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Electronics I

Goal of the course is to continue to become


familiar with electronic circuitry
Electronic Design
Amplifiers
Analysis of Electronic Circuitry
Electronic Devices
To apply this knowledge to Biomedical
applications
But First Some Review

BME 372 Electronics I 2


J.Schesser
Circuit Analysis

Lesson #1

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J.Schesser
Circuit Analysis

Circuit Elements
Passive Devices
Active Devices
Circuit Analysis Tools
Ohms Law
Kirchhoffs Law
Impedances
Mesh and Nodal Analysis
Superposition
Examples
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J.Schesser
Characterize Circuit Elements

Passive Devices: dissipates or stores energy


Linear
Non-linear
Active Devices: Provider of energy or
supports power gain
Linear
Non-linear

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Circuit Elements Linear Passive Devices

Linear: supports a linear relationship between the


voltage across the device and the current through
it.
Resistor: supports a voltage and current which
are proportional, device dissipates heat, and is
governed by Ohms Law, units: resistance or
ohms

VR (t ) = I R(t)R where R is the value of the resistance associated with the resistor

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Circuit Elements Linear Passive Devices

Capacitor: supports a current which is


proportional to its changing voltage, device
stores an electric field between its plates, and is
governed by Gauss Law, units: capacitance or
farads, f

dVC(t)
I C (t ) = C where C is the value of the capacitance associated with the capacitor
dt

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J.Schesser
Circuit Elements Linear Passive Devices

Inductor: supports a voltage which is


proportional to its changing current, device
stores a magnetic field through its coils and is
governed by Faradays Law, units: inductance
or henries, h

dI L(t)
VL (t ) = L where L is the value of the inductance associated with the inductor
dt

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Circuit Elements - Passive Devices Continued
Non-linear: supports a non-linear
relationship among the currents and
voltages associated with it
Diodes: supports current flowing through it in
only one direction

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Circuit Elements - Active Devices
Linear
Sources
Voltage Source: a device which supplies a voltage a
as a function of time at its terminals which is +
Vab(t)
--
independent of the current flowing through it, units:
Volts b
DC, AC, Pulse Trains, Square Waves, Triangular
Waves

a
Current Source: a device which supplies a current
Iab(t)
as a function of time out of its terminals which is
independent of the voltage across it, units: Amperes b
DC, AC, Pulse Trains, Square Waves, Triangular
Waves

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Circuit Elements - Active Devices
Continued
Ideal Sources vs Practical Sources
An ideal source is one which only depends on the
type of source (i.e., current or voltage)
A practical source is one where other circuit
a elements are associated with it (e.g., resistance,
Rs inductance, etc. )
A practical voltage source consists of an ideal voltage
Vab(t)
+ source connected in series with passive circuit elements
-- Vs(t) such as a resistor
b A practical current source consists of an ideal current
source connected in parallel with passive circuit elements
such as a resistor
a

Is(t) Rs Iab(t)

b
BME 372 Electronics I 11
J.Schesser
Circuit Elements - Active Devices
Continued
Independent vs Dependent Sources
a An independent source is one where the output
+
Vab(t) voltage or current is not dependent on other voltages
--
or currents in the device
b
A dependent source is one where the output voltage
or current is a function of another voltage or current
in the device (e.g., a BJT transistor may be viewed
as having an output current source which is
dependent on the input current)
Rs ii Ro io
+ + +
vs vi Ri Avovi vo RL
- - -
BME 372 Electronics I 12
J.Schesser
Circuit Elements - Active Devices
Continued
Non-Linear
Transistors: three or more terminal devices
where its output voltage and current
characteristics are a function on its input
voltage and/or current characteristics, several
types BJT, FETs, etc.

