The workmen are generally thus dis the forces of two armies are en^a^ed;
posed; one half the men of the line in and is of two kinds, general and particular,
the ditch at 3 feet asunder, who throw general where the whole army is engaged,
the earth upon the h .mi one fourrh um. and pa ticular wlv re only a pa-t is in ac
on the berm at 6 feet asunder, to throw tion ; but as they only differ in numbers,
the earth upon the e|>au'ement, and the the methods are many alike.
other quarter on the epaulement, to le^el Th re is no action in war mor. brilliant
the earth, and beat it down The artil than that o: pitched battles. Their suc
lery men carry on the fascine work, and cess sometiT.es decides the fate of nations.
level the interior for thepUtfonns. This It 's by this action a general acquires re
number of workmen may complete a bat.
putation. It is in battle that his valour,
tery in 36 hou-s, allowing 216 cubic f-.-et his force of genius, and his prudence, ap
to be d'j and t!i own
up, by each man in pear in their full extent ; and wher. espe
the ditch i T.\ nours. cially he has occasion for that firmness of
Tools for the construction of the bat mind, without which the most able gene
tery. ral wdl hardly succeed
Intrenching i.J tims the number of

Battles have ever been the last resource
workmen .--quied ; half to be pick axes, of good generals Astuation where chance
and half siiov Is or spades, according to and accident often baffle and overcome
the sod the most pridentiri and most able ar
Matlets 3 per Elin. rangements, and where superiority in
Ea>th Rammers 3 per gun.

numbers by no means ensures success, is
Crosscut Saws 1 to every two guns.

s..ch as is never entered into witnout a
Axes or Hatchets 2 per gun.

clear necessity for so doing The fighting
This estimate of tools and workmen, a battle only because the
enemy is near,
does not inclu/e what may be req rired for or fr m having no other formed
plan of
making up rhe fascines, or ;reparing the offence, is not the way of making war.
other materals, but supposes them ready Darius lost his v.rown and life by it : Ha
pre ared. For these articles, s.e the rold, of England, did the same; and
words Fascine, Gabion, Platform, Sec. and Francis 1 at Pavia, lost the battle and
for rhe construct on of field magazines his liberty. King John, of France, fought
for batteries, see the word Magazine. th battle of Poictiers, tnough ruin at
Ncte. The following estimate of the tended his enemy if he had not fought.
quantity of arth v>'hich may be removed The king of Prussia los his country, and
by acertain number of workmen in a given the reputation which Prussia acquired
time, may serve to give some idea of the from Frederick II. by the battle of Jena.
time requir d to raise any kind of works A skilful general will give b^tle when
500 common wheel barrows will contain his army's situation cannot be worse, if
2 cubic toises of earth, and may be wheel defeated, than if it does not fight at all ;
ed by one man, in summer, to the dist and when the advantage may be great,
ance of 20 yards up a ramp, and 30 on a and the loss little. Such was the duke
horizontal plain, in one day. In doing of Cumberland's at Ha^tenbeck, i.i 1757,
which he will pass over, going and re and prince Ferdinand's at Vellin&hausen,
turning, about 4 leagues in the first case, in 1761. The reasons and situations for
and 6 in the last. Most men, howevc, giving battle are so numerous, that to
will not wheel more than i toise per day. treat of them all would fill a large vo
Four men will remove the same quantity lume ; the following are a f-w exigencies
to four times the distance. of state they require an army to at'ack
In a soil easy to be dug, one man can the enemy at all events. Such we e the
fill the 500 barrows in a day ; but if the causes of the battle of" Blenheim, in
1704,
ground be hard, the number of fillers of Zorndorlf, in 1758, of Cunnersdortf,
must be augmented, so as to keep pace in 1759, and of Rosbach, in 1757, of
with the wheel barrow man. Austerlitz, in 1805. An army isaiso ob
Battehv-PWj are those planks or liged to engage when shut up in a post.
boards used in maki. g platforms. An army may give battle to effect its
Batter y-Boxcs are square chcsis or junction with another armv , &c.
boxes, filled with earth or dung ; used in The preparations for battle admit of
inak.ng batteries, where gabions and earth infinite variety. By a knowlege of the
are not to be had. detail of battles, the precept will ac
Tiiey must not be too
larg , but of a size that is governable. company the example. The main gene
Batter Y-Ar.../f are wooden pins made ral preparations arc, to profit by any ad
of the toughest wood, with which the vantage of grund ; that the tactical form
planks that cover the platforms are nail of the army be in some measure adapted
ed. Iron nails might strike fire against fo it ; and that s ich form be, if
possible,
the iron, work of the wheels, in recoiling, a form
tactically better than the enemy's ;
Sec. and be dangerous. and, in forming the army, to have a most
J3A.TTERY-i|&/r<r, whose duty for carcfuj attention to multiply resources, ib
40 BAT BAT

that the fate of the army may not lung on a. c.


one or two efforts; to give any particular 1225. The Theban war of the Seven He*
part of the army, whose qua) ty is supe- roes against Eieocles
rior to such part in the nemy' army, a >
j
'
1 184. Troy t-.ken after ten years sieve.

posit on that ensures action ; and finally, j 1048. Je-usalem taken by David from
to have a rear by nature, or if p ssible, ; the Jebus tes.
the Sa-
by art, capable of checking the enemy in i
750. War of the Romans aeainst
case of disaster. bines
The disposit ons of battles admit like-
J| The first Messinian war begins and
743.
wise of an infinite varety of cases; for continues 19 y ars, to the taking
ever the difference of
ground which hap of Ithome,
pens at almost every step, giv-s occasion 721. Samaria taken.
to change the disposition or plan; and a 685. The second Messinian war begins,
gen. ral's experience will teach him to continues 14 years to the taking
profit by this, and take the advantage the of Ira, after 11 years siege.
ground offers him. It is an instant, a 624 Scythians make war in Asia Mi
foup d'ceil which decides this : for it is to nor.
be feared the enemy may tleprve you of 612. Nineveh destroyed by the Mc-des.
those advantages or turn them to his own 596. The warof the Persians against the
profit ; and for that reason this admits of Scythians, who are expelled by
no precise rule, the whole depending on
Cyaxerts.
the time and the occasion. 587. Jerusalem taken by Nebuchadnez
With regard to battles, there are three zar after a srge of 18 months.

things to be considered ; what precedes, 548, War ot Cyrus acainst C rosso >.
what accompanies, and what follows the 509. Civil war' at Rome, the TarquirtS
action. As to what precedes the action, expelled, monarchy aboished,
you should unite all your force, examine and consuls chosen.
the advantage of the ground, the vv.nd, 504, The Athenians take and burn Sar-
and the sun, (things not to be neglected) dis,
and chuse, if possible, a field of battle 490. Battle of Marathon.
proportioned to the number of your 480. Thermopylae.
troops. Salamis.
You must post the different kinds of Platea day Persians defea>
) Same
4/9*
troops advantageously for each : they Mycale^ ted at both places.
must be so disposed as to be able to le- 47a. Cyprus, Persians defeated.
turn often to the charge ; for he who can j Eurymedon Persians riefaed.
charge often with fresh troops, is com- Ij 465. Third Messinian war begins, con
monly victorious. Your wings must be j; tinues ten years.
covered so as not to be surrounded, and [ 448. First sacred war concerning the
you must observe, that your troops can i temple of Apollo at Delphi.
assist each other without any confusion, .

439. War between Corinth and Corcyra.


the intervals being proportioned to the 431. The Peloponnesian war begins on
battalions and squadrons. 7th of May, lasts 27 years.
the
Great care must be taken about the re 409. Carthage makes war on Sicily.
gulation of the artillery, which should be 405. Battle of Egospotamos the usur

disposed so as to be able to act in every pation of Dyonisius.


place to the greatest advantage ; for no 404. Lysander takes Athensend of the
thing is more certain than that, if the ar P loponnesian war 30 tyrants

tillery be well commanded, properly dis reign.


tributed, and manfully served, it will 401. Battle of
Cunaxa the younger

greatly comnbute to gaining the battle; Cyrus killed the glorious re


being looked upon as the general instru treat of the 10,000, and expul
ment of the army, and the most essential sion of the 30 tyrants.
part of military force. The artillery must 396. Agesilaus carries the war into Per
be well supplied with ammunition, and j sia.
each soldier have a sufficient number of Athens, Co
395. The Corinthian war

cartridges. The baggage, provisions, and : rinth, Thebes, Argos, against


treasure of the army, should, on the day Lacedaemcn.
|
of battle, be sent to a place of safety. 394. Battle of Cnidus Lacedaemonians

In battle, where the attacks are, there under Pisander defeated by Co-
is r.i*o the principal defence If an army non.
attacks, it forms at pleasure; it makes A tew days after Agesilaus defeats
its points at will : if It defends, it w 11 be the allies at Choronca.
sometimes difficult to penetrate into the j 390. BattLe of Auia Rome taken by
designs of the enemy, but when once ,
the Gauls.
foui'd, succour succeeds to the discovery. ' 387. War against Cyprus ends in two

Groui.d and numbeis must ever Lad in years.


tiie arrangement of battles'; impression j 371. Leuctn, battle of

Epamincndas,
and resource wdl ever bid fairest for win- general of Thebes, defeats the
jfitiw, them. Lacedaemonians.
Th;most remarkable on record are
fi 363, Man tinea battle gained by Eganv"
nondas.
BAT BAT 41

B. C. A. D.
360. Methone, thefirst victory of Philip 405. Battle of Fesulx, Stilicho defeats
of Macedon over the Athenians. 200,000 Goths.
Second sacred war, on the temple 410. Rome taken and plundered by the
357- Goths
being attacked by the Phoceans,
ends in 9 years. 440. England ravaged by the Picts and
340. Battle of Agrigrntum Timoleon Scots.
defeats the Carthaginians. 455. Rome taken and plundered by the
338. Bittle of Cheronea. Vandals.
335- Thebes destroyed bv Alexander the 54-. Rome re-taken by the Goths,
Great, when he left only Pindar 553. Rome re-conquered by the Em
the poet's house standing. peror.
334- Battle of Granicus Alexander.

613. Jerusalem pillaged by the Persians,


Ismis. and 90,000 inhabitants killed.
333-
Arbella. 622. Carthage destroyed bv the Sara
331-
301. I pous Antigonus defea
cens.

ted. 637. Jerusalem taken by the Sa acens.


Tuscan war commenced. 640. Egypt conquered by the Saracens.
278. Battie at Delphi. Gauls under 787, Danes, their first descent upon En-
Brennuscut to nieces. gla d, at Portland.
264. F'rst Panic war la-ts 23 years 89$ The Danes under Rollo, make their
262. Sardis, Antiochus Soter defeated first descent an France.
there by Eumenes. 1016. Battle ot Ashdown, between Ca
Regulus defeared by Xanthippus nute and Edmund.
256.
234. Sardinian war continues 3 years. 1017. Danes under Canute conquer En
222 Battle of Sel'atia. gland.
218 Second Punic war begins, lasts 17 1041 De.nes expelled from En,, land.
1066. ngland invaded by the No. mans,
yea:s.
1066. Battle of Hastings, where Harold
217. Battle of Thrasymene.
216. Cannae. was slain, and William the Nor

208. Mantinea. man became kin.: of Ens!and.

22. Zama. ffeated. 1074. The last Danish invasion of En


197. Cynocephale Philip de-

gland, when they were bribed to


168. Pydna. This battle closed depart.
the Macedonian empire. 1095. First Crusade
Jerusalem taken
and re- taken.
149. Third Punic war.
j 46. Carthage desuo/ed by the Romans. 1 100. Jerusalem taken by Robert, duke
'

111. Jugurthir.e war begins, continues of Normandy.


5 years.
1 147. Second Crusade.,
187. Jerusalem finally conquered by Sa-
105. Battle on the Rhme, the Tuetonss 1

..efeat 80,000 Romans. ladin.


102. Tuetonej defeated by C. Marius at 1189. Third Crusade Siege of Acre.
Battle of Ascalon, in Palestine.
Aqua; Sextia. 1192.
Fjurth Crusade
91. Social war begins, continues three 1203.
years, finished by Sylla. 1204. Constantinople taken by the La
Mithridatic war begins, continues tins.
89.
2'> year-. 1205. Zenghis Khan, till his deathjin
Wars of Marius and Sylla, last six 1227, gains various battles^wi
years. Asia.
73- War of the Slaves under Spartacus, 1215. Piussa subdued by the Mercian
lasts two years, ended by Pom- Knights.
pey and Crassus. 1214. Battle of Bovines, 25 July.
England invaded by Julius Cjesar. 1217. Lincoln, 19 May.
3Battle of Pharsalia. 1218. The Fifth Crusade.
45- Munda. 1219. Prussia revolted to Poland.
43- Mutina. 1 261. recovered
Constantinople by the
42. Philippi. Death of Brutus. Greeks,
3. Actium. Death of the Re 1064. Battle of Lewis, 14 May.
public ; beginning of the 1265. Evesham, 4 Aug.
A. D. Empire. 1
314. Bannockburn, 25 June.
10. Varus the Roman general, defeated 1333. Halydown-Hill,i9Juiy.
in Germany. 1346. Cresy, 26 Aug.
70. Jerusalem destroyed by Titus, Au Battle of Durham, when David,
gust 31. king of Scots, was taken prison
73. Byzantium taken by the Romans. er, 17 Oct.
Au
196. Byzantium destroyed by Severus. 1347. Calais taken by the English,
209. The Goths conquered by Claudius, gust 4.
who massacres 300,000 of them. 1356. Battle of Poictiers, when the Fr,(
340. Battle of Aquileia, Copsta,ntine the king and his son were taken pri<
younger defeated arid killed by soners, 19 Sept*
Constans. F
42 B A T BAT

A. D. A. D.
J357- John, king of France, taken priso 1658. Dunkirk taken by the English,
ner by Edward the Black Prince, J une 24.
Liu-la-d, and ranso 1662. Battle of Ste.nkirk.
brought to
med for 3,000,000 crowns, but 1675. Providence, the town of, in Rhode
being unable to pay this sum, he Island, almost destroyed by In
returned to England, and died in dians.
1675. Medfield, town of, in Massachu-
prison 1364.
Tamer setts, about half-burnt by the
I37C T.mour (vulgarly called
lane) appears a warrior, and con Indians, Feb.
quers Asia, reigns 35
\eurs. 1676. Northampton, and seveial other
Battle ot Otterburn, between Hot towns in Massachusetts, burnt
1388.
spur and earl Doug. us, 31 July.
and
plundered by the Indians,
12 July. March.
1403. Battle of Shrewsbury, Battle
Ag'mcourt, 25 Oct. 1679. of" Bothwell- bridge, 22june.
1415-
Beauge, 3 April. 1686. Buda taken from the Turks by the
1421.
1423. Crevaur, June. Imperialists.
Krneuil, 27 Aug. 1690. Battle or Staffarda, Catemt de
14*4.
1429. Herriive.s, 12 Feb. feats the duke of Savoy.
Mahomed II. takes Constantino Port Royal, in Nova Scotia, taken
ple, and begins the Turkish Em by the Massachusetts forces.
Euro, c, which put an Battle of Boyne, Inland, 1 July.
pire m

end to empire.
the eastern Casco fort, New Hampshire, taken
Same uvr, the wars of the two by the French and Indians.
Roses i.i England commence. 1691. York-town, in the province of
*455- battle of St. Alban's,
2; May. Maine, burnt and plundered by
Blackheath, 23>Sept. the Indians, Jan. 25.
1459-
1460. Nonhampton, 10 July. Battle of Aughrim, Iieland, 22.!
Wakefield, 24 Dec. July.
1461. Tourton, 29 March. 1700. Port Royal, in Nova Scotia, reta
Hexham, 15 May. ken by the French.
1464.
1469. Banbury, 26 July. i73" Deerfield in Massachusetts, burnt,
Stamford, March. and the inhabitants carried off
1470-
1471- Bamet, 14 April. by the French and Indians, as
Tewkesbury, 4 May. prisoners, February .

14S5. Bosworth, 22 Aug. 1704. Battleoi Blenheim,


13 Aug.
1487. Stoke, 6 June. 1705. Cassano, passage of the
I4>)4. Formoi.te, 6 July. Adda, by prince Eugene.
1497- Blackheaih, 22 June. 1706. Battle ot Turin, prince Eugene
1- louden, 9 Sept. when defeats the French.
i5'3- Battle cf
James IV. king of Scots, was Rainillies, on Whitsun*
killed. de\ .

Francis I. Charleston, South Carolina, in


15*5- Cattle of Marigr.ano,
vaded by the French, who were
gains victory, 14 15 25 Sept.
1516. E>t conquered b\ .he: 'lurks. repulsed with loss.
Battle of Pavia, Francis 1. loses 1708. Battle ofOud..iard, 30 June.

I.
'5-T-
all but honor, 24 Feb.
Battle of SoI\>a> , 24 Nov.
rinkey , 20 Sept.
17C9.
W)nendale, 28 Sept.
Malplaquet, EugeEe de
feats Villeroy.
'557- St. yuintin, 10 Aug. Blarignies, 14 Sept.
i55*>- Calais retaken by the French, Pultowa, Charles XII.
January 10. defeated.
in Spam, taken by the En Canada unsuccessfully attacked by
1596. Cadiz,
glish. the New-Yorkers.
Battle of Lutzen, Gustavus Adol- Port Royal, in Nova Scotia, reta
1632.
phus, killed. ken by the English, when it re
ceived the name of Annapolis.
1 641. N.isejy, June.
1642. Ed ehill, 24 Oct. 1711, Canada attacked by the British
1643- Shatton, 16 May. troops and those of New Eng
Lansdown, 5 July. land.
Roundawaydown, 13th 1712. Indian war in North Carolina.
July 1715. Battle of Dumbiain, 12 Nov.
Newbury, 20 Sept. 1717. Indians in'st. gated by a Jesuit to
i644. Indians, in New England, at v. ar make incursions upon the colony
amongst themselves. of Massachusetts.
3644. Battle of Marsion-moor, 2 July.' i-34. Dantzic taken by the Swedes.
1650. Dunbar, 3 Sept. 1743' Dcttingcn, the battle of, won by
Were ester, 3 Sept. the English and allies, in favour
1651.
1658, Ostend attempted ro be taken by of the queen of Hungary, 26th
the French, but they were defea June.
ted with sreat loss.' Battle of Fontcnoy, 30 Apr.
BAT BAT 43

A. D A. D
1745- Louisburgh taken by the Massa- 1760. Dresden taken by the Prussians
chus. trs forces, June 17. again.
Battle of Presf. n-pans, 21 Sept. Chamblee taken from th? French
1746. Fa:kirk, 17 J.1.1. by the Br-tish, Sept. 7.
Cullode.i, 16 Apr i-6i. Cherokee Indians in Carolina, de
Madras t. ken from the English. feated by the Americans under
1747- Laffe dt, 20 luly. Col. Grant.
1749 Louisburi; riven up to the French. Dominica faken by the English.
1755- Fort DuQ.iesne, noyv Pittsburgh] Battle of Langcns'aliz, 15 Feb.
battle of, July 9. Grumberg, 21 March.
1756. Oswego taken by the English. Vellinghau^en, 16 July.
Grenada, the island of, taken by Kirkd.nckern, 15 July.
Admiral Rodney, Feb. Einbeck, 24 Aug.
Battle of Lobositz, 1 Oct. 1762. Doheln, 12 May.
1757. Battle of Rosbaeh, 5 Nov. Wilhelmstahl, 24 June.
Reichenberg, 21
April. Fulda 23
July.
Gros JegerndorfT,30 Aug. Friedberg, 30 Aug.
Breslau, 22 Nov. Freyberg. 10 and 29 Oct.
Lissa, 5 Dec. 1773- Dantzic taken by the Prussians.
Hastei'bcck, 26 July. 1774. Fort William and Mary, in New-
Kolin, 13 June. Hampshire, seized by the ii ha
Prague, 6 May. 1
bitants, who possessed them
1758. Fort Du Quesne (Pittsburg) taken selves of a quantity of powder
.

by General Forbes. and military stores, Dec. 14.


Hanover desolated by the French. 1775- Cedars, fort at the, given up to
Louisburgh re-take n, July 22. the British by Major Ruther-
Dresden taken by the Prussians. field, March 15.
Battle of Sandershausen, 23 July. Engagement at Concord and Lex
Crevelt, 23 June. ington. The grenadiers and light
Meer, 5 Aug. infantry of the British army at
Zorndorff, 25 Aug. Boston, under colo. el Smith,
Sandershagen, 10 Oct. 10th foot, and Major Pitcairn,
Munden, 11 Oct. detached to destroy the maga
Hochkirken, 14 Oct. zines at Concord, 20 miles from
*759 Kunersdorf, 12 Aug. Boston, 18 19 'Vpril.

Niagara taken by the English, Ju Another detachment march under


ly 24 e.rl Percy, of 16 companies of
Ticonderoga taken by the Eng infantry and a corps of marines,
lish. 19 April.
Quebec taken by the English. Sep At Lexington, 15 miles from Bos
tember 13. ton, fell in with the continental;
Canada taken by the English, Sep about five in the morning. The
tember 13. British fire on them and a skir
Arcot, Carnatic, taken by the Eng mish is continued to Concord ;
lish from the Hindoos. the British are forced to retreat to
Frankfort upon the Oder, the Boston, driven before the Ame
Prussians and Russians, 20,000 ricans like sheep ; the British
men on field of battle. lost 114 killed, and 127 wound
Dresden taken by the Imperialists. ed, beside 52 missing : the Ame
Crown Point taken from the Eng ricans ;.ad 62 men killed and
lish. wounded; about the third re
Battle of Bergen, 13 April. covered of their wounds.
Zullichau, 23 July. Ticonderoga taken by Ethan Allen,
"
Coefeld, 1 Aug. in the name of Great Jehovah
Minden, 1 Aug. and the continental Congress,''
Torgau, 8 Sept containing 120 pieces of iron ord
Pretsch, 29 Oct. nance, between 6 and 24 pun-
Plains of Abraham. 13 der.i, 50 swivels, 2 ten inc'. nor-
Sept. Wolf killed. tars, 1 howitzer, 1 cohorn, ia
Maxen, 20 and 21 Nov. tons of leaden ball, 3 carts laden
1160. Montreal taken by the English. with flints, 30 new field car
Battle of Cosdortf, 20 Feb. riages, a quantity of shells, ico
Quebec, 28 April. stand of small arms, 10 casks
Grabenst-yn, 4 June. gun-powder, 2 pieces of brass
Corbach, 24 June. artillery, 3 May.
Emsdorif, 9 July. Crown Point taken by the Ameri
Warburg, 31 July, cans, May 14.
Strehlen, 2 Aug. Eunker's-hill, the British began
Leignitz, 15 Aug. the attack about noon ; the Brit
Torgau, 2 Nov. ish lost J-140 men fcilltd, 85;
44 BAT BAT

A. D. A. D.
1
775- wounded ; among the killed were 1776. Crown Point re-taken by the Bri
26 commissioned officers, and : tish.
81 among the wounded. The British attack on the Cedars, Ar
Americans had 452 men killed, nold capitulates ; Americans
301 wounded and missing ; among treated with barbarity ; congress
the killed was the gallant Dr. annuls the capitulation in con
Warren, who commanded the sequence, 26 May.
American forces. The American British tories defeated at Moore's
fire was conducted with great creek, in North Carolina, by
judgment; and the British were colonel Caswell, and the tory
blockaded in Boston, 17 June. leader Macleod killed.
Charlcstown, Massachusetts, burnt Portsmouth, Virginia, destroyed
by the British, June 17. by the British, June 1.
Stonington, Connecticut, set on fire General sir H. Clinton attacks Sul
by the British, Sept. 3. livan's island, in concert with
Canada invaded by the American Sir P. Parker, and is defeated by
forces, October. general Lee, 15 June.
vJhamblee taken by the Americans Montreal retaken by the British,
commanded by Col. Brown and June 15.
Major Livingston, October 18. Charleston, S. C. attacked by a
Falmouth, New England, destroy squadron of ships under Sir Pe
ed by the British forces, Octo terParker, and a body of troops
ber 18. under Generals Clinton and Corn-
Charnblee fort, in Canada, attacked wallis, who were defeated with
by the Americans, Oct. 20. great slaughter, June 25.
Charnblee taken by Montgomery, Battle of Long Island, or Flat
124 barrels gun-powder, 6564 bush ; the American lines at
musket cartridges, 150 stand tacked by sir William Howe,
French made arms, 3 mortars, with 20,000 men, and the Ame
61 shells, 83 stand English arms; rican army suffers great loss from
and other valuable military and an injudicious disposition of the
naval stores, 3 Nov. forces ; the retreat however was
Montreal taken by the Americans, conducted with admirable skill,
Nov 12. in thirteen hours 9000 men with
St. John's taken by Montgomery, artillery, and all their equipage,
17 brass ordnance, 2 eight inch crossed an arm of the sea a mile
howitzers, 22 iron ordnance, wide, in the face of a superior
shot, shells, powder, 800 stand and victorious army. In thisac-
small arms, and naval stores, 13 tion the Americans had 2000
Nov. men killed and
wounded, and
Storm of Quebec, Montgomery 1000 taken
prisoners. 26 Aug.
falls, Arnold wounded, the A- Fort on Sullivan's Island, unsuc
mericans obliged to retieat, but cessfully attacked by the British,
encamp on the Plains of Abra J une 28.
ham, 31 Dec. New-York surrendered to the Bri
Great Bridge in Virginia, battle of, tish forces, Sept. 15.
in which the British were de General Arnold opposes the force
feated, Dec. sent by Carleton from Canada

