Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 191



CRIMINOLOGY definitions:
Is the entire body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon. It includes within its
scope the process of making of laws, of breaking of laws, and the societys reaction towards
the breaking of laws. (Edwin H. Sutherland)
The scientific study of the causes of crime in relation to man and society who set and define
rules and regulations for himself and others to govern (Tradio)
Is a body of knowledge regarding crimes, criminals and the efforts of society to prevent and
repress them. (Broad definition)

Criminologist (R.A. 6506)

An act creating the Board of Examiners for Criminologist in the Philippines approved on July 1,
any person who is a graduate of the Degree of Criminology, who has passed the examination for
criminologists and is registered as such by the Board of Examiners of the Professional
Regulation Commission (PRC).

Origin of the word Criminology

Etymologically, the term criminology came from the Latin word crimen meaning crime and
Greek word Logos which means to study.
In 1885, Rafael Garofalo, an Italian Law Professor coined the term criminologia.
In 1889, Paul Topinard, French Anthropologist, used the term criminology in French
criminologie for the first time

Principal Divisions of Criminology

a. Etiology of Crimes the scientific analysis of the causes of crimes and the criminal behavior.
b. Sociology of Law refers to the investigation of the nature of criminal law and its administration
c. Penology the study of the control of crimes and the rehabilitation of offender

Is Criminology a Science?
According to George Wilker, Criminology cannot become a science because it has not yet acquired
universal validity. Edwin H. Sutherland, the Dean of Modern Criminology, hoped that it will become a
science in the future since the causes of crimes are almost the same which may be biological,
environmental or combination of the two.

Nature of Criminology (SAND)

1. It is a Social science because it studies crime as a social phenomenon. Crime is a social problem
which has a great impact to society.
2. It is Applied science because criminology as a body of knowledge has already established
universally accepted principles and concepts and these are used by other field of study.
3. It is Nationalistic because the study of criminology takes into consideration the history, the culture
and the social norms and the laws of the country. Each country has its own set of laws and crimes
are defined by the laws of the country.
4. It is Dynamic because the concepts of criminology and their applications adapt to the changing

Scope in the Study of Criminology

1. Study of the origin and development of criminal law
2. Study of the causes of crimes and development of criminals
3. Study of the other sciences that examine criminal behavior using scientific methods such as:
Criminal Demography the study of the relationship between criminality and population
Criminal Epidiomology the study of the relationship between environment and criminality
Criminal Ecology the study of criminality in relation to the spatial distribution in a
Criminal Physical Anthropology the study of criminality in relation to physical constitution
of men
Criminal Psychology the study of human behavior in relation to criminality
Criminal Psychiatry the study of human mind in relation to criminality
Victimology the study of the role of the victim in the commission of a crime

Crimes and Criminals
o Refers to an act committed or omitted in violation of public law (Phil. Law Dictionary).
o It also refers to an act committed or omitted in violation of a public law forbidding or commanding it
(Reyes 2006).

Classification of Crimes

Legal Classifications:

1. According to law violated

a. Felony an act or omission punishable by law which is committed by means of dolo (deceit)
or culpa (fault)and punishable under the Revised Penal Code
b. Offense an act or omission in violation of a special law
c. Infraction an act or omission in violation of a city or municipal ordinance
2. According to the manner of committing crime:
a. By means of Dolo or Deceit if the crime is committed with deliberate intent. Thus, it is
called intentional felonies.
freedom or voluntariness
b. By means of culpa or fault
o felonies committed by means of culpa (fault)
o the act or omission of the offender is not malicious and the injury caused by the offender is
unintentional, it being the simply the incident of another act performed without malice
Lack of foresight
Lack of skill
3. According to the stages in the commission:
1. Attempted the crime is attempted when the offender commences the commission of a
felony directly or over acts, and does not perform all the acts of execution which should
produce the felony by reason of some cause or accident other than this own spontaneous
2. Frustrated - when the offender performs all the acts of execution which would produce the
felony as a consequence but which, nevertheless do not produce it by reason of causes
independent of the will of the perpetrator.
3. Consummated - when all the elements necessary for its accomplishment and execution are
4. According to plurality:
a. Simple Crime is a single act constituting only one offense.

b. Complex Crime single act constituting two or more grave felonies or an is a necessary
means for committing the other
Two (2) Kinds of Complex Crime:
a. compound crime (delito compuesto)
b. complex crime proper (delito complejo)
c. Special complex crime

5. According to gravity:

Gravity of Felony Principle Penalty Art.125 Degree of Penalties

1. Grave felonies - are those to (Capital (Death)
which the law attaches Punishment) Reclusion Perpetua
the capital punishment Afflictive Reclusion Temporal
or penalties which in Penalties Prison Mayor
any of their period are
2. Less grave felonies - are Correcional Prison Correcional
those which the law Penalties Arresto Menor
punishes with penalties
which in their maximum
period are correctional.

3. Light felonies - are infraction Light Penalties Arresto Menor

of laws for the
commission of which
the penalty of arresto
menor or a fine not
exceeding 200 pesos or
both is provided

6. According to the nature of the act:

a. Crimes mala in se are acts that are inherently evil. Examples are murder, robbery, etc.
b. Crimes mala prohibita are acts which are prohibited only because there are laws forbidding
such acts. Examples are Illegal Possession of firearms, Traffic Violations, etc.


1. According to the result of the crime:
a. Acquisitive crime if the offender acquired or gained something by committing the crime.
Examples are robbery, estafa, bribery, etc.
b. Destructive crime if the crime resulted in destruction, damage or even death. Examples are
arson, murder and homicide, damage to property, etc.

2. According to the time or period of commission:

a. Seasonal crimes are crimes that happen only during a particular season or period of the year.
Examples are violation of election law, tax law violations, etc.
b. Situational crimes are crimes committed when the situation is conducive to the commission of
the crime and there is an opportunity to commit it. Examples are pickpocketing, theft, etc.

3. According to the length of time of the commission:

a. Instant crimes are those crimes that can be committed in a very short time. Example: theft
b. Episoidal crimes are crimes committed through series of acts or episodes and in much longer
time. Example: serious illegal detention

4. According to place or location:

a. Static crimes are committed only in one place. examples are theft and robbery
b. Continuing crimes are crimes that take place in more than one place or several places.
examples: abduction, kidnapping, etc.

5. According to the use of mental faculties:

a. Rational crimes when the offender is capable of knowing what he is doing and understanding
the consequences of his actions.
b. Irrational Crimes when the offender suffers from any form of mental disorders, insanity or
abnormality. Thus, the offender doesnt know what he is doing.

6. According to the type of offender:

a. White Collar Crimes (Edwin Sutherland) crimes committed by those persons belonging to
the upper socio-economic status or in the course of his occupational activities.

b. Blue Collar Crimes are those crimes committed by ordinary criminals as a means of

CRIMINAL Definition
- in the legal sense, a criminal is any person who has been found to have committed a wrongful
act in the course of the standard judicial process; there must be a final verdict of his guilt
- in the criminological sense, a person is already considered a criminal the moment he committed
a crime

1. According to etiology
a. Acute criminal is a person who committed crime as a result of reacting to a situation or during
a moment of anger or burst of feeling.
b. Chronic criminal is one who committed a crime with intent or deliberated thinking.
1. Neurotic criminal is one who has mental disorder.
2. Normal criminal a person who commits crimes because he looks up to, idolizes
people who are criminals.
2. According to the type of offender:
a. Ordinary criminal a criminal who engages in crimes which do not require specialized or
technical skill
b. Organized criminal is one who possesses some skills and know-how which enable him to
commit crimes and evade detection.
c. Professional criminal a highly skilled criminals which are engaged in a large scale criminal
activities ad usually operate in groups.

3. According to criminal activities:

a. Professional criminal a criminal who earns his living through criminal activities.
b. Situational criminal a person who got involved in criminal act because the situation
presented itself.
c. Habitual criminal one who repeatedly commits criminal act for different reasons.
d. Accidental criminal a person who accidentally violated the law due to some circumstances.

Study of Criminal Law

Evolution of Criminal Laws
A) Prehistoric Crime and Punishment
Primitive Tribes
punishment may be in the form of ostracism and expulsion
adultery may be punished by the aggrieved husband who may kill the adulterer and his own
offending wife
crime may be avenged by the victim himself or by the victims family

B) The Early Codes

1) Code Of Hammurabi (18th BC)

Hammurabi, the king of Babylon during the eighteenth century BC, is recognized as the first
codifier of laws
it provides the first comprehensive view of the laws in the early days
the Code was carved in stone
the law of talion, or the principle of tit for tat,(an eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth) appears
throughout the Code
under the principle of the law of talion, the punishment should be the same as the harm
inflicted on the victim

2) The Hittites
The Hittites existed about two centuries after Hammurabi and eventually conquered Babylon

3) Code of Drakon (7TH BC)

knows as the ultimate in severity
codified by Drakon, the Athenian lawgiver of the seventh century BC

4) Laws Of Solon
Solon was appointed archon and was given legislative powers
Solon repealed all the laws of the Code of Drakon, except the law on homicide

Solon was one of the first to see that a lawgiver had to make laws that applied equally to all
citizens and also saw that the law of punishment had to maintain proportionality to the crimes


Roman law began with the Twelve Tables which were written in the middle of the sixth
century BC
the Twelve Tables were the foundation of all laws in Rome and written in tablets of bronze
the Twelve Tables were drafted by the Decemvirs, a body of men composed of patricians

is that branch of public law which defines crimes treats of their nature and provides for their

Revised Penal Code (Act No. 3815)

book that contains the Philippine Criminal Law and different special laws and decrees which
are penal in nature. It is called as RPC because the old penal code which took effect in the
country on July 14, 1887 and was in force until Dec. 31, 1931 was revised by the Committee
created by Administrative Order No. 94 of the Department of Justice, dated Oct. 18, 1927,
composed of Anacleto Diaz as Chairman, Alex Reyes and Mariano de Joya as members.The
RPC was approved on Dec. 8, 1930 and took effect on January 1, 1932.