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Circuits
A circuit is a grouping of passive and active
elements
Elements may be connecting is series,
parallel or combinations of both

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Circuits Continued
Series Connection: Same current through the
devices
The resultant resistance of two or more Resistors
connected in series is the sum of the resistance
The resultant inductance of two or more Inductors
connected in series is the sum of the inductances
The resultant capacitance of two or more Capacitors
connected in series is the inverse of the sum of the
inverse capacitances
The resultant voltage of two or more Ideal Voltage
Sources connected in series is the sum of the voltages
Two of more Ideal Current sources can not be
connected in series
BME 372 Electronics I 15
J.Schesser
Series Circuits
a R1 b R2 c
Resistors Vac = Vab + Vbc = IR1 + IR2
RT = R1+ R2
= I ( R1 + R2 ) = IRT
L1 L2
Inductors a b c
Vac = Vab + Vbc = L1 dI + L2 dI
LT = L1+ L2 dt dt
= ( L1 + L2 ) dI = LT dI
C1 C2 dt dt
a b c
Vac = Vab + Vbc = 1 Idt + 1 Idt
Capacitors C1C21
C1 C2
CT = = = ( 1 + 1 ) Idt = 1
1 + 1 C1 + C2 C1 C2 CT Idt
C1 C2
BME 372 Electronics I 16
J.Schesser
Series Circuits
a 20 b 50 c
Resistors
RT = 20+ 50 = 70

Vac = Vab + Vbc = I 20 + I 50


= I (20 + 50) = I 70

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Series Circuits
a
25h b
100h c
Inductors
LT =25+ 100 = 125h

dI dI
Vac = Vab + Vbc = 25 + 100
dt dt
dI dI
= (25 + 100) = 125
dt dt

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J.Schesser
Series Circuits

Capacitors a
5f
b
10f
c

1 5 10 50 10
CT = = = = = 3.33 f
1 1 5 + 10 15 3
+
5 10
1 1
5 10
Vac = Vab + Vbc = Idt + Idt

1 1 3
= ( + ) Idt = Idt
5 10 10

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Series Circuits

Capacitors a
10f
b
10f
c

1 10 10 100 10
CT = = = = =5f
1 1 10 + 10 20 2
+
10 10
1 1
Vac = Vab + Vbc = Idt + Idt
10 10
1 1 2 1
= ( + ) Idt = Idt = Idt
10 10 10 5

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Circuits Continued
Parallel Connection: Same Voltage across the
devices
The resultant resistance of two or more Resistors
connected in parallel is the inverse of the sum of the
inverse resistances
The resultant inductance of two or more Inductors
connected in parallel is the inverse of the sum of the
inverse inductances
The resultant capacitance of two or more Capacitors
connected in parallel is the sum of the capacitances
The resultant current of two or more Ideal Current
Sources connected in parallel is the sum of the currents
Two of more Ideal Voltage sources can not be
connected in parallel
BME 372 Electronics I 21
J.Schesser
Parallel Circuits
a
Iab
1 RR I ab = I1 + I 2 = V + V
RT = = 1 2
Resistors 1 + 1 R1 + R2 I1 R1 I2 R2 R1 R2

R1 R2 = ( 1 + 1 )V = V
b
R1 R2 RT

Iab
a
LL I ab = I1 + I 2 = 1 Vdt + 1 Vdt
LT = 1 = 1 2 L1 L2
I1 L1 I L2
Inductors 1 + 1 L1 + L2
= ( 1 + 1 ) Vdt = 1 Vdt
2
L1 L2 b L1 L2 LT

Iab I ab = I1 + I 2 = C1 dV + C2 dV
a dt dt
= (C1 + C2 ) dV = CT dV
Capacitors CT = C1+ C2 I1 C1
I2
C2 dt dt

b
BME 372 Electronics I 22
J.Schesser
Combining Circuit Elements
Kirchhoffs Laws
Kirchhoff Voltage Law: The sum of the
voltages around a loop must equal zero
Kirchhoff Current Law: The sum of the
currents leaving (entering) a node must
equal zero

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Combining Rs, Ls and Cs

We can use KVL or KCL to write and solve


an equation associated with the circuit.
Example: a series Resistive Circuit
R1
V(t) = I(t)R1 + I(t)R2
V(t) = I(t)(R1 + R2) + I(t)
V(t) R2
--