1776. Norfolk, 111


Virginia, burnt by against Ticonderoga, but is de
order of Lord Dunmore the Bri feated on Lake Chainplain; he
tish governor, and great damage makes an admirable retreat to
sustained, Jan. 1. Crown point, 11 Oct.
Charnblee fort retaken by the Bri Battle of White Plains; generals
tish, Jan 18. Knyphausen, Con wallis, and
Highlanders, and regulators of N. Percy, commanded columns;
Carolina, defeated with great loss Howe commander in chief of the
near Moore's Creek bridge, by British, with 15,000 ctlecthes ;
Gen. Moore, Feb. 27. general Washington commander
Dorchester Point fortified in the i chief of the Amencan
army,
ni^ht, so as to render Boston no consisting, of 5000 regulars, and
longer tenable by the British, ' 1
,oco militia ; the British attack
March 4. the American entrenchments but
Boston evacuated precipitately, the are deteaiec!, 28 Oct.
British leaving behind their arms, Fort Washington, near
King's
military stores and provisions; Bridge, taken by the British,
sir Archibald Campbell, with with a loss of ioco men! 15
1700 m^n, enters the harbor, and Nov.
are maue prisoners by general Fort Lee, near New- York, taken
Wash ngton, 18 March. by the British, Nov. 18.
BAT BAT 45

A. D A. D
i77ft. Ne-wport, R. Island, taken by the i,77- es himself at Saratoga, 17 Sep
British, Dec. 7. tember.
General Washington surprises the British entrenchments near Lake
Hessians at Trenton; general George attacked by general Gates,
William Irvine commanding the and the British completely beat
advance ; general C idwallader, en ; the British general Frazer,
the second column, and general and the Hessian colonel Brcyman
Washington the principal divi killed; Arnold who command
sion, general G reene and general ed on the right, was wounded
Sullivan form d his suite; the in the tendon Achilles ; Gates
enemy and their artillery were took 200 prisoners and 9 brass
captured, 26 Dec field pieces. Burgoyne makes
Strength of British and American a
precipitate Saratoga,
retreat to
armies in 1776. where he the 17th
capitulates on
Br.tish. Americans. of October, surrendering 5790
Aug. 24000 1600c men, and 35 pieces of field ar
Nov. 26900 4500 Sec. 17 Oct.
tillery,
Dec. 27000 33 Esopus, in Neyv-York, was total
Princetown, battle of, when the ly destroyed by the British, with
Amer cans under General Wash grsat quantities of stores, Octo
ington, defeated the British with ber 15.
great loss, Jan. 2. Kingston, in Ulster county, New-
Providence, the island of, taken by York, burnt by the Br.tish, Oc
Commodore Ho,ikins, March. tober 15.
Danbury, town of, in Connecticut, Action at Red Bank, the Hessian
burnt by the British, and large general Donop killed, and the
quantities of continental stores British attack frustrated, and the
destroyed, April 26. ship of war Augusta blown up,
Ticonderoga taken by the British, 22 Oct.
5 July. Forts Montgomery and Clinton ta
Action at Hubberton, the British ken by the British, October.
genjral Frazer attacks the re Martha's Island, pillaged by the
treating Americans under colonel British, who carried oil' 300 oxen,
Francis, and defeats them, 6 and 2000
sheep.
July. Attack of Mud Fort, (now Fort
Fairfield, in Connecticut, burnt by Mifflin) by Cornwallis ; gallantly
the British, July 7. defended by Col. Samuel Smith,
Bcnningt n battle,' 16 Aug. 15 Nov.
General Stark defeats the Hessian Strength of British a/.d American
general Baurn, and colonel Brey- armies in 1777.
man, on Walloon Creek, 16 Aug. British. American..
Fort Stanwix, alias Fort Schuyler, March, 27000 4500
the siege of, raised by Sir John June, 30000 8000
Johnson and Lieut. Col. St. Le- 177S. Battle of Savannah, 15 Jan.
ger, Aug. 22.. Monmouth, tiie British
Eutaw Springs, the battle of, in retreat oy forced marches to New
which General Green defeats the York, 28 June.
British, Sept. 8. Wyoming, out ot 417 Americans
Battle of Brandy wine; the dispo stationed there, 360 were inhu
sitions of the British were mas manly butchered by a purty of
terly in thu action; the Ameri Tories and Indians, commanded
can
army discomfitted and make by Col. John Butler, July 1 .

a
precipitate but circuitous re Dominica taken by the French un
treat, 11 Sept. der the Marquis de Bouille,
Massacre at the Paoli, by sir when 164 pieces ot cannon and
Cnarles Grey, 20
Sept. 24 brass mortars were found
Philadelphia taken by the British therein, Sept 7.
under General Howe, Sept. 26. Attack of Savannah, 28 Dec.
Battle of Germantow.. ; 800 Eng taken Gen. Provost,
1779- Sunbury by
lish, 900 Americans killed and Jan. 9.
wounded; the British lost ge Bria creek, American general
s
neral Agnew and colonei Bud ; Ashe defeated, 3 March.
the Americans, colonei Haslet, Portsmouth, in Virginia, invaded
of Delaware state, a ^allani of
again by the British, un ter Sir
ficer, 4 Oct. George Collier and General Mat
Battle of Stillwater, about 600 thews, who burnt vast quanti
men kihedeach side ; no vic
on tiesof property there, May 10.
tory ; the action as mtrep d as Stoney Point and Verplanks taken
any known for tlie nummr.;
by the British under general
Burgoyne retreats, and entrench- Vnughan, 30 May.
46 BAT BAT

A. D. A. D.
1779. Stomferry, in Carolina, the battle 1780. mounted riflemen collected from
of, June 20. Kentucky, Georgia, and the Ca-
Grenada taken by the French, Ju rolinas, .ttack and kill the tory
ly 6. leader Ferguson, and take 800 of
Norwalk, in Connecticut, burnt' his party prisoners, 7 Oct.
by thcBrtish, July 7. Clermont, S. C. taken by Colonel
General Wayne storms and takes Washington, Dec. 4.
Stony Toint, 16 July. 1781. Richmond, in Virginia, destroyed
Pawlus-hook taken by the Am n- by the British under General
cansunder General Lee, when Arnold, Jan. 5.
30 of the British were killed, in Carolina, the roy
Hillsborough,
and 160 made prisoners, al standard erected there by Lord
July 19.
A conflagrating war carried into Cornwall s, Feb. 20.
Connecticut, by governor Tryon Colonel Henry Lee, with his le
and general Garth, New Haven gion, attacks a body of tories
taken ; Fairfield, Norwalk, and upon the Flaw river, within a
Greenfield burnt to the ground, mile of Tarleton's encampment,
July. and cuts thein to pieces, 25 Feb.
N'ewhaven, Own of, ravaged by Battle of Guilford court house;
the British, July. general Greene commanded the
General Lincoln attacks the British Americans ; general Cornwallis
under colonel Maitland, 27 June. the British ; a hard fought bat
Attack of the British lines at Sa tle, the Americans defeated, but
vannah, by Lincoln and D'Es- the victory was fatal to the vic
taign, who are repulsed and raise tors, 15 March.
the siege, 9 Oct. Fon Watson, South Carolina, ta
FortofOmoa, Key to the Bay of ken by the Americans, April 15.
Honduras, taken by the British Camden, battle at, in South Ca
from the Spaniards, Oct. 20. rolina, between General Green
,r78o. Fort on Sullivan's Island taken by and Lord Rawdon, when the
the British, May 6. Americans retreated, April 25.
Wachaws, North Carolina, where Petersburgh, in Virginia, the ship
Colonel Tarleton surprised 300 ping and stores destroyed at, by
Americans, >of whom he killed Phillips and Arnold, April 26.
by far the greatest number, May. Fort Motte, in South Carolina, ta
Charleston, South Carolina, taken ken by the Americans, May 12.
by the British, after a siege of Camden, S. C. burnt by the Bri-
several weeks, by Gen. Clin tish, May 13.
ton, 12 May. Fort Granby, in South Carolina,
Elizabethtown, New- Jersey, tak taken by the Americans, May 15.
en by the British, June 7.' Fort Cornwallis', at Augusta, tak
Springfield attacked and burnt by en
by the Americans under Gen.
the British from New York ; the Marion and Col. Lee, June 5.
British severely handled and forc Augusta, Georgia, taken by Col,
ed to retire, 23 June. Pickens and Lee, 5 | une.
General Sumpter, after three re Battle of the Cowpens, general
pulses storms and takes the Brit Morgan defeats Tarleton, whose
ish post at Rocky Mount, on whole force is cut to pieces ; the
the Catawba river; but aban British had 600 men killed on the
dons it and attacks the post at fkld; the Americans 12 killed
Hanging Rock, 30 July. and 60 wounded, 7 June. '
Battle of Camden, Gates agamst Battle -f Ninety-six. 19 June.
Coruwallis, both armies set out Grottoii, in Connecticut, burnt by
at midni.'ht, and their advanced Gen. Arnold, Sept. 6.
guards began the action at 2 Battle of H-ibkirks hid, general
o'clock in the morning, 16 Aug. Green. a..d lord Rawdon, 8 Sept.
Tarleton ;a;acks Sumpter on the Eutae.- Springs, the British under
W.iteiee, a skirmish without any general Stewart, defeated by ge-
other eriect than the display of nenii Greene; the standard of the
enterprise and intrcnidity on both 3d Bntish regiment, or old Bulls,
Sides, 18
Aug. taken by the Americans; the
Aii-iuta, Georgia, attacked by American colonel Washington
American general Clark, without wounded and taken by the Brit
success, 14 Sept. ish,8 Sept.
Tarleton attacks Sumpter at Black New London, Connecticut, burnt
Rock, on tho Ts ;cr river, and is by Benedict Arnold, Sept. 13.
defeated; both commanders se Battles of Porto Novo and Mootea-
verely wounded, Oct. poliam, E. Indies.
l>att!e of King's Mountain, in 1782. Floating batteries, the, destroyed
which a party ot American before Gibraltar, Sept. 13.
BAT' BAT 47

Si U. A. D.
1782. Surrender ofYorkrown, by Core -

1793. Baffle of Weissemberg, (or attack


wallis, with his whole army, and repuls" of,] Aug. 27.
consisting of 7000 men, to the Battle of Hondschoote, French un
united armies of America and der Houchard commander, Mar
France, under the command of shal Freytag takc-n, duke of York
general Washington, which dos escapes, Sept. 6
ed the battles of the American Dunkirk besieged by the combined
revolution, 17 Oct. army und r the Duke of York,
Mohawk river, battle at, when August 25, who wc-re repulsed
Colonel Willet defeated the Bri- with great slaughter, Sept. 7,
, tish, Oct. 24. following.
1790. The Miami Indians defeat General Battle of Dunkirk, DukeofY'ork
H.'rmar with great loss, Septem and Marshal Freytag defeated by
ber 30. the French under Houchard
1791. The Indians defeat Gen. St. Clair and Jourdan, 32 24-pounders,
with sreat loss, Nov. 4. and 68 other pieces of cannon ta
Bangalore, battle of, Cornwallis ken by the French, Sept. 8.
-

captures the place. Battle of Pirmasens, on the Rhine,


1792. Ostend taken possession of by the Duke of Brunswick victorious
French under D mourier, Dec. over the French.

Nice taken by the French under Battle of Saorgia, King of Sardinia


General A lselm, Sept. 29. beaten, Sept. 20.
Savoy, part ot the king of Sardi Spaniardsdeieated at Perpignan
nia's dominions taken by the under Ricardos.
French under General Montes Bouffiers, from 8 in the morning to
quieu, Oct. 7 at night, Austrians retreat un
Battle of Jemappe, Dumouricr, der cover of night.
French 40,000, Clairfayt, Aus Battle of Maubegc, Cobourg Aus
trians 28,000, Nov. 5. trian, Jourdan French, lasted
Frankfort treacherovsly given up two days, from day light 'till
to the Austrians, when 1300 night.
Frenchmen were massacred by Jercmie fort, St. Domingo, taken
the Hessians, and several whose by the British, Oct.
lives were spared had their hands Limbach, battle of, when the
cut off, Dec. 2. French were victorious, Sept. 14.
1793. Neuingen, the battle of, between Maubcuge, the battle of, between
the combined armies a-id General the Austrians and the French,
Dumourier, when the French when the former were defeated
were defeated with great loss, with great loss, Oct. 15 & 16.
March 20. Toulon surrendered to the English
Battle of Tirlemont, Clairfayt de Admiral L ord Hood, who took
feats Dumourier, March 18. possession of the town and ship
Battle of St. Amand, in which ping in the name of Louis XVII,
Dampierre the French comman-| When the tree of liberty, which
der was killed by a cannon ball, '
had been erected there, was con
'

in an engagement near the woods verted into a gibbet f jr the re


of Rhemes and Vicoigne, when publicans. On December 19,
the allies were defeated with following, the republicans at
great loss ; General Clairfayt tacked the town in a most vigo
and Duke of York c- mmanded rous manner ; when the < ombin-
the coalesced army. May 8. ed forces, finding that all future
Famars, battle of, between tfur resistance was
useless, atter hav
French and combined powers, ing set fire to the shipping, arse
when the former were defeated, nals, &c. made a precipitate re
by Cobourg and Duke of York, treat.
May 23. Tirlemont, battle of, when after a

Carlberg, the battle of, when the contestof several days, the
French under Custine, defeated French under Dumourier were
the Prussians, May 18. defeated.
Arlon," French and Austrians, latter Battle of Deuxponts, Hoche and
defeated, 9 June. Wurmser, Hoche victorious at
Valenciennes, taken by the combi 4o'clock, afternoon, loss of
ned powers, and soon after reta Austrians 6000, French 2000,
ken, June. 21 Nov.

Marseilles, which had revolted a- Hagenau, Hoche gains a victory,


gainst the convention, subdued 8-9 Dec.
Aug. 24. Action five days at Weissemberg,
Verdun, the French garrison, taken and Austrians driven from Bal-
by the Prussians, and retaken1 bcrotte, 31 Dec.
soon after, Sept. 2.
48 BAT BAT

A. D. \A D.
1794. Noimoutier, the island of, taken 1794. Chandernagore taken from the
from the Insurgents of La Ven French by the British, July.
dee, by the arms of the French Indians defeated by Gen Wayne,
Republic, Jan 3. Aug. 20.
Battle between Russians and Poles, Juliers, the fortress of, submitted
former defeated, 4 Jan. to the French, when all the pro

Fort Vauban taken by the French, vinces west of the Rhine fell into
their hands.
Eatile of Villers en Couchee, 24 Boxtel, Moreau pursues duke of
April. York, 14. 15, 16, Sept.
Battle ot Ceitcau. Bellegarde taken after an action,
Moucron, battle of, when the al- th ; last place possessed bv the
lie.l forces under Clairfayt were coalesced powers in France, 18
totally defeated by the French
' Sept.
under Pichegru, April 26. Battle of Warsaw, between the
Courtray, the same, 11 May. Russians and Poles, in which
Tourr.ay, battle of, between the Kosciusko was taken prisoner
French and English, when the covered yvith -wounds, 10 Oct.
former were defeated, May 10 ; Battle of Rerzese, in Poland, in
again between the French and which Suwarrow annihilated the
combined powers, when the lat Poles, took all their artillery,
ter were defeated with great loss, 19 Oct.
May 17 & i3 following. Berterzel, Moreau, beats the Duke
Lannoy, Pichep.ru defeats duke of of York ; general Fox wins a
York, 18 May, takes 60 pieces ; race here, 19 Oct.

here the duke won the race, but ,


Praga, the suburbof, near Warsaw
lost the battle. in Poland, taken by the Russian
Turcoing, Pichegru and Clairfayt, General Suwarrow, who gave
a victory on neither side, though the barbarous orders to his army
'

a desperate battle, 22 May to give quarters to no one, in

Coilloure, the Spanish garrison of, consequence of which, upwards


also Port Vendre, Fort St. El of 30,000 Poles, men, women
mo, Sec. with 8000 prisoners, ta ancl children, were massacred,
ken by the French under Gen. Nov. .4
Dugoumier, May. Nimeguen, port of, evacuated by
Battle of Espierres, 25 May. the British, Nov. 7.
Hoogleden, Macdonald defeats Warsaw, the capital of Poland, ta
Clairfayt, Jur.c. 13 ken by the Russians under Su
Charieroy, garrison consisting of
a warrow, Nov. 9.
3000 -iustri.ms, surrendered to Maestrccht, the garrison of, consist-
the French under Gen. Jourdan, ingof 8oco Austrian:, surrender
June 2-. ed to the French, Nov. 9.
1-l.tt le 0/Flcurus, Jourdan victo Battle of the Black Mountain,
rious over Cobourg, began at 3 Eastern Pyrennees, in which Du-
o'clock in the morning ; the goinier, commander of the
French three rimes tell back from French, gained a complete vic
tin; powerful artillery of the tory, but fell in the battle; took
Austrians, and returned fresh to 50 pieces of cannon and the
the fight. The French word of Spanish foenderies of Egui and
bittle was, no ictreat to day , for Orbaycetie, 17 Nov.
y hours victory indecisive ; when Another battle, French took tents
jourdan collecting his corps de for 5c,cco men, at Figuerai,
Teserve, Lefebvre leading the ca 20 Nov.

valry, the Austrians were put to Graves, the fortress of, taken by
tlie rc>ute. In this action rccon- tha French, U.c.
_
30.
noitering with balloons was prac 17"5. Battle of Bonnel, in Holland,
tised with the greatest cilect, French under Moreau, took 120
the combined forces lost aboui pieces of cannon, 7 Jan.
8000 men killed and 1 5000 j-riso- Grenada, bloody battle fought be
ners, June 28. Inconsequence of tween the French and English in
of this victoiv, Le Chateau de that island, in which the latter
Namur soon aiter submitted to were defeated, March 3.
th-; French republic. Buttle of Quiberoon, Puissaye de
Battle of licllegardc, in the Eastern feated by Hoche,
3 Aug.
Pyr Spaniards defeated,
ntiee.,, 1796. Batt.e of Kreutsnach, in which
French general Mirabel, killed, the French gensral Moreau, de
13 Ju-y- feats the Austrian generals Kray
f outarabia, the key of Spain, was and Wurmscr, 4 Jan.
taken bv tli. French, July. Buiapartc's fira campaign in Italv,
BAT BAT 49

*
A. D. D. A.
-7<)6. Montenotte, Bonaparte with $6,000 1797. Battle of the defiles of Neumark,
men, defeats Bo lean with 84,000, Massena defeats the Austrians,
took from the Austrians
40 pieces 2
April
of cannon, 11 April. General
1798. Berthier, enters
and occu
Battle of Fonubio, 7 May. pies the city of Rome,in conse
Pavi 17 May.
,
quence of the assassination of
Milessimi, 11
May. general Duphot, and an attempt
Dego, the same, 14 April. to assassinate Joseph Bonaparte
Battle of Momlovi, in which the the French
French general Stengel was kil ambassador, ro Feb.
General Brune takes possession of
led. 22 ^nl. in
Battle of Lodi, over Boileau, 11
Fribourg Switzerland, after a
severe
' -
action, 3 March.
May. A revolt in Ireland, several ac
Passage of the Mincio and battle of tions between the Irish and Brit-
Borghetta, 4 Ju..e. ish
Battle of Renchen, Moreau vic troops with various success,
during this month, April.
torious over the Austrians, 28 Action at
Killalla, 19 April.
June. Action, at Hacketstown, between
Battle of Etingen, the
corps of the Irish
insurgents and British
Conde cut to pieces, 1 July.
troops,- same
day actions in Clare,
Battle of Neukirchen, Lefebvre
Lucan, Lusk, and Kilcullen.
defeats the Austrians, 6 Juiy. '
25 May
Battle of Ca.stiglione laste : five Action
Tarragh, very desperate
at
days, Wurmserdefeaed, 70 field and bloody; same day the in
pieces, 15,000 prisoner, and surgents in Wex.or.i, capture a
killed 6000, 2 Aug. British detachment,
Battle of 27 May.
Pcschiera, Aug. 6 Battle at Enniscoithy,
Roveredo, 6 Ireland;
Sept. same day a
desperate action neac
Bassano, 8
Sept. 28
Limerick, May.
Castellaro, 14 Sept. Battle of A klow, the Irish insur
Le^onaro, 11 Oct. gents defeat the British regulars.
Caldiero, 12 Oct. 29 May.
" '

Arcole, 15 Oct. Battle of Vinegar Hill, the British


Altenkirken, Jourdan de- under general
Fawcett, defeated.'
defeats VVurmse:',i June.
Moreau attacks Wurmser and tie
30 May.
A at
feats him at Frankenthal, 15 o'on Ncwtownbarry,
British compelled
the
to retreat be
June. fore the
insurgents ; the pike the
More-u defeats the Austrians at chief weapon ot the
Nordlingcn, 10
Irish, 1 June.
Aug. The insurgents from
Jourdan defeated and retreats from Wexford, de
feat the British under colonel
Frankfort towards the Rhine,
Walpolc, the colonel is
killed,
30 Aug. to 3
Sept. and the cannon are taken
Desax defeats the Austrians at
by the
insurgent:,, 4 June.
Maricnburg and c.-vers Moreau's Desperate action at New
Ross,
retreat, 7 Sept. county Wexford; the Butish ar
1797. Battle near Laforma on the Adige, my under general Johnson, se
13 Jan. verely cut up, thsir cannon tak
Provera beaten and made prisoner en, and lord Mountjoy killed*
at La Favonta,
15 Jan. Several actions
Passage of Tagliamento and defeat during this month
m which the British
are defeated*
of the Archduke near Gradisca
; 5 June.
who
narrowly escapes, 16 Feb.
Battle of Tagliamento, Austrians
Battle of Antrim, lord O'Neil kil
led, with a pike, 7 June.
under arch duke
Charles, de Battle ot
Ballmahinch, the British
feated by Massena, 16 March.
Battle of Ncuwied, Hoche defeats
army severely handled by the
insurgent general Munroe, who
the Austrians under
Kray, and was wounded and taken
prisoner
takes 4=>oo prisoners, 18 March. and afterwards
Battle of Tarvis in the Noric Alps, executed; the
British in vengeance burned
Massena defeats the the
Austrians, town ot
Saintfield,
12 June.
20 March.
Battle of Lavis, Joubert defeats
Insurgents camp at
Vinegar hill,
stormed by
the Austrians, 22 March. general Lake, and
earned with
Battle of Pufero, Austrians defeat great slaughter, 21
June.
ed by general Guyeux, 23 March. Sir Charles
Battle of Tarvis, fought above the Asgill, defeated by a
body of insurgents, under th -

clouds, Austrians defeated by command of Ir'sli


Massena, the imperial cuirassiers Murphy, an
priest, 23 June.
annihilated, 25 March.
50 BAT BAT

A. D.
1798. Sir Charles Asgill, attacks the 1799. Battle of Esdrelon, near Mount
Irish insurgents on Kilconnel Taoor, 17 March.
Hill, and defeats them, but with General Desolles scales the Julian
the loss of 1000 men ; the insur Alps, takes the intrenched defiles
of Tauffers in the rear, and gains
gents lose as many with all their
cannon, and their leader Mur a complete victory over Lau-
phy falls in battle, 6 June. dohn, 17 March.
Several actions in this month be Ostrach, Jourdan with 40,009
tween the revolted Irish and men, -is attacked by he archduke
British troops, July. with 80,000, and is forced to re-
A French army under general tjc-at, 21 March.
Humbert, lands in Ireland, and Samanhout, a new and elegant dis
takes possession of Kilalla, 22 position, infantry squares form
Aug. ed the two flanks, cavalry in a
Humbert attacks Lake at Castle- square the centre ; the troops to
bar, and defeats him, taking six oppose were Mamalukes and
pieces of British artillery, 27 horsemen. Davoust command
AuS- ed the French horse, Friant and
*
Battle of Underwalden in Swisser- Belliard the two squares of in
land, between the adherents of fantry, 22 March. Sceralbat.
the aristocracy of Berne and the ties at Biramba, Bardis, Girge,
French, under Schauenburg ; the gained by Desaix in this month.
town of Stantz was burnt to the Stockach, Jourdan attacks Arch
ground, o Sept. duke, but is defeated and forced
The Irish insurgents defeat a Brit to retreat; Jourdan's force under
ish force at Rathfarnhain, 18 40,000 men, the Archduke's
Oct above 80,000 ; the battle was
Desperate action at Kilcock, the principally fough. by infantry
British troops sutler from the and was terrible ; 10,000 men lay
pike, 28 Oct. on the field of battle, 25 March.
General Mack commences hostili Schererand Moreau attack the Aus
ties in Italy against the French, trians between the Garda and
by an attack or. five different Adige, gain a hard earned vic
points of the French lines, in the tory, fought from day break to
Roman territory, 22 Nov. 11 at night, 26 March.
Battle of Porto Fermo, on the A- Scherer and Moreau attack general
driatic, the French defeat the Kray before Verona, and are de-<
Neapolitans and take their can feated, 30 March
non and baggage, 2& Nov. Battle of Magnan, the French arc
Macdonald defeats the Nea olitans defeated, 5 April.
at Civita Casteilano, 5 Dec. Battle Malanelly,E Indies, 5 April.
Again defeats Mack at Calvi, 8 Lacourbe defeats Bellegarde in the
Dec. Engadine, 1 May.
Championnet defeats Mack in a ge Seringapatam taken by storm, Tip-
neral action, n Dec. poo put to death, partition of
Macdonald defeats the Neapolitans Mysore followed, 4 May.
under Dumas. The fruit of these Attack of St. Jean d'Acre, and
battles, was 12,000 prisoners, Bonaparte forced to raise the
99 pieces of cannon, 21 stand siege, 7 May.
ards, 3000 horses, and all the Moreau defeats the Russians on tlie
baggage of the Neapolitan ar Po, 12 May.
mies. Lecourbe defeats the Austrians on
Egypt conquered by the French. the Reuss, 2 June.
V799. Battle of El Arish, Bonaparte de Battle of Zurich, the Austrian
feats the Mamal ekes, 9 Feb. Generals Ho;zer and Wal-
Jaffa taken by storm, by generals lis, Kerpen and llillicr wound
Lasnes and Bonaparte, 5 March. ed ; and Judinot and Humbert
Battle of Sadaseer, near Penptnam of the French, 5 June.
first action on the invasion of Battle ot Modena, Macdonald de
Mysore, 5 March. feats Hohenzollern, 10 June.
Battle of Lucicns.eig, Massena forces Battle of the Trebia, at St. J uliano,
that place with dreadful slaught Moreau and Suwarrow; the
er; and thus .ains the key of F rench defeated, 18 une.
J
Tyrol and tin Grisons, 7 March. Battle of Chebnsu,
Bonaparte
Battle at Loubi, on the river Jor against the Mamelukes; a new
dan, near Nazareth ; Bonaparte, disposition, echellona of squares
Murat, and Junot commanded, with artillery and baggage ot each
8 March. square in its eentre and giving a

Kleber defeats the Syrians at Led- front and flank fire.