Principal Parts of the Criminal Law

It is composed of two books; book one which is composed of Articles 1-113 and book two covering
Articles 114-367.
1. Articles 1-20 principles affecting criminal liability
2. Articles 21-113 penalties including criminal and civil liability
3. Articles 114-367 felonies defined under different titles

Characteristics of the Criminal Law

1. Generality the law is applicable to all persons within the territory irrespective of sex, race,
nationality or civil status except:
a. Head of state
b. Foreign diplomats, ambassadors, who are duly accredited to our country
c. Foreign troops permitted to march within the territory
2. Territoriality - the RPC is applicable to felonies committed within the Philippine territorial
a. Philippine archipelago all the islands that comprise the Philippines
b. Atmosphere water all bodies of water that connect all the islands such as
bays, rivers and streams
c. Maritime zone the twelve (12) Nautical Mile limit beyond our shore
measured at low tide


The Revised Penal Code shall be applicable to all cases committed outside the Philippine territorial
jurisdiction under the following circumstances:
a) should commit an offense while on Philippine ship or airship;
b) should forge or counterfeit any coin or currency note of the Philippine Island or obligations and
securities issued by the government of the Philippines;
c) while being a public officer or employee, should commit an offense in the exercise of their
d) should commit any of the crimes against national security and law of nations

a. Prospectivity
The provisions of the RPC cannot be applied if the act is not yet punishable on the time the
felony was committed. However, it may have a retroactive effect if it is favorable to the
accused who is not a habitual delinquent.

b. It is specific and definite.

Criminal law must give a strict definition of a specific act which constitutes an offense.
Where there is doubt as to whether a definition embodied in the Revised Penal Code applies
to the accused or not, the judge is obligated to decide the case in favor of the accused.
Criminal law must be construed liberally in favor of the accused and strictly against the state.

c. It is uniform in application.
An act described as a crime is a crime no matter who committed it, wherever committed in
the Philippines and whenever committed. No exceptions must be made as to the criminal
liability. The definition of crimes together with the corresponding punishment must be
uniformly construed, although there may be a difference in the enforcement of a given
specific provision of the penal law.

d. There must be a penal sanction or punishment.

Penal sanction is the most essential part of the definition of the crime. If there is no penalty
to a prohibited act, its enforcement will almost be impossible. The penalty is acting as a
deterrence and as a measure of self-defense of the state to protect society from the threat
and wrong inflicted by the criminal.

Demonological Theory - asserts that a person commits wrongful acts due to the fact that he was
possessed by demons.

Schools of Thought in Criminology

School of Thought refers to a group of beliefs or ideas that support a specific theory.

Theory set of statements devised to explain behavior, events or phenomenon, especially one that has
been repeatedly tested and widely accepted.

1. Classical School of Criminology

The classical school of criminology grew out of a reaction against the barbaric system of law,
punishment and justice that existed. There was no real system of criminal justice in Europe at that
time. Some crimes were specified, some were not. Judges had discretionary power to convict a
person for an act not even legally defined as criminal.
o This school of thought is based on the assumption that individuals choose to commit crimes
after weighing the consequences of their actions. According to classical criminologists,
individuals have free will. They can choose legal or illegal means to get what they want, fear
of punishment can deter them from committing crime and society can control behavior by
making the pain of punishment greater than the pleasure of the criminal gains.
o This theory, however, does not give any distinction between an adult and a minor or a
mentally-handicapped in as far as free will is concerned. Founders of classical school of
criminology are Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham.

Cesare Beccaria (Cesare Bonesana Marchese di Beccaria) (1738-1794)

best known for his essay, On Crimes and Punishment which presented key ideas on the
abolition of torture as legitimate means of extracting confession.
His book contains almost all modern penal reforms but its greatest contribution was the
foundation it laid for subsequent changes in criminal legislation
his book was influential in the reforms of penal code in France, Russia, Prussia and it influenced
the first ten amendments to the US Constitution

Beccaria believed that:

1. People want to achieve pleasure and avoid pain.
2. Crime provides some pleasure to the criminal.
3. To deter crime, he believed that one must administer pain in an appropriate amount to
counterbalance the pleasure obtain from crime.
4. Famous in sayings Let the punishment fit the crime

Highlights of Cesare Beccarias Ideas Regarding Crimes and The Criminal Justice System

a. In forming a human society, men and women sacrifice a portion of their libery so as to enjoy peace
and security.
b. Punishments that go beyond the need of preserving the public safety are in their nature unjust.
c. Criminal laws must be clear and certain. Judges must make uniform judgments in similar crimes.
d. The law must specify the degree of evidence that will justify the detention of an accused offender
prior to his trial.
e. Accusations must be public. False accusations should be severely punished.
f. To torture accused offenders to obtain a confession is inadmissible.
g. The promptitude of punishment is one of the most effective curbs on crime.
h. The aim of punishment can only be to prevent the criminal from committing new crimes against his
countrymen, and to keep others from doing likewise. Punishments, therefore, and the method of
inflicting them, should be chosen in due proportion to the crime, so as to make the most lasting
impression on the minds of men
i. Capital punishment is inefficacious and its place should be substituted life imprisonment.
j. It is better to prevent crimes than to punish them. That is the chief purpose of all good legislation.

Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)

his contribution to classical school of criminology is the concept of utilitarianism and the felicific
proposed Utilitarian Hedonism which explains that person always acts in such a way to seek
pleasure and avoid pain.
founded the concept of UTILITARIANISM assumes that all our actions are calculated in
accordance with their likelihood of bringing pleasure and pain
devised the pseudo-mathematical formula called felicific calculus which states that individuals
are human calculators who put all the factors into an equation in order to decide whether a
particular crime is worth committing or not
he reasoned that in order to deter individuals from committing crimes, the punishment, or pain,
must be greater than the satisfaction, or pleasure, he would gain from committing the crime

Is a philosophy which argues that what is right is the one that would cause the greatest good for the
greatest number of people.
Others refer to it as the greatest happiness principle or the principle of utility.
From this principle, Bentham formulated the felicific calculus.

Felicific Calculus or the pleasure-and-pain principle is a theory that proposes that individuals calculate
the consequences of his actions by weighing the pleasure (gain) and the pain (suffering) he would derive
from doing the action.

2. Neoclassical Criminology
This theory modified the doctrine of free will by stating that free will of men may be affected
by other factors and crime is committed due to some compelling reasons that prevail. These causes
are pathology, incompetence, insanity or any condition that will make it impossible for the individual
to exercise free will entirely. In the study of legal provisions, this is termed as either mitigating or
exempting circumstances.

3. Positivism School Of Criminology

The term positivism, refers to a method of analysis based on the collection of observable
scientific facts.
Positivists believe that causes of behavior can be measured and observed.
It demands for facts and scientific proof, thus, changing the study of crimes and criminals into
scientific approach.
Positive theorists were the first to claim the importance of looking at individual difference among
criminals. These theorists who concentrated on the individual structures of a person, stated that
people are passive and controlled, whose behaviors are imposed upon them by biological and
environmental factors.

August Comte
- was a French philosopher and sociologist and is believed to be the one who reinvented the French
term sociologie.
- he was recognized as the Father of Sociology and Positivism.

The (UN) Holy Three (3) Of Criminology (A.K.A Italian School Of Criminology)

1. Cesare Lombroso
recognized as the Father of Modern and Empirical Criminology due to his application of modern
scientific methods to trace criminal behavior, however, most of his ideas are now discredited
known for the concept of atavistic stigmata (the physical features of creatures at an earlier stage of
he claimed that criminals are distinguishable from non-criminals due to the presence of atavistic
stigmata and crimes committed by those who are born with certain recognizable heredity traits.
according to his theory, criminals are usually in possession of huge jaws and strong canine teeth, the
arm span of criminals is often greater than their height, just like that of apes who use their forearms
to push themselves along the ground.

other physical stigmata include deviation in head size and shape, asymmetry of the face, excessive
dimensions of the jaw and cheekbones, eye defects and peculiarities, ears of unusual size, nose
twisted, upturned or flattened in thieves, or aquiline or beaklike in murderers, fleshy lips, swollen and
protruding, and pouches in the cheek like those of animals toes

- Lombrosos work supported the idea that the criminal was a biologically and physically inferior

according to him, there are three (3) classes of criminals:

a. born criminals individuals with at least five (5) atavistic stigmata
b. insane criminals those who became criminals because of some brain defect which
affected their ability to understand and differentiate what is right from what is wrong.
c. criminaloids - those with makeup of an ambiguous group that includes habitual criminals,
criminals by passion and other diverse types

2. Enricco Ferri
he focused his study on the influences of psychological factors and sociological factors such as
economics, on crimes.
He believed that criminals could not be held morally responsible because they did not choose to
commit crimes, but rather were driven to commit crimes by conditions in their lives.

3. Raffaelle Garofallo
He treated the roots of the criminals behavior not to physical features but to their psychology
equivalent, which he referred to as moral anomalies.
He rejected the doctrine of freewill.
Classified criminals as Murderers, Violent Criminals, Deficient Criminals, and Lascivious

Theories of Crime Causation

1. Biological Theories
this refers to the set of theories that point to physical, physiological and other natural factors as
the causes for the commission of crimes of certain individuals.
This explanation for the existence of criminal traits associates an individuals evil disposition to
physical disfigurement or impairment.

a. Physiognomy the study of facial features and their relation to human behavior.

1. Giambiatista dela Porta

o founder of human physiognomy
o according to him criminal behavior may be predicted based on facial features of the person.
2. Johann Kaspar Lavater
o supported the belief of dela Porta
o he believed that a persons character is revealed through his facial characteristics.

b. Phrenology, Craniology or Cranioscopy the study of the external formation of the skull in
relation to the persons personality and tendencies toward criminal behavior.

1. Franz Joseph Gall

he developed cranioscopy which was later renamed as phrenology.

2. Johann Kaspar Spurzheim

assistant of Gall in the study of phrenology.
he was the man most responsible for popularizing and spreading phrenology to a wide

c. Physiology or Somatotype refers to the study of body build of a person in relation to his
temperament and personality and the type of offense he is most prone to commit.
1. Ernst Kretschmer
he distinguished three (3) principal types of physiques: asthenic, athletic, pyknik and

a. asthenic characterized as thin, small and weak.

b. athletic muscular and strong.
c. pyknic stout, round and fat.
d. dysplastic combination of two body types

2. William Herbert Sheldon

formulated his own group of somatotype: ectomorph, mesomorph and endomorph.
a. ectomorph tall and thin and less social and more intellectual than the other types.
b. mesomorph have well-developed muscles and an athletic appearance.
c. endomorph heavy builds and slow moving.

d. Heredity the transmission of traits from parents to offspring.

1. Richard Louis Dugdale

- conducted a study of the Jukes family by researching their family tree as far back 200
years. He discovered that most of the ascendants of the Jukes were criminals.
2. Henry Goddard
- he traced the descendants of the Martin Kallikak from each of his two wives and found a
distinct difference in termsof quality of lives of descendants. He coined the term

3. Charles Goring
- he believed that criminal traits can be passed from parents to offspring through the genes.
- he proposed that individuals who possess criminal characteristics should be prohibited from
having children.