BME 372 Electronics I 24


J.Schesser
Combining Rs, Ls, and Cs

We can use KVL or KCL to write and solve


an equation associated with the circuit.
Example: a series Resistive Circuit
I1 I3

I1+I2+I3=0 + I 2

V(t) R1 R2
I2=-V(t)/R1; I3=-V(t)/R2; -
I1-V(t)/R1 -V(t)/R2 =0
I1=V(t)/R1 +V(t)/R2=V(t)[1/R1 +1/R2]

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Series Circuits
a 20 b 50 c
Resistors
+ 70V -

RT = 20+ 50 = 70

Vac = Vab + Vbc = I 20 + I 50


= I (20 + 50) = I 70 = 70V
I = 1A

BME 372 Electronics I 26


J.Schesser
Combining Rs, Ls and Cs

Example: a series RLC circuit


R1 L1

dI (t ) 1
V (t ) = I (t ) R1 + L1 + I (t )dt + V(t)
I(t)
C1
dt C1 --

Or to simplify this analysis, we can concentrate


on special cases

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Impedances
Our special case, signals of the form: V(t) or I(t) =Aest
where s can be a real or complex number
dI (t ) 1 dI (t ) 1
V (t ) = I (t ) R1 + L1 + I (t )dt 10e5t = I (t )10 + 5 + I (t )dt
dt C1 dt .2
dAe5t
Let' s assume : 10e = Ae 10 + 5
5t 5t
+ 5 Ae 5t dt
dt
V (t ) = 10e 5t ; R1 = 10; L1 = 5h; C1 = .2 f
5e5t
Let' s try : 10e = A(e 10 + 5 5e +
5t 5t 5t
)
5
I (t ) = Ae 5t
= A(e 5t 36)
10 10
A = ; I (t ) = e5t
36 36

This is only one portion of the solution and does not


include the transient response.
BME 372 Electronics I 28
J.Schesser
Impedances

Since the derivative [and integral] of Aest =


sAest [=(1/s)Aest], we can define the
impedance of a circuit element as Z(s)=V/I
where Z is only a function of s since the
time dependency drops out.

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Impedances
dI (t )
For an inductor, let' s assume I (t ) = Ae ; then V (t ) = L
st
= LsAe st ;
dt
V sLAe st
Z (s) = = st
= sL
I Ae

dV (t )
For a capacitor, let' s assume V (t ) = Ae st ; then I (t ) = C = CsAe st ;
dt
V Ae st 1
Z (s) = = =
I sCAe st sC

For a resistor, let' s assume I (t ) = Ae st ; then V (t ) = RI (t ) = RAe st ;


V RAe st
Z (s) = = st
=R
I Ae
BME 372 Electronics I 30
J.Schesser
Impedances

What about signals of the type: cos(t+);

Recall Eulers formula e j = cos +j sin


where j is the imaginary number = 1

A special case of our special case is for


sinusoidal inputs, where s=j

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J.Schesser
Complex Numbers

Complex numbers: What are they?


What is the solution to this equation?
ax2+bx+c=0
This is a second order equation whose
solution is:
x1, 2 = b b 4ac
2

2a

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What is the solution to?

1. x2+4x+3=0

x1, 2 = 4 4 2
4 3 = 4 16 12
2 2
= 4 4 = 4 2 = 1,3
2 2

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What is the solution to?

2. x2+4x+5=0

x1, 2 = 4 4 2
4 5 = 4 16 20
2 2
= 4 4 ?????
2

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J.Schesser
What is the Square Root of a Negative
Number?
We define the square root of a negative
number as an imaginary number
We define
1 j for engineers (i for mathematic ans)
Then our solution becomes:
4 4 2 4 5 4 16 20
x1, 2 = =
2 2
4 4 4 j 4 4 j2
= = = = 2 + j1,2 j1
2 2 2
BME 372 Electronics I 35
J.Schesser
The Complex Plane
z = x+jy is a complex number where:
x = Re{z} is the real part of z
y = Im{z} is the imaginary part of z
We can define the complex plane and we can
define 2 representations for a complex number:
z = x+jy
Im{z}
y (x,y)