Jarra, 10 March. Turks land and. take Aboukir affor
BAT BAT 51

AD. A. D.
5799. abattle very desperate, the Turks 1800. Battle at Muhldorf, 1 Dec.
defeated, Bonaparte embarks for 1801. Alexandria, Epypt, Abercrombie
France, 15 July. fell, French defeated by Hutchin
Battle of the Pyramids, the same son, 21 March.
order of battle very decided vic

1805. Battle of Wertingen in Bavaria, the


tory over Mutad Bey, 21 July. first of the coalition of Austria
Second battle of Zurich, most and Russia ; Austrians defeated
terrible and brilliant, Massena and all their cannon taken.
attacks the Archduke; indeci Oct. 8.
sive, 14 Aug. Battle of Guntzburg, marshal Ney
Suwarrow attacks J oubert at Novi, defeats the Austrians, 9 Oct.
who is killed, Moreau takes the Battle on the Adige, Massena forces
command but is forced to retreat, a passage at Verona, and defeats
a bloody ba tie, 15 Aug. the archduke Charles, Oct. 18,
Hclder, 27 Aug. Surrender of Ulm by Mack, Oc
Battle of Berg n, in Holland, tober 20.
general Brune attacks Abercrom Murat defeats prince Ferdinand at
bie, 10 Sept. Nuremburg, Oct. 21.
Second battle, the British and Rus Battle of Caltliero, Massena attacks
sia s under the Duke of York. the whole Austrian line, defeats
defeated by Brune, >nd forced to them ; captures one of theirdivi-
retire within intrenchments, 19 sions; the arch duke escapes at
Sept. night, Oct. 30.
Third battle of Zurich, terrible Battle of Amstetten, the Russians
arid decisive, one of the most defeated by Murat, 4 Nov.
brilliant in history; Massena com Battle of Marienzel, Davoust de
manded, the Austrian general feats the Austrian General Meer-
Hotze killed, the French tri feldt, 8 Nov.
umph, 7 to 24 Sept. Mortier defeats the Russians under
Battk of Fossano, 14 Sept. Kutasoff'at Diernstein, Nov n.
Gaeta, Aquila taken by storm, M-irat and Lasnes defeats the Rus
Mack defeated, and the Neapo sians under Kutasotf at Hola-
litans capitulate to Championnet, brunn, 15 Nov.
1 O t. Soult again at GuntersdorfF, 16
Battle of Berghen, 1 Oct. Nov.
Sand hills near Bergen, Battte of Austerlitz or of the three
2 Oct.
emperors, 500 pieces of cannon
Battle of Egmont, duke of York and 150,000 men were engaged
again defeated and capitulates, in this battle, which was one of
6 Oct. the most profound in the history
Battle of Fossano, French defeat of tactics, and the most brilliant
ed by Melas, 4 Nov. in the annals of victory; 150
.1800. Egypt conquered by the English. pieces of artillery were taken by
Moreau crosses the Rhine, and de the victors ; this battle deprived
feats the Austrians at Engen, the house of Austria of the title
2
May. of Emperor of Germany, 2 Dec.
Battle ot Gremhack, same, 3 May. 1806. Battle of Jena, Oct. 14.
Biberach, same effect, 9 May. Pr issia subdued by Bonaparte.
Severe action at Memmu.gen, Kray 1807. Dantzick taken, May 20.
forced to retreat, 11 May. Battle of Spaudau, J line 5,
Signal defeat of five Austrian co Lonutten, same day.
lumns, by two French on the Deppen, battle of, Marshal Ney
liter, 5 June. makes a fictious retreat, and cuts
Battle of Hochstedt, the Austrians a body of Russians to
pieces,
defeated by Moreau, 18 June June 6.
Action at Unberhausen, 26 June. Eylau, battle of, very bloody and
Celebrated battle at Hohenlinden, desperate, Russians lost 30,500
gained by Moreau, takes 80 pieces men killed. Jui1e6 12.
of cannon and 10,000 Friedland, battle of, this action
prisoners;
acuon began at day break and decided ti.e fate of the Coaltion,
ended at 4 o'clock. and
Battle of Casteggio, Austrians de
produced the peace of Tilsit
on the 7th July succeeding. .

feated by Berthier, 8 June. This battle stands in the same


Battle of Marengo, one of the most rank with Jemappe, Fleuru6,
brilliant in history, and import Nordlingen, Zurich, Marengo^
ant in its consequences ; it last Jena and Austerlitz.
ed 1 1 hours ; decided the fate of B att le- Array, ) the method and or-
Italy, am. placed the iron crown Line.of Battlf, \ der of arranging
on the head of the Bonaparte the troops in order or line of battle ; the

Uym-eity. 14 June. ) form of drawing up the axmy for an er


52 BAT BED

the
gagement. This method generally con II the parapet. When you batter from
reverse side, tbe trajectories or lines of
sists of three lines, viz. the front line,
the rear Lne, and the reserve
j
fire describe accte angles of forty five de
The second line should be about 300 grees or under, with the prolongation of
paces behind the first, and the reserve at that revrse.
about 5 or 600 paces behind the second. Battre de Iricole, Fr. This method
can only be put in
The artillery is likewise divided along the practice at sieges, and
front of the first line The front line against works which have bee- construct
shou d be stronger than the rear line, that ed in front of others that are invested. A
its shock may be more violent, and that, good billiad player will re;>dily compre
by having a greater front, it m3y more hend what is meant by the bricele or back
easily close on the enemy's flanks. If stroke ; it means simply the firing of shot
the first line has the advantage , it should against a wall so that the Dails :Tiay re
continue to act, and attack the enemy'- bound and in the rebound strike men or
second line, terrified by the defeat of their objects, that could not be struck di
first. The artillery must always accom rectly.
pany the line of battle in the order it was Battre/* Caisse, Fr. to beat a drum,
at first distributed, it the ground permit Mener ba'ta*t, to overcom''.
it ; and the rest of the army should fol Mener quelqu'un au Tambour battant.
low the motions of the first line, when it To overcome by strokes of the drum.
contir ues to march on after its first suc To discenCert, to confound, puzzle and
cess. perplex any body.
Battle-^*, an offensive weapon, for BAVINS, in military affairs, implies
merly much used by the Danes, and other small tiggots, made of brush- wood, of a
northern infantry. It was a kind of hil- considerable len.th, no '">art of the brush
bert, and did preat execution when wild- being taken off. See Fascinjs.
ed by a strong arm. BAYARD, Fr a provincia term used
Maiu-BATTLt See BATTLtArray. in ancient Languedoc and Roussillon to
BATTLEMENTS, in military affairs, sign'.fv a wheel -barrow.
are the indentures in the tops ot old cestles BAYONET, a kind of triangular dag
or fortified walls, or other buildings, in ger, made with a hollow handle, and a
the form of embrasures, for the greater shoulder, to fix on the muzzle of a fire
conveniency offiring or looking throuth. lock or musket, so that neither the charg
BATTRE I'estrade, Fr. to send out ing nor firing is prevented by its being
scouts. fixed <-n the piece. It is of infinir ser
Battr k la campagne, Fr. to scour the vice against horse. At first the bayo
country or make incursions against an net was screwed into the muzzle of the
enemy. barrel, consequently could not be used
Battre, Fr to direct one or more during the fire. It is said by some to
pieces of ordnance in such a manner, that h ve been invented by the people of Ma

any given object may be destroyed or lacca, and first made use of on quitting
broken into by the continued discharge of the pikes. According to others, it was
cannon ball, or of other warrike mate first used by the fusileers in France, and
rials; it likewise means to silence an invented or used at Bayonne. At present
enemy's fire it is given to all infantry.
Battre de front, Fr. to throw can BFACON, a signal for securing and
non-shot in a perpendicular or almost guarding against dangers.
perpendicular direction against any body Oh certain eminent places of the coun
or
place which becomes an object of at try are placed long poles erect, whereon
tack. This mode of attack is less effec are fastened pitch-barrels to be fired by
tual than any other unless you batter in night, and smoke made by day, to give
hi each. notice, in a few hours of an approaching
Battre de'echarpe, Fr. to direct shot, invasion; the Irish are reported to have
so that the lines of fire make a manifest risen upon and extirpated the Danes by
acute angle with respect to the line of beacons or fires lighted on their hills.
any particular object against which can BEAR, in gunnery. A piece ot ord-,
non is discharged. nance is said to bear, or come to bear, or
Battre en fane, Fr. is when the shot
brought to bear when pointed directly
from a battery runs along the length of
against the object ; that is, pointed to
the front of any object or place against hit the object.
which it is directed. BEARD, the reflected points of the
Battre a dos, Fr. to direct the shot head of an ancient arrow, particularly of
from one or several pieces of cannon so as such as were jagged.
to batter, almost perpendicularly, from BEAT, In a military sense, signifies to
behind any body of troops, part Of a ram gam the day, to win the battle, &c.
part 01 intrenchment. To B e a t a parley. See C hamad k
Battre de revers, Fr. to direct shot, BEAVER, that part of the ancient hel
in such a manner as to run between -he met which covered rhe
face, and which
two last mentioned lines of fire. When was moveable so as to
expose the face
you batter from behind, the shot fall al without removing the beaver from the
most perpendicularly upon the reverse of helmet.
BED BEN 53

BECHE, Fr. a spade used by pio- I BEE -Eaters, the yeomen of the uard
neers. to the king of Great Britain are so called,
BEDS, in the military language, areof be:ng kept up rather for pageantry, than
Various sorts, viz. for any military service Their arms ire a
Mortar-BiDs serve for the same pur sabre and lance ; and the dress of the 13th
pose as a carriage does to a cannon : they century.
are made of solid timb- r, consisting ge BEETLES, in a military sense, are
nerally of 2 pieces fastened together with i laree wooden hammers for driving down
strong iron bolts and bars. Their sizes | pallisades, and for other uses, &c.
are
according to the kind of mortar they BEETLESTOCK, the stock or han
carry. dle of a beetle.
Beds for Mortars. BELLIGERENT, in a state of war
fare. Hence any two or more nations at
war are called
belligerent powers.
BELTS, in the army' are of dirfcrcnt
sorts, and tor various purposes, viz
Sword- B e l t , a leathern strap fo which
oo a- -
.-.- a
a sword hangs.
c-c-o
s
^3 < 2 < Shouldtr-BuLT, a leathern belt, which
O 3 O .
SO,'
goes over the shoulder, and to widen ihc
o o o

pouch is fixed. It is made of stout lea


O - J O-W O U O >- 09* < ther. See Pouch.

n
Shoulder. Belts for the li^ht cavalry
wooooo^o uw* ^ and dragoons, 2^ inches broad. Regi
ment that have bub' waistcoats, usually
" have butt-coloure-j accoutrements, and
OOOO-On-- -0 7
those which hav> white waistcoats, wear
*
m w u-iu^ u e o*+> g white.
Waii /-Belts, are i| inches; to have
tJoot-io>-iMootJr f
"
buckles or clasps.
J .0 4> 4> -K 0> >-4 S""
Belts are known among the ancient
K*-^0 O M OS (_> Ui o and middle-age writers by divers names,
as zona, cingulum, reminiculum, ringa,
and baldrellus. The belt was an essential
piece of the ancient armor, insomuch
that we sometimes find it used to denote
tlie whole armo In latter ages the belt
VQ O I- K-'Q- O PC*) was given to a person when he was iaised
to knighthood : whence it has also been
.<w/-Beds for guns. used as a badge or marl of the knightly
order.
1 Inch. In Belts among the aborigines of Ame
42 Prs. O I 2C 0 1 0 2 10 11 to 8J 33 rica, arc the symbols of peace or -.var;
32 O I 14 0 1 0 2 10 Lio cl 3* they are made in a rude fanciful taste, of
24 0 1 14 0 1 0
|j 9
8
4 colored beads, and are usually piesented
18 O I 12 0 I O ,2 9i i tf at all conferences or talk*.
12 0 1 10 0 0
2f 2 8 10 65 4 BENDINGS, in military and sea mat
9 0 1 4 0 O 2 ,2 7 9i s* 1* ters, are ropes, wood, &c. bent for seve
6 0 1 0 0 0 ij|2 6 4* ^*
'2
2,
6 H
ral purposes. M Amontons gives seve
4 n 1 0 0 0 I si ral experiments concerning the bending of
ropes. The friction of a rope bent, or
Sea-Mortar-BzDs, are made of solid wound round an immovable cylinder, is
timber, having a hole in the centre sufficient, with a v^ry small power, to
to receive the pintle or strong iron bolt, sustain very great weights. Divers me
about which the bed turns. Sea-rnor thods have been contrived for bending
tars are mounted on these beds, on timb-r, in order to supply croooked planks
board of the oomb-ketches. a d
pieces for building ships ; such as by
These beds are placed upon very strong san.i, boiling water, steam of boiling
timber frames, fixed into the bomb- water, and by fire. See M. Du Hamel,
ketch, in which the pintle is fixed, so in his book called Du Transport, de la
as the bed may turn about it, to fire
any Conservation, & de la Force des bois. M.
way. The fore part of these beds is an Deiesme ingeniously enough
arc of a circle described from the same
proposed to
have the young trees bent, while growing
centre as the
pintle-hole. in the forest. The method of bending
6Vog/-Bed, is a piece of wood on which planks by sand-heat, now used in the
the breech of a pun rests upon a truck- British navy yard*, was invented by
cap
carriage, with another piece fixed to it at tain Cumbeiland.
the him. end, that rests upon the body of A method has been lately invented and
the hind axle-tree; and the fore part is piactised for bending pieces of timber, so
supported by an iron bolt. Sec Car as to make the wheels of carnages with
.f iage. out joints. The bending of boards, and
54 BI V BLO

other pieces of timber for curved works Biovac, Fr. [from the German wey.
in joinery, is efiected by holding them to wacht, a double watch or guard.] A
the fire, then giving them the fkure re night-guard, or a detachment of the whole
or in the pre
quired, and keeping them in this figure army, which during a siege,
by tools for the purpose. sence of an enemy, marches out every

BENEFICIAR1I, in ancient military night in squadrons or battalions tolinethe


history, denotes sotdiers who aitend -he circumvauations, or to take post in front
chief officers of the army, being exempt of the camp, for the purpose of securing
ed from all other duty. In the American their quarters, preventing surprises, and
service called waiters', each commissioned of obstructing supplies. When an army
encamp, but lies under
officer being allowed one. does not arms alt

B.nemciarii were also soldiers dis night, it is Said to bivcac. Thus before
charged from the militaiy service orduiy, the b.'ttle of Austerlitz, Bonaparte was
aiid provided with beneficia to subsist on. all night in bivoac, or with the advanced
BERM, in fortification, is a little spate guard.
r path, of about 3, 4, 6, or 8 feet broad, BIT, the bridle of a horse, which acts

according to the height and breadth of the by the assistance of a curb. See Curb
works, between the ditch and the para and Bridon
pet, when made of turf, to prevent the BLACK-HOLE, a place of confine,'
earth from rolling into the ditch;; and ment for soldiers, in the English disci
serves likewise to pass and repass. pline, who may be confined therein by
To BESIEGE, to lay siege to or invest the commanding officer, but not by any
any place with armed forces. inferior officer. In this place they are
BESIEGERS, tlie army that lays generally restricted to bread and water.
siege o a lortified plate. BLANKETS, are made of coarse paper
BESI L. GED, the garrison that defends steeped in a solution of saltpetre, and
the place against the army that lays siege when dry are again dipt in a composition
to it. .See Sif.ce. ot tallow, resin, and sulphur. They are
To BETRAY, to deliver perfidiously us d only in fire-ships.

any place or body of troops into the hands BLAST, andBLASTING. SeeJVIiNE
ef the enemy. To discover that which and Mining.
has been entrusted to secrecy. BLI N DS, in military affairs, are wood*
BETTY, a machine used for forcing en frames, composed of 4 p.eces, either
open gates o: doors. See Petard. flat or round, t-o of which are 6 teet
BICOO.UE, Fr. a term used in France long, and the others 3 or 4 feet, which
to signify a place ill-fortified and incapa serve as spars to fasten the two first toge
ble of much defence It is derived from ther : the longest are pointed at both ends,
a place on the road between Lodi and Mi and the two others are fastened towards
lan, which was originally a gentleman's the extremities of the former, at about 10
or 12 inches from their
country house surrounded by ditches. In points, the whole
(he year 152a, a body of Imperial troops forming a rectangular parallelogram, the
were stationed in it, and stood the attack Ion/; sides of which project beyond the
of the whole French army, during the other about io or 12 inches. Their use is
reign of Francis I This engagement was
. to fix them either upright, or in a vertical
calied the battle of Biceque. position, against the sides of the trenches
BILBO, a rapier, or small sword, was or
saps, to sustain the earth. Their
formerly so' called: from Biiboain Spair, points at the bottom serve to fix them in.
where excellent swords are made. the earth, and those at top to hold the,
BILL or Bill-Hook, a smallhatchet fascines that are placed upon them ; so
used for cutting waod for fascines, ga that the sa,< or trench is formed into a
bions, bavins, &c. kind of covered gallery, to secure the
BILLET, m England is a ticket for troops from stones andsrenades.
quartering soldiers, which intitles each The term Blind is also used to express a
soldier, by act 01 parliament, to candles, kind of hurdle, made of the branches of
vinegar, and salt, with the use of fire, trees, behind which the soldiers, miners,
and the necessary utensils for dressing and or labourers,
may carry on their work
eating their meat. The allowance of without being seen. See Hurdle.
small beer has been added by a late regu Blinds arc sometimes only canvas
lation. stretched toobstruct the sight of the ene
BILLET de logement, Fr. a billet for my Sometimes they are planks set up,
quarters. This billet or ticket was for for which see Mantlet. Sometimes
merly delivered out to the French troops they arc made of a kind of coarse ba.ket-
ii|)Oii the same general principles that it is vvork ; see Gabions. Sometimes of
issued in England. barrels, or sacks filled with earth. In
Billeting, in the army, implies the short, they signify any thing that covers
quartering soldiers In the houses of any the labourers from the enemy.
town or village. Blind. See Orillon and Forti
BINACLE, a telescope with 2 tubes, fication.
so constructed, that a distant object misfit BLOCKADE, ) in military affairs,
be seen with both eyes,
rarelyi.ow ued. BLOCKADING, $ implies the sur
LI.YQVAC, Biovac, Biouvac, or
rounding a place with different bodice ot
BOA BOM 55

troops, who shut up all the avenues on BOAT.


See Advice-Boat, Pontoon.
every side, and prevent every thing from Boat, Sec.
going in or out of the place ; this is usu-
j
BODY, in the art of war, is a number
ally effected by means of the cavalry. ] of forces, horse or foot, united and march.
The design of the blockade is to oblige ing under one commander.
those who are shut up in the town, to Main Body of an army, sometimes
consume all their provisions, and by that means the troops encamped in the center
means to compel them to surrender for between the two wings, and generally
want of subsistence. consists of infantry. The main body on
Hence it appears that a blockade must a march, signifies the whole of the ar
last a iong time, when a place is well pro my, exclusive of the van and rear-guard.
vided with necessaries ; for which reason Boo y of a Reserve. See Reserve.
this method of Body of a place, is, generally speaking,
reducing a town is seldom
taken, but wherf there is reason to believe the buildings in a fortified town; yet the
the magazines arc unprovided, or some inclosure round them is generally under*
times when the nature or situation of the stood by it.
place permits not the approaches to be BO IS de remontage, Fr. every specie:,
made, which are necessary te attack it in of timber which is used to new mount
the usual way cannon, or refit ammunition waggons,
Maritime towns, which have a port, &c.
are in much the same case as other towns, Bo is de chauffage, Fr. the fuel which
when their port can be blocked up, and is distributed among French troops.
the besiegers are masters of the sea, and BOLT, an iron pin used for strength
can prevent succours from
being convey ening a piece of timben, or for fastening
ed tiiat way into the place. two or more articles together. Bolts in
To Blockade, or to block up a place, gunnery, being of several sorts, admit of
is to" shut up all the avenues, so tiiat it various denominations, which arise from
cannot receive any relief either of men or the specific application of them, as
provisions, &c. I. Eye
To raise a Blockade, is to march 2. Joint
from bafore a place, and leave it free and 3- Transom
open as before. 4- Bed
To turn a siege into a Blockade, is to <;. Breeching > Bolts.
desist from a regular method of besieging, 6. Bracket
and to surround the place with those 7. Stool, bed
troops who had formed the siege. 8. Garnish
To form a Blockade, is to surround 9- Axle tree
the place with troops, and hinder any 0. Bolster
thing from going in or coming out. See Shell.
A new species of Blockade has been Chest. See Caisson.
BOMB
discovered during the French Revolution, Vessels, ) small vessels,
a blockade
by proclamation {. Ketches, $ made very strong
BLOC US, Fr. See Blockade. with large beams, particularly calcula
BLOCK battery, in gunnery, a wooden ted for throwing shells into a town, cas*
battery for two or more small pieces, tie, or fortification, from 13 and 10-mch
mounted on wheels, and moveable from mortars ; two of which are placed on
place to place : very ready to tire en bar- board of each ship. They are said to
bet, in the galleries and casemates, Sec. have been invented by M. keyneau, a
where room is wanted. Frenchman, and to h-ve been first put in
Bi.ocK-hou.-e, in the military art, a action at the bombardment of Algiers ifl
Kind of wooden fort or fortification, some 1681 : t.U then it had been judged im
times mounted on rollers, or on a fiat-bot- practicable to bombard a place from the
toine.i vessel,
serving either on the lakes sea.
r rivers, or in
counter-scarps and couuttr- Bomb Ketch. The old boinb-kctchcj
approaches. This name is sometimes carried one 13. inch and 1 10-iiich mortar;
giten to a brick or stone building on a with 8 six-pounders, beridesswivels, for
bridge, or the brink of a river, serving not their own immediate detence.
j drr.i The ino-
only for its defence, but for the command f| bomb- vei .els earn 2 10-inch moi tars
of the river, both above and below. 4 68-poiuu;ers, and 6 18-poundcrs carro-
BLUNDERBUSS, a well known fire- Jl nades ; and tm morars u.ay be fired at as
arm, consisting of a wide, shorr,-rvjt very li low an angle as 20 degrees ; though these
large bore, capable of holding a number of il mortars arc not intended to be u^idai sej

musquet or pistol odV , very fit fordoing ; rmt on very particular occasions; their
great execution in a croud, making good >| principal intention, at these low angles.
ananow
passage, defending tie door of a | being to cover the landing of troops, aivi
!j
house, stair-case, &c. or repelling an at- protect coasts and harbours. A bornb-
ketch is generally from 60 to 70 ieet lon
tempt to board a ship.
BOARD of Ordnance. See Ordnance, from stem to stern, and draws 8 or 9 feet,
j
Board, also implies an office under water. The tender is generally a hi,., on
t*he toverninent, where the affairs of some board if which the party ot artiiicr> re
||
departments ...e transacted ; of which main, till t.icir services are required on
rherc ax.- sever-! sorts in England. board the bomb-vex.?*.
ae*

56 BOM BOM

.Instructions for their Management and Secu


rity in Action, Proportion of Ordnance, x.~5
A Dutch pump, filled with water,
i. &c. for a Bomb Vessel. "S^
must be placed in each round- 4;
top, one (Continued.) s
upon the forecastle, one on the main-deck,
and one on the and fur
quarter-deck; Spunges, with ram. heads 4

nished with leather buckets, for a fresh Handscrews, small -. .

dipply of water. Handerow levers


6 feet
4
2. The buoms must be weted by the 6
Handsp.kes, common -

pumps before the tarpaulins and mortar- Lins-ocks, with cocks -


4
hatches are taken off; and a w.iouen Powder horns, new

4
pat.
skreen, 5 feet square, is to be hung under | Match -
cwts .

the booms, over each mortar, to receive Marlme skeins


j -

the fire from the vents.