Intelligence as a Factor in Criminality

The classic studies of the Juke and Kallikak families were among the first to show that
feeblemindedness or low-intelligence can be inherited and transferred from one generation to the next.
Numerous test were also conducted that lead to the development of the use of IQ tests as a testing
procedure for offenders. The very first results seemed to confirm that offenders had low mental abilities and
they were found to be mentally impaired.

Alfred Binet a French psychologist who developed the first IQ test.

- the test measured the capacity of individual children to perform tasks or solve problems in relation
to the average capacity of their peers.

Refers to the theories that attribute criminal behavior of individuals to psychological factors, such
as emotion and mental problems.

a. Sigmund Freud
he is recognized as the FATHER OF PSYCHOANALYSIS
known for his psychoanalytic theory
according to him, criminality is caused by the imbalance of the three (3) components of
personality: the id, the ego, and the superego.
according to him there are three parts of personality:

a. ID this stands for instinctual drives; it is governed by the pleasure principle; the id
impulses are not social and must be repressed or adapted so that they may become
socially acceptable
b. EGO this is considered to be the sensible and responsible part of an individuals
personality and is governed by the reality principle; it is developed early in life and
compensates for the demands of the id by helping the individual guide his actions to
remain within the boundaries of accepted social behavior; it is the objective, rational part
of the personality
c. SUPEREGO serves as the moral conscience of an individual; it is structured by what
values were taught by the parents, the school and the community, as well as belief in
God; it is largely responsible for making a person follow the moral codes of society

Various Studies of Human Behavior and Mind in Relation to the causes of crimes
Several noted criminologist have advanced the theories that criminal behavior is
developed among individuals consonant with the development of his human mind, traits and
behavior. Among them are:

b. AICHORN in his book entitled Wayward Youth, 1925 said the cause of crime and
delinquency is the faulty development of the child during the first few years of his life. As
child, the human being normally follow only his pleasure impulses instinctively. Soon he
grew up and finds some restrictions to this pleasure impulses which he must control.
Otherwise, he suffers from faulty ego development and become delinquent.
c. ABRAHAMSEN in his crime and the human mind, 1945 explained the causes of crime by
this formula.

Criminal behavior equals criminalistics tendencies plus

crime inducing situation divided by the persons mental or
emotional resistance to temptation.

d. CYRIL BURT (Young Delinquent, 1925) gave the theory of general emotionally.
According to him many offenses can be traced to either in excess or in a deficiency of a
particular instinctive drive. An access of the submissive instinct account for the tendency of
many criminals to be weak willed or easily led. Fear and absconding may be due to the
impulse of fear. Callous type of offenders may be due to the deficiency in the primitive
emotion of love and an excuse of the instinct of hate.

e. HEALY (Individual Delinquency) claimed that crime is an expression of the mental

content of the individual. Frustration of the individual causes emotional discomfort;
personality demands removal of the pain and the pain is eliminated by substitute behavior,
that is, crime delinquency of the individual.

f. BROMBERG (Crime and the Mind, 1948) claimed that criminality is the result of the
emotional immaturity person is emotionally matured when he has learned to control his
emotion effectively and who lives at peace with himself and in harmony with the standards of
conduct which are acceptable to the society. An emotionally immature person rebel against
rules and regulations, tend to engage in unusual activities and experience a feeling of guilt
due to inferiority complex.

3. Sociological Theories
sociological factors refer to things, places and people with whom we come in contact with and
which play a part in determining our actions and conduct. These causes may bring about the
development of criminal behavior.

a. Emile Durkheim
o he stated that crime is a normal part of the society just like birth and death.
o proposed the concept of anomie or the absence of social norms. It is
characterized by disorder due to lack of common values shared by individuals,
lack of respect for authority and lack of appreciation for what is acceptable and
not acceptable in a society.

b. Gabriel Tarde
o introduced the theory of imitation which proposes the process by which people
become criminals.
o according to this theory, individuals imitate the behavior of other individuals based
on the degree of their association with other individuals and it is inferior or weak
who tend to imitate the superior and strong.

c. Adolphe Quetelet and Andre Michael Guerry

He repudiated the free will doctrine of the classicists
founder of cartographic school of criminology.
founder of moral statistics.
cartographic school of criminology made use of statistical data such as
population, age, gender, occupation, religious affiliations and social economic
status and studies their influences and relationship to criminality.

Modern Sociological Theories of Crime Causation

Environmental factors such as the kind of rearing or family upbringing, quality of teaching in
school, influences of peers and friends, conditions of the neighborhood, and economic and other
societal factors are believed to be contributory to crime and criminal behavior.

1. Social Structure Theories

refers not only to the physical features of the communities but also to the way society is
include such things as level of poverty and unemployment and the amount of crowded housing
which are believed to affect behavior and attitudes of individuals which in turn contribute to their
commission of crimes.
also called social environment
includes social disorganization theory, strain theory and cultural deviance theory.

a. Social Disorganization Theory

popularized by Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay.

according to this theory, crimes in urban areas are more prevalent because residents have
impersonal relationships with each other.
increase in the number of broken families and single parenthood are also very common in
disorganized communities.
another feature of disorganized community is poverty as evidenced by poor living conditions
such as rundown houses, unsanitary and unsightly streets and high unemployment rates.

b. Strain Theory
strain refers the individuals frustration, anger and resentment
by Robert Merton. This theory holds that crime is a function of the conflict between the goals
people have and the means they can use to legally obtain them. This also argues that the
ability to obtain these goals is class dependent; members of the lower class are unable to
achieve these goals which come easily to those belonging to the upper class. Consequently,
they feel anger, frustration and resentment, referred to as STRAIN.

c. Cultural Deviance Theory

Combination of Social disorganization and strain theory by Albert Cohen
gives emphasis on the concept of culture and sub-culture.
according to this theory, because people in the lower class feel isolated due to extreme
deprivation or poverty, they tend to create a sub-culture with its own set of rules and
values. This is characterized by deviant behavior which results in criminal behavior
among its members.


refers to a group of theories which point to the individuals socialization process as the
cause for the commission of crimes. These theories cite interaction with people and
experiences and exposure to different element in the environment as primary factors to

under this theory is the social learning theory which in turn has three (3) sub-theories:
differential association theory, differential reinforcement theory and neutralization theory.

a. Differential Association Theory

formulated by Edwin Sutherland
this theory states that criminal behavior is learned through socialization.
criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of

b. Differential Reinforcement Theory

according to this theory, individuals behavior depends on how people around him react
toward s his behavior.
an act that is rewarded is repeated; an act that is punished will be avoided.
c. Neutralization Theory
introduced by David Matza and Gresham Sykes.
sometimes referred to as drift theory
according to this theory, people know when they are doing something wrong, however,
they rationalize and justify their actions. This rationalizing is what we called


more commonly called labeling theory.
it states that people become criminals when significant members of society label them
as such and they accept those labels as a personal identity.


maintain that everyone has the potential to become criminal but most people are controlled
by their bonds to society.
social control refers to the agencies of social control such as family, school, religion or
church, government and laws and other identified authorities in society.
there are two (2) sub-theories: containment theory and social bond theory.

a. Containment Theory
proposed by Walter Reckless
he stated that inner and outer containments help prevent juvenile offending.
containment means the forces within and outside the individual that has the power to
influence his actions.
inner containments include positive self-concept, tolerance for frustration and an
ability to set realistic goals.
outer containments include family.

b. Social Bond Theory

propagated by Travis Hirschi
this theory views crime as a result of individuals with weakened bonds to social
four (4) elements of social bonds:

1. attachment refers to the degree to which an individual care about the

opinions of others.
2. commitment refers to an individuals investment of enrgy and emotion in
conventional pursuits, such as getting good grades.
3. involvement refers to the amount of time an individual spends on a
conventional pursuit.
4. belief refers to acceptance of the norms of conventional society.

refers to the measure of the level or amount of crimes.
The collection or study of numerical data of crimes recorded/reported to the police.
it uses the terms index crimes and non-index crimes in classifying crimes.

2 Classification of Crimes according to Crime statistics:

a. Index crimes are crimes which are sufficiently significant and which occur with sufficient regularity
to be meaningful, such as murder, homicide, physical injury, robbery, theft, car napping and rape.
b. Non-index crimes are crimes that are not classified as index crimes. Violations of special laws and
other crimes against moral and order. These crimes are generated from the result of positive police
initiated operations.

Statistical Formula:
1. Crime Solution Efficiency (CSE) percentage of solved cases out of the total number of reported
crime incidents handled by the police for a given period of time. It is a general measure of law
enforcement agencys investigative capability or efficiency.


No. of Solved Cases


Total No . of ReportedCases }
X 100

2. Crime Rate the number of incidents in a given period of time for every 100, 000 inhabitants of an

Crime Volume

CR =

X 100, 000
{ }

3. Average Monthly Crime Rate (AMCR) the average number of crime incidents occurred per
month for every 100, 000 inhabitants in a certain area.




Population}X 100, 000 no . of months

4. Variance (or % change) one way of analyzing crime trends. It measures the percentage change
over a given period of time.


Current dataprevious data


data }
X 100

5. Crime Analysis

a. Percentage Share of Crime Volume of a Certain Area


Crime volume of a certain area


Crime Volume Nationwide }
X 100

b. Percentage Share of the Occurrence of a Type of Crime

Total number of occurences of a type of crime

{ CrimeVolume Nationwide }
X 100



Comprise all the means used to enforce those standards of conduct which are deemed
necessary to protect individuals and to maintain general community well being.
The sum total of instrumentation which a society uses in the prevention and control of crime
and delinquency.
The machinery of the state or government which enforces the rules of conduct necessary to
protect life and property and to maintain peace and order.
Comprises all means used to enforce these standards of conduct, which are deemed necessary
to protect individuals and to maintain general well-being of the community.

Five Pillars 5 Stages Different Nomenclatures

1. Law Enforcement Arrest Suspect
2. Prosecution Charging Respondent
3. Court Adjudication Accused
4. Corrections Sentencing Convict
5. Community Corrections Criminal





Three Pillars of the American Criminal Justice System

a. Law Enforcement
b. Courts
c. Corrections

Criminal Law and the Criminal Justice System

Basis of the Criminal Justice System

o Criminal Law is the basis that takes place in the Criminal Justice System.
o Only violations of Criminal Law are being considered and processed in the Criminal Justice
System. Where no violation of Criminal Law or where no commission of the crime, in general,
Criminal Justice as a process will not operate.