x
Re{z}

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Rectangular Form
Rectangular (or cartesian) form of a complex
number is given as
z = x+jy
x = Re{z} is the real part of z
y = Im{z} is the imaginary part of z
z = x+jy
Im{z}
y (x,y)

x
Re{z}
Rectangular or Cartesian
BME 372 Electronics I 37
J.Schesser
Polar Form
j
z = re = r is a complex number where:
r is the magnitude of z
is the angle or argument of z (arg z)
z = r e j
Im{z}
y (r,)
r

x
Re{z}
Polar

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Relationships between the Polar and Rectangular
Forms

z = x + jy = r e j


Relationship of Polar to the Rectangular Form:
x = Re{z} = r cos
y = Im{z} = r sin
Relationship of Rectangular to Polar Form:
y
r= x +y
2 2
and = arctan( )
x
BME 372 Electronics I 39
J.Schesser
Addition of 2 complex numbers
When two complex numbers are added, it is best to use
the rectangular form.
The real part of the sum is the sum of the real parts and
imaginary part of the sum is the sum of the imaginary
parts.
y1 + y2 Im
Example: z3 = z1 + z2 z3

z1 = x1 + jy1 ; z 2 = x2 + jy2 y1
z1

z3 = z1 + z 2 = x1 + jy1 + x2 + jy2 z2
y2

= x1 + x2 + jy1 + jy2 x2
x1
Re
x1 + x2
= ( x1 + x2 ) + j ( y1 + y2BME
) 372 Electronics I
40
J.Schesser
Multiplication of 2 complex numbers
When two complex numbers are multiplied, it is best
to use the polar form:
Example: z3 = z1 x z2 z = re ; z = r e j( 1) j( 2 )
1 1 2 2

z3 = z1 z 2 = r1e j ( ) r2 e j ( )
1 2

= r1r2 e j ( ) e j ( ) = r1r2 e j ( + )
1 2 1 2

We multiply the magnitudes and add the phase angles


Im
3= 1 +2
r1

r2
2
r3 = r1 r2 1

Re
BME 372 Electronics I 41
J.Schesser
Eulers Formula

e j = cos + j sin
Im{z}

1






Re{z}


We can use Eulers Formula to define complex
numbers
z = r e j = r cos + j r sin
=x+jy


BME 372 Electronics I 42
J.Schesser
Complex Exponential Signals
A complex exponential signal is define as:

z (t ) = Ae j ( o t + )

Note that it is defined in polar form where


the magnitude of z(t) is |z(t)| = A
the angle (or argument, arg z(t) ) of z(t) = (ot + )
Where o is called the radian frequency and is the phase angle
(phase shift)

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J.Schesser
Complex Exponential Signals
Note that by using Eulers formula, we can rewrite the
complex exponential signal in rectangular form as:
j (o t + )
z (t ) = Ae
= A cos(ot + ) + jA sin(ot + )

Therefore real part is the cosine signal and imaginary


part is a sine signal both of radial frequency o and
phase angle of

BME 372 Electronics I 44
J.Schesser
Plotting the waveform of a complex exponential signal

For an complex signal, we plot the real part and the


imaginary part separately.
Example:
z(t) = 20e j(2(40)t-0.4) = 20e j(80t-0.4)
= 20 cos(80t-0.4) + j20 sin(80t-0.4)
real part
imaginary part
20
20
15
15
10
10
5
5
0
0
-0.03 -0.02 -0.01 -5 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04
-0.03 -0.02 -0.01 -5 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04
-10
-10
-15
-15
-20
-20

BME 372 Electronics I 45


J.Schesser
NOTE!!!!