1 Budge bar. cop hooped
3. The embrasures bein; fixed and Lanthorns, Muscovy
properly secured, the oort must be let d.rk - -

down low enou h to b covered by the Carronades, 68 Prs.


sole of the embrasure. Previous to its 18 Prs. 6

being let down, a e,per must be lashed ha vine, sliding carriages,


across it, to wh;ch the tackles for raising
elevating screws, spun
jt again must be fixed ; this s,,ar s rves to rammers &c. com
ges,
project the tackles clear of the explo plete
sion. Gun tackles, complete
4. The mortars must not be fired for
.

traversing- mortars,
through the embrasures at a lower angle 12 Prs. 4
4
than 20 aegrees, nor with a greater charge
Wads, 68 Prs. - - -

270 270 54o


than 5 lbs. of powder. 18 Prs. 180 660
- - -
480
5. Previous to firing, the doors of the . .
<, Bright
.

bulkhead, under the quarter-deck, must Musquets ^ m^k _ 3 _


3.
be shut, to prevent the cabin being injur
Pistols, pairs - - -
i*

15
ed by the explosion. Sword* - - - - -
40 40
6. The bed must be wedged in the Pole axes - -
- -
6 _
6
circular curb, as soon as the mortar is ! Pikes -----
40

40
pointed, to prevent re-actioe ; the first ! Musquetoons - - -
2
2
wedge being driven tight, before the rear I Fhnts, musquet - -

900

900
ones are fixed, in order to give the full
pistol - - -
150

150
bearing on the table, as well as the rear of
'

Ball cartridges, musq. 2000


2000
the bed. The holes for dog-bolts must 2000 2oOO
pistoi -

be corked up, to prevent the sparks falling 1 Shot, musq. cwt.qr.lb. 1. 0.0
1 .0-0
into them.
pistol 1.0.0
] .0-0
7. When any shells are to be used on
'
fixed, roin. Round car 48 J-.2 200
board the bomb, they must be fixed on !' Empty shells, 10 inch. 48 352 400
bo2rd the tender, and brought from thence Iron shot, 1 lb. -
- 1000 40OO 50OO
in boxes in her long-boat ; and kept along Fixed shells, 10 inch 48 -

48
\s':de the bomb-ship till wanted, carefully Case shot, 68 Prs. cat . 20 20 40
covered up.
6. In the old constructed bomb- vessels
\ Emp. sh. 8 in for car. 52 I OCT l52
Shot, round, 68 Prs. 5 10 100
it was necessary to hoist out the boom s, and Carcasses do. 68 Prs.
96 104 2C0
raft them along side previous to firing ; 18 Prs.
Shot, round, 3co 300
but in these new ones, wiih embrasures, Case shot, 18 Prs. 60
3 3
the'boats need be hoisted out ; after
only Carcas. do. fix. 18 Prs. 150 150 300
which the mortars may be prepared for Hand
shells, fixed, sea

action in 10 minutes. service 150 '5


proportion of Ordnance and Ammunition for Fuzes ior do. Spare 15
a Bnvib Ship,
carrying two 10 inch Mor Pap. cov. tor cart. 10 in. ic6 6og 715
tars, to fire at law angles, and at 45 de 68Pr. 293 301 594
18 Pr
grees, Jour 68 Prs. and six i3 Prs. Catro- 2.SB 198 456
nadet. Flan, cartridg. ") to hold
emp. for 10 >
5 lb. ic6 106
in. mor. 'do.io.Pj).
6co 6c y
Flan, cartridg. ) to hold
KINDS,
emp. for 68 5 10. 293 15'
Prs. car. j 110.4 lb 150 S 59--I
0=) Flan.iel cartridges, erap.
Mi'rtai's. sea service, with for 18 Prs. to hold
Sec. 10 inch
Beds, 1* lbs. 528 148 6;6
for do. 2 for 450 Paper cartridges for
Quoins 4
_
4

for 20u elevation
2 bursting, 10 inches,
Cap-qiures, with keys, empty,
35-
&.c. spar - - - -
Paper cartridges, for
H .d.plke.Jar-e - - -. 4 bursting, 8 inches,
empty
IOO I'V"
BOM BON 57

called the military projectile : hence a


mortar, whose trunnions are placed as
proportion of Ordnance, -2?;^ the breech, can have no point-blank
firr. for a Bomb Vessel. $. ^

range. Mortars should be so contrived,


*"
(Continued.) | that they may be elevated to any degree
B3_
filled required, as much preferable to those fix
Faper cartridges ed at an angle of 45* ; because sheila
witii2lb. to oz for io
should never be thrown at thi-t angle but
inch. - - - -
48 -
48
in one single case only, which seldom
-

o. fillod with l lb. 14


52 52 happens; that is, when the battery is so

oz. for 8 inch


far off, that they cannot otherwise reach
Fuzes, drove. 10 men. 52 388 44*
the works : for when shells are thrown
8 -

57 1 10 166
from the trenches into the works of a for
f~2oo for 10 inch. 1

tification, or from the town into the tren


e 2 I sh-lls ar 140Z. > 75 75
ches, they should have as little elevation
f~ j each, lbs. j
as
possible, in order to roll along, and nob
So. > 768 for io
inch.p 42 42 bury themselves ; whereby the damagi
s|
*
|
u
shells, at 9
L
each, lbs.
oz
J they d</, and the terror they cause to the
Tube boxes, tin - -

12 troops, is much greater than if they sink
into the ground On the contrary, when
Fuze composition, for 10
shells are thrown upon magazines, or any
primin-. carcasses, lbs. 10
6 6 other buildings, with an intention to de
Powder bags - - - -

Portfires - - - - - 200 200 stroy them, the mortar should be elevaU


20 ed as high as possible, that the shells may
Quick match, cotton, lbs. 2o
acquire a greater force in their fall
gals. 4
Spirits of wine, 80 Shells should be I aded with no more)
Kitt lbs. 80
to burst them
Bottoms of wood, 10 in. 40 5 powder than is requisite
2
into the greatest number of pieces, and
2
Signal rockets, 1 lb. doz. the length of the fuzes should be exact
Blue lights, do 3 3
for the mor ly calculated according to th-- required
Gunpowder ranges ; for, should the fuze set fire to the
and carronades,
tars 7a 150 222
half barrels powder in the shell, before it fal's on the
Powder for priming, do.
I place intended, the shell will burst in the
burst ng, do. _-
28 28 air, and probably do more mischief to
those who fired the mortar, than to those
with all the small arti
cles which 'isually at
against whom it was discharged. To pre
vent this, the fuzes art divided into as
tend mortars on every the greatest range re
many seconds as
service, and the arti may be cut to any
cles necessary tor the quires, consequentl)
service ol carronades uistance, at an elevation of 45 degrees.
Mortars are not to be fired with two
at sea.
fires ; for when the fuze is properly fix
Laboratory chests, 4 ft.
ed, and both tuze and shell dredged with
,
3 -ft' mealed, powder, the blast of the powder
Handpumps for wetting in the chamber of the mortar, when in
the rigging, &c. 6
flamed by the tube, will likewise set fire
Leather buckets - -
24
10 th-.- f ize fixrd ii. the shell.

Bomb Tender, a small vessel of war la


j BOMBARDIERS, artillery soldiers*
in mortar and howitzer who employed
den with ammunition for the bomb-ket h, j are

and from which the latter is constantly 1duty. Theyareto Load t hem on all occa
supplied. sions ; and in most services they load the
BOMBARD, an ancient piece of ord- j shells and grenades, fix the fuzes, pre
nance, so called, very short, and very pare the composition both for fuzes and
thick, with an uncommon large bon.. tubes, and fire both mortars and howitzers
,

There have been bombards which have I on every accasion In the English ser
thrown a ball or shell of 300 weight : vice, snells and grenades, composition for
in the
they made use of cranes to load them. the same, fuzes, Sec. are prepared
The Turk;; use some ol them a piesent. laboratory by people well-skilled in thas
To BOMBARD, ) the act of as- business.
B0MBARD1NG, S-saulting a city In most ther armies both officers and .

BOMBARDMENT,) or fortrs, by soldiers belonging the companies ol;


to

throwing shells into it in order to set fire bombardiers, have extraordinary pay,
an

to and ruin the houses, churches, maga- as it


requires mathematical
more learn
of
zincs, &c. and to do other mischief. As ing to throw shells with some decree
one of the effects of the siiel! results from exactness, than is iequisite tor the rest
its weighs, it is never discharged as a ball of the artillery. In the British service 4
from a cannon, that is, by pointing it at a specific number is attached to each com
pany of artillery, and uo not form
a sepa*
certain object : but the mortars are fixed
at an elev<tuon of or about 45 degrees; rate corps as in ot!.ercouUries.
that is,inclined so many degrees frum the BON AVOG LI E, Fr. a man that for
horizon, that the shell desenbesa curve, 1 K
58 BOS BOU

a certain consideration voluntarily engages BOSSE, Fr. a term used in the French
to row. artillery, to express a glass bottle which
BONNET, in fortification, implies a is very thin, contains four or five pounds
small but useful work, that greatly an of powder, and round the neck ot which
noys the enemy in their lodgments. This four or five matches are hung under, af
work consists of two faces, which make; ter it has been well-corked. A cord, two
a salient angle in the nature of a ravelin, or three feet in length, is tied to the bot

without any ditch, having only a parapet tle, which serves to throw it. The in
the bottle breaks, the^ powder
3 feet high, and worn feet broad. They
stant

are made at the salient angles of the glacis,


catches fire, and every thing within the
immediate effects of the explosion is de
outworks, and bod' of the place, beyond
the counterscarp, and in the faussebray. stroyed.
See Fortification. BOTTES, Fr. boots.
Bonnet a Pretre, or Priest's Cap, in Grosses Bottes, .fr. jack-boots.
fortification, is an outwork, having three BOTTINE, Fr. half-boots worn by
salient and two inward angles, and dif the hussars and dragoons in foreign ar
fers from the double tenaille only in hav mies.
ing its sides incline inwards tr wards the BOUCHE, Fr. means the aperture or
tenailL are pa mouth of a piece of ordnance, that of a
gorge, and those of a double
rallel toeachother. See Fort ification. mortar, of the barrel of a musket, andof
BORDER, in military diawings, im every species of firt-arms from which a
bailor bullet is discharged.
plies single or double lines, or any other
ornament, round a drawing, &c. BOUCHES a fou, Fr. is generally
BOOKS. There are differ nt books used to signify pieces of ordnance.
made use of in the army, for the specific BOULER la Matiere, Fr. to stir up
the different metals which are used in
purposes of general and regimental eco
nomy. casting cannon.
The general orderly Book is kept by the BOULETS a deux teles, chain-shot.
brigade major, from which the leading j; BOULEVART, Fr. formerly meant
orders of regiments, conveying the parole a bastion. It is no longer used as a mili
and countersign, are always taken. tary ph ase, although it sometimes oc
The regimental orderly Book contains the in the description of works or lines
curs

peculiar instructions of corps which are which cover a whole


countiy, and pro
given by a colonel or commanding officer tect it from the incursions ot an enemy.
to the adjutant
hence adjutant's orderly Thus Strasburgh and Landau maybe
i

Book
and from him to the serjeant- |! called two principal boulevarts or bul-
;
major, who delivers the same to the dif- warks, by which France is protected on
ferent Serjeants of companies assembled ;] this side of the Rhine.
in the orderly room for that purpose :i

The elevated line or rampart which
hence the company's orderly Book. ;| reaches from the Champs Elysees in
The regimental Book is kept by the || Paris beyond the spot wtoere the bastille
clerk of the regiment, and contains all j vvas destroyed in 1789, is stiled the Bou-
the records, &c. belonging to the corps. levart.
The Company Book, is kept by the In ancient times, when the Romans
commanding officer of every company ; attacked any place, they raised boulevarts
and contains returns of all incidents and near the circumference of the walls. These
payments. boulevaits weie 80 feet hi).h, 300 feet
The black Book is a sort of memoran broad, upon which wcodtn. towers com
dum which is kept in every regiment, to manding the ramparts were erected co
describe the character ana conduct of vered on all sides with iron-work, and
non-commissioned officers and soldiers ; from which the besiegers threw upon the
when and how often they have been re besieged stones, darts, fire-works, Sec.
duced or punished, &c. to facilitate the approaches of the archers

Every quarter-master belonging to the and battering rams,


cavalry and infantry, has likewise a book BOULINER, Fr. a French military
which may not improperly oe called a phrase. Bouliner dans un to
tamp, means
book or inventory of regimental stores, steal or pilfer in a camp. Un soldat bou.
&c. lineur, signifies a thief.
Practice Book. Every officer of the BOURGU1GNOTE, Fr. Is a hel
artillery ought to have a book in which met or morion which is usually worn
he should note every useful fact that with a breast-plate. It is prooi against
occurs 111 practice. pikes and s^oras.
BOOM, in marine fortification, is a BOURRELET, Fr. the extremity of
long piece of timber, with which rivers a piece of ord ante towards its mouth. It
or harbors are stopped, to prevent the is usually cast in the
shape of a tulip on
enemy's coming in : it is sometimes done account ot its aptm de to fit the construc
by a cable or chain, and floated with tion ot embrasures. Bourrclet means like
yards, topmasts, or spars of wood lashed wise a pud or collar.
to it. BOURRBR, tr. to ram the wad or
BORE, in gunnery, implies the cavity any other materials into the barrel of a
of the barrel of a gun, mortat, howitzer, fire-arm.
ol any other piece of ordnance..
BOX BRA 59

BOURRIQUET, Fr. a basket made confined to a few inches, and does not ex
useof in mining, to draw up the earth, ceed the following numbers.
and to let down whatever may be neces Table of general dimensions of Ammu
sary for the miner. nition Boxes.
BOUSSOLE, Fr. a compass which
every miner nust be in possession of to Exteror. Weight
direct him in his work. when
Len Bre. | Doth. empty.
BOUTE-SELLE, Fr. the signal or
word which 's given to the cavalry to sad ft. in. fr. in. it. in. lbs.
dle their horses. From 2 2 0 10 0 8 20
BOUT ON, Fr. the sight of a mus- To 2
9 1 6 1 6 10
qu t. when
BOW, an ancient weapon of offence, Weight filled, and number con
tained in each.
made of steel, wood, or other elastic mat
ter; which, after being bent by means of
a string fastened to its two
ends, in re
turning to its natural state, throws out
an arrow with
prodigious force.
The use of the bow is, without all
doubt, of the earliest antiquity. It has
likewise been the most universal of all
weapons, having obtained amongst the
most barbarous and remote
people, who
had the least communication with the
"rest of mankind.
The bow is a weapon of offence amongst
th? inhab -ants of Asia, Africa, and Ame
rica, at this day ; and in Europe, before
the invention of fire-arms, a part of the
infantry was armed with bows. Lewis
XII. first abolished the use of them in
France, intrjducing, in their stead, the
halbert, pike, and broadsword. The long
bow was formerly in great use in Eng
land, and many laws were made to en
courage the use of it. The parliament
under Henry VII. complained of the dis
use of lung bows, theretofore the safe

guard and defer ce of that kingdom, and


the dread and terror of its enemies.
Crow-Bow, is likewise an ancient wea
pon of offence-, of the eleventh century.
Philip II. surnamed the Conqueror, in * Shells
called four and
troduced cross-bows into France. In an half, are really four and
two-fift.s.
this reign Richard I. of England, was
killed by a cross-bow at the siege of The common ammunition waggon will
Chalus. hold from q to 13 of these boxes in one
BOWMAN. See Archer. tier.
BOWYER. The man who made or The tonnage of ammunition in boxes is
repaired the military bows was so cafed. equal to its weight : about 12 boxes make
BOXES, in military affairs, are of se one ton.
veral sorts, and for various purposes. BOYAU, in fortification, is a
parti
Baitery-Boxzt. See Battery. cular trench separated from the
others,
Cartouch- Boxes. See Cartouch. which, in winding about, incloses differ
Nave Boxes, are made of iron or brass, ent spaces of ground, and runs parallel
and fastened one at each end of the nave, to with the works of the place, that it may
prevent the arms of the axle. tree, about not be enfiladed. When two attacks are
which the boxes turn, from causing too made at once, one near to the other, the
much friction. boyau makes a communication between
77.z-Boxes, such as are filled with the trenches, and serves as a line of con-
small s.iot for grape, according to the size travailation, not only to hinder the sallies
of the gun they are to be fired out of. of the besieged, but likewise to secure
Wood-BoxLs, with lids, for holding the miners.
grape-shot, &c. each calibre hasitsow;i, BRACES, in a military sense, are a
distinguished by marks of the calibre on kind of armor for the arm : they were for
the lid. merly a part of a coat of mail.
Boxes for .Ammunition. The dimen BRACKETS, in gunnery, are the
sions of the common ammunition boxes cheeks of the travelling carriage of a mor
vary according to the ammunition they tar; they are made of strong wooden
are made to contain, in order that it
may planks This name is also given to that
pack tight: this variation, however, is part of a large mortar-bed, where the
60 BRE BR I

trunnions are placed, for the elevation of BREAK off,used when cavalry
a term
the mortar : they
sometimes made of
are
j or ordered to diminish it
infantry are
wood, anu more frequently of iron, of : front. It is also used to signify wheeling
almost a semicircular figure, well fasten from line ; as b r 1 a k 1 n c -off to the left,
ed wth nails and sirong plates. for wheeling to th- left.
BRANCH. See Mir* and Gal- BREAK-Grw...... the first opening of
IERY. I the earth to form entrenchments, as at
BRAND, an ancient term for a sword; the commencement of a siege. It
applies
60 called the Saxons.
by '.also to tr>e striking of tents and quitting
:
BRAQUER, Fr. is improperly used the ground on which any troops had been
to express the movement of a cannon to encamped.
any particular side. The correct ex- To Break ground, to begin, to open
is, to point the cannon, painter and work at the trenches in a siege, &c.
Jiression
t canon. BREAST PLATE, in military an
BRASSARTS, Fr. thin platcsof beat tiquity, a piece of defensive armor worn
en iron which w.re used 1
on the breast or both men and horses.
anciently to
cover the arms above the coat of mail. They are b-t seldom used now
Brassarts and cuirasses were worn in B e a s r-work See Parapet. .

the days of St. Louis. BREECH of a gun, the end near the
BRASSER la Matiere, Fr. to mix the I vent. See Cannon.
different ingredients which are required BREVET rank, is a rank in the army
for the making of gunpowder or other higher than that for which yov receive
combustible matter. pay ; and gives a precedence (when coips
BREACH, in fortification, a gap, or { are brigaded] to the date of the -brevet
opening, in any part of the works of a j commission.
fortified plae, made by the anllery or Brevet, Fr. commission, appoint.
mires of the besiegers, preparatory to the mmt. Under the old government of
making an assault. France it consisted in letters or appoint
The batteries to make a breach, should ments signed by the king, by virtue of
commence by marking out as near as pos. which every officer was authorised to
sible, the extent of the breach intended to discharge his particular duty. All of
be made ; first, by r. horizontal line with ficers in the old French service, from a
in a fathom of the bottom of the revete-
ment in a dry ditch, and close to the wa
ter's edge in a wet one ; and then by lines
perpendicular to this line, at short dis
i
,
cornet or sub-lieutenant up to a mar
shal of France were stiled OJpciers a
Brevet.
Brevet d' Assurance ou de Retenue
tances from each other, as high as the d' Argent, Fr. certain military and civil
cordon ; then, by continuing to deepen appointments granted by the old kings of
all these cuts, the wall will give way in France, which were distinguished from
a body. The guns to produce the great* st other places of trust, in as much as every
successor was obliged to pay a certain
effect should be fired as near as possible
in salvos or vollies. The breach should sum of money to the heirs of the deceas-

be one third the length of the face, from ed, or for the discharge of bis debts.
j
the centre towards the flanked angle. Hence the term brevet d' Assurance ou de
I
When the wall has given way, the firing retenue.
must be continued to make the slope of I BRICKS, in military architecture,
the breach practicable. I1 supply the place of stone in common
Four 24 pounders from the lodgement buildings, and are composed of an earthy
in the covert way will effect a breach in 4 matter, hardened by art, to a resem
which be made blance of that kind : they may be very
or 5 days, may practi
cable in 3 days more. well considered as artificial stone. The
Another way of making a breach is by Greeks and Romans, &c. generally
used bricks in their witness
piercing the wah sufficiently to admit two | the Pantheoi:, &c. In buildings,
the east they bak
or three miners, who cross the ditch, and
the sun. The Romans
make their entry during the night into the ed their bricks in
I first left them
wall, where they establish two or three used them unbuint, having
small mines, sufficient to make a breach. ! to dry in the air for 3, 4, or 5 years.
See Artillery at Siege; see also Bat- The best hticks must not be made of
TIRY. any earth that abounds with sand or gra
To repair a Breach, is to stop or fill vel, nor of such as is gritty or stony ; but
Sec. of a greyish marie, or yellow clay, or at
up fie gap with gabions, fascines, least ot reddish earth. But if there is a
and prevent the assault.
To fortify a Breach, is to render it necessity to use that which is sandy,
choice should be made of that which is
inaccessible by means of chevaux-de-
frize, crow's-feet, &c. tough and strong.
The best season for making bricks is
To make a lodgment in the Breach.
the spring ; because they are subject to
After the besieged are driven away, the
crack, when made in tne summer : the
besiegers secure themselves against any loam should be well steeped or soaked,
future attack in the breach. and wrought with water. They are shap
To elear the Brbach, that is, to
re
in
move the ruins, that it may
be the better ed in a mould, and, after some drying
defended.
BR I B R I 61

the sun or air, are burnt to a hardness. tight; and the anchors, if necessary, car
TRhis is our manner of making bricks; ried out, up the stream, and fixed to the
but whether they were always made in cable or sheer line across the river. One
this manner admits a doubt. We are not of thf chess-es is then laid or. the edge of
lear what was the us:, of straw in the the bank, at each end of the bridge, bot
bricks for building in Egypt, or why in tom up ; these serve to lay the ends of
some
part of Germany they mix saw-dust the baulks upon, and as a direction for
in their clay for bricks. placing them at the proper distances, to
.
We are in general tied down bv custom fit the chesses hat cover the bridge. The
to one form, and one size ; which is truly baulks sh'-uld then be laid across the
ridiculous : 8 or 9 inches in length, and 4 boats, and keyed together: their numbers
in breadth, is the general measure : but proportioned to the strength required in
beyond doubt there might be other forms, the bridge. If the gangboards are laid
and other sizes, introduced very advan across the heads and
stejjas of the boats
tageously. from one side of the river to the other,
Compass Bricks, areof a circular form ; they will give the men a foo ing for doing
their use is for steeningof walls ; we have the rest of the work, 'cross the baulks
also concave, and semi-cylindrical, used are laid the chesses, one after another, the

for dirtcrent purposes. edges to meet ; and the baulks running be


Grey-Stocks, are made of the purest tween the cross pieces on the under side
earth, and better wrought: they are us.-d of the chesses. The ga igboards ate thmi
in front in building, being the strongest laid across the ends of the chesses on each
and handsomest of this kind. edge of the bridge.
PIucc-Bricks, are made of the same Precautions for passing a bridge of
earth, or worse, and being carelessly put boats.
out of hand, therefore weaker and
are Whatever size the bridge may be, in
more brittle, and only used out of
are
fantry should never be allowed to pass at
sight, and where little stress is laid on the same time with carriages or cavalry.
them. The carriages should always move at a
Red Stocks, are made of a particular certain distance behind each other, that
earth, well wrought, and little injured the bridge may not be shook, by being
by mixtures : they are used in fine work, overloaded. The horses should not be
and ornaments. allowed to trot over the bridge ; and the
Hedgerly-B ricks, are made of a
yel cavalry should dismount and lead their
lowish colored loam, very hard to the horses over. Large flocks of cattle must
touch, containing a great quantity of not be allowed to cross at once.
sand : their particular excellence is, that For the dimensions, weight, and equi
they will bear the greatest violence of fire page of a pontoon, see the word Pontoon.
without hurt. When bridges are made to facilitate the
BRICOLE, an improved kind of traces communication between dirierent parts of
used oy the French in drawing and ma the approaches at a siege, they should,
noeuvring artillery ; analogous to the old if possible, be placed above the town;
drag rope, but having the addition of a or the besieged will take advantage of the
leather strap or girdle with a buckle, to current to float down large trees, or other
which the drag is affixed; and an iron bodies, in order to destroy the bridge.
ring and hook at the end to drag by. Two of such bridges should always be
BRIDGES. Manner of laying a pon placed close to each other, in order to pre
toon bridge across a river. vent the confusion ot crossing and recross-
'The bank on each side, where the ends ing on the same bridge; the one being
of the bridge are to be, must be made intended to pass over one way, and the
solid and* firm, by means of" fascines, or other to return. Pontoon oridges will
otherwise. One end of the cable must generally net su; port a greater weight
be carried across the river; and being fixed than 4 or 5,000 pounds. Pontoon-, when
to a picket, any thing firm,
or must be united as a bridge, will no doubt bear
drawn tight by means of acapstan, across more in proportion, than when acted
where the heads of the boats are to be upon separately : but the weight which
ranged. Tlie boats are then launched, a
pontoon will bear may be easily ascer
having on board each two men, and the tained, by loading it with water till it
necessary ropes, Sec. and are floated down sinks to any required depth, and then by
the stream, under the cable, to which calculating the number of cubic feet of
they are lashed endwise, by tne rings and water it contains, ascertain the number of
small ropes, at equal distances, and about pounds required to sink it to that par
their own breadth asunder ; more or less, ticular derth.
according to the strength required. If Bridges, in military affairs, are of
the river be very rapid, a second cable several sorts and denominations, viz.
must be stretched across it, parallel to Rusb-BmDGis, are made of large bun
the first, and at the distance of the length dles of rushes, bound fast together, over
of the boats ; and to which the other which planks are laid, and fastened :
ends of the boats must be lashed. The these are put in marshy places, for an
spring lines are then lashed diagonally army to pass over on any emergency.
from one boat to the other, to brace them Pendant or hanging B a 1 u c t s , are those
62 B RI BRI

not supported by posts, pillars, or hut ! middle of the stream or chief current may
ments, but hung at large in the air, sus I flow freely without interruption of a pier ;
tained only at the two ends ; as the new I or that the two halves of the bridge, by
bridge at the Falls of Schuylkill, five I gradually rising from the ends to the
miles from Philadelphia, 1809. j middle, may there meet in the highest
Draw- Bridge, that which is fastened i and largest arch ; or else, for the sake of
with hinges at one end only, so that the : grace, that
by being open in the middle,
other may be drawn up (in which case [the eye inthere viewing it may look directly
the bridge is almost perpendicular) to through as we always expect tq

hinder the passage of a ditch, &c. There ' ;doin looking at it, and without which
are others made to draw back and hinder opening we
generally feel a disappointment
the passage ; and some that open in the in viewing it.
middle; one half of which turns away I If the bridge be equally high through
to one side, aqjl the other half to the out, the arches, being all of a height, are
other, and both again join at pleasure made a 1 of a size, which causes a great
Flying-Bu iogk, is generally made of 1 saving of centering. If the bridge be
'
two small bridges, laid one over the higher in the middle than at the ends, let
other, in such a manner that the upper . the arches decrease from the middle 10-
most stretches, and runs out by the help ! wards each end, but so that each half
of certain cords running through pullies ; have the arches exactly alike, and that
placed along the sides of the upper bridge, ,they decrease in span proportionally to
which push it forwards, till the end of it their height, so as to be always the same
'
joins the place it is intended to be fixed kind of figure. Bridges should rather be
of many and
on. They are frequently used to surprise j of few and large arch s, thanand situation
works, or out-posts that have but nar small ones, if the height
row ditches. There is a curious bridge I will allow of it.
of this kind on the Ohio, worthy of at Names of all the terms, peculiar to
| &c.
tention. Bridges,
Bridge of boats, is a number of com 1 See Butments.
Abutment.
mon boats joined parallel to each other, I Arch,opening of a bridge, through
an

at the distance of 6 feet, till they reach or under which the water, &c. passes,
across the river ; which being covered and which is supported by piers or but
with strong planks, and fastened with ments. Arches are denominated circular,
anchors and ropes, the troops march elliptical, cycloidal, catemarian, equili-
over. brial, gothic, Sec. according to their figure
Bridge of communication, is that made or curve.