Criminal Law
Branch of public, which defines crimes, treats of their nature, and provides for their punishment.

Two Classification Of Criminal Law

a. Substantive
Defines the elements that are necessary for an act to constitute as a crime and therefore
b. Procedural
Refers to a statute that provides procedures appropriate for the enforcement of the
Substantive Criminal Law.

Two Basic Principles of Criminal Law in the Administration of the Criminal Justice System in the

1. First is the presumption of innocence. This means that those who are accused of crimes
are considered innocent until proven guilty. The accused is entitled to all the rights of the
citizens until the accuseds guilt has been determined by the court of law or by the accuseds
acknowledgment of his guilt that he or she indeed committed the crime.
2. The second principle is the burden of proof which in criminal cases means that the
government must prove beyond reasonable doubt that the suspect committed the crime

Concept of the Principle of the Presumption of Innocence

No less than the Constitution of the Philippines provides that an accused shall be presumed
innocent until proven guilty.

Concept of Proof beyond Reasonable Doubt

In order to make sure that only those who are guilty of the crime as punished, our Rules on
Evidence provides that the evidence, in order to be sufficient to convict an accused for a criminal act, proof
beyond reasonable doubt is necessary. Unless his guilt is shown beyond reasonable doubt, he is entitled to
an acquittal.

Meaning of Proof beyond Reasonable Doubt

Proof beyond reasonable doubt does not mean such a degree of proof as, excluding the possibility
of error, produces absolute certainty. Moral certainty is only required, or that degree of proof which produces
conviction in an unprejudiced mind.

Criminal in Relation to Criminal Justice System

The criminal is the main character of the Criminal Justice System.

Criminal may be defined in three different views:

1. In Criminological sense, a person may be considered as a criminal from the time he or she
committed the crime regardless whether or not it has been reported to the Police for investigation.
2. In legal sense, a person may be considered a criminal only upon undergoing the judicial process
and upon determination by the Court that he or she is guilty beyond reasonable doubt.
3. In Criminal Justice sense, a criminal may be defined as one who has undergone the process and
went through all the pillars of the Criminal Justice System

Four Elements of Justice in Order that Justice may be Dispensed of Absolutely

a. The absolute ability to identify the law violator

b. The absolute ability to apprehend law violator
c. The absolute ability to punish law violator
d. The absolute ability to identify the intent of the law violator.

Four Types of Mistakes that can happen when Society Attempts To Administer Justice:

1. The innocent is punished

2. The guilty escapes punishment
3. The guilty are punished more severely than necessary;
4. The guilty are punished less severely than necessary

Philippine Criminal Justice System Setting:

a. The Law Enforcement, particularly the Philippine National Police (PNP) is under the Department
of the Interior and Local Government (DILG); while the National Bureau of Investigation is an
agency attached to the Department of Justice (DOJ).

b. The Prosecution Service is under the DOJ, while the OMBUDSMAN is a Constitutional body
independent from even the three major and co equal branch of the government;

c. The Courts, meaning the regular civil courts, including the SANDIGANBAYAN and Special
Criminal Courts, are under the Supervision and control of Supreme Courts. Although, judges of
the Municipal Trial Courts, Municipal Circuit Trial Courts, at times are tasked to perform
executive functions when they are conducting Preliminary Investigation which is primarily an
Executive function.

4. The Correctional Institutions are either under the DOJ or DILG.

o The Bureau of Prison or the National Penitentiary is under the DOJ;

o By virtue of RA 6975, the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology (BJMP) is in charge of
the City or Municipal Jails while the Provincial government is in charge of the Provincial jails.
Both are under the DILG.

Purposes or Goals of Criminal Justice System

1. Primary Goals

1. Maintenance of peace and order

2. Protect members of the society

2. Secondary Goals or Sub-Goals

1. Prevention of crime
2. The review of the legality of preventive and suppressive measures.
3. The judicial determination of guilt or innocent of those apprehended.
4. The proper disposition of those who have been legally found guilty.
5. The correction by socially approved means of the behavior of those who violate the criminal
6. The suppression of criminal conduct by apprehending offenders for whom prevention is

The Philosophies behind the Criminal Justice System

1. The Adversarial Approach

The adversarial approach assumes innocence. The prosecutor representing the State must prove
the guilt. The adversary approach requires that the proper procedures are followed, procedures
designed to protect the rights of the accused.

The adversary system embodies the basic concept of equal protection and due process. These
concepts are necessary in order to create a system in which the accused has a fair chance against
the tremendous powers of the prosecutors and the resources of the State.

2. The Inquisitorial approach:

The inquisitorial system assumes guilt; the accused must prove that they are innocent. The
inquisitorial approach places a greater emphasis on conviction rather than on the process by which
the conviction is secured.

The philosophy adopted in our Criminal Justice System is the Adversarial Approach.

Concept of Due Process of Law

The concept of due process means that those who are accused of the crimes and those who are
processed through the Criminal Justice System must be given the basic rights guaranteed by the
Criminal due process requires that the accused be tried by an impartial and competent court in
accordance with the procedure prescribed by law and with proper observance of all the rights
accorded to him under the Constitution and applicable statute.

Concept of Equal Protection

The equal protection clause in essence declares that the state may not attempt to create or enforce
statutes against a person solely because of specific characteristics such as race, age or sex

I. Law Enforcement The First Pillar in the administration of the Criminal Justice System

Law Enforcement in relation to CJS

The Law Enforcement as the first pillar is considered to be the initiator or the prime mover of the
Criminal Justice System. It is considered as the initiator of the actions that other pillars must act upon to
attain its goal or objective.

Examples of police initiating action:

a. effecting an Arrest
b. Patrol
c. Crime investigation

The General Functions of the Law Enforcement in Relation to the Administration of the CJS

a. To prevent criminal behavior.

b. To reduce crime.
c. To apprehend and arrest offenders.
d. To protect the life and property.
e. To regulate non-criminal conduct.


- organized pursuant to RA 6975, as amended by RA 8551


RA 6975 - DILG Act of 1990 - Approved on Dec 13, 1990
RA 8551 - PNP Reform and Reorganization Act of 1998.
Approved on February 25, 1998.

RA 9708 - An Act extending for 5 years the reglementary period for complying the minimum educational
qualification for appointment to the PNP and adjusting the promotion system thereof. Approved on August
12, 2009

The Philippine National Police is a law enforcement agency under the DILG. It is under
administrative control and operational supervision of the National Police Commission. It is an organization
that is national in scope and civilian in character, as provided by Section 6, Article 16 of the 1987
Philippine Constitution:

The state shall establish and maintain one police force which shall be national in scope and civilian in

-headed by the Chief, PNP, with the rank of Director General, appointed by the President and who
shall serve a term of office of four (4) years.

National in Scope

means that the PNP is a nationwide government organization whose jurisdiction covers the entire
breadth of the Philippine archipelago.
all uniformed and non-uniformed personnel of the PNP are national government employees.


Means that that the PNP is not a part of the military, although it retains some military attributes such
as discipline.

Powers and Functions of The PNP

Enforce all laws and ordinances relative to the protection of lives and properties;
Maintain peace and order and take all necessary steps to ensure public safety;
Investigate and prevent crimes, effect the arrest of criminal offenders, bring offenders to justice and
assist in their prosecution;
Exercise the general powers to make arrest, search and seizure in accordance with the Constitution
and pertinent laws;
Detain an arrested person for a period not beyond what is prescribed by law, informing the person
so detained of all his rights under the Constitution;
Issue licenses for the possession of firearms and explosives in accordance with law;
Supervise and control the training and operations of security agencies and issue licenses to operate
security agencies and to security guards and private detectives, for the purpose of their professions.

National Bureau of Investigation

-The National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) saw its inception on November 13, 1936 upon
approval of Commonwealth Act No. 181 by the legislature
-Tasked with organizing a Division of Investigation or DI patterned after the United States Federal
Bureau of Investigation were Thomas Dugan, a veteran American police captain from the New York
Police Department and Flaviano C. Guerrero, the only Filipino member of the United States Federal
Bureau of Investigation.
-On June 19, 1947, by virtue of Republic Act No. 157, it was reorganized into the Bureau of
Investigation. Later, it was amended by Executive Order No. 94 issued on October 4, 1947 renaming
it to what it is presently known, the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI).
-The NBI is a government entity that is civilian in character, and national in scope which is under
the Department of Justice.

Functions of the NBI

a. Investigate crimes and other offenses against the laws of the Philippines, both on its own
initiative and as public interest may require;
b. Assist, when officially requested in the investigation or detection of crimes and other
c. Act as national clearing house of criminal records and other information for use of all
prosecuting and law enforcement entities in the Philippines, of identification records of
identifying marks, characteristics and ownership or possession of all firearms and test
bullets fired there from;
d. Give technical help to all prosecuting and law enforcement offices, agencies of the
government, and courts which may ask for its services;
e. Extend its services in the investigation of cases of administrative or civil in nature in which
the government is interested;
f. Establish and maintain an up-to-date scientific crime laboratory and conduct researches in
furtherance of scientific knowledge in criminal investigation;
g. Coordinate with other national or local agencies in the maintenance of peace and order;
h. Undertake the instruction and training of a representative number of city and municipal peace
officers at the request of their respective superiors along effective methods of crime
investigation and detection in order to insure greater efficiency in the discharge of their

Police Rules and Functions in the Society

Basically, the role of the police in society is crime prevention which is the main goal of the CJS.

Crime Detection in Relation to the Administration of CJS

Through crime detection, the police is typically the first component of the justice system to deal with the
commission of the crime.

How crime detection is usually happens?

The detection of crime usually occurs in the following manner:
a. The most typical way that crimes come to the attention of the police is for the victim to report its
occurrence to the police
b. A less typical way for the police to be advised of the crime is through the reporting of someone who
has witnessed its commission or has come upon evidence indicating that a crime has been
c. The police themselves, through their routine operations discover that a crime has been committed or
witness its commission

Importance of Arrest in the Administration of CJS

Arrest is important in the administration of Criminal Justice System because if the accused is not
arrested, the court will not acquire jurisdiction over his person unless the person voluntarily surrenders
himself to the authorities.