The reason why we prefer the complex


exponential representation of the real cosine
signal:
x(t ) = e{z (t )} = e{ Ae j ( o t + )
}
= A cos(o t + )
In solving equations and making other
calculations, it easier to use the complex
exponential form and then take the Real Part.
BME 372 Electronics I 46
J.Schesser
Complex Exponential Function as a function of time
j 2 (1) t j 2t
Lets look at this z (t ) = 1e = e = cos 2t + j sin 2t
t=8/8 seconds
t=2/8 seconds
arg(z(t))=2 x8/8 = 2 ; z(t)= 1+ j0
t=3/8 seconds arg(z(t))=2 x2/8= /2; z(t)= 0 + j1
Im{z} t=1/8 seconds
arg(z(t))=2 x3/8 = 3/4;
arg(z(t))=2 x1/8=/4; z(t)=0.707+j 0.707
z(t)= -0.707+ j0.707 t=0 seconds
t=4/8 seconds 45o

arg(z(t))=2 x0=0; z(t)=1+ j0
arg(z(t))=2 x4/8 = ; z(t)= -1+ j0 Re{z}
t=5/8 seconds t=7/8 seconds
arg(z(t))=2 x5/8 = 5/4; arg(z(t))=2 x7/8= 7/4;
z(t)= -0.707 - j0.707 t=6/8 seconds z(t) = 0 .707- j0.707
arg(z(t))=2 x6/8 = 3/2; z(t) = 0 - j
BME 372 Electronics I 47
J.Schesser
Phasor Representation of a Complex Exponential
Signal

Using the multiplication rule, we can rewrite


the complex exponential signal as
z (t ) = Ae j ( t + ) = Ae j t e j = Ae j e j t = Xe j t
o o o o

where X is a complex number equal to


X = Ae j

X is complex amplitude of the complex


exponential signal and is also called a phasor

BME 372 Electronics I 48


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Graphing a phasor

X=A e j can be graphed in the complex plane with


magnitude A and angle :

X=A e j
Im
A

Re

BME 372 Electronics I 49


J.Schesser
Graphing a Complex Signal in terms of its phasors

Since a complex signal, z(t), is a phasor multiplying a


complex exponential signal e jot , then a complex
signal can be viewed as a phasor rotating in time:


z (t ) = Ae j (ot + ) = Xe jot
Im
A

Re

BME 372 Electronics I 50


J.Schesser
Rotating Phasor
j ( 2t + ) j
Lets look at this z (t ) = Ae 4
= Ae 4 e j 2t = Xe j 2t

t=1 seconds j
t=1/8 seconds X = Ae 4
arg(z(t))=2 x1+/4 = 9/4 = /4
t=1/4 seconds arg(z(t))=2 x1/8+/4 = /2
t=0 seconds
arg(z(t))=2 x1/4+/4 = 3/4 Im{z} A
arg(z(t))=2 x0+/4 = /4
t=7/8 seconds
t=3/8 seconds 45o

arg(z(t))=2 x7/8+/4 = 8/4 = 2
arg(z(t))=2 x3/8+/4 = 4/4 = Re{z}
t=1/2 seconds t=3/4 seconds
arg(z(t))=2 x1/2+/4 = 5/4 arg(z(t))=2 x3/4+/4 = 7/4
t=5/8 seconds
arg(z(t))=2 x5/8+/4 = 6/4 = 3/2

BME 372 Electronics I 51


J.Schesser
Sinusoidal Steady State
If V(t) = A cos (t+), then we can represent V(t)
as
Re{Aej(t+ )} = Re{Aej ejt}

Since from Eulers formula:

A e j(t+ )=cos(t+ ) + j sin (t+ )

BME 372 Electronics I 52


J.Schesser
Sinusoidal Steady State
What is Ae j(t+) ?
First, it is a complex function since it is a function of a complex
number. If we plot on the complex plane, it has a magnitude of A
and angle of t+. It can be viewed as a vector which rotates in
time around the origin of the complex plane at angular velocity w
and at t=0 is at degrees from the real axis.
Imaginary Numbers Imaginary Numbers
Complex Plane Complex Plane
At t=0 At t=20