over a river, by which two armies, or Archivolt, the curve or line formed by
forts, which are separated by that river, the upper sides of the voussoirs or arch-
have a free communication with one stones. It is parallel to the intrados or
another. under side of the arch when the vous
Floating-BniDCt, bridge made use
a soirs are all of the same length ; otherwise
pf in form of a work in fortification called not.
a redoubt ; consisting of two boats, co By the archivolt is also sometimes un
vered with planks, which are solidly derstood the whole set of voussoirs
framed, so as to bear either horse or ar Banquet, the raised foot-path at the
tillery. Bridges of this kind are frequently sides of the bridge next the parapet : it is
used. generally raised about a foot above the
Floating bridges made of large logs of middle or horse- passage, and 3, 4, 5, 6,
light timber bound together with a floor or 7, &c. feet broad, according to the size

along them arc common in the United of the bridge, and paved with large stones,
States. whose length is equal to the breadth of
Pef0-BRiDGE, a number of tin or the walk.
copper boats placed at the distance of 7 Battardeau, or ^ a case of piling, Sec,
or 8 feet asunder, each fastened with an Coffer-dam, ) without a bottom,
anchor, or a strong rope that goes across fixed in the river, water-tight or nearly
the river, running through the rings of so, by which to lay the bottom dry for a
the pontons. They are covered with space large enough to build the pier on.
baulks, and then with chests or planks, When it is fixed, its sides reaching above
for the army to march over. See Pon the level of the water, the water is pump
ton. ed out of it, or drawn off by engines, &c.
Cask, or Barrel Bridge, a number ot till the space be dry ; and it is kept so by,
empty casks that support
baulks and j the same means, until the pier is built up
in it, and then the materials of it are
planks, made as above into a bridge, drawn up again. Battardeaux are made
where pontons, wanting. Expe
&c. are

rience has taught us that 5 ton of empty in various manners, either by a single in-
casks will support above water 9000 closure, or by a double one, with clay or
chalk rammed in between the two, to
pounds: hence any calculation may be
made. prevent the water from coming through
Bridges are made of carpentry or ma. the sides : and these mclosures are also
The number of arches of a bridge made either with piles only, driven close
sonry .

is generally made odd; either that the ] by one another, and sometimes notched
BR I B R I 63

or dove-tailed into each other, or with the arch is completed, that foundation is
piles grooved in thesides driven in at a struck from under it, to make way for
distance from one another, and boards let the water and navigation, and then the
down between them in the grooves. arch will stand of itself from its curved
Butments, are the extremities of a bridge, figure. The centre must be constructed
by whicn it j.'ins to, or abuts upon, the of the exact figure of the intended arch,
land, or sides of the riv.r, &c. convex, as the arch is concave, to receive
These must be made very secure, quite it on as a mould. If the form be circu
immoveable, and more than barely suffi lar, the curve is struck from a central
cient to resist the drift of its adjacent arch, point by a radius ; if it be elliptical, it
so that, if there are not rocks or very solid should be struck with a double cord, pass
banks to raise them against, they must be ing over two pins fixed in the focusses,
wed re-inforccd with proper walls or re as the mathematicians describe their ellip

turns, Sec. ses ; and not


by striking different pieces
or arcs of circles from several centres ;
Caisson, a kind of chest, or flat-bot
for these will form no ellipsis at all, but
tomed boat, in which a
pier is built,
then sunk to the bed of the river, and an irregular misshapen curve made up of

the sides loosened and taken off from the broken pieces of different circular arches ;
bottom, b. a contrivance for that pur but if the arch be of any other form, the
pose ; the bottom of it being left under several abscissas and ordinates should
the pier as a foundation. It is evident, be calculated ; then their corresponding
therefore, that the bottoms of the caissons lengths, transferred to the centering, will
must be made very strong and fit for the give s-> many points of the curve ; by
foundations of the piers. The caisson is bending a bow of pliable matter, accord
kept afloat till the pier be built to the ing to those points, the curve may be
height of low water mark ; and for that drawn.
purpose, its sides must either be made of The centres are constructed of beams
more than that height at first, or else of timber, firmly pinned and bound toge
gradually raised to it, as it sinks by the ther, into one .ntire
compact frame, co
weight of the work, so as always to keep vered smooth at top with planks or boards
its top above water : and therefore the to place ihe voussoirs on ; the whole
sup
sides must be made very strong, and kept ported by off- sets in the sides of the piers,
asunder by cross -timbers within, lest the and by piles driven into the bed of the
great pressure of the ambient water crush river, and capable of being raised and de
the sides in, and so not onlv endanger the pressed by wedges contrived for that pur
work, but also drown the workmen with pose, and for taking them down when the
in it. The caisson is made of the shape arch is completed. They should also be
of the pier, but some teet wider on every constructed of a strength more than suf
side to make room for the men to work ; ficient to bear the weight of the arch.
the whole of the sides are of two pieces, In taking the centre dow. , first let it
both joined to the bottom quite round, down a little, all in a piece, by easing
and to each other at the salient angle, so some of the
wedges ; then let it rest a few
as to be disengaged from the bottom, and days to try if the arch makes any efforts
from each other, when the pier is raised to fall, or any joints
open, or any stones
to the desired height, and sunk. It is al crush or crack, &c. that the damage may
so convenient to have a little sluice made be repaired before the centre is entirely
in the bottom, occa ionally to open and removed, which is not to be done till
shut, to sii.k the caisson and pier some the arch ceases to make any visible ef
times by, before it be finished, to try it it forts.
bottom level and rightly ; for by opening Chest. See Caisson.
the sluice, the waier will rush in and fill Coffer-dam. See Battardfab.
it to the height of the exterior water, and Drift, ") of an arch, is the push or
the weight of the work alieady built will Shoot, or> force which it exerts in the
sink it : then by sh titling the sluice again, Thrust, j direction of the fength of the
and pumping out the water, it will be bridge. This force arises from the per
made to that agi in, and the rest of the pendicular gravitation of the stones of the
work maybe completed. It must not arch, which being kept from descending
how. ver be s. ink except when the sides
by the form of the arch, and the resistance
are high enough to ieach above the sur of the pier, exert their force in a lateral or
face of tne water, otherwise it cannot be horizontal directio... This force is com
raised and laid dry again. Mr. Labelye puted in Prop. 10, of Mr. Hutton's
states, that the caissons in which he built Principles of Bridges, where the thickness
Westminster" bridge, London, contained of the pier is determined that is necessiry
above 150 load of fir timber, of 40 cubic to resist it, and is rcater the lower the
.

feet each, and were ot more tonnage or arch is, cxteris paribus.
capacity than a 4 gun ship of war. Elevation, the orthographic projection
Centres, arc the tiinoer frames erected of the front of a bridge, on the vertical
in the spaces of the arches to turn them plane, parallel to its length This is ne
on, by building on them the voussoirs of cessary to shew the f Tin and dimensions
the arch. As the centre serves as a foun of the arches and other parts, as to height
dation for the arch to be built on, when and breadth, and therefore has a plain
64 B R I B R I

scale annexed to it, to measure the parts be well secured, and made quite good and
by. It also shews the manner of work safe, if it be not so naturally. The space
ing up and decorating the fronts of the must be bored into, to try the consistence
bridge. of the ground; and if a good bottom of
Extrados, the exterior curvature or line stone, or firm eravel, clay, Sec. be met
of an arch. In the
propositions of the with, within a moderate depth below the
second section in Professor Hutton's bed of the river, the loose sand, Sec. must
Principles of Bridges, it is the outer or up be removed and digged out to it, and the
foundation laid on the firm bottom on a
per line of the wall above the arch ; but
it often means omy the
upper or exterior strong grating or base of timber made
cure of the voussoirs. much broader every way than the pier,
Foundations, the bottoms of the piers, that there may be the greater base to press
&c. or th-- bases on which they are built. on, to prevent its being sunk ; but if a
These bottoms are always to be made solid bottom cannot be found at a conve
with projections, .reater or less, accord nient depth to dig to, the space must then
ing to the s :aces on which they are built : be driven full of strong piles, whose tops
and according to the nature of the ground, must be sawed off level some feet below

depth and velocity of water, &c. the the bed of the water, the sand having
foundations are laid and the piers built been previously dug out for that purpose ;
after difterent manners, either in caissons, and then the foundation on a grating of
in battardeaux, on stilts with sterlii.-'s, timber laid on their tops as before: or,
Sec. for the particular method of doing when the bottom is not good, if it be
which, see each under its respective made level, and a strong grating of tim
term. ber, 2, 3, or 4 times as large as the base
The obvious and simple method
most ot the pier be made, it will form a good
ef laying the foundations and raising the base to build on, its great size preventing
piers up the water-mark, is to turn
to it from sinking. In driving the piles, be
the river out of its course above the gin at the mddle, and proceed outwards
place of the bridge, into a new channel all the way to the borders or margin ; the
cut for it near the place where it makes reason of which is, that if the outer ones

an elbow or turn ; then the piers are built were driven first, the earth ot the inner
on dry ground, and the water turned into space would be thereby so jammed toge
its old course again ; the new one being ther, as not to allow the inner piles to be
securely banked up. This is certainly driven ; and besides the piles immediately
the best method, whtn the new channel under the piers, it is also very prudent to
can be easily and conveniently made.
drive in a single, double, or triple row of

Th.s, however, is seldom or never the them round, and close to the frame of the
ease. foundation, cutting them off a little above
Another method is, to lay only the it, to secure it irom slipping aside out of
space of each pier dry till it be built, by its place, and to bind the ground under the
surrounding it with piles and planks dri pier firmer : for, as the safety of the
ven down into the bed of the river, so whole bridge depends on the foundation,
close together as to exclude the water too much care cannot be used
to have the
from coming in ; then the water is pump bottom made quite secure.
ed out of the inclosed space, the pier Jettee, the border made round the stilts
built in it, and lastly the piles and planks under a pier. See Sterling.
drawn up. This is cofter-uam work, Impost, is the part of the pier on which
but evidently cannot be practised if the the feet of the arches stand, or from
bottom be of a loose consistence, admit whith they spring.
ting the water to ooze and spring up Key. stone, the middle voussoir, or the
through it. arch- stone in the top or immediately over
When neither the whole nor part of the the centre of the arch. The letigth of
river can be easily laid dry as above, other the key-stone, or thickness of the archi
methods are to be used ; such as to build volt at top, is allowed to be about i-i5th
either in caissons-or on stilts, both which or i-i6th of the
span, by the best ar
.
methods are described under their proper chitects.
words; or yet by another methid, which Orthography, the elevation of a bridge,
hath, though seldom, been sometimes or front view, as seen at an infinite dis
t .-.cd, without
laying the bottom dry, and tance.
which is thus; the pier is built upon Parapet, the breast-wall made on the
itror.g rafts or giaiings of timber, well topot abridge to
prevent passengers from
bound together, ar.d buoyed up on the falling over. In good bridges, to build
surface of the water by strong cables, the parapet but a little part of its height
fixed to the other floats or machines, till close or solid, and
upon tiiat a balustrade
the pier is built ; the whole i. then gent to above a man's height, has an elegant

ly let down to the bottom, which must eliect.


be made level for the purpose; but ot Piers, the walls built for the support
these methods, that of building in cais- of the arches, ana from which they
springi
>wns is best. as the.r bases. They should be built of
But before the pier can be built in any large blocks of stone, solid throughout,
manner, the ground at the bottom must and cramped together with iron, which
BR I B R I 65

will make the whole as one solid stone. low- water mark, and then they are called
Their faces or ends, from the base up to stilts. Those to form borders Of defence,
high-water-mark, should project sharp are rows driven in close by the frame of a
Out with a salient to divide the
angle, foundation, to keep it firm, or else thy
stream : or, the bottom of the
perhaps are to form a case or jettee about the
pier should be built Hat or
square up to stilts, to keep the stones within it, that
about half the height of low-water-mark, are thrown in to fill it : in this case;
up
to allow a lodgement against it for the the piles are grooved, .riven at a little
sand and mud, to go over the foundation ; distance from each other, and plank-piles
lest, by being kept bare, the water should let into the grooves between them, and
in time undermine, and so ruin or injur; driven down also, till the whole space is
it. The best form of the projection fo? surrounded. B. sides using this for stilts,
dividing the stream, is the triangle ; aid t is sometimes necessary to surround a
the longer it is, or the more acute the sa stone pier with a sterling, or jettee, and
lient angle, the better it will divide it, fill it U' with stones to secure an injured
and the less will the force of the wat r per from being still more damaged, and
be against the piei; ; but it may be suffi he whole bridge runed. The piles to
cient to make that angle a right one, as support the centres may also serve as a
it will make the work stronger; and in ooraer of piling to secure the foundation,
that case the perpendicular projectio eutting them off low enough after the
will be equal to half the breadth or thick '.entre is removed.
ness of the pier. In rivers, on which Pile-driver, an engine for driving down
large heavy craft navigate and pass the the piles. It consists of a large ram or
arches, it may, -perhaps, be better to i.on sliding perpendicularly down between
make the ends semicircular : for, although two guide posts; which being lifted
up
it does not divide the water so well as the to the
top of them, and there let fall from
triangle, it will both better turn oft" and a great
height, conies down upon the top
bear the shock of trie craft. of the pile with a violsnt blow. It is
The thickness of the piers should be orked either with men or horses, and
such as will make them of wei ht 01 ither with or without wheel-work The
strength sufficient to support their in iiridge on Schuylkill, Philadelphia, is a
terjacent arch independent of any other master-piece of workmanship ; and the
arches ; and then, if the middle of the new bricl. e at Trenton, over the
Delaware,
pier be run up to its full height, the cen !s equally bold and in enious in its plan
tering ma\ be struck to be used in another in t: e latter the floor is suspender from

arch before the hanches are filled p. tne voussoirs of the arches; by
stirfu.-sof
The whole theory of the piers may be
ron

seen in the third section of Professor Pitch, of an arch, the perpendicular


Hutton's Principles of Bridges. iieight from the spring or impost to the
They should be made with a broaci <cy stone.
bottom on the foundation, and gradually Plan, of any part, as of the tounda-
diminishing iii thickness by off-sets up to t.o.is, piers, or superstructure, is the
or
low- water- mark .
orthographic projection of it on a plane
Piles, are timbers driven into the bed parallel to the horizon.
of the river for various purposes, and are Push, of an arch. SeeDRif-..
either round, square, or flat like planks. Salient angle, of a pier, the projection
They may be of any wood which will ; 01 of the end against the stream, to divide
rot under water ; but oak and fir are rself. The righr-lined angle best divides
mostly used, especially the latter, on ac the stream, and the more acute, the bet
count of its length, straightness, and ter for that purpose ; but the fight
angle
cheapness. They are shod with a pointed is generally used, as making the best ma
iron at the bottom, the better to sonry. A semicircular end, though it
penetrate
into the grVnd, and are bound with a does not divide the stream so well, is
strong iron band or ring at top, to prevent sometimes better in large navigable n vers,
them from being split by the violent as it carries the craft the better offi or
strokes of the ram by which they are hears their shocks tne better.
driven down. Shoo:, of an arch. See Drift.
Piles are either used to build the foun Springers, a.e the first or lowest stones)
dations on, or they are driven about the of an arch, being those at its feet, and
pier as a border of defence, or to support bearing immediately on the impost.
the centres on ; and in this case, when Sterlings^ or Jetties, a kind of case made
the centreing is removed, they must either about a
pier of stilts, &c to secure it,
be drawn up, or sawed oft very low under and is described under the
particularly
water ; but it is better to saw them off next word, Stilts.
and leave therrt sticking in the bottom, Stilts, a set of piles driven into the
lest the drawing of them out should loosen space intended for the pier, whose tops
the ground about the foundation of the being saweu level off; above low- water
pier. Those to build on, are either such mark, the pier is then raised on them.
as are cut olfby the bottom of the water, This method was formerly used when
or rather a few feet within the bed of the bottom of the river eould not be laid
the river; of else such as are cut elf at dry ; and the>e stilts were surrounded, at
66 B R I B R I

a few feet distance, by a row ef piles whether horse, foot, or artillery, under
and planks, &c. close to them like a the command of a brigadier. There are,
coffer-dam, and called a sterling, ox jettee ,- properly speaking, three sorts of brigades,
after which loose stones, Sec. are thrown Viz. the brigade of an army, the brigade
or poured down into the space, till it is of a troop ot horse, and the brigade of ar
filled up to the top, by that means form tillery. A brigade of the army is either
ing a kind of pier of rubble of loose foot or dragoons, whose exact number is
not fixed, but generally consists of 3, 4,
work, and which is kept together by the
sides or sterlings : this is then paved 5 or 6 regiments, or battalions : a brigade
level at the top, and the arches turned of horse may consist of 8, 10 or 12 squad
This method was formerly rons ; and that of artillery, of 6, 8 or 10
upon it.
much used, most of the large old bridges pieces of cannon, with all their appurte
Ln England being erected that way, such nances. The eldest brigade takes the
as London bridge, Newcastle bridge, Ro right of the first line, the second of the
chester bridge, &c. But the inconve second line, and the rest in order, the
niences attending it are so great, that it is youngest always possessing the centre,
now quite disused ; for, because of the unless the commander deems a different
loose composition of the piers, they must arrangement expedient ; and in such case
be made very large or broad, or else the mere etiquette always bends to orders.

arch must push them oyer, and rush The cavalry and artillery observe the same
down as soon as the centre was drawn ; order.
which great breadth of piers and ster- The Horse Artillery in the British ser
lirtgs so much contracts the passage of vice are called the horse Brigade ; and
the water, as not only very much to in consist of 6 troops, with their guns and
commode the navigation through the arch, stores. Their head-quarters are at Wool
from the fall and quick motion of the wich, where handsome barracks, detach
water ; but likewise to put the bridge ed from those of the royal artillery, have
itself in much danger, especially in time been erected for their accommodation.
of floods, when the water is too much A Brigade, in the French ordination,
for the passage. Add to this, that be is the same as our Regiment ; but it con
sides the danger there is of the pier burst sists of 3 battalions, each of which is
ing out the sterlings, they are also subject equal to one of our regiments or 1000
to much decay and damage by the velo men ; a demi brigade is half a regiment,
or a French battalion.
city of the water and the craft passing
through the arches. BuiGADK-Majcr, an officer appointed
Thrust. See Drift. by the brigadier, to assist him in the ma
Voussoirs, the stones which immedi nagement of his brigade. The most ex
ately form the arch, their undersides con perienced captains are generally nomina
stituting the intrados. The middle one, ted to this post ; who act in the brigade
or key-stone, should be about i-i5thor as major-generals do in the armies, re

i-i6th of the span, as has been observed; ceiving their orders from their comman
and the rest should increase in size all the ders.
way down to the impost : the more they Brig ADZ-Major. General. The mili
increase the better, as they will the bet tary commands in Great Britain being di
ter bear the great weight which rests up vided into districts, an office has been
on them without being crushed ; and also established for the sole transaction of bri
svill bind the firmer together. Their gade duties. Through this office all
joints should also be cut perpendicular to orders from the commander-in-chief to
the curve of the intrados. For more in the generals of districts relative to corps
formation, see Professor Hutton's Prin of officers, &c. must pass. For further
ciples of Bridges, in 8vo. information on this head, see James's
Bridge, in gunnery, the two pieces of Regimental Companion, id qriktion,vol. i.
w
timber which go between the two tran page 25.
soms of a gun-carriage, on which the Brigade de Boulangers,-J-x. It was
coins are placed, for elevating the piece. usual in the old French service, to brigade
See Carriage. the bakers belonging to the army. Each
F '. I DLF.-Arm Protect, a guard used brigade consisted of one master baker and
by the cavalry, which censists in having three boys ; the system is continued in
the word- hilt above the helmet ; the the modern French army.
blade crossing the back of the head, the BRIGADIER, a military officer,
point of the left shoulder, and the bridle- whose rank is next above that of a
arm ; its edge directed to the left, and colonel ; appointed to command a corps,
turned a little upwards, in order to bring consisting of several battalions or regi
the mounting in a proper direction to ments, called a brigade. This title in
protect the hand. England is suppressed in time of peace,
BRIDON, or Bridoon, the snaffle but revived in actual service in the field.
and rein of a military bridle, which acts Every brigadier marches at the head of
independent of the bit and curb at the his brigade upon duty. On the Uni
pleasure of the rider. ted States establishment, there is only
BRIGADE, in military affairs, implies one
brigadier- general, who is chief in ac
a party or division of a body of soldiers, tual command; provision has been lately
BRO BUI 67

made by law for two more in case of with the Broad Sword, Sec. in which
war. the spadroon or cut and thrust sword
BRIGANDINE, orBRiGANTiNE,in play is reduced into a regular system.
ancient military history,
a coat of maiL, BROND. See Brand.
or kind of defensive armor, consisting of BROWNBILL, the ancient weapon
tin. of the English foot, resembling a battle.
BRINGERS-*/., an
antiquated mili ax.

tary expression, to signify the whole rear BRUNT. The troops who sustain
rank of a battalion drawn up, as being the principal shock of the enemy in ac
the hindmost men of every file. tion, are said to bear the brunt of the
BKlNS-d'Est, Fr. large sticks or poles battle.
resembling small pickets, with iron at BRUSQUE R une attaque, Fr. is to
each end. They are used to cross ditches, open the trenches in the nearest ap
particularly in Flanders. proaches to a place, completing the
BRISURE, in fortification, is a line works from the front towards the rear.
of four or five fathom, which is allowed This undertaking is extremely hazar
to the curtain and orillon, to make the dous, unless the object invested, or at
hollow tower, or to cover the concealed tacked, be ill-garrisoned, have a nar
flank. row front to besiege, the ditches be dry,

BROADSIDE, in a sea fight, implies Sec.


the discharge of all the artillery on one Brusquer /'affaire, Fr. to attack
side of a ship of war. suddenly, and without attending to any
BROAD-SWORD, a sword with a regular rule of military manoeuvre.
broad blade, chiefly designed for cutting ; BUCCANEERS, in military history,
not at present much used in the British a name frequently applied to those fa
service, except by some few regiments of mous adventurers, consisting of pirates,
cavalry and Highland infantry. Among Sec. from all the maritime nations of
the cavalry, this weapon has in general Europe, who formerly joined together,
given place to the sabre. and made war upon the Spaniards in
The principal guards with the broad America.
sword are : BUCKETS. Water-buckets are ne
The inside guard, (similar to carte in cessary appendages to field- pieces, to cool
fencing,) which is formed by directing the gun when hotly engaged ; other
your point in a line about six inches wise it might fire itself, or run at the
higher than your antagonist's left eye, muzzle.
the hilt opposite your own breast, the BUCKLER, a piece of defensive ar

finger-nails turned upwards, and the edge mor used ancients.


by the It was al
of the sword to the left. ways worn on' the left arm, and com
The outside guard, (resembling tierce,) posed of wicker-work, of the lightest
in which, by a-turn of the wrist from the sort, but most commonly of hides, for
former position, the point of the sword is tified with plates of brass or other me
directed above your antagonist's right eye, tals. The shape of it varied considera
the edge of the weapon turned to the right, bly, being sometimes round, sometimes
and the finger-nails downward ; tlie arm oval, and often nearly square. The shield
sufficiently straightened to the right to of Achillesin the 1 Iliad, as well as the book
protect the outside of your body from the itself merits the attention of the military
attack. student.
The medium guard, which is a position BUDGE- Barrels. See Barrel.
between the inside and outside guard, BU^f -Leather, in military accoutre
seldom used, as it affords very little pro ments, is a sort of leather prepared from
tection. the buffalo, which, dressed with oil, af
The hanging guard, (similar to ter the manner of shainoy, makes what
prime
and seconde) in which the hilt of your is generally called buff-skin. Sword-
sword is raised high enough to view your belts were made of this leather.
opponent under the shell, and the point BUGLE-HORN, the old Saxon horn;
directed towards his body. it is now used by the light infantry, and
The St. George's guard, which protects by riflemen. By its sound
the head, and differs from the last-de
particularly
ings, their manoeuvres are directed, either
scribed only in raising the hand somewhat in advancing, skirmishing, or retreating.
higher, and bringing the point nearer to It is also used by the horse artillery, and
yourself. some regiments of light cavalry.
The swords worn by officers of the in BUILDING, in a general sense, a
fantry being constructed eithe. for cutting fabric erected by art, cither for devo
or thrusting, it is necessary for gentlemen tion, magnificence, conveniency, or de
to be both with the method
acquainted fence.
of attacking and defending with the broad Military Buildings, are of various
sword and with the rapier. Those who sorts, viz. powder-magazines, bridges,
have not opportunity of regular lessons gates, barracks, hospitals, store-houses,
from a professed teacher, may obtain
much useful information from a work
mtitled the Art of Defence on Foot, i guard-rooms, &c.
Regular Building,
plan
is that whose
is square, the opposite side; <qual,
68 BUI B UL

and all tire parts nerves of the whole fabric.