A. Meaning of Arrest:
Arrest is the taking of a person into custody in order that he may be bound to answer for the
commission of an offense.
b. Warrant Of Arrest is an order in writing issued in the name of People of the
Philippines signed by the judge and directed to a peace officer commanding him to take a
person in to custody

c. Probabale Cause In Effecting Arrest

Probable cause with respect to arrest is such a fact and circumstances which would lead a
reasonably discreet and prudent man to believe that an offense has been committed by the person
sought to be arrested.

d. General Rule in Effecting an Arrest:

The general rule in effecting an arrest is simply to make an arrest when there is a warrant.
a. For the protection of the person making the arrest in order not to be charged criminally for violation
of Article 124 of the Revised Penal Code, and other related penal laws;
b. and also for any civil and administrative charges.

e. Exception to the General Rule:

The exception to the general rule is provided by the Revise Rules on Criminal Procedures (Rule 113,
Section 5)

Arrest without warrant; when lawful. A peace officer or a private person may, without a warrant, arrest a

a. When, in his presence, the person to be arrested has committed, is actually committing, or is
attempting to commit an offense;

b. When an offense has just been committed and he has probable cause to believe based on personal
knowledge of facts or circumstances that the person to be arrested has committed it; and
c. When the person to be arrested is a prisoner who has escaped from a penal establishment or place
where he is serving final judgment or is temporarily confined while his case is pending, or has
escaped while being transferred from one confinement to another.

Search & Seizure

a. Search Warrant
It is an order in writing issued in the name of the people of the Philippines signed by
the judge and directed to the peace officer, commanding him to search for personal
property and bring it before the court.

b. Requisities For The Issuance Of Search Warrant

A search warrant shall be issued only upon (a) upon probable cause (b) in connection
with one specific offense ( c) to be determined personally by the judge (d) after
examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may
produce and (e) particularly describing the place to be search and the thing to be

Personal Property To be Seized

a. Subject of the offense;

b. Stolen or embezzled and other proceeds, fruits of the offense; or
c. Use or intended to be used as the means of the commission of the offense.


Just like arrest, the general rule in effecting a search and seizure is only by virtue of a validly issued search
and warrant.

The Reason:
a. For the protection of the searcher not to be charged of a crime of theft, robbery and the like;
b. And for any civil and administrative liabilities
a. Warrantless search incidental to a lawful arrest
b. Seizure of evidence in plain view
c. Search of a moving vehicle
d. Consented warrantless search
e. Customs search
f. Stop and frisk search, and
g. Exigent and emergency circumstances

Evidence Obtained in Violation of the Rule on Arrest and Search and Seizure is not Admissible as
Evidence Against the Accused
The evidence obtained is not admissible against the accused in any proceedings. The rule not
admitting any unlawfully obtained evidence against the accused is referred to the exclusionary rule
because the same is said to be the fruit of the poisonous tree.

Criminal Investigation
Is an art, which deals with identity and location of the offender and provides evidence of his guilt in
criminal proceedings.

Importance of Criminal Investigation in the Administration of CJS

Criminal Investigation is important in the administration of the CJS because one of the purpose of
criminal investigation is to gather and preserve evidence that will both justify their enforcement action in
particular case as well as enable the fact finding process of the courts and the prosecution of the case
successfully and obtain conviction.

Republic Act No. 7438, April 27, 1992


Police Discretion in Relation to the Administration of CJS
As defined by Kenneth Culp Davis, discretion means the freedom to make a choice among possible
courses of action.
By the very nature of their work, police officers normally make critical decisions involving the life,
liberty, honor and property of citizens, and these requires discretion on their part.

Some of the Examples of Police Discretion:

a. Whether or not to enforce a specific law;
b. Whether or not to conduct search of people or building
c. Whether or not to effect an arrest;
d. To determine what charges are to be filed

II. Prosecution The second Pillar of the Criminal Justice System

Prosecution as a Pillar of the CJS

The Prosecution as the pillar of the CJS simply means a criminal action. A proceeding instituted
and carried on by due course of law, before a competent tribunal, for the purpose of determining the guilt or
innocence of a person charged with a crime.
It is also used to designate the government as the party to the proceeding in a criminal action.

In Philippine CJS, Who Conducts the Prosecution?

o In the Philippines, the prosecutor is the government officer, tasked to conduct the prosecution of
criminal actions in court. The Revised Rules of Court expressly provides that the prosecution has the
direction and control of the case.
o Although in the Municipal Trial Court or Municipal Circuit Trial Courts when the prosecutor is absent,
the offended party, any peace officer, or public officer charged with the enforcement of the law violated
may prosecute the case. But such authority shall cease upon actual intervention of the prosecutor r
upon elevated to the RTC.

National Prosecution Service (NPS)

The NPS is under the supervision and control of the Department of Justice (DOJ) and is tasked as the
prosecutorial arm of the government. Its most important function in the Criminal Justice System is to
maintain and recognize the rule of law through the speedy delivery of services particularly in the
investigation and prosecution of all crimes under the Revised Penal Code, Presidential Decrees and
other special penal laws.

Some Roles of the Prosecutor:

a. To conduct Preliminary Investigation

b. To make proper recommendation during the inquest of the case referred to them by the police after
the investigation of the suspect;
c. To represent the government or state during the prosecution of the case against the accused;
d. To act as a legal officer of the province or City in the absence of its legal officer;
e. To investigate administrative cases filed against State Prosecutors, Provincial Prosecutors, including
the support staff of the National Prosecution Service (NPS).

Preliminary Investigation:

It is an inquiry or proceeding for the purpose of determining whether there is sufficient ground to
engender a well founded belief that a crime has been committed and that the respondent is probably guilty
thereof, and be held for trial (Section 1, Rule 112, Rules of Court).

Purposes/Objectives of Preliminary Investigation

a. To determine whether a crime has been committed and whether there is probable cause to believe
that the accused is guilty thereof;
b. To secure the innocent against hasty, malicious and oppressive prosecution.
c. To protect the State from useless and expensive trials.

Can there be Preliminary Investigation?

Preliminary Investigation is required to be conducted before the filing of the Complaint or Information
for an offense where the penalty prescribed by law is at least four (4) years, two (2) months and one (1) day
without regard to the fine.

Instance When Preliminary Investigation is not Required to be Conducted even If the Crime is one
that Requires Preliminary Investigation

When the offender was arrested without a warrant, an Inquest investigation will be conducted by the
inquest investigator. There is no need to conduct Preliminary Investigation, unless the person arrested ask
for Preliminary Investigation. However, before the same can be done, he must sign a waiver under the
provision of Art. 125 of the Revised Penal Code.
An Inquest shall refer to an informal and summary investigation conducted by a public prosecutor in
criminal cases involving persons arrested and detained without the benefit of a warrant issued by the court
for the purpose of determining whether or not said person should remain under the custody and
correspondingly charged in court.

Persons Authorized to Conduct Preliminary Investigation:

a. Provincial or City Prosecutors and their assistants;
b. Judges of the Municipal Trial Courts and Municipal Circuit Trial Courts;
c. National and Regional State Prosecutors; and
d. Other officers as may be authorized by law.

Others Officers Authorized By Law to Conduct Preliminary Investigation:

a. The Ombudsman and special prosecutor ad prosecutors duly authorized by the Ombudsman with
respect to cases under its jurisdiction (ex. Anti-graft and corrupt practices act.)
b. The COMELEC with respect to cases in violation of the Election Law;
c. Private Lawyers when duly deputized by any of the above.

Prosecutors Discretion:
a. Whether or not to file the case in court;
b. What charges to file;
c. Whether or not to decline to prosecute the arrested party;
d. Whether or not to enter into plea-bargaining

Some of the Reasons for Prosecutorial Rejection or Dismissal of some Criminal Cases:
a. Insufficient evidence that results from a failure to find sufficient physical evidence that links the
defendant to the offense.
b. Witness problem that arise for example, when a witness fails to appear, gives unclear or
inconsistent statements, is reluctant to testify, is unsure of identity of the offender.
c. Due Process Problems that involves the violations of the Constitutional requirements for seizing
evidence and for the questioning of the accused.

Remedy Available Should the Prosecutor without Just Cause Decline to Prosecute a Crime:

a. File a motion for consideration

b. File an administrative case against the Prosecutor;
c. File a civil case against the Prosecutor;
d. File a criminal case against the Prosecutor

III. Court The third pillar of the Criminal Justice System

General functions of the Courts in relation of the CJS:

a. To protect the rights of the accused the courts are responsible for reviewing the actions of law
enforcement agencies to ensure that the police have not violated the rights of the accused;
b. To determine by all legal means whether a person is guilty of a crime review all the evidences
presented by the police to determine its relevance and admissibility in accordance with the
Constitution and the rules of Court;
c. To dispose properly of those convicted of the crimes the Courts have the responsibility to examine
the background of the accused and the circumstances of the crime;
d. To protect the society after the accused has been found guilty, the court may determine if the
offender should be removed from society and incarcerated in order to protect the safety of life and
property and this is specially in case of Probation;
e. To prevent and reduce criminal behavior this is the task properly imposing the proper penalty and
sanctions that will serve to deter the future criminal acts by the offender an also serve as an
example and deterrent to others who would commit criminal acts or threaten public safety.

Importance of the Courts in the Administration of CJS:

Because the Court is the final arbiter of all disputes involving violations of criminal law.
Basic is the principle in law that we are a government of law and that no one should put the law into
ones own hand. Otherwise, our Society will be one where chaos and anarchy reign supreme.

General Functions of the Courts In Relation to the CJS

a. To protect the rights of the accused. The courts are responsible for the reviewing the
actions of law enforcement agencies to ensure that the police have not violated the rights of
the accused.
b. To determine by all legal means whether a person is guilty of a crime. Review all the
evidences presented by the police to determine its relevance and admissibility in accordance
with the Constitution and the rules of court.
c. To dispose properly of those convicted of the crimes. The Courts have the
responsibility to examine the background of the accused and the circumstances of the crime.
d. To protect the society. After the accused has been found guilty, the court may determine if
the offender should be removed from society and incarcerated in order to protect the safety
of life and property and this is specially true in case of Probation.
e. To prevent and reduce criminal behavior. This is the task properly imposing the proper
penalty and sanctions that will serve to deter the future criminal acts by the offender and also
serve as an example and deterrent to others who would commit criminal acts or threaten
public safety.

It is the authority of the court to hear and try a particular offense and to impose the punishment
provided by law.

Refers to the place, location or site where the case is to be heard on its merits.

