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Multiple Reaction Systems

Chapter 6 in Text Book

Dosen : Agam Duma Kalista Wibowo, S.T.,M.T.


Types of multiple reactions:

series, parallel, independent, complex
Introduction Fogler chapter 6 hal 305

In this chapter, we discuss reactor selection and general mole balances

for multiple reactions. First, we describe the four basic types of multiple
reactions: series, parallel, independent, and complex.
Next, we define the selectivity parameter and discuss how it can be
used to minimize unwanted side reactions by proper choice of operating
conditions and reactor selection. We then develop the algorithm that can
be used to solve reaction engineering probIems when multiple reactions
are involved.
Finally, a number of examples are given that show how the algorithm is
applied to a number of .seal reactions.
Types of Reactions
There are four basic types of multiple reactions:
1. parallel,
2. series,
3. complex
4. independent.

When there is a mixture of serial and parallel reactions, then we have

complex reaction system
The reaction system will determine the equations and hence the
Paralel reactions (also called competing reactions)
There are two reactions occuring simultaneously
Reactant A, is designed to produce B
But there is a simultaneous reaction that produces
(unwanted) C

Oxidation of ethylene to ethylene oxide while avoiding complete cornbustion
to to carbon dioxideand water.
Series reactions (also called consecutive reaction
are reactions where the reactant forms an intermediate product, which
reacts further to form another product

reaction of ethylene oxide (EO) with ammonia to form mono-, di-, and triethanolamine:
Complex reactions
are multiple reactions that invoIve a combination of both series and
parallel reactions, such as

The formation of butadiene from ethanol
Independent reactions
are reactions that occur at the same time but neither the products nor
reactants react with themselves or one another.

Cracking of crude oil to form gasoline where two of the many reactions
occurring are
DESIRED (Di inginkan) & UNDESIRED (Tak di inginkan) products
Desired product D
Undesired product U

Paralel reaction


We want to minimize the formation of U

and maximize the formation of D
because the greater the amount of
undesired product formed the greater
the cost of separating the undesired
product U from the desired product D Figure 6 1 Reaction-separations
Hence, the need of a separation system producing both desired and
undesired products
In a highly efficient and costly reactor scheme in which very little of
undesired product U is formed in the reactor, the cost of the separation
process could be quite low. On the other hand, even if a reactor scheme is
inexpensive and inefficient resulting in the formation of substantiaI amounts
of U, the cost of the separation system could be quite high. Normally, as the
cost of a reactor system increases in an attempt to minimize U. the cost of
separating species U from D decreases (Figure 6-2)
Selectivity tells us how one product is favored over another when we
have multiple reactions. We can quantify the formation of D with
respect to U by defining the selectivity and yield of the system.
The instantaneous selectivity of D with respect to U is the ratio of
the rate of formation of D to the rate of formation of U.

The instantaneous selectivity

Overall selectivity

Batch reactor, the overall selectivity is number of moles of

D and U at the end of the reaction time:
Reaction yield
The yield at a point can be defined as the ratio of the reaction rate of
a given product to the reaction sate of the key reactant A. instantaneous
1. Instantaneous yield.

2. Overall yield (YD)

YD. is defined as the ratio of moles of product formed at the end of the reaction to
the number of moles of the key reactant. A, that have been consumed.

For a batch system:

For a flow system:

Parallel Reactions
In this section, we discuss various means of minimizing the undesired
product, U, through the selection of reactor type and conditions. We also
discuss the development of efficient reactor schemes.
Maximizing the Desired Product for One Reactant
Ways to maximize the instantaneous selectivity, SD/U, for different
reaction orders of the desired and undesired products.

Case 1
1 > 2 For the case where the reaction order of the desired product is
greater than the reaction order of the undesired product. (a > 0)

To make this ratio as large as possible konsentrasi A >>>

Jika reaksi fasa gas : hindari pemakaian inert dan gunakan tekanan tinggi.
Jika reaksi fasa cair : penggunaan diluent harus dijaga minimum.
Gunakan reaktor Batch atau plug-flow reactor the concentration of A start at
high value and drops progressively during the course of the reaction
CSTR tidak cocok karena konsentrasi reaktan dalam reaktor rendah
Case 2
2 > 1, When the reaction order of the undesired product Is greater than
that of the desired product,

For the ratio rD/rC be high, the concentration of A <<<

Caranya : encerkan A dengan inert dan jalankan A dengan konsentrasi
rendah dalam reaktor CSTR
A recycle reactor in which the product stream acts as a diluent could be
used to maintain the entering concentrations of A at a low value
The sensitivity of the rate selectivity parameter to temperature can be
determined from the ratio of the specific reaction rates,

A = frequency factor,
E = the activation energy,
subscripts D = Desired product and U = Undesired product.
Case 3
ED > EU, In this case the specific reaction rate of
the desired reaction kD (and therefore the overall
rate rD) increases more rapidly with increasing
temperature than does the specific rate of the
undesired reaction kU
Sehingga suhu reaksi harus tinggi untuk
memaksimalkan SD/U

Case 4
EU > ED In this case the reaction should be carried
out at a low temperature to maximize SD/U but not
so low that the desired reaction does not proceed
to any significant extent.
Example 6-2 Maximizing the selectivity for the Trambouze Reactions
Reactant A decomposes by three simultaneous reactions to form three
product, one that is desired, B, and two that are undesired, X and Y.
These gas-phase reactions. along with the appropriate rate laws, are
called the Trambouze reactions

Lihat hal 14
Pers 1-9

v = volumetric flow rate