disposed with sym they being the
metry. These are sometimes fortified on each
,
Irregular Building, that whose plan side the corners, even in brick buildings,
is contained within equal or parallel
not with square stones; which add both.
lines, either by the accident of situation, beauty and strength to the edifice. See
or the Stone, Bricks, Lime, Sand.
design of the builder, and whose
parts are not relative to one another in the BULLETIN, Fr. any official account
elevation. which is given of public transactions. See
Insulated Building, that which is Gazette.
not contituous to any other, but is en BULLETS, are leaden balls, where
compassed with streets,
squares,open with all kinds of small fire-arms are load
Sec. or any building which stands in a ed. The diameter of any bullet is found,
river, on a rock Grounded by the sea, by dividing 1.6706 by the cube rootot the
mars ., &c. number, which shews how many of them
Engaged Buildinc, one surrounded make a pound ; or it may be done in a
with otherbuildings," having no front to shorter way From the logarithm
any public place, nor any com
street or .2228756 of 1.6706 subtract continually
munication without, but by a common the third part of the logarithm of the num
passage. ber of bullets in the pound, and thediffer-
Interred ot sunk Building, one whose .nce will be the logarithm of the diameter
area is below the surface, of the place required.
where it stands, and ot which the lowest Thus the diameter of a bullet, whereof
coursus of stone are concealed weigh a pound, is found by subtract
12
In building there are three things to be ing 35727> a third pa. t of the logarithm
considered, viz. commodity or conve- of 12, from the given logarithm .2228756,
niency ; secondly, firmness or stability ; or, when the logarithm is less than the
thirdly, delight. former, an unit must be added, so as to
To accomplish which ends, Wotton have 1 2228756, and the difference
considers the whole subject under two 8631486 will be the logarithm of the
heads, namely, the seat or situation, and diameter sought, which is .7297 inches;
'

the work. observing that the number found will


i. As for the seat, either that of the always be a decimal, when the logarithm,
whole is to be considered, or that of its which is to be subtracted, is greater than
parts. that of one pound ; because the divisor
2. As to the situation,
regard is to be is greater than the dividend in this case.
had to the quality, temperatuie, and sa Hence, from the specific gravity of
lubrity or healthiness of the air; that it lead, the diameter of any bullet may be
be a good healthy ir, not subject to found from its given weight: for, since
foggy noisomeness from adjacent fens or
'
a cube foot weighs 11325 ounces, and 678
j
marshes; also free from noxious mineral is to 355 as the cube 1728 of a foot, or 12
exhalations ; nor should the place want inches, is the content of the sphere,
the Sweet influence of the sun-beams, which therefore is 59297 ounces: and
nor be wholly destitute of the breezes of since spheres are as the cubes of their
wind, that will fan and purge the air; diameters; the weight 5929.7' is to 16
the want of which would render it like a ounces, or 1 pound, as the cube 1728 is
stagnated pool, and would be \ery un to the cube of the diameter of a sphere

healthy. which weighs a pound; which cube


In the foundations of buildings, Vitru- therefore is 4.66263, and its root 1.6706
yius orders the ground to be dug up, to inches, the diameter sought.
examine its firmness ; that an apparent The diameter of musket bullets differs
solidity is hot to be trusted, unless the | but 1.50th part from that of the musket
whole mould cut through be sound and bore; for if" the shot but just rolls into
|
solid : 'tis true, he does not say to what II the barrel, it is sufficient. The English
depth it shoulu b dug: but Palladio i| allow 11 bullets in the pound for the
determines it to be a sixth part of the proof of muskets, and 14 in the pound,
!jii
height of the building. or 29 in two
pounds, for service ; 17 for,
i. That' the pioof ot cirbines, aid 20 for service;"
'

The great laws of walling aie:

the walls stand perpendicular on the ; and 28 in the pound for the proof of
ground-work, the right angle being the i pistols, and 34 tor service. The proof
fdundation of all stability. 2. That the : bullet of the U. S. musket made at Har
largest and heaviest materials be the per's ferry in Virgin.a, the barrel of which
lbwest, as more proper to sustain others is 3 feet 8$ inches, is one fifteenth of a
than be sustained themselves. 3. That " pound; the service ball one nineteenth.
the work diminish in thickness, as it , The Rifle of Harper's ferry, the barrel of
rises, both for the ease of \% eU'.ht and to 1 which is 2 feet 10 incbes ; the proof ball
lessen the expence. 4. That certain j is one- twenty-eighth of, a pound; the ser
courses, or lodges, of more strength than j vice ball is one thirty- secondth part of a
the rest, be interlaid, like bones, to ; pound. See Gun and Rifle.
sustain the wall fiom total ruin, if some j Hollow Bullets, orsheils, of a cylin
of the under parts chance to decay. 5. drical shape. These have an opening and
|
'.. Uy, that the angles be firmly bound,. a fuze at the end, by which fire is com-
*w

BUR CAB 69

municated the combustibles within,


to That of a corporal, musician, private
and an take, place, similar to
explosion man, drummer, and fifer, by 1 serjeant
that occasioned by the blowing up of a and 13 rank and file, with 3 rounds of
mine. small arms.
Chain Bullets, are two balls which All officers, attending the funerals of
chain,
at any even their nearest relations, notwith
are joined together by a

given distance from each other. standing wear their regimentals, and .1
Branch Bcllets, two balls joined to black crape round the left arm.
The pall to be supported by officers
gether by an iron bar.
Two-beaded Bullets, sometimes called of the same rank with that of the deceas
which ed : if the number cannot be had, of
anges, are two halves of a bullet their
are kept together by means of a bar or ficers next in seniority are to supply
chain. place.
BULWARK, the ancient name for The order of march to be observed in
bastion or rampart, which words see. military funerals is reversed with respect
BURDEN, ; in a general sense, im- to rank. For instance, if an officer is
BURTHEN, S plies a load or weight, buried in a garrison town or from a camp,
it is customary lor the officers belonging
supposed to be as much as a man, horse,
&c. can well carry. A sound healthful toother corps to pay his remains the com
man can raise a weight equal to his own, pliment of attendance. In which case
can also draw and carry 5olb. a moderate the youngest ensign marches at the head
distance. An able horse can draw 3501b. immediately after the pall, and the gene
though in length of time 300 is sufficient. ral, if there be one, in the rear of the
Hence all artillery calculations are made. commissioned officers, who take their
One horse will draw as mu?h as 7 men, posts in reversed order according to seni
and 7 oxen will draw as much as 11 or 12 ority. The battalon, troop or company
horses. Burthen lik wise in a figurative follow the s 'me rule.
tax, Sec. The expence tor a regimental burial is
sense means impost,
BURGANET, or Burgonet, Fr. a to charged against the captains of the
be
kind of helmet nsed by the French. respective troops or companies.
BURIALS, as practised by the mili tor further particulars, see Reid's Mi
tary, are as follows, in th British ser litary Discipline.
vice, viz. The funeral of a field. marshal BURR, in round iron ring,
a
j gunnery,
shall be saluted with 3 rounds of 15 pieces which serves to rivet the end of the bolt,
of cannon, attended by 6 battalions, and so as to form a round head.

8 squadrons. BVRREL-shot, small bullets, nails,


That of a general, with 3 rounds of 11 and stones discharged from any piece of
pieces of cannon, 4 battalions, and 6 ordnance.
squadrons. BUSKINS, a kind of shoe, or half
That of a lieutenant-general, with 3 boot, adapted, to either foot ; formerly a
rounds of 9 pieces of cannon, 3 battalions, part of the Roman dress, particularly for
and 4 squadrons. tragic actors on the stage. They are now

Thatot a major-general, with 3 rounds much worn by the army.


of 7 pieces of cannon, 2 battalions, and 3 pillage. At the
BUTIN, Fr. booty or
of the French monarchy, and
beginning
squadrons.
That of a brigadier-general, 3 rounds i for a long time after its establishment, a
of 5
pieces of cannon, 1 battalion,
and 2 particular spot was marked out by the
squadrons. prince or general, to which all persons
That of a colonel, by his own bat ; belonging to the victorious army were
talion, or an equal number by detach i directed to bring every species of booty
ment, with 3 rounds of small arms. ] that might have fallen into their hands.
That of a lieutenant-colonel, by 300 This boo;y was not divided, or appro
men and officers, with 3 rounds of small priated according to the will and pleasure
arms. ot the prince or general, but was thrown
That of a major, by 200 men and offi into different lots, and drawn for in com
cers, with 3 rounds of small arms. mon.
That of a captain, by his own com BUTMENTS. See Braces.
or 70 rank and file, with 3 rounds BUTT, in gunnery, is a solid earthen
pany,
of small arms. parapet, to lire against in the proving of
That of a lieutenant, by 1 lieutenant, guns, or in practice.
1 serjeant, 1 drummer, 1 titer, and 36 BUTTON, in gunnery, a part of the
rank and fi;e, with 3 rounds. cascable, in either a gun or howitzer, and
That of an ensign, by an ensign, a Ser is the hind part of the piece, made round
jeant, and drummer, and 27 rankanu file, in the form of a ball. See C a n n o n .

with 3 rounds. BUTTRESS. See Counterfort.


That of an adjutant surgeon, and BUZ.E, a woode.i, or leaden pipe, to
quarter-master, the same party as an convey .he air out of imr.es
.

ensign.
That of a serjeant, by a serjeant, and
19 rank and file, with 3 rounds of small
.'rais.
70 CAM C AI

two sorts, i. e. hot cement, which is the


C. most common, madeof resin, beeswax,
brick dust, and chalk, boiled together.
The bricks to be cemented with this
CABAS, Fr. a basket madeof rushes,
used in ancient Languedoc and Roussil- mixture, must be made hot in the fire,
and rubbed to and fro after the cement is
lon, for the purpose of conveying stores
and ammunition. This term is adopted spread, in the same manner as joiners do
when they glue two boards together.
in military inventories.
Cold cement, made of Cheshire cheese,
CABINET Council, a council held
tvith privacy and unbounded confidence. milk, quick lime, and whi'.es of eggs.
This cement is less used than the former,
CABLE ou Chable, Fr. a large rope.
and is accounted a secret known but to
CADENCE, in tactics, implies a very
very few bricklayers.
regular and uniform method of marching,
by the drum and music, beating time ; Cj^ESTUS, in military antiquity, was
it may not be improperly calkd mathe
alarge gauntlet, composed of raw hides,
used by pug-lists at the public games.
matical marching; for aftei the length of
a step is determined, the time and dist
CAGE de la Bascule, Fr. a space into
ance may be found. It is by a continual which one part of the draw-bridge falls,
whilst the other rises and conceals the
practice and attention to this, that the
Prussians arrived at that point of perfec gate.
CAIC, Fr. a skiff or boat belonging
tion, once so much admired in their evo
lutions. to a French galley.
Cadence or Cadency, in cavalry, is CAIMACAN, inmilitary history, an
which officeramong the Turks, nearly answer
an equal measure or
proportion,
a h rse observes in all his motions. ing to our lieutenant.
CADET, among the military, is a CAISSE, Fr. Battre la caisse is used
in the French service to express the beat
young gentleman, who applies himself
to the study of fortification and gunnery, ing of a drum instead ot battre la Tarn-
&c. and who sometimes serves in the hour.

army, with or without pay, 'till a va


CAISSON, in military affairs, as a
wooden frame or chest, made square, the
cancy happens for his promotion. The
side planks about 2 inches thick : it may
proper signification ot the word is,
be made to contain from 4 to 20 loaded
younger brother. See Academy.
Cadet, Fr. differs in its signification shells, or according to the execution they are
to do, as the ground is firmer or looser.
from the term as it is used in our lan
The sides must be high enough, that
guage. A cadet in the French service
when the cover is nailed on, the fuzes
did not receive any pay, but entered as a
volunteer in a troop or company, for the may not be damaged. Caissons are buried
under ground at the depth of 5 or 6 feet,
specific purpose of becoming master of under some work the enemy intends to
military tactics.
In the reign ef Louis XIV. there weie possess himself of; and when he becomes
master of it, fire is put to the train con
companies of Cadets. The sons of no
blemen and gentlemen of fashion were veyed through pipe, which inflames the
a

received into these companies, and when shells, and blows up the assailants.
Sometimes a quantity of loose powder is
reported fit to undertake a military func
tion, were nominated cornets, sub-lieu put into the chest, on which the shells
tenants or ensigns. In the reign of Louis are placed, sufficient to put them in
XV. a regulation was made, by which motion, and raise them above ground :
at the same time that the blast of powder
no cadet could be admitted unless he had
sets fire to the fuze in the which
passed his fiftsenth year and was under must be calculated to burnshells, from 1 to 2$
twenty.
He was likewise obliged to prove his seconds. When no powder is
put under
the shells, a small quantity of mealed
nobility by the testimony of four gentle
men ! officers' sons, however, were ad powder must be strewed over them,
mitted on proof being given, that their having a communication with the sau.
fathers had actually served, or had died cisson, in order to convey the fire to the
in the service. fuzes.
A chaplain was appointed to every Caisson, is a covered waggon, to carry
bread or ammunition.
cadet-company, whose duty it was to
instruct the cadets In reading and writing. Caisson, Fr. is variously used in the
French service.
They had likewise a master in mathe Caisson des bombes, is a tub which
matics, a drawing master, a fencing
is filled with loadedshells and buriedeven
master and dancing master.
with the ground. 1 1 is inclined a little on
Cadet, Fr. likewise means any officer
that is junior to another. one side, and
by means of a quantity of
C/EMENT, ; among engineers, a powder which is scattered on the top and
connected with the bottom by a saucis-
C E M E N T, S strong sort of mor-
son, an explosion may be effected so as to
tar, used to bind bricks or stones together
in throw the shells into the open air towards
for some kind of moulding ; or cement
given point. Caissons which are bu
ing a block of bricks for the carving of any ried in the glacis produce great effect.
or the like. There are
capitals, scrolls,
CAL CAM 71

Caisson pour les vivres, Fr. a large garithmetic scales of numbers, sines,
||
chest whose lid rises in the centre some versed sines and tangents. 17. A sectoral
what like the capital of a pillar, in order line of equal parts, or the line of lines.
that the rain may runoff. The following 18. A sectoral line of plans, and super
dimensions were adopted to contain eight ficies. 19. A sectoral line of solids.
hundred ratfons at least. CALIBRE, Fr. See Caliber.
The caisson or chest must be 8 French Calibre, Fr signifies, in a figurative
feet 4 inches long at least, 3 feet 4 inches sense, cast or character ; as un hemme de
high from the bottom to the extreme ce calibre, a man of this cast.

point of the lid, or chapiter, 2 feet 6 CALIBRER, Fr. to take the measure
inches from its square sides to the bottom, ment ot the calibre of a gun. A particular
2 feet 5 inches broad at the bottom, out instrument has been invented for this
side, 2 feet 9 inches bioad at top, and purpose. It resembles a compass with
the cover or lid must be 5 feet 4 inches curved branches, which serve to grasp
long. Poplar trees afford the best wood and measure a ball.
for the construction of caissons, because C A L I V E R , an old term for an arque-
that species has a close grain, and is cal buse or musket.
culated to keep out rain. CALOTE, Fr. a species of scull cap
CALATRAVA, a Spanish military which officers and soldiers wear under
order called from a Fort of that name.
so their hats in the French cavalry, and
The knights of Calatrava bear a cross ; which are pioof against a sabre or sword.
gules, fleur-de-lissed with green, Sec. Calotes are usually made of iron, wick,
CALCULATION, lnmihtary affairs, or dressed leather, and every officer chuses
is the art of computing the amplitudes of the sort he likes best. Those delivered
shells, time of night, projectile curve, out to the troops are madeof iron.

velocity of shots, charges of mines, &c C A L Q U I N G , ; the art of tracing any


together with the necessary tables for CALKING, $ kind of a military
practice. drawing, &c. upon some plate, paper,
CALIBER, in gunnery, signifies the &c. It is performed by covering the
same as the bore or opening: and the backside of the drawing with a black or
diameter of the bore is called the diame- red colour, and fixing the side so covered
terof itscaliber. This expression regards upon a piece of paper, waxed plate, Sea
all pieces ef artillery. This done, every line in the drawing is to
Caliber- Compasses, } the name of a be traced over with a point, by which
Calliper. -Compasses, $ particular in means all the outlines of the
drawing will
strument used by gunners, for measuring be transferred to the
paper or plate, Sec.
the diameters of shot, shells, &c. as also CALTROPS, in military affairs, is a
the cylinder of cannon, mortars, and how
piece of iron having 4 points, all disposed
itzers. They resemble other compasses, in a
triangular form : so that 3 of them
except in their legs, which are arched, in always rest upon the ground, and the 4th
order that the points may touch the ex stands upwards in a perpendicular direc
tremities of the arch. To find the true tion. Each point is 3 or 4 inches long.
diameter of a circle, they have a quadrant They are scattered over the ground and
fastened to one leg, and passing through passages where the enemy is expected to
the other, marked with inches and parts, march, especially the cavalry, in order to
to express the diameter required : the embarrass their progress.
length of each ruler or plate is usually CAMAUADE. See Comrade.
between the limits of 6 inches and a foot. CAMION, Fr. a species of cart 01
On these rulers are a variety of scales, dray which is drawn by two men, and
tables, proportions, &c. such as are serves to convey cannon-balls. These
esteemed useful to be known by gunners. carts are very useful in fortified towns.
The following articles are on the com- CAMISADEcr Camisado, in mili
pletest gunners-callipers, viz. 1. The tary transactions, implies an attack by-
measure of convex diameters in inches.
surprise, either during the night, or at
2. Of concave ditto. 3. The weight of break of day, when the enemy is suppos
iron shot from given diameters. 4. The ed to be in their shirts asleep, or off hi.-
weight of iron shot from given gun bores. guard. The attack on Cremona vvas ;.
5. The degrees of a semicircle. 6. The camisade; the Irish regiment of Mac-
proportion of troy and avoirdupois weight. guire, fought in their shifts, and frus
7. The proportion of English and French trated the attack.
feet and pounds. 8. Factors used in cir CAMOUFLET, in war, a kind of"
cular and spherical figures. 9. Tables of stinking combustibles blown out of paper
the specific gravity and weights of bodies. cascs, into the miners faces, when the '

10. Tables of the quantity of powder ne are at work in the


galleries of the coun
cessary for proof arid service of brass and termines.
iron guns. 11. Rules for
computing the* CAMPEMENT, Fr. an encampment.
number of shot or shells, in a finished This word is also used to denote a de
pile. 12. Rule concerning the fall of tachment sent before the army to marl.
heavy bodies. 13. Rules for raising of out the ground for a
camp.
water. 14. Rules for firing artillery and CAMP. With some trifling variation-:,
mortars. 15. A Imcof inches, u. Lo- camps aie formed after the same manner
72 CAM CAM

in all countries. This


principle seems
general, that there should not be more Distribution of the Depth of a

ground occupied by the camp of a body Camp. v^
of men, in front, than the extent of their
line when drawn out in order of battle Yards.
Intervals are however generally left be From this first line of parade to
tween battalions of the front P^erjcant's tents 16
infantry of about one
eighth their front, andbetwe n squadrons of the S quarter master's

24
of cavalry of thirty or forty paces. An N B These tents open to the
army is sometimes encamped in two lines, front.
and sometimes in three; the distance be To the first picker of horses

5
tween the lines varies according f) the Infant, for every tent in depth
face of the country, from 200 to6oo yards, old pattern, 9 feet
or more. new
patter; 15 feet ,

In the distribution of the front of a Cavalry : for every horse, 3 feet

camp, two feet are generally allowed for The soldiers tents for the infantry
every file oi infantry, and thr-e feet for open to the streets The cavalry
each file of cavalry When the ground tents front to the horses heads.
will admit of it, the infantry are usually Suppose infautry 12 tents
)
arranged in rows perpendicular to the deep, old pattern f
36 her
front; each row containing the tents of Suppose cavalry, 60 horses, f
one company ; and the cavalry in the old pattern J
s'ame position, each perpendicular row From the last tent of infantry,
containing the horses of a troop. or the last horse of the caval
The grenadiers and light infantry are ry, to the front ofthe subal
usually placed i. single rows on the terns' tents 15
flanks, and the battalion companies in These tents open to the rear.
double rows. To the front of the line of
A single row, or one company, occu captains -
*5
pies in front, nine teet; and a double These open to the front. The cap
row, or two com anies, twenty-one feet, tains and subalterns in the rear
if formed of the old pattern rectangular of their troops or companies.
tents, which hold o.ly five men each. To the front of the field officers 15
But if the new bell tents are used, 15 feet Open to the front, opposite the
must be allowed for a single row, and 30 outside street of the battalion.
feet for a double row in front. To the colonel's - -

In the cavalry, a row or troop occupies Opens to the front, opposite the
in front as follows : main street of the battalion.
Old Ten:,. New Tents
To the staff officers
Tent
-
io") 14
"
1 > ards 5 yards. Open up the streets next the main
From the front pole street.
of the tent to! '

1 3 To the first row of batmen's


picket rope tents - - - _

For the horse 6 6 The batmen's tents font their


For the dung 3 2
horses.
To the first row of pickets for
> J5
14 yards. 16 yards. bat horses -

The breadth of a row in front, whether To the second row of ditto


Of infantry or cavalry, being multiplied To the second row of batmen
by the number of rows, and the product To the front of ihe grand sut
subtracted from the whole extent of front ler's tent
for a battalion of infantry, or a squadron
-

The grand sutler is in the rear


toj
of cavalry, will leave the space for the of
the colonel.
streets, which are generally divided as To the centre ofthe kitchens
follows: 15
The kitchens are id feet in di
For the infantry, 59J feet each. ameter.
For the cavalry, 30 ieet each between To the front ofthe
the tents. petty sut
lers -

For tiie cavalry, 46 feet each between 15 1?


the horses.
Directly in the rear of ihe kitch
ens : there are allowed 6
The li 1! owing is the distribution of the yards
in front by 8 deep.
depth of a camp of infantry or cavalry, To the rear guard
'
-

15
when the ground permits. 15
Opens to the rear.

Distribution of the Depth of a ~ Total depth required Yards 220


253
Camp. i It the ;round on which the
camp is to
be formed will not, from a
swamp in the
Yards. Vards rear, or any other circumstance, admit of
From the quarter guard parade each troop or formed in
company being
to the line of parade of bat one row
perpendicular to the front ; the
talion -
- 6a distribution of the front of battalion
-

a or;
CAM CAM 73

must be more contracted than j same distance. The grand guard of the
squadron
the above, and laid out as follows: Find ! army consists of horse, and is posted
how many perpendicular rows will be i aboii' a mile distant towards the enemy.
by dividing the number of men In a siege, the camp is placed ull
required,
in the battalion or squadron by the num
j along
the line >!' circumvallation, or rather in
ber the ground will admit of in one row ; | the rear ofthe appn aches, out of cannon-
then the number of rows being multiplied I shot : the army faces the circumvallation,
j
by the breadth of one in front, will give if there be any ; that is, the soldiers have
that part of the front to be occupied by the town in their rear.
the rows : and the difference between it One thing very essential in the estab
and the whole front allowed for the bat lishing a camp, and which should be par
talion or squadron, will be left for the ticularly attended to, if the enemy is
streets; which, if the streets are to be near ; is, that there should not only be a

equal, must be divided by their number, commodious spot of ground at the head
to find a breadth of each ; or is otherwise of the camp, where the army, in case of
easily divided into streets of unequal surprise, may in a moment be ' nder
breadths. When two guns are attached ; arms, and in condition to repuls. the
to a battalion, they are posted on the right | enemy : but also a convenient field of bat
in the following order: from the right of I tle at a small distance, and of a sufficient
battalion to the centre of the first gun, extent for them to form
advantageously,
four yards from this to the second gun,

and to move with facility.
6 yards.