Different Courts
1. Municipal Trial Court/Municipal Circuit Trial Court/Metropolitan Trial Court
Original Jurisdiction: (a) all violations of city and Municipal ordinances, (b) all offenses
punishable with imprisonment not exceeding six (6) years irrespective of the amount
of fine, (c) damage to property through criminal negligence;
1. Regional Trial Court (RTC)
Original Jurisdiction: (a) those which carry the penalties exceeding six (6) years of
imprisonment, (b) those not covered by the jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan.
2. Sandiganbayan
a. Original Jurisdiction: Violations of RA 3019 (Anti-graft and Corrupt Practices Act), RA 1379,
ad Chapter II, Section 2 Title VII, f Book II of the RPC.
b. officials of the executive branch of the government occupying the positions of regional
director and higher, otherwise classified as Grade 27 and higher.
c. Phillipine Army and Air force colonels, naval captain and all officers of higher rank.
d. Officer f the PNP (provincial director and those holding the rank of senior superintendent or
e. Court of Appeals.
f. Appellate jurisdiction: Decisions or judgements of the RTC
3. Supreme Court
a. Appellate jurisdiction: Decisions or judgements of the CA and the Sandiganbayan.

Courts Exercise of Discretion:

a. To set bail or set conditions for the release of the accused;

b. To rule on the procedural matters as raised by the defendant or the prosecutor during the trial;
c. To impose sentence or not;
d. To convict or to acquit the accused;
e. To revoke probation or suspended sentence.


It is the stage where the issues are joined in criminal action and without which the proceedings
cannot advance further.
It is the stage of the proceedings whereby the accused shall be informed of his/her constitutional
right to be (officially) informed of the nature and the cause of the accusation against him and to ask him of
his plea.

It is the adjudication by the court that the accused is guilty or not of the offense charged and the
imposition on him of the proper penalty and civil liability, if any. It must be written in the official language,
personally and directly prepared by the judge and signed by him and shall contain clearly and distinctly a
statement of the facts and the law upon which is based.

Promulgation Of Judgment

The judgment is promulgated by reading it in the presence of the accused and any judge of the court
in which it was rendered. However, if the conviction is for a light offense, the judgment may be pronounced
in the presence of his counsel or representative. When the judge is absent or outside the province or city,
the judgment may be promulgated by the clerk of court.

Weight of the Evidence Required in Order to Convict the Accused

The weight of the evidence required in order to convict an accused is Proof beyond reasonable


It is a finding of not guilty based on the merits. Meaning, the accused is acquitted because the
evidence does not show that his guilt is beyond reasonable doubt.


Appeal is a statutory right granted to the accused or even the government in proper cases to seek
remedy before an Appellate Court for the annulment or reversal of an adverse decision or conviction
rendered by the Trial Court.

Who Has The Right To Appeal?

As a rule, this right is only granted to the convicted offender. However, the Supreme Court in one of
its landmark decision held that the right to appeal shall not be denied to the government prosecutor when

IV. Corrections The fourth pillar of the CJS

Corrections deals with punishment, treatment and incarceration of offenders.

Corrections as the fourth pillar takes over the criminal treatment once the accused, after having
been found guilty, is meted out the penalty for the crime he committed. He can apply for probation or he
could be turned over to a non institutional or institutional agency or facility for custodial treatment and

General Functions of Corrections in Relation to the Administration of CJS

1. To maintain the institutions the correctional component is responsible for maintaining prisons,
jails and other institutional facilities to receive convicted offenders sentence to periods of
2. To protect law abiding members of society Corrections custody and security in order to keep
sentenced offenders removed from the free world so that they cannot commit further crimes on
3. To reform offenders It is responsible for developing and providing services to assist incarcerated
offenders to reform and assist them in returning to society and in leading a non-criminal life after
his/her release.
4. To deter crimes It is responsible for encouraging incarcerated and potential offenders to lead law-
abiding lives the experience of incarceration and the denial of freedom to live in a free society.

Time When Corrections Enter into the Picture in the Administration of CJS

Correctional Institutions enter into the picture, as a rule, when the conviction of the accused has
become final and executory. That is, when the judicial process has been completed and the court issues
MITTIMUS for the enforcement of its decision.
Although, Correctional Institutions, Jails in particular, may receive an accused for custody or
detention only, in which case the court issues a COMMITMENT ORDER.


It is a warrant issued by a court bearing its seal and the signature of the judge directing the jail or
prison authorities to receive the convicted offender for service of sentence.

Commitment Order

It is a written order of a court or authority consigning a person to jail or prison for detention.

Purposes of Correction

1. Deterrence.
2. Rehabilitation.
3. Reintegration
4. Isolation and Incapacitation.
5. Punishment.

Different Correctional Institutions in the Philippines:

1. Sablayan Prison and Penal Farm located in Occidental Mindoro. Established on September 26,
1954 by virtue of Presidential Proclamation No. 72.

2. It is the youngest colony of the bureau.

3. Leyte Regional Prison situated in Abuyog, Southern Leyte, established a year after declaration of
Martial law in 1972.

4. New Bilibid Prison located in Muntinlupa, it was officially named New Bilibid Prison on January
22, 141.

5. Correctional Institution for Women located at Mandaluyong City. Philippine Legislature passed
Republic Act 3579 in November 1929 which authorize the transfer of all women inmates from Old
Bilibid Prison to CIW. On February 14, 1931, the women prisoners were transferred from Old Bilibid
Prison to the building especially constructed to them. Its old name Womens Prison was changed
to Correctional Institution for Women.

6. Iwahig Penal Colony located at Palawan, established on November 16, 1904 by Governor Luke

7. San Ramon Prison and Penal Farm established in Southern Zamboanga on August 21, 1870
through a royal decree promulgated in 1869. Considered the oldest penal facility in the country.
Originally established for persons convicted of political crimes. It was here in Dapitan Zamboanga
where Dr. Jose Rizal was incarcerated.

8. Davao Penal Colony located in Davao Del Norte, the first penal settlement founded and
organized under Filipino administration. It was formally established on January 21, 1932 by virtue of
Act No. 3732.

Correctional Agencies in the Philippines

1. Institutional Corrections Agencies

a. Bureau of Corrections an agency under the Department of Justice (DOJ) that is charged with
custody and rehabilitation of national offenders, that is, those sentenced to serve a term of
imprisonment of more than three (3) years. It exercises control and supervision of all the
corrections/prisons facilities nationwide.

b. Provincial Jails a jail for the safekeeping of prisoners at the capital of each province, and in the
absence of special provision all expenses incident to the maintenance thereof and of maintaining
prisoners are borne by the province.

c. Bureau of Jail Management and Penology (BJMP) created by virtue of Republic Act 6975,
exercise supervision and control over all district, city and municipal jail nationwide. Formally
established on January 2, 1991.

Classification of Prisoners
1. Detention Prisoners
a. Persons held for security reasons
b. Persons held for investigation
c. Persons waiting for final judgment
d. Persons waiting for trial
2. Sentenced Prisoners prisoners who convicted by judgment by competent court.

2.1 Municipal Jail Prisoner sentenced to serve a prison term for 1 day to 6 months.
2.2 City Jail Prisoner sentenced to serve imprisonment for 1 day to 3 years
2.3 Provincial Jail sentenced to 6 months one day to 3 years
2.4 National or insular Prisoners Sentenced to 3 years 1 day to Reclusion Perpetua or Life

2. Non Institutional Correctional Agencies

a. Parole and Probation Administration an attached agency of the DOJ which provides a less
costly alternative to imprisonment of offenders who are likely to respond to individualized community
based treatment programs. Headed by an Administrator
- Handles the investigation of petitioners for probation, and the supervision of probationers,
parolees and conditional pardonees.
b. Board of Pardons and Parole the administrative arm of the President of the Philippines in the
exercise of his constitutional power to grant, except in cases of impeachment, pardon, reprieve and
amnesty after conviction by final judgment.
Act 4103, otherwise known as Indeterminate Sentence Law, took effect on December
4, 1933, created the Board of Indeterminate Sentence.
Amended by Executive Order No. 83, Series of 1937, renamed the Board of
Indeterminate Sentence to Board of Pardons.
Amended by Executive Order No. 94, abolished the Board of Pardons and created
the Board of Pardons and Parole.
c. Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) renders services for Children in
Conflict with the Law (CICL) (RA 9344, Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act of 2006, April 28, 2006).
SEC. 6. Minimum Age of Criminal Responsibility. - A child fifteen (15) years of age or
under at the time of the commission of the offense shall be exempt from criminal liability.
However, the child shall be subjected to an intervention program pursuant to Section 20 of
this Act.
A child above fifteen (15) years but below eighteen (18) years of age shall likewise be
exempt from criminal liability and be subjected to an intervention program, unless he/she has
acted with discernment, in which case, such child shall be subjected to the appropriate
proceedings in accordance with this Act.
The exemption from criminal liability herein established does not include exemption from civil
liability, which shall be enforced in accordance with existing laws.

Juvenile Justice and Welfare Council (JJWC) - A Juvenile Justice and Welfare Council (JJWC) is hereby
created and attached to the Department of Justice and placed under its administrative
supervision. The JJWC shall be chaired by an undersecretary of the Department of Social
Welfare and Development

Duties During Initial Investigation. - The law enforcement officer shall, in his/her investigation, determine
where the case involving the child in conflict with the law should be referred.
The taking of the statement of the child shall be conducted in the presence of the following: (1)
child's counsel of choice or in the absence thereof, a lawyer from the Public Attorney's Office; (2) the child's
parents, guardian, or nearest relative, as the case may be; and (3) the local social welfare and development
officer. In the absence of the child's parents, guardian, or nearest relative, and the local social welfare and
development officer, the investigation shall be conducted in the presence of a representative of an NGO,
religious group, or member of the BCPC.
After the initial investigation, the local social worker conducting the same may do either of the

a. Proceed in accordance with Section 20 if the child is fifteen (15) years or below or above fifteen
(15) but below eighteen (18) years old, who acted without discernment; and
b. If the child is above fifteen (15) years old but below eighteen (18) and who acted with
discernment, proceed to diversion under the following chapter.

Probation as an Alternative to Imprisonment

The court may, after it shall have convicted and sentenced a child in conflict with the law, and upon
application at any time, place the child on probation in lieu of service of his/her sentence taking into account
the best interest of the child. For this purpose, Section 4 of Presidential Decree No. 968, otherwise known
as the "Probation Law of 1976", is hereby amended accordingly.


- Is a disposition under which a defendant after conviction and sentence, is released subject to
conditions imposed by the court and under the supervision of a probation officer.
- Is a privilege granted by the court to a person convicted of a criminal offense to remain in the
community instead of actually going to prison.