20+
Real Numbers Real Numbers

We can represent this function by a PHASOR in terms of


rectangular coordinates or polar coordinates
MAGNITUDEANGLE (phasor notation) or in this case V = A
BME 372 Electronics I 53
J.Schesser
Sinusoidal Steady State Continued
We define the Voltage phasor as V and current phasor as I
Define SSS impedance as Z = V / I using Ohms Law
Then the impedances become:

For an inductor V= j L I

Z L = j L L ; Here we say the voltage across an inductor leads the current through it by 90.
2
1
For a capacitor V= I
j C
1 1
ZC = ; Here we say the voltage across a capacitor lags the current through it by 90.
j C C 2
For a resistor V= R I
Z R = R R0 ; Here we say the voltage across a resistor is in phase with the current through it.

BME 372 Electronics I 54


J.Schesser
Sinusoidal Steady State Continued

For an inductor, Z L = j L L
2
1 1
For a capacitor, ZC = .
j C C 2
For a resistor, Z R = R R0

Imaginary Numbers Imaginary Numbers Imaginary Numbers


Inductor Capacitor


Real Numbers
Resistor

BME 372 Electronics I 55


J.Schesser
Sinusoidal Steady State Continued
For V(t)=Acost, using phasor notation for
V(t) V = A0 and I(t) I, our equation can be re-
written:
dI (t ) 1
V (t ) = I (t ) R1 + L1 + I (t )dt
dt C1
Converting to Phasor representation
1
V = A0 = IR1 + jL1I + I
jC1

BME 372 Electronics I 56


J.Schesser
Sinusoidal Steady State Continued

1
(L1 )
A0 A0 A C1
I= = = tan 1[ ]
1 1 1 2 R1
R1 + jL1 + R1 + j (L1 ) R1 + (L1
2
)
jC1 C1 C1
Converting back to the time representation,
1
(L1 )
A C1
I (t ) = cos(t tan 1[ ])
1 2 R1
R1 + (L1
2
)
C1

BME 372 Electronics I 57


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R1 R3
Homework
1k 1k
a
5k R2
5k R4

Find the total resistance

BME 372 Electronics I 58


J.Schesser
Homework

Find the total resistance Rab where


R1 = 3, R2 = 6, R3 = 12, R4 = 4, R5 = 2, R6 = 2, R7 = 4, R8 = 4

R1
a
R2 R3

R8 R4 R5
R7
b
R6

BME 372 Electronics I 59


J.Schesser
Homework
Find the total resistance Rab where
R1 = 2, R2 = 4, R3 = 2, R4 = 2, R5 = 2, R6 = 4,

R1 R3
a

R2
R4
R6
b

R5

BME 372 Electronics I 60


J.Schesser
Homework
Find the total resistance Rab for this infinite resistive network
R R R R R R
a
continues to infinity
R R R R R
b
R R R R R R

BME 372 Electronics I 61


J.Schesser
C1 C3 Homework
a
1f 1f

5f C2
5f C4

Find the total capacitance

BME 372 Electronics I 62


J.Schesser
Homework

Find and plot the impedance Zab(j) as a function of


frequency. Use Matlab to perform the plot.

C=1 R=1
a
L=1
b

BME 372 Electronics I 63


J.Schesser
Homework

Find and plot the impedance Zab(j) as a function of


frequency. Use Matlab to perform the plot.

a
L=1 C=1 R=1
b

BME 372 Electronics I 64


J.Schesser
R1 R2
Homework
1k 5k
a

C1 C2
1n 5n

Find and plot the impedance Zab(j) as function of .


Use Matlab to perform the plot.

BME 372 Electronics I 65


J.Schesser
Homework
a RD 29.5k RS 500 b

CD 53n

The circuit shown is an equivalent circuit of an


electrode where RD and CD are the resistance and
capacitance associated with the interface of the
electrode and the body and RS is the resistance of the
device itself. Find and plot the impedance Zab(j) as
function of . Use Matlab to perform the plot.

BME 372 Electronics I 66


J.Schesser