The muzzles of the guns in a ! The arrangement of the tents in camp,
line with the Serjeants' rents. i nearly the same all over Europe, wi. ch
The subaltern of artillery, if any, in a is, to dispose them in such a manner,
line with the subalterns of infantry. The that the troops may form w ith safety and

rear ofthe gunner's tents in a line with expedition


the rear ofthe battalion tents. To answer this end, the troops ar: en
.
For the proper positions for camps, see camped m the same order as that in which
the word Reconnoitring ; and for the they are to engage, which is by battalions
of a park of artillery, see the ana squadrons 5 hence, the post of each
encampment
word Park. battalion ad squadron in the line of bat
Camp, in military affairs, isthewhole tle, must necessari.y be at the head of its
extent of ground, ingeneral, occupied by own encampment. Gustavus Adol|mus,
an army pitching its tents when in the king of Sweden, was the first who formed
field, and upon which all its baggage and encampments according to the order of
apparatus are lodged. It is marked out battle.
by the quarter-master-general, who allots By this disposition, the extent of the
every regiment its ground. The extent camp from right to left, of each battalion
ofthe front of a regiment of infantry is and
squadron, will be equal to the iront
200
yards, including the two battalion of each in line of battle ; and consequent
guns, and depth 520, when the regiment, ly, the extent from right to left ol the
contains 9 companies, each of 100 private whole camp, should be equal to the front
men, and the companies tents in two 01 the whole army when drawn up in line
rows ; but when the companies tents of battle, with the same intervals between
stand in one row, and but 70 private men the several encampments ot the battalions
to each row, the front is then but 155 and squadrons, as are in the line.
yards. A squadron of horse has 120 yards 1 There is no fixed rule foi the intervals :
in front, and 100 for an interval between some will have no intervals, some sni;>Il
each regiment. ones, and others are lor ntervals equal to
The nature ofthe ground must also be the fr nt of the battalion or squadron.
consulted, both for defence against thej The most general method is, an interval
army. It! of 60 feet between each battalion, and of
enemy, and for supplies to the
should have a communication with that. 36 :eet between each
squadron.
army's garrisons, and have plenty of Hence it follows, 1st, That the front
water, forage, fuel, and either rivers, j line t the tamp must be in a direction to
1

marshes, hills, or woods to cover it. Ai. '! face the enemy ; 2dly, That at the head
army al ways encamps fronting the enemy, ofthe encampment of each battalion and
and generally in two parallel lines, be
squadron, there must be a cl.ar space of
sides a corps de reserve, about 500 yards ground, or, which thev
may form in line
distant from each other; the horse and ot battle: and
3<liy, That when tho space
dragoons on the wings, and the foot in taken the
up by army is embarrassed with
the centre. Where, and how ihe train of vvoo.s, ditches, and other obstructions,
artillery is encamped, see Park of artil/ey, ' a communication must be opened for the
and Encampment of a regiment of article y, ! troops to move with ease to the ass stance
under the word Artillery. Each re- j of each other.
giment posts a subaltern's geard at 80 1 The camps of the Greeks and Romans
yards from the colors to the officers tent, | were either round, square, or oval, or
called the quarter guard, besides a corpo-; ratii'jr of an
oblong square figure, w.th
ral's guard in the rear : and each reg ment ' the
sharp corn.-.* taken oil'; and to s cure
of horse or dragoon-,, a mii.iII guard on1 them against
surprises, i; was the pre
''-ot, called the \i*iidard-g:,.ird, at the I vailing custom to surround them with
K
74 CAM CAM

intrenchments. The camps of the Anglo ' grand street, in a line with the bells of
'

Saxons and Danes were generally round, arms of the several companies. The of.
as likewise those ofthe Anglo-Normans. ificers
espontoons were formerly placed
The camps of the ancient Britons were of | at the colors, with the broad part of
an oval form,
composed of stakes, earth, their spears to the front. The Serjeants
and stones, rudely heaped together : but halberts w'e placed between, and on jy.
the practice of the present times is quite each side ofthe bells of arms, with their
different; for the security of our camps, hatchets turned from the colors.
whose form is a rectangle, consists in When two field- pieces are allowed to
being able to draw out the troops with each battalion, they are posted to the
ease and expedition at the head of their right of it. Gustavus Adolphus, king
respective encampments. of Sweden, was the first who ordered two
Camp of a battalion of infantry, is the field-pieces to each battalion, which are
ground on which they pitch their tents, generally light 6 pounders.
&c. Disti ibution f the front and depth of the
The principal object in the arrange Camp for a battalion of infantry. The
ment of a camp is, that both officers and present mode of encampments differs
men may repair with facility and
expe from what was formerly adopted. The
dition to the head of the line ; for which front of the camp for a battalion of 10
reason the tents are placed in rows per companies of 60 men each, is at present
pendicular to the front of the camp, with 400 feet, and during the late wars only
spaces between them, called streets. The 360 feet ; the depth at present 759 feet,
general method is, to form as many rows and during the late war 960. The front
of tents as there are companies in the of the camp of a battalion of 10 companies
battalion ; those for the private men in of 100 men each, is at present 668 feet,
the front, and those for the officers in and formerly only 592. The breadth of
the rear. In the British service the seve the streets from 45 to 55 feet, excepting
ral companies of a battalion are posted in the main street, which is sometimes from
camp, in the same manner as in the line 60 to 90 feet broad.
of battle; that is, the company of grena Of the Camp of a battalion by a new
diers on the right, and that of light-in method. This is, by placing the tents in
fantry on the left ; tne colonel's company 3 rows parallel to the principal front of
on the left of the grenadiers, tne lieuten the camp; which is suitable to the 3
ant-colonel's on the right of the light- ranks in which the battalion is drawn up :
infantry, the major's on the left ofthe the tents of the first row, which front
colonel's, the eldest captain's on the right the camp, are for the men of the front
of the lieutenant-colonel's ; and so on rank : the tents of the second row front
from right to left, 'till the two youngest the rear, and are for the men of the second
companies come into the centre. rank ; and the tents of the third row,
The battalion companies are posted which front the centre row, are for the
two by two: that is, the tents ot every men ofthe rear rank.
two of these companies are ranged close Camp of Cavalry. The tents for the
.ogether, to obtain, though they be fewer cavalry, as well as for the infantry, are
in number, larger and more commodious placed in rows perpendicular to the prin
streets: the entrances ot all the com cipal front of the camp ; and their number
panies tents face the streets, except the is conformable to the number of troops.
first tent of each row belonging to the The horses of each troop are placed in a
serjeants, which faces the front of the line parallel to the tents, with their heads
camp. ! towards them .

The number of tents in each perpen i The number of tents in each row, is
dicular row, is regulated by the strength regulated by the strength of the troops,
of the companies, and the number of men and the number of troopers allotted to
allowed to each tent, which is 5 men to each tent is 5 : it follows, that a troop of
7 men : thence it follows, that a com 30 men will require 6 tents, a troop of 60
pany of 60 men will require 9 to 12 tents, men 12 tents, and a troop of 100 men 20
a company 0175 men 11 to 15 tents, and tents The tents for the cavalry are of
1
a company of 100 men 15 to 20 tents; the same form as those ofthe infantry but
but as it always happens, that some are more spacious, the better to contain the
on duty, few er tents may serve in time of i fire-arms,
accoutrements, saddles, bridles,
necessity. ! boots, Sec. See Tents.
When the battalion is in the first line
!
Distribution of the front and depth of a
of encampment, the privies are opened in iCAMP of cavalry. Supposing the regi
the front, and at least 150 feet beyond ment to consist of 2 squadrons, ot troops
3
the quarter-guard ; and when in the each, and of 50 men in each
troop, the
second line, they are opened in the rear extent of the front will be 450 feet, if
of that line. drawn up in 2 ranks ; but if drawn
up in
To distinguish the regiments, camp 3 ranks, the front will be only 300 feet,
colors are fixed at the flanks, and at the the depth 220, and the breadth of the
b;ick streets 30 feet, and the other streets
quarter and rear guard.
The colors and drums of each bat 46 feet each. In the last war 600 feet
talion are placed at the head of its own were allowed each
regiment of cavalry in
CAM CAM 75

front, 774 feet for the depth, and the army ; and the town or village chosen for
breadth ofthe streets as above. his residence is called head quarters.
The standard-guard tents are pitched 8. That general is inexcusable, who,
in the centre, in a line with the quarter for his own personal accommodation,
master's, The camp colors of the ca-| makes choice of quarters that arc not
valry are also of the same color as the properly secured, or at too great a dis
facings of the regiment, with the rank of tance to have an easy communication
the regiment in the centre : those of the with the camp.
horse are square, like those of the foot ; 9 If the ground permits, the troops
and those of the dragoons are swallow- should b encamped as near to good water
.

tailed. The dung of each troop is laid up as possible.


behind the horses. 10. W hen there are hussars or rifle corps,
Camp duty, consists in guards, both! they are generally posted near the head
ordinary and extraordinary : the ordinary quarters, or in the front of the army.
guards are relieved regularly at a certain 11. The ground taken up by the en
nour every day (generally about 9 or 10
campment of an army, should be eq tally
o'clock in the morning) the extraordinary distributed, and, it possible, in a straight
guards are all kinds of detachments com line ; for then tne whole will have more
manded on particular occasions for the room : for a crooked line, and an ine
further security of the camp, for covering | quality of disposition, afford a very un-
the foragers, for convoys, escorts, or ex p'easing view both of the camp, and of
peditions. the troops when they are under arms.
The ordinary guards are distinguished 12. Cleanliness is essentially necessary
into grand guards, standard, and quarter to the health of a camp, especially when
guards; rear guards, picket guards, and it is to remain for any length of time.
guards for the general officers ; train of To maiitain this, the privies should be
artillery, bread waggons, pay-master ge often filled up, and others opened ; at
neral, quarter-master general, majors of least every 6 days. The offal of cattle,
brigade, judge advocate, and provost and the carcasses of dead horses, should
marshal. be buried very deep : and all kinds of
The number and strength of the grand corrupt effluvia, that may infect the air
guards and out-posts, whether of cavalry and produce epidemical disorders, should
or
infantry, depend on the situation of be constantly removed.
the camp, nature of the country, and the Choice of Camps, i. At the beginning

position of the enemy. The strength of of a campaign, when the enemy is at too
general officers guards is limited. gr*at a distance to occasion any alarm, all
Camp maxims, are 1. The principal situations for camps that are nealthy are
rule in forming a camp, is to give it the good, provided the troops have room,
same front the troops occupy in order of and are within reach of water, wood, and
battle. More ground should be al-
2. The method of encamping is by Iirovisions.
owed to the troops in camps of duration,
battalions and squadrons, except the seve t;ian in temporary ones.
ral corps of artillery, which are encamped 2. Camps should be situated as near as
on the right and left of the park of artil possible to navigable rivers, to facilitate
lery. See Artillery park, and En the conveyance of all manner of supplies ;
campment of a regiment of artilley. for convenience and safety are the prin
3. Each man is allowed 2 feet in the cipal objects for camps.
ranics ot the battalion, and 3 feet in the 3. A camp should never be placed too
squadron : thence the front of a battalion near heie,hts, from whence the enemy
ot 500 men, formed 3 deep, will be 324 may overlook it; nor too near woods,
feet ; and the front of a squadron of 150 from whence the enemy may surprise it.
men, formed 2 deep, will be 225 feet. If there are eminences, not commanded
4. The depth of the camp when the by others, they should be taken into the
army is encamped in 3 lines, is at least camp\ and when that cannot be done,
3750 feet ; that is, 750 feet for the depth they should be fortified.
of each line, and 250 feet for the space 4. The choice of a camp depends in a
between each of those lines. great measure on the position of the
5. The park of artillery should always enemy, on his strength, and on the na
be placed on a dry rising ground, if any ture and situation ofthe country.
such situation offers ; either in the centre 5. A skilful general will avail himself
of the front line, or in the rear of the of all the advantages for a camp, which
second line ; with ail the train horses en nature may present, whether in plains,
camped in the rear of the park. mountains, ravines, hollows, woods,
6. The bread-waggons should be lakes, inclosures, rivers, rivulets, &c
stationed in the rear of the camp, and as 6. The disposition of the troops in
near as
possible to the centre, that the camp should depend on the nature and
distribution of the bread may be rendered situation of tha ground : as there are oc
easy. casions which requr? all the infantry to
7. When the commander in chief en encamp on the rigm, and the cavalry on
camps, it is generally in the centre ofthe the left ; and there are other* which re-
an

76 CAM CAM

quire the cavalry to form in the centre, should if possible, be seen from the army,
and the infantry on the or at least from some grand guard in its
wings.
7. A camp should never be formed on neighborhood, that signals may be readily
the banks of a river, without the space perceived and repeated.
of at least 2 or 5. The guards of infantry are generally
3000 feet, for drawing out
the army in order of battle: the the fixed; that is, they have the same post
enemy cannot then easily alarm the camp, both day and night, except such as are
1

by artillery and small arms from the other to support and protect the guards of
J
side. j cavalry, and to cover the forage grounds.
8. Camps should never be situated near 1 All out-guards should have intrenching-
rivers that are subject to be overflowed, tools with them.
either by the meliing of the snow, or by j 6. The guards of cavalry have generally
accidental torrents from the mountains. !a day-post and a night-post; the latter
Marshy grounds should also be avoided, j is seldom more than 4 or 500 paces from
on account of the vapors arising from the camp ; one third should be mounted,
stagnant water, which infect the air. J
one third bridled, and one third feeding

9. On the choice of camps and posts, i their horses ; but when near the enemy,
frequently depends the success of a cam the whole guard should be kept mounted
paign, and even sometimes of a war. during the night.
Camp guards. They are of two sorts , 7. The security and tranquillity of a
the one serves to mar, ram good order camp depending upon the vigilance ofthe
within the camp; and the other, which guards, the officers who command them
is stationed without the camp, serves to cannot be too active in
preventing sur
cover and secure it
against the enemy. prises : a neglect in this particular is
These guards are formed of both infantry often of fatal consequence. Though an
and cavalry ; and in proportion to the officer should, at all times, be strictly
strength of the army, situations of the attentive to every part of the service, yet
camp, and disposition of the enemy. he should be more particularly watchful
Sometimes it is required, that these in the nighi than in the day. The i.ight
guards should consist of the 8th part of is the time most favorable for surprises :
the army ; at others, of the th who
3d part ; and as se are not on duty, are gene
wher, an attack from the enemy is appre rally asleep, and cannot immediately af
hended, even of the half. ford assistance ; but in the day time, the
Manner of stationing the Camp guards. attention of all the troops is turned to the
It is ofthe utmost consequence to station movements of the enemy : they are sooner
the guards in such places, as may enable under arms, sooner in readiness to march,
them to discover easily whatever ap and in much less danger of being thrown
proaches the camp. into confusion. Those who wish to be
2. The guards of the cavalry are gene better acquainted with the nature and
rally removed further from the camp, mode of encampments, may read Mr.
than those of the infantry ; but never at Lochee's useful ks.,..y on Castrametation.
so great a distance, as to endanger their Concerning the healthiness of the dif
being cut off: within cannon-shot is a ferent seasons of a campaign, the ingeni
very good distance. They ;;re often ous Dr. Pringle has the
following obser
stationed in highways, in open places, vations. The first 3 weeks is always
and on small heights ; but, they are al- sickly ; after which the sickness decreases,
ways so disposed, as to see and commu and the men enjoy a tolerable degree of
nicate with one another. health throughout the summer, unless
3. The vedettes to the out- posts should they get wet clothes. The most sickly
be double: for, should they make a dis part of the campaign is towards the end
covery, one may be detaehed to inform of August, whilst the days are still hot,
the efiicer commanding the out-post, and but the nights cold and damp with togs
the other remain on duty : they should and dews ; then, if not sooner, the dysen
not be at too great a distance from their tery prevails ; and though its violence is
detachment : probably, about 50 or 60 over by the
beginning of October, yet the
paces will be sufficient. remitting fever, gaining ground, continues
4. The guards of infantry have differ I throughout the rest of the campaign, and
ent object.*, and are differently stationed : never entirely ceases, even in winter
quar
their duty is, u- receive and support the ters, 'till the frost begins. He likewise
guards of cas airy in cases ofneed : to pro observes, that the last 14 days of a cam
tect the troops sent out for wood, forage, paign, if protracted 'till the beginning of
or water ; in short to prevent any ap
j November, are attended with more sick-
from the small parties ofthe than the two first nionrhs of the en
proaches
Some are Stationed in the
j ness

enemy. campment. As to winter expeditions,


churches or the neighboring villages, in ! though severe in appearance, he teils us,
barns, houses, and in passages and ave they are attended with little sickness, if
nues of woods : others are stationed on the men have strong and good shoes,
the borders of rivulets, and in every place warm quarters, fuel, and provisions
neccssa-y to secure tne camp. Guards enough.
that are stationed in churches, in woods CAM?-Color-men. Each regiment has
or among trees, barns, and houses, geneially 6, and sometimes 1 per com-
CAN CAN 77

: they always march with the quar | made of thin sheets of iron rolled up to
pany
ter-master, to assist in making the ne gether, and hooped ; and on emergencies
cessary preparations against the arrival of they were made of leather, with plates of
the regiment in a new encampment. They iron or copper. These pieces were made
likewise carry the camp-colors. in a rude and imperfect manner, like the
CA\ie-Fight, an old term for Com first essays of many new inventions.
bat. Stone balls were thrown out of these
Flying-C amt, or army, generally cannon, and a smail quantity of powder
means a strong body of horse and foot, used on account of their weakness. These
commanded for the most part by a lieu pieces have no ornaments, are placed on
tenant-general, which is always in motion their carriages by rings, and are of cylin
both to cover its own garrisons, and to drical form. When or by whom they
keep the enemy's army in a continual were made, is uncertain ; however we
alarm. It is sometimes used to signify read of cannon bring used as early as the
the ground on which such a body of men 13th century, in a sea engagement be
encamps. tween the king of Tunis and the Moorish
CAhip-Utensils, in war time, are hatch king of Seville. The Venetians used
ets, shovels, mattocks, blankets, camp- cannon at the siege of Claudia Jessa, now
kettles, canteens, tents, poles and pins : called Chioggia, in 1366, which vvcrfi
that is, each company has 10 shovels, and brought thither by two Germans, witii
5 mattocks ; each tent i hatchet, 2 some
powder and leaden balls ; as like
blankets, 1 camp-kettle, with its linen wise in their wars with the Genoese in
bag ; and each soldier 1 canteen, i
knap 1369. Edward III. of England made
sack, and 1 havre-sack. use of cannon at the battle of Cressy in
C a mp -diseases are chiefly bilious fevers, 1346, and at the siege of Calais in 134"'.
malignant fevers, fluxes, scurvy, rheu Cannon were made use of by the Turks at
matism, &c. the siege of Constantinople, then in pos-
Camp is also used by the Siamese and s ssion of the Christians, in
1394, or in
some other nations in the East Indies, to that of 145-, that threw a weight of
express the quarters where the persons 5oolb but they generally burst, either
from different countries, who come to the first, second, or third shot. Louis
trade with them, usually reside. XI I. had one cast at Tours, of the same
CAMPUS Maii, an anniversary assem size, which threw a ball from the Bastille;
bly which was observed by ancient pagans to Charenton. One of those famous can.
on
May-day, when they mutually pledg non was taken at the
siege of Diu in 1546,
ed themselves to one another for tne de
by Don John de Castro, and is in the
fence of the country against foreign and castle of St. Juiliao da Barra, 10 miles
domestic foes. from Lisbon : its length is 20 feet 7
Campus Martins, a public place so inches, diameter at the centre 6 feet
3
called among the Romans from the God inches, and discharges a ball of ioolb.
Mars. It has neither dolphins, rings, nor but
CAMPAIGN, in military affairs, the ton, is of a curious kind of metal, and
time every year that an army continues in has a large Hindustanee inscription upon
the field, in war time. We also say, a it, which says it was cast in 1400.
man has served so
many campaigns, i. e. Ancient and present names o/Cansok,
years: the campaign will begin at such a Formerly they were distinguished by un
time ; this will be a long campaign, &c. common names ; for in 1
503, Louis XII.
The word is also used for an open country had 12 brass cannon cast, of an uncom
before any towns, Sec. mon size, called after the names of tlie
CANNIPERS. See Callipers. 12
peers of France. The Spanish and
CANNON or piecetof Ordnance, in Portuguese called them alter their saints.
the military art, imply machines
having The emperor Charles V. when he
tubes of brass or iron.
They are charged marched before Tuni-. founded the 12
with powder and
ball, or sometimes car Apostles. At Milan there is a 70 pound
tridges, grape and ca nister shot, &c. er, called the Pimontcllc; and one at
The length is distinguished
by three Bois-le-duc, called the devil. A 60-
parts ; the first re-inf'orce, the second re pou,:der at Dover castle, called ^ueen
inforce, and the chace : the first re-in- Elizabeth's Pocket-pistol. An 80-poun-
fbrce is 2-7 ths, and the second 1 7th and der in the tower of London
a half of the diameter of the shot.
(formerly in
The Sterling castle) called Mounts-meg. An
inside hollow, wherein the powder and
80-poundcr in the royal arsenal at Berlin,
shot are lodged, is called the bore, Sec. called the Thunderer. An 80- pounder
History of Cannon or pieces of Ord- ; at Malaga, called the Terrible. Two
nance. They were originally made of curious 60-pounders in the arsenal at
iron bars soldered together and fortified
Br.mcn, called the Me sengers of bad
with strong iron hoops ; some of which news. And lastly an uncommon 7c
are still to be seen, viz. one in the tower
pounder in the castle of St. Angelo at
of London, two at Woolwich, one in the made
Rome, of the nails that fastened
royal arsenal at Lisbon, they are nume ' the copperplates which covered the an
rous in all of Asia and baron Tott cient Pantheon, with this
parts ;
inscription upon
describes them in Turkey. Others were| it: Ex cluvis trabalibus
poriicui Ag'ippx.
78 CAN CAN

In the beginning of the 15th century of copper, 204 13.411b. of brass, and
these uncommon names were generally 307 36-41 lb. of tin. Others again use
abolished, and the following mere uni loolb. of copper, 61b. of brass, and olb.
"

versal ones took place, viz. lastly, others ioolb. of cop


of tin; and lai
Pounders Cwt. per, tolb. of brass, and 151b. of tin.,
Cannon royal, or car- ; ...
with respect to iron guns, their structure
=
48 about 90 is the same as that ofthe others, and they
thoun S
Bastard cannon, or i \ * generally stand the most severe engage
ments, being frequently used on ship
__

rarfVi/.iin
carthoun v J

carthoun board. Several experiments have taught


24
|Whole =

that the Swedish iron guns are prefer


culverins
able to all others in Europe.
Demy culverins : Cannon is now generally cast solid,
Falcon o
6 and the cavity bored afterwards by a very
(lowest sort =

Saker curious machine for that purpose, where


< ordinary =
5
the gun is placed in a perpendicular po
C largest size = 8
sition ; but of late these machines have
Basilisk =
48 85
8 been made to bore horizontally, and much
Serpentine =
4
truer than those that bore in a vertical
Aspik = 2 7
form. This new machine was first in
Dragon = 6 12
60 81 vented at Strasburg, and greatly improved
Syren =

Falconet =
3 &i IS. I0 5- by Mr. Verbruggen, a Dutchman, who
was head founder at Woolwich, where
Moyens, which carried a ball of 10 or
12 ounces, &c.
probably the best horizontal boring ma
chine in Europe has been lately fixed ; it
Rabii et,. which carried a ball of 16 both bores the inside, and turns and po
ounces. lishes the outside at once. For length
These curious names of beasts and birds and weight of French and English cannon
of prey were adopted, on account of their see Guns.
swiftness in motion, or of their cruelty ; Names of the several Parts of a Can
as the falconet, falcon, saker, and culver- non.

in, Sec. for their swiftness in flying ; the The grand divisions exterior, are as fol
basilisk, serpentine, aspik, dragon, syren, lows, viz.
Sec. for their cruelty. See the Latin poet First re-inforce, is that part of a gun
Forcastarius. next the breech, which is made stronger,
to resist the force of powder.
At present pieces of ordnance
cannon or
take their names from the weight of the Second re-inforce. This begins where
ball they discharge: thus a piece that the first ends, and is made somethinj
discharges a ball of 24 pounds, is called a smaller than the first.
24 pounder; one that carries a ball of 12 The chace, is the whole space from the
pounds, is called a 12. pounder; and so trunnions to the muzzle.
of the rest, divided into the following The muzzle, properly so called, is the
sorts, viz. part from the muzzle astragal to the end
Ship-g ins, consisting of 42, 3a, 24, of the piece.
s8, 12, 9, 6, and 3 pounders. Small divisions exterior.
Garrison-guns, of 42, 32, 24, 18, 12, The cascable, the hindermost part of
9, and 6 pounders. the breech, from the base-ring to the end
Battering-guns, of 24, 18, and 12 ofthe button.
pound -rs. The cascable-aslragal, is the diminish
Field- nieces, of 18, 12, 9, 6, 3, 2, ij, ing part between the two breech mould
r, and pounders. ings.
The British seldom use any of lower The neck of the eascable, is the narrow
calibre than 6 in the field. space between the breech moulding and
The metal of which brass cannon is the button.
made, is in a manner kept a secret by the The breech, is the solid piece of metal
founders; yet, with all their art and se behind, between the vent and the extre-
er ''cy, they have not hitherto found out mity of the base-ring, and which termi
a cciii position that will stand a hot en nates the hind part of the gun, exclusive

gagement without melting, or at least of the cascable.


being rendered useless. Those cast at The breech-mouldings, are the eminent
VVo lwich bid fair t wards this amend parts, as squares or rounds, which serve
ment. The respective quantities which only for ornaments to the piece, &c.
tho aid enter into this composition, is a The base-ring and ogee, are ornamental
point not decided ; founder has his
every mouldings ; the latter is always in the
own proportions, which are
peculiar to shape of an S, taken from civil architec
himscif. Tne most common proportions ture, and used in guns, mortars, and
of the ingredients are the following, viz. howitzers.
To 2401b, of metal fit for casting, they j The vent field, is the part from the vent
pui 681b. of copper, 521b. of brass, and
to the first re-inforce astragal.
12Y0. of tin. To 42oolb. of metal fit for The vent-astragal and fillets, are the
casting, the Germans put 3687 33-4rib. mouldings and fillets at or near the vent.
CAN CAN 79

The charging cylinder, is all the space Searcher, is


an iron, hollow at one end
from the cnace-astragal to the muzzle- to receive a wooden hrndle, and on the
astragal. other end has from four to eight flat
The first re-inforce ring and
ogee, is the springs of about eight or ten inches long,
ornament on the second re-inforce. pointed and turned outwards at int
The first re-inforce astragal, is the or ends.
nament between the first and second re The reliever, is an iron flat ring, with a
inforce. wooden handle, at right angles to it.