Is an act of grace proceeding from the power entrusted with the execution of the laws which exempts the
individual on whom it is bestowed from the punishment the law inflicts for the crime he has committed. It is
the power reposed by the Constitution to the President of the Philippines.

Kinds of Pardon

a. Absolute Pardon when the convict is release without any condition;

b. Conditional Pardon when the release of the convict is subject to certain conditions that the
pardonee must comply with strictly. Otherwise, such pardon will be revoked, because pardon is a
contract with the convict may or may not accept, but once accepted, he has to abide with the
conditions prescribed.

Is a procedure by which prisoners are selected for release on the basis of the individual response to
the correctional institution and the service progress and by which they are provided with the necessary
controls and guidance as they serve the remainder of their sentences within the free community.

Elements of Parole

a. That the offender is convicted;

b. That he serves part of his sentence in prison;
c. That he is released before the full expiration of his sentence;
d. That said release is conditional, and
e. That he remains on parole until the expiration of his maximum sentence.


a. Their offenses are punished with death penalty, reclusion perpetua or life imprisonment;
b. They were convicted of treason, conspiracy, or proposal to commit treason, misprision of treason,
rebellion, sedition or coup d etat and piracy or mutiny on the high seas or Philippine waters;
c. They are habitual delinquents;
d. They escaped from confinement or evaded sentence;
e. They have been on conditional pardon and had violated any of the conditions imposed by the Board
f. Their sentence do not exceed one (1) year;
g. They are suffering from any mental disorder as proven by the government psychiatrist or
psychologist accredited by the Department of Health;
h. They have pending criminal cases.

Is a general pardon extended to a group of prisoners and exercised by the President of the
Philippines with the concurrence of Congress. The recipients are usually political offenders.

V. Community The fifth pillar of the CJS

Role of the Community as the fifth pillar of the Criminal Justice System.

- the community is understood to mean as elements that are mobilized and energized to help
authorities in effectively addressing the law and order concern of the citizenry.

The responsibilities of the community in relation to Law Enforcement

As one of the pillars or component of the Criminal Justice system, the community with its massive
membership has vital responsibilities in law enforcement.

The citizens can achieve these roles:

a. identifying offenders;
b. giving data about the illegal activities and cohorts of the criminals, and the proliferation of organized
crimes and syndicates;
c. volunteering as witnesses;
d. adopting precautionary and remedial measures to diminish crime.
As had been pointed out, crime prevention is not the sole responsibility of the police but is equally the
concern of every citizen in order to have a peaceful place to live in.[

Examples of Community participation in the Administration of Criminal Justice in our setting

a. They are the following:

1. The growing interest in the rights and welfare of the victim as shown by the government with the
cooperation of community leaders. Accordingly, R.A. No. 6981, otherwise known as the
Witness protection and Security Act was passed and approved on April 24, 1991.
This is to encourage the citizenry to participate in the Criminal Justice System by helping the
government and The community in dealing with crime and criminals.

The Creation of Police-Community Relations

R.A. 6975, created this unit in order to implement plans and programs that will promote community and
citizens participation in the maintenance of peace and order and public safety.[2] It was
created to establish harmonious relationship between the police and the citizen. The
community involvement in the criminal justice system is necessary to show its problems and
encourage action for the solution thereof. It is clear that the police and the citizens need
each other to combat and eradicate criminality.

How Can Police-Community Relations be Achieved?

This can be done through:

a. Constant dialogues between seminars to acquaint the barangay tanods and the police aides of their
duties and responsibilities in the performance of their functions in the community;
b. The police must follow the rule of law on dealing with the citizens by performing their duties in a
humble and efficient manner and by showing the public goodwill

Katarungang Pambarangay (Village Justice)

Brief History of the Katarungang PAMBARANGAY


- promulgated on 27 January 1978



RA 7160 otherwise known as the LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE OF 1991

- enacted on 10 October 1991
Q & A:


It is a body of men created to settle disputes within the barangay level. It is also referred to as the

2) What shall be the composition of the Lupon?

The Lupon shall be composed of the Barangay Chairman as Chairman of the Lupon and the
Barangay Secretary as the Secretary of the Lupon, plus other members who shall be not less than
ten (10) but not more than twenty (20).

3) Who are qualified to become members of the Lupon?

Any resident of the barangay of reputable character may be appointed as member of the Lupon.
Members of the Lupon shall be appointed by the Barangay Chairman.

4) When shall the Lupon be constituted?

The Lupon shall be constituted every three years.

5) What is the term of office of a Lupon member?

A Lupon member shall serve for a period of three years.

6) What is the basic function of the Lupon?

Essentially, the Lupon must provide a forum for matters relevant to the amicable settlement of
disputes for the speedy resolution of disputes.


It shall act as the conciliation panel. It is also referred to as the PANGKAT.

8) What shall be the composition of the Pangkat?

It shall be composed of three (3) members chosen from the members of the Lupon. They shall
choose from among the three of them the Pangkat Chairman and Pangkat Secretary.

9) When shall the Pangkat be constituted?

The Pangkat shall be constituted whenever a dispute is brought before the Lupon.

10) Who shall appoint the members of the Pangkat?

The members of the Pangkat shall be chosen by the parties of the dispute from among the Lupon
members. In case of disagreement, the Barangay Chairman shall draw lots.

11) What matters fall under the jurisdiction of the Lupon?

a. those involving offenses that are punishable by the imprisonment of one year and below, or a
fine in the amount of five thousand pesos and below;
b. those involving parties that actually reside or work in the same barangay;
c. those involving marital and family disputes;
d. those involving minor disputes between neighbors;
e. those involving real properties located in the barangay;
12) Where shall be the venue for amicable settlement?

a. disputes between persons actually residing in the same barangay shall be brought for
amicable settlement before the Lupon of said barangay;
b. those involving actual residents of different barangays within the same city or municipality
shall be brought in the barangay where the respondent actually resides;
c. all disputes involving real property or any interest shall be brought in the barangay where the
real property or the larger portion is situated;
d. those arising at the workplace where the contending parties are employed or at the institution
where such parties are enrolled for study shall be brought in the barangay where such
workplace or institution is located.

Procedure for Amicable Settlement

1) Who may initiate proceedings?

Any individual who has a cause of action against another individual involving any matter within the
authority of the Lupon may complain, orally or in writing, to the Lupon.

Complainant the person who filed the complaint against the respondent

Respondent the person who is being complained of

Cause of Action an act or omission of one party in violation of the legal rights of another for which the
latter suffers damage which affords a party to a right to judicial intervention

2) What shall the Chairman do upon receipt of the complaint?

The Chairman shall meet with the respondent and complainant and mediate. If he fails in his
mediation within fifteen (15) days, he shall set a date for the constitution of the Pangkat.

Mediation or Conciliation the process whereby disputants are persuaded by the Punong Barangay or
Pangkat to amicably settle their disputes

3) What shall the Pangkat do after its constitution?

The Pangkat shall meet not later than three (3) days after their constitution, on the date set by the
Chairman, to hear both parties.
4) Within how may days should the Pangkat settle the dispute?
The Pangkat shall arrive at a settlement of the dispute within fifteen (15) days from its meeting. This
period may be extended for another fifteen (15) days, at the discretion of the Pangkat.
5) How shall the settlement be made official?
All amicable settlement shall be in writing.
6) Why should parties resort to amicable settlement before going to the police?
Because it is a pre-condition to filing of complaint in court:
No complaint involving any matter within the authority of the Lupon shall be filed directly in
court unless there has been a confrontation between the parties before the Chairman or the
Pangkat, and that no conciliation or settlement has been reached as certified by the Secretary, or
unless the settlement has been repudiated by the parties.
7) What shall be the effect of the amicable settlement?
The amicable settlement shall have the force and effect of a final judgment of a court upon the
expiration of ten (10) days from the date of settlement.

Crim. 3: Ethics And Values

Part One - General And Special Ethics

- the science of the morality of human acts
- the study of the human motivation, and ultimately of human rational behaviour
- derived from the Greek word, ethos, which means characteristic way of acting and ethikos, which
means customary

- the quality which makes an act good or bad, good or evil, right or wrong

1) moral - good, right
2) immoral - bad, wrong
3) amoral - neither good nor bad

- acts that are done knowingly, deliberately and freely


- when the person fully understands what he is doing and has the ability to appreciate the
consequences of his actions
- when the person did his actions intentionally
- when the person performed his actions voluntarily


- the study of the general principles of morality
- the study of the application of the general principles of morality; included in this division is the
category of professional ethics

- a set of moral code to which every profession must subscribe
- guides the professional where the law is silent or inadequate

- an example of professional ethics
- a practical science that treats the principle of human morality and duty as applied to law

- anything that a person considers important in life, such as material things, ideas and experiences

- those that are necessary for survival, such as food, shelter, clothing, sex, water, sleep
- include the physiological needs of man as man
- those are that are necessary for emotional fulfillment of man, such as relationships,
companionship, family, friendships, love
- those that are necessary for the intellectual fulfillment of man, such as achievements, career,
- those that are necessary for the spiritual fulfillment of man

- a habit that inclines the person to act in a way that harmonizes with his nature
- the habit of doing good
- the opposite is vice, the habit of doing bad

- the ability to govern and discipline oneself by means of reason and sound judgment
- the virtue that attracts the intellect to choose the most effective means for accomplishing what is
morally good and avoiding what is evil
- ones ability to moderate or avoid something
- the virtue that regulates the carnal appetite for sensual pleasures
- firmness of mind
- the courage to endure without yielding
- the virtue that incites courage

a) PATIENCE calmness and composure in enduring situations

b) PERSEVERANCE the ability to go on despite the obstacles
c) ENDURANCE the ability to last
- the virtue that inclines the will to give to each one of his rights


- virtue that regulates those actions that involve the rights that exist between one and another
- Regulates those actions that involve the rights than an individual may claim from society
- virtue that regulates those actions which society may justly require of the individual for the common

- anything that is owed or due
- something to which a person has a just and lawful claim
- anything that a person can lawfully demand

- rights pertaining to the rights of man
- rights inherent to man by virtue of being a human being
- are the supreme, inherent and inalienable rights to life, dignity and to self-development

supreme rights = highest form of rights

inherent rights = rights attached to men as human
inalienable rights = rights that cannot be transferred, cannot be borrowed and cannot be taken away


death under exceptional circumstances
death penalty

2) Right to Liberty
for reasons of public health and public safety
penalty for commission of a crime
circumstances of warrantless arrests

3) Right to Property
circumstances of warrantless search
by virtue of court order

Bill of Rights

- a list of individual liberties, freedom and rights which are guaranteed and protected under Article III of
the 1987 Philippine Constitution

- protection of individuals against abuses of the state
- protection of the rights of an accused

- anything we are obliged to do or to omit
- a moral obligation incumbent upon a person of doing, omitting or avoiding
- for every right, there is a corresponding duty



Background on the PNP Code of Professional Conduct and Ethical Standards

SECTION 37, RA 6975

There shall be established a performance evaluation system which shall be administered in

accordance with the rules, regulations and standards, and A CODE OF CONDUCT promulgated by the
Commission for members of the PNP


- resolution issued by the NAPOLCOM approving the draft of the Philippine National Police Code of
Professional Conduct and Ethical Standards by the PNP
- approved on 12 March 1992

Purposes of The Code

1) To foster individual efficiency, behavioral discipline and organizational effectiveness, as well as

respect for constitutional and human rights of citizens, democratic principles and ideals and the
supremacy of civilian authority over the military;
2) To set the moral tone and norms of professional conduct in the police service;
3) To provide moral and ethical guidance to all PNP members; and
4) To enlighten members of the police service of what behavior is really acceptable to define what is
permitted and what is prohibited.