The chace-girdle, is the ornament close When a gun is to be searched alter it has
to the trunnions. been fired, th s searcher is introduced ;
The trunnions, are two solid and turned every way, from end to end,
cylindrical
pieces of metal on every gun, which pro and if there is any hole, the point of one
ject from the piece, and by which it is or other of the
springs gets into it, and
supported upon its carnage as an axis. remains till the reliever, passing round
The dolphins, are the two handles, pla the h indie of the searcher, and pressing
ced on the second re-inforce ring of brass the
guns, resembling the fish of that name :
springs together, relieves it.
When there is any hole or roughness in
they serve for mounting and dismounting the gun, the distance from the mouth is
the guns. marked on the outside with chalk.
The second re-inforce rintr and ogee, are The other searcher has also a wooden
the two ornaments joining the trun handle, and a point at the fore end, of
nions about an inch long, at right angles to
The second re-inforce
astragal, is the the length : about this point is put some
moulding nearest the trunnions. wax, mixed with tallow, which, when
The chase-astragal and
fillets, the two introduced into the hole or cavity, is
last-mentioned ornaments jointly. pressed in, when the impression upon
The muzzle-astragal andfillets, the joint the wax gives the depth, and the length
ornaments nearest the muzzle. is known by the motion of the searcher
The muzzle-mouldings, the ornaments backwards and forward : if the fissure
at the very muzzle of the
piece. be one ninth of an inch deep, the gun is
The swelling of the muzzle, the
pro rejected. See Instruments.
jected part behind the muzzle-mould N. B. The strength of gunpowder
ings. having been considerably increased by
Interior Parts. Col. Congreve, of the British Artillery,
The mouth,
or entrance
of the bore, is the quantity for service has been some
that part where both powder and ball are what reduced. That for proof remain
put in, or the hollow part which receives ing as heretofore.
the charge.
r amwow <* &"'* See Balls.
The vent, in all kinds of
fire-arms, is *i Shot. See Shot.
commonly called the touch-hole ; it is a CANNON I ER, a person who ma
small hole pierced at the end, or near
it, nages a gun. See Gunner.
of the bore or chamber, to
prime the Can son -Baskets. See Gabioks.
piece with powder, or to introduce the To nail Cannon. See Nail.
tube, in order, when lighted, to set fire CANNONADE, in artillery, may be
to the charge.
defined the application of
The chamber, which is artillery to the
only in large purposes of a land war, or the directior.
calibers, is the place where the powder of its efforts against some distant
object
is lodged, which forms the
charge. intended to be seized or destroyed, as th-
Toott for loading and
firing Cannon, troops in battle, battery, fortress, or out
are rammers, sponges, ladles, worms, work.
hand-spikes, wedges, and screws.
Cannonading is therefore used from a
Coins, or Wedges, under the
to lay battery, to take, destroy, burn,or drive
breech of the gun, in order to elevate or the enemy from the defences, &c. and
depress it. to batter and ruin the works or fortifies!
Hand-spikes, serve to move and to lay towns.
the gun.
CANON-Bit, that part of the bit
Ladies, serve to load the gun with which s let into the horse's mouth.
loose powder.
CANTEENS, in military articles, ar
Rammers, are cylinders of wood, whose tin vessels used by the sold ers on a
diameter and axis are equal to those of march,
Sec. to carry water r other
the saot : they serve to ram home the liquor in,
each holds about 2
wads put upon the powder and shot. quarts.
CANTONMENTS aredistinct situa
Sponge, is fixed at the opposite end of tions, where thedifferent parts of an army
the rammer, covered with
lamb-skin,
and serves to clean the gun when fired.
he as near to each o her as and
possible,
m the same manner as
used field- they encamp in
Screws, are to pieces, instead the field. The chief reasons for cantor,
of coins, by which the gun is kept to the an
ing army are, first, when thecampaiga
same elevation. begins early ; on which occasio i, in can
Tools necessary far proving
Cannon, toning your troops, two objects demand
are, a searcher with a reliever, iral a
searcher with one point.
attention, viz. the military object, ami
that of subsistence : the second is, when
80 CAP CAP

an army has finished a siege early, th plies being clothed in armor from head
troops are allowed to
repose till the fields to foot.
produce forage for their subsistence : the CAPSTERN, ?in military machines,
third reason is, when the autumn proves CAPSTAN, \ signifies a strong mas

rainy, and forage scarce, the troops are sy piece of timber, in the form of a trun
cantoned to protect them from the bad cated cone, having its upper part, called
weather. the drum-head, pierced with a number
CANVAS-BAGS. See Bags, 5W- of square holes, for receiving the levers.
Bacs, Sec. By turning it round, several actions may
CAPARISON, under this term is in be performed that require an extraordina
cluded the brivile, saddle, and housing, ry power.
of a military horse. CAPTAIN is a military officer, who
CAPITAINE en pied, Fr. an officer is commander of a troop of cavalry, or of
who is in actual pay and does duty. a company of foot or artillery. The name

Capitaine reforme, Fr. a reduced of captain was the first term made use of
officer. to express the chief or head (caput) of a
Capitaine general des vivres, Fr, company, troop, or body of men. He is
the person who has the chief management both to march and fight at the head of
and superintendance of military stores his company. A captain of artillery and
and provisions. engineers ought to be master of the attack
Capita i ne des partes, Fr. a commis and defence of fortified places, and cap
sioned officer who resides in a garrison tains of infantry or cavalry should acquire
town, and whose sole duty is to receive some knowlege of those branches; artil
the keys of the gates from the governor lerists should be good mathematicians, and
every morning, and to deliver them to understand the raising of all kinds of bat
him every night, at appointed hours. teries, to open the trenches, to conduct
CAPITAL, in fortification, is an ima the sap, to make mines and fou), asses,
ginary line which divides any work into and to calculate their charges. They
two equal and similar parts. It signifies ought further to be well acquainted with
also, a line drawn from the angle of a po the power of artillery, the doctrine ofthe
lygon to the point ofthe bastion, or from military projectile, and the laws of mo.
the point of the bastion to the middle of tion, together with the system of mecha
the gorge. nics ; and should be good draughtsmen.
To C A P I T U L ATE, to su rrender any A captain has in most services the power
place or body of troops to the enemy, on of appointing his own Serjeants and cor
certain stipulated conditions. porals, and may by his own authority re
CAPITULATION, in military af duce or break them ; but he cannot
fairs, implies the conditions on which the punish a soldier with death, unless he
jjarrison ofa place besieged agrees to deli revolts ag.-.-inst him on duty.
ver it up, &c. This is likewise the last The captains of artillery in the Prus
action, both in the attack and defence of sian service, rank as majors in the army,
a fortification, the conditions of which and have an extraordinary pay, on ac
count of the great qualifications demand
may be of various kinds, according to the
different circumstances or situations in ed of them ; and the captains of bombar
which the parties may be placed. diers, miners, and artificers, in the Por
As soon as the capitulation is agreed tuguese service, have 9 dollars a mor.th
on, and signed, hostages are generally de more than the captains of artillery in the
livered on both sides, for the exact per same regiment.
formance of the articles ; part of the place C General. The King is cap
a p t a 1 n -

is delivered to the besiegers, and a day tain-general of all the forces of Great Bri
appointed for the ganison to evacuate the tain. This term implies the first rank,
place. The usual and most honorable power, and authority in the British army.
conditions are, with arms and baggage, ."his power was delegated to the Duke
drums beating and colors flying, matches of York, in 1799.
lighted, and some pieces of artillery; Capta xn- Lieutenant, the commanding
waggons, and convoys for the baggage, officer of the colonel's troop or company
sick and wounded, &c. in the British army, in case the colonel is
CAPONNILR, in fortification, is a absent, or he gives up the command of it
passage- made- irum one work to another, to him. He takes rank as full captain,
of 10 or 12 feet wide, and about five feet by an order in 1772, and by a late regula
deep, covered on each side by a parapet, tion, succeeds to the first vacant troop or
terminating in a glacis. Caponniers are company ; the price of a captain-lieuten
sometimes covered with planks and earth. ancy being the same as that of a cap
bee Fort imca rioN. taincy. This title is still used in foreign
CAPS, in gunnery, are pieces of lea serviet-s.
ther, or more commonly sheep- skins, to Captain reformed, one who, upon a
cover the mouth of mortars when loaded, reduction of the forces, on the teimina-
nil tiny are fired, to prevent damps, or tion of war, loses his company, yet keeps
rain getting in. his rank and pay, whether on duty or not.
C AP-.iji.arM. See Carriages. Captain on ha-j pay, is one who loses
L'Ar-A.rsE, in military antiquity, im his ci mpany on the icuuction of an army ,
CAR CAR

and retires on half- pay, until seniority resistancethe first inflammation of the
at
puts him into duty and full pay a am. powder, giving
time for the whole
charge
Captain en second, or second to take fire, before the ball is out of the
captain,
h one whose
company has been brcke, bore. These arms are used by horse-rifle
and who is joined to
another, to serve men, the chasseurs, or light infantry.
under the captain of it.
CARBINEERS, or Carabineers. All
In some armies the
is also a second
captain en seconde, regiments of light armed horse were for
captain to the same com merly called so ; but since the establish
pany, whose rank is above all the lieu ing of hussars and chasseurs, they have
tenants, and below all the captains ofthe lost that denomination ; and now all the
same
corps. cavalry are called carabineers, who carry
CAPTURE de deserteurs, Fr. Under the carabine
the old government of
France, a particu CARACOLE, a semi-circular motion
lar orc.er existed,
by which every intend- or half-wheel ;
chiefly applied to that
ant de
province or commissaire de guerre used either by individuals or
squadrons of
was authorised to
pay one hundred livres, cavalry, to present an enemy from dis
or
twenty dollars, to any peism or covering where they intend to make their
persons who should apprehend and se attack.
cure a deserter
; and three hundred li CARBON, charcoal. It is the name
vres, or seventy dollars tor every man that in the new
eould be proved to
chemistry given to every body
have^nticed a soldier which has the
lrom the regular properties or qualities of
army orniilitia. the carbonic acid or charcoal; i.rpreg-
CAQUE depoudre, Fr. a term synony nated in certa n degrees, bodies are called
mous to a tun or barrel of
powder. carbonates. See Aicremone.
CAR, in military antiquity, a kind of Carbone. Pure charcoal is called
small carriage;
figuratively, used by the carbone in the new chemical nomencla
poets for a chariot : it is mounted on ture. It is he black residuum of
vegeta
wheels, representing a stately throne, bles, which have suffered a
used in triumphs and on other solemn complete
occasions.
decomposition of their volatile piii.cipl.es
by fire. Charcoal is black, brittle, sono
CARABIXIERS, Fr. One complete rous, andlight. It is placed among sim
regiment ot carabineers was formed, dur ple bodies, beca.se no experiment has
ing the monarchy Of France, out of the hitherto show,, the
different corps of cavalry. possibility of decom
They were posing if. It exists in the animal,
usually distributed among other bodies of table, and mineral regions When vege it is
troops, and it was their duty to charge required to procure carbone in a state of

the advanced posts ofthe en. mv. i
great purity, it must be v.ried by
CARABINS, Fr. These were light- ignition in a closed vessel. strong
armed
on foot.
horsemen, who sometimes acted |
Carbonic acid. Carbonaceous acid.
They were generally stationed I Fixed air. Mephitic gas Aerial acid.
in the
out-posts, for the purpose of har The name of cretaceous acid
appears to
assing the enemy, defending narrow I agree best with this
In action, thev
substance, because
passes, Sec. usually j
it is contained in
fought in front of the dragoon' , or upon chalk; and tfure is nolarge quantities in
very
other body with
the wings of the first line. Their name'
which it has so strong an affinity, as with
is derived from the
Arabian word Karab, ! iime, which
composes the base of this
which signifies, generally,
any warlike! earthy salt. The carbonic ac.d possesses
instrument. all the more obvious
qualities of air, and
CARAVAN ; Caravanne, Fr. from a1 existcj m tne atmosphere, of which it is
Turkish word, which \
signifies, a
troop a small part.
ot travellers, who
go armed by sea or land. Atmospheric air. In 100 of at
CARBINE, in military affairs, is a mospheric air there are 72 of parts azote, 27 of
lire-arm somewhat smaller than the fire
oxygenc, and 1 of carbonic acid.
lock of the
infantry, and used by the ca CARCASS, a composition f com
valry. It carries a ball of 24 in the bustibles. Carcasses are of two sorts.
pound : its barrel is three feet long, and oblong and rcund : the uncertain
the whole length, flight or.'
including the stock.' the hist sort has almost rendered them
4 feet. useless. They are prepared in the fol
Rifled- Carbines, are generally of the lowing ma. ner : boil 12 or
same dimensions with the 15 lb. of pitch
above, and in a glazed earthen pot; mix wiih that
have their ba-rels rifled
spirally from the 3 lb. of tallow, 30 lb. of pov.der, 6 lb. of
breech to the mouth ; so that when the
sait-petre, and a., many stopins as can be
ball, which is forced into it, is driven out put in. Before the is cold,
ag-iin by the strength ofthe powder, it is ' the carcass must be composition
!e.i_;thened about the breadth of a finger smear your hands wi.h filled; to do which,
ori or tallow, and
and marked with the rifle of the bore. till '

the carcass i-third full with the


Fire-as ins of this kind have a much
great- \ above composition ; then
put in loaded
er
range than any other, because the rifle pieces ot gun or
of the barrel gives a pistol bands, loaded
sp ral direction, n-..' grenades, and fill the intervals w.th com
stead of a
rotatory direction to die ball, position ; cover the whole ove' with
which by tint means makes the
greater coarse cloth, well sewed together. ':;eD-
82 CAR CAR

mg it in a round form. Then put it into and serves to describe those lines that
the have mason work.
carcass, having a hollow top and
bottom, with bars running between them CAROUSAL, in military history, sig
to hold them
together, and composed of nifies a magnificent entertainment, exhi
four slips of iron bited by princes or other great personages, ^
joined at top, and fixed
at the "

bottom, at equal distances, to a on some public occasion, consisting of


piece of iron, which, together with the cavalcades of gentlemen richly dressed
hoops, when filled, form a complete glo and equipped, after the manner of the
bular body. When quite finished and ancient cavaliers, divided into squadrons,
cold, the carcass must be steeped in melt meeting in some public place, and per
ed pitch, and then instantly immerged in forming justs, tournaments, &c.
cold water. Lastly, bore three or four CARRIAGES, in military affairs, are
holes at top, and fill the same with fuze of various kinds, viz.
composition, covering the holes with Garrison- Carriages, are those on
pitch until used. Carcasses are thrown which all sorts of garrison-pieces are
out of mortars, and
weigh from 50 to mounted. They are made much shorter
230 lb. according to the size of the mor than field-carriages, and have generally
tars they are to be thrown out of. There iron trucks instead of wheels.
are other carcasses for the As the trucks of garrison-carriages are
sea-service,
which differ froma shell only in the com
generally made of cast-iron, their axle-
position, and in the four hole's from which trees should hpve
copper-clouts under
it burns when fired.
neath, to diminish the friction ofthe iron
Carcasses were first used by the against the wood. Travelling-carriages
Irishop of Mm.ster, at the siege of Groll, are in many respects very unfit for gar
in 1672, where the duke of
Luxemburg rison service, though they are frequently
commanded. used.
CARCASSES. Their dimensions and Travclling-C ARRiAczs are such as
weight, 1796 guns are mounted on for sieges, and for
W eight. the field ; they are much longer, and dif
r .

ferently constructed from garrison- car


Kinds. ll riages ; having 4 wheels, 2 for the car
h-
Empty. Ofcom Complete P's riage, and 2 for the limber, which last are
position. only used on marches.
Rt/und Field. Carriages are both shorter and
for
Ib.oz. dr. lb-oz.dr. lb.oz. dr. Mir
lighter than those before-mentioned, bear
c J3 194 10 11 18 14

213 8 16

II ing a proportion to the pieces mounted
^l * 89 13 11 7 8 11 97 6 ij
TO upon them.
* Limbers are two-wheel carriages, some
is8 44 9 5 4 411 48 14

5-
times made with shafts, and sometimes
3
42 27 3 2 7 ii 29 10 11

S
with beams for drawing double; they
%
"
32
24
20
13
12
5 1
1
145 22
16
11 11 4-
serve to support the trail of
field carriages,
14

911 5 11 4
2 18 11
13 11 1 1
5 12
15

4 by means of the pintle or iron bolt, when
68 artillery is transported from one place to
26 another, and are taken off again when
h 4- 2 **
28 7_ 4- the pieces arc to be fired, unless
3* 21 10 1
13- 23 upon a
ii\

7 4

5 24 14 5
-
5

16 10

\-
march, when harrasscd by the enemy,
" iirc
18 10 4
1 2
11 6

3
Oblong Gallopcr-CARRiAczs serve for 1 1-2

for These carriages are made with


pounders.
10
.
*6 7 5 35 10 72 1 5 12
shafts,
to be drawn without a lim
so as

S-o.2 8 16 5 5 18 2 ber. In the war of 1756, the King of


34 7 5 10

Prussia, mounted light 3-pounders on


1"! si 11 120 2 6 15 8 11 3 6

4- 6| 3 11 7 4 11 13 4 these carriages, which answered very


well. The horse-artillery is an improve

AW. It being found at the siege of ment of this method ofthe Prussian.
Quebec, that the quantity of powder re Hcwitz-CARRiAGEs are for transport-
quisite for throwing the carcasses into the ing howitzers; and 'those for the 6and 5-8
town, always destroyed them, the me inch howitzers, are made with screws to
thod of filling the interval between the elevate them, in the same manner as the
powder and carcass with turf was adopt light 6 pounders; for which reason they
ed ; and found to preserve the
carcass, are made without a bed, and the centre-
a:ul to produce every <. erired effect. transom must be 9 inches broad to fix the
CAR1PI, a kin 1 of cavalry in the screw, instead of 4 for those made with
Turkish army, which to the number of out : in the centre, between the trail and
1000 are not slaves, nor bred up in the
centre-transom, there is a transom-bolt,
seraglio, like the rest, but are generally which is not in others, because the cen
Moors, or renegado Christians, who have tre-transom must be made to be taken
obtained the rank of horse-guards to the out ; after which, the howitzer can be
Grand Segnior. elevated to any angle under ninety de
CARMINE, a bright scarlet color, grees.
which is used in plans of fortification, Tumbret-C ARS.1ACZ. See Tumbrel.
CAR CAR 83

cwts. qr. lb. cwts. qr. lb.


BUck-C arui age, a carriage which is *

made from a solid piece of timber, hol 12 Pr.


light gun 12 o

lowed out so as to receive the gun or Carriage complete 123 7 J 36 2 21

howitzer into the cap-squares. The Limber, with em. box. 12 3 14.

lower part of the cap-square is let into 6 Prs. Desaguliers no


")
the solid wood, and the gun or howitzer
is either elevated or depressed by a screw,
Carriage complete
Limb, do. em. box.
to
11
11

b 27)
14^34 I 13

as in other carriages. The limber for 6 Pr.. light batt. gun 60 )

this carriage carries two large chests for Carriagewithout box. ? z


(
24 I
ammunition, and takes four men. The iron axletrees >
'
I
8 3
pintle of the limber is so constructed as Limber, wit hem. box. 21 .

to receive the gudgeon of the carriage ; 5 1-2 Inch howit. light 43 7'
by which means a greater relief is af Carriage, without box. 10 o 7! 24
forded when the carriage passes over Limber, with em. box. 91
j
rough round. 24 Prs. platform tra- ? 22 ^
Block-C arriagzs are also used by veiling carriage 5 'i
the horse-artillery as curricles. They Standing carriage for"^ 2 16
are particularly useful on mountain ser do. iron trucks, and |
vice. The original inventor of them, is .he tackles of the carr.
British Colonel Congreve, author of ma Iron gun
ny other important military inventions. Ball cartridge wag
7>z.*-/r-CARRiAGEs are to carry tim gon, DukeofRich.
ber and other- heavy burthens from one mond's pattern
place to another, at no great distance : with spare pole and
j
they serve also to convey guns or mor swingle trees J
tars upon a battery, whither their own Charge of musquet P
2o o

carriages cannot go, and are drawn by ammunition $


men as well as horses. Common pattern am- 1
Potf/ow-CARRiAGE. Carriages of this munition caisson, > 16 2

kind are solely for transporting the pon altered -


) -

36
tons ; they had formerly but two wheels, Charge of ammunition 20 o

but are generally now made with four.


New infantry ammu- ?
* *4
The making use of two-wheel carriages nition cart $ 9 -
21 1 14
for travelling a great way, is contrary to Charge of ammunition 12 o

sense and reason ; because the whole Common sling cart, complete 17 1
weight lying upon the two wheels, must Common truck carriage 12 2
make them sink deeper into the ground, Common hand cart 4 1
than those of a four-wheel carriage. Forge waggon, complete 2
13
Carriage. Weight of Field Car

Dimensions of certain parts of carriages,


riages at present in use.
the knowlege of which may prevent
cwts. qrs. lbs.
Horse Artillery Carriages many mistakes in arranging the difterent
12 Prs. gun and carriage pieces for disembarkation, or in other
similar situations.
complete for service, with
two men, and their ap Axletrees. Most of the field carriages
pointments on the limber, are now made with iron axletrees ; the
and 16 rounds of ammu dimensions of which are as follows :
nition. - -

45 o 14
Ammunition caisson for do. Len.ofarm
complete, with two men
on the limber, and i spare

wheel, 2 spare skafts, with Iron Axletrees.


78 rounds of ammunition. 33 3 o
6 Prs. equipped as above
with with 42 rounds -

34 1 21
Ammunition caisson as above,
108 rounds - - -
30 o 21 met.
5 1-2 Inch howitzer,equipped 6 Pr. Light -
as above, with 20 rounds
Ammunition caisson for do.
353 3 Pr. Heavy
5 1-2 in. Howitz. I
}
as above, with 52 rounds
39 2 o Ammu. caisson I
Forge waggon, complete for Ball cartridge do. I
travelling - - -

19214 whether horse r 2l


Large tilted baggage waggon,
18
artillery or the j
empty -
r
- -

3 0 park, whether
Equipage to be carried - 12 o o limber or carri
Park Carriages, age J
cwts. qr. lb. cwts. qr lb.
.
Light 12 Pounder;
12 Prs. Med. gun car- ? . .A
and limber
$
riage, without box. S u Medium 12 Pr.
Limber to do. 7 2 I4f*4 1
Limber to do.
-

Gun - 180- -
)
84 CAR CAR

Carriage CARRIER, a kind of pigeon, so cal


!| Limber.
Di. of arm. led from its having been used in armies,
to carry orders from one division of an ar

Wood my to another, r intelligence to some


.

Axletrees. officer commanding a


post or
army at a
<S P.K
distance.
CARRONADES. Their weight and
dimensions
In le In.
24 Prs. Heavy 4-9 18 3-3
12 Prs. Med.' 4 16 4 Length in
6 Prs Des'rs.
34 '34 3,-2 SEm .2 So

6 Prs. Light
13 3 :4 *. 8.E
3 Prs. Des'rs.
3, Qo
tt.in.,Calr,
3 Prs. Light 68~Prs .05 770236 59toi
How'r. 8 In. 15 J. 962 29

5 i-3 in 42
-

6.84 7.518 22
58toi
42-5 in.

3*
~

6-35 7.679J17 14 62tOI


tore iiind
7.65613

56toi
Ammunition
wa^e n, with
_-A_ 24

5.68^ 6336 11 2
25

<.i6^ 7.587 9 56toi


18

folding sides 2.914 2.9 '3 8


5-447 1 25
Close bodied 12 4 52

5-778 5 3 56101
Ammunition N. B. Carronades hav. not so much
caisson 3-3!i4 2.9 14 windage as guns. See Windage.
Dimensions and Weight of Standing Ranges with Carronades, 1798. The
Gun charge is i-i2th the weight of the
Carriages. shot;
and -\ith one shot and one wad. The
d line ot fire from 6 to 9 feet above the level
NO
i- 0 0
& of the water.
i- ro "> CI
0
0 0 0 0 0 c
J3 co 0 on-4- r-
',
"
"
co
C n^-no J-~00 oo
e_-\
-
4J CO IN!
ro 0 0 000000
c* 1-- r-. coo r~ O
ex
i CO
5-o c. ^t r-00 00 O
ON 1/.
^
U- CO 0
O 0 0 0 00
<fr O oeo i^n 10
d CO CN NO co lo r^oo cjn 0
eo r> C*

*t 10 C)
U* 0
N
O O 0 0 0 0 -
cono coo r~oo
c t"~ .0
O* CO^-iOO Os OnO

-t.
* no d *-"oo C<
CI
N
9. ON t On O
N o-
* * d
'J'nC 00 on w

0
CO
r>-\^
J= N
_
A* O
.

r-ov^
~-^-C 0 00 00 T3 S.P O O O
eO >0 **<> 00 0
a 1- 0
13 ~

U 1 C 0- >.
H-C P -J5 -

u pie tr

<
de

len.'t hole beds fl'l
to <u

2
C u
d
V
*
c
.2
5.
a
at
f-

.0
march. See March X U Oi
Carriages on a m c, co-4- in

ing. Note.The highest charge for carron


The carriages for horse


artillery guns, ades is i-8th the
an^ 4 pounders, are constructed
weight of the shot; the
as 1 2, 9, lowest i-i6th.
lighter than formerly; the two first of Diameter ofthe wheels ofthe Field Carriages
these calibres have an additional trunnion at present in use :

plate ; and indeed it does not app: ai why Diameter;.


every travelling carria.e should not hav> All the horse artillery carriages, 1 ft. in.
this importair improvement since it eases limbers, and caissons ; the I
the hordes an 1 sav s the carriage ; and by heavy 6 Prs. and long 3 Prs.
lessening the fatigue increases the celerity and their limbers ; the carriage !
of the movements, and spares the cattle of a 6 Pr. battalion gun, and a ; '

for service. light 5 1-2 inch howitzer; the I


For wood "f which carriages are made, hind wheels 01 a common am- |
see the word Wood. munition caisson J
CAR CAR

Diameter of the Wheels of Field Carriages, wards Low carte, is a thrust at the in
continued. ft. in. side of the lower half of the
Limber to light 6 Pr. and
body ; the
51-2") position of the hand being the same as in
howitzer ( the former.
Med. 12 Pr.limber, 4 ft. 6 in. t 4 8 C arte -blanche Fr. a full and absolute
carriage ) power which is lodged in the hands of a
Sling cart -
8 general of an army, to act according to
Fore wheels of an ammunition ? the best of his judgment, without wait
caisson \ ing for superior instructions or orders. It
likewise strictly means a blank paper ; a
Pontoon carriage \ f. .re,
paper to be filled up with such conditions
as the
8 Inch Howitzer \S J*'mber person to whom it is sent thinks
Carnage proper.
Ball Ammunition Cart
CARTEL, in military transactions,
agreement between
Carriage \
an two states
24 Prs. Platform