Laws Related to The PNP Code

1) RA 3019 Anti-Graft and Corruption Practices Act

2) RA 6713 Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials and Employees
3) RA 7080 Anti-Plunder Act
4) RA 9485 the Anti-Red Tape Act of 2007
5) PLEB Rules and Regulations

Important Terms

- the failure to perform an act or duty that is part of ones obligation without sufficient excuse

- the commission of an act that one is prohibited to do

- the improper or incorrect performance of an act that should be done or performed

- lack of adequate ability and fitness for the satisfactory performance of police duties; could be due to
physical or intellectual limitations or lack of skill

Disloyalty to the Government

- abandonment or renunciation of ones loyalty to the government of the Philippines
- advocating to overthrow the present administration

Police Discretion

- the act or the liberty to decide according to the principles of justice and the
police officers ideas of what is right and proper under the circumstances

The Law Enforcement Code of Ethics

As a law enforcement officer, my fundamental duty is to serve mankind; to safeguard life and
property; to protect the innocent against deception; the weak against oppression or intimidation; and the
peaceful against violence or disorder; and to respect the constitutional rights of all men, to liberty, equality
and justice.

I will keep my private life unsullied as an example to all; maintain courageous calm in the face of
danger, scorn or ridicule; develop self-restraint and be constantly mindful of the welfare of others. Honest in
thought and deed in both my personal and official life, I will be exemplary in obeying the laws of the land
and regulations of my organization. Whatever I see or hear of a confidential nature or that is confided to me
in my official capacity will be kept ever secret unless revelation is necessary in the performance of my duty.

I will never act officiously or permit personal feelings, prejudices, animosities or friendship to
influence my decision. With no compromise for crime and with relentless prosecution of criminal, I will
enforce the law courteously and appropriately, without fear or favor, malice or ill-will, never employing
unnecessary force or violence and never accepting gratuities in return.

I recognize the badge of my office as a symbol of public faith and I accept it as a public trust to be
held so long as I am true to the ethics of police service. I will never engage in acts of corruption or bribery,
nor will I condone such acts by other police officers. I will cooperate with all legally authorized agencies and
their representatives in the pursuit of justice.

I know that I alone am responsible for my own standard of professional performance and will take
every reasonable opportunity to enhance and improve my level of knowledge and competence. I will
constantly strive to achieve these objectives and ideals, dedicating myself before God to my chosen
profession... law enforcement.

Philippine National Police Code of Professional Conduct and Ethical Standards

Canons of Police Ethics

1) Primordial Police Responsibility

- the primary responsibility of the police is crime prevention

2) Limitation of Police Authority

- laws set limits to the power of the police
- police officers are not exempted from obeying the laws they are enforcing

3) Knowledge of the Law and other Responsibilities

- police officers are expected to know and understand the laws they are enforcing
- police officers must fully understand their duties and responsibilities as police officers
- police officers must know and fully understand the relationship of the PNP organization with other
law enforcement agencies and other government agencies

4) Use of Proper Means to Obtain Proper Ends

- police officers must only employ legal methods in the conduct of their work

5) Cooperation with Public Officials

- police officers must cooperate with other public officials and government agencies

6) Proper Conduct and Behavior

- police officers must always observe proper conduct and behavior both in their personal and official

7) Conduct towards the Community

- police officers must never forget that they are public servants

8) Conduct in Arresting Law Violators

- police officers must always adhere to the prescribed rules when effecting arrests of suspects

9) Firmness in Refusing Gifts
- police officers must never ask for nor accept gifts or special favors

10) Impartial Presentation of Evidence

- police officers must be fair in presenting evidence

11) Attitude towards Police Profession

- police officers must have a high regard for the police profession and must be proud that they are
police officers
- police officers must strive to improve their knowledge and skills in order be the best police officers
that they can be

Professional Police Principle

1) Prevention of Crime and Disorder

- it is the primary objective of the police to prevent crime

2) Cooperation of the Community

- the police is dependent upon community support

3) Unreasonable Force Reduces Community Cooperation

- the use of unreasonable force on the part of the police negatively affects the desire of the people to
cooperate with the police

4) Use of Reasonable Force when Persuasion is not Sufficient

- the police may only use force when dialogue is no longer effective and the degree of force to be
used must be reasonable

5) Impartial Enforcement of Laws

- the police must be fair in enforcing the laws

6) The Community are the Police

- the police and the community are dependent on each other and must work hand in hand to prevent

7) Police should not Usurp Judicial Power

- the police has no power or authority to decide whether a suspect is guilty or innocent of a crime
because only the court has this power

8) Rules of Engagement Impartially Observed

- the police must always adhere to the prescribed procedures in the performance of their duty

9) Reduction of Crime and Disorder

- the effectiveness of the police is measured through the ability of the police to prevent crime

10) Police Discretion

- the police must never abuse the police discretion granted to them

PNP Core Values

1) Love of God
2) Respect for Authority
3) Selfless Love and Service to People
4) Sanctity of Marriage and Respect for Women
5) Responsible Dominion and Stewardship over Material Things
7) Truthfulness

Police Officers Creed

I believe in God, the Supreme Being, a Great Provider, and the Creator of all men and
everything dear to me. In return, I cannot less than love Him above all, seek His guidance in the
performance of my sworn duties and honor Him at all times.

I believe that respect for authority is a duty. I respect and uphold the Constitution, the laws of
the land and the applicable rules and regulations. I recognize the legitimacy and authority of the leadership,
and follow and obey legal orders of my superior officers.

I believe in selfless love and service to people. Towards this end, I commit myself to the service
of my fellowmen over and above my personal convenience.

I believe in the sanctity of marriage and respect for women. I shall set the example of decency
and morality and shall have high regard for family life and chastity.
I believe in responsible dominion and stewardship over material things. I shall inhibit myself
from ostentatious display of my property. I shall protect the environment and conserve nature to maintain
ecological balance. I shall respect private and public properties and prevent others from destroying them.

I believe in the wisdom of truthfulness. I must be trustworthy and I shall speak the truth at all
times as required by the profession.


- the PNP shall live in accordance with the PNP Core Values and shall possess the following virtues:

a. Honor
b. Integrity
c. Valor
d. Justice
e. Honesty
f. Humility
g. Charity
h. Loyalty To Service
- the PNP shall formulate and implement policies and human resources development system for all
PNP personnel, from recruitment to retirement
- the primary basis for consideration in the selection of personnel for employment and deployment
shall be the individuals capabilities and competent leadership.
- there shall be judicious and equitable distribution of opportunity to prove ones worth in the PNP
- the PNP shall strictly adhere to the rule of merit and fitness system

- all members of the PNP must have moral courage to sacrifice self-interest

- the PNP shall endeavor to promote a lifestyle that is acceptable and respectable in the eyes of the
public because the public expects a police officer to live a simple, yet dignified life

- all PNP members must inhibit themselves from soliciting political patronage in matters pertaining to
assignments, promotions, trainings and awards

- all PNP members shall respect and protect human dignity and mans rights to life, liberty and

Police Professional Conduct

1) Commitment To Democracy
- police officers must commit themselves to a democratic way of life and values and maintain the
principle of public accountability
- they shall at all times uphold the Constitution and be loyal to the legitimate government

2) Commitment To Public Interest
- police officers must always uphold public interest over and above personal interest
- they shall use public resources and properties economically and judiciously to avoid wastage of
public funds

3) Non-Partisanship
- police officers shall provide services to everyone without discrimination regardless of political
affiliation in accordance with existing laws and regulations

4) Physical Fitness and Health

- police officers shall strive to be physically and mentally fit and in good health at all times

5) Secrecy Discipline
- police officers shall guard the confidentiality of official information against unauthorized access and

6) Social Awareness
- police officers, as well as their immediate family members, shall be encouraged to actively get
involved in religious, social and civic activities to enhance the image of the PNP organization

7) Non-Solicitation of Patronage
- police officers shall seek self-improvement through career development without directly or indirectly
soliciting favors or recommendation from politicians, high-ranking government officials and the like

8) Proper Care and Use of Public Property

- police officers shall be responsible for the security, proper care and use of public authority issued to
them for the performance of their duties

9) Respect for Human Rights

- police officers shall respect and protect human rights in the performance of their duty
10) Devotion to Duty
- police officers shall perform their duties with dedication, thoroughness, efficiency, enthusiasm,
determination and manifest concern for public welfare

11) Conservation of Natural Resources

- police officers shall help in the development and conservation of our natural resources for ecological
balance and posterity

12) Discipline
- police officers shall conduct themselves properly at all times in keeping with the rules and
regulations of the organization

13) Loyalty
- police officers must be loyal to the Constitution and to the police service as manifested by their
loyalty to their superiors, peers and subordinates as well

14) Obedience To Superiors

- police officers shall obey lawful orders and be courteous to superior officers and other appropriate

15) Command Responsibility

- immediate commanders shall be responsible for the effective supervision, control and direction of
their personnel

Ethical Standards
- shall refer to established and generally accepted moral values and ethical acts

1) Morality
- police officers must adhere to high standard of morality and decency and shall set good example for

2) Judicious use of Authority

- police officers shall exercise proper and legitimate use of authority and discretion in the performance
of their duty

3) Integrity
- police officers shall not allow themselves to be victims of corruption and dishonest practices

4) Justice
- police officers shall strive constantly to respect the rights of others

5) Humility
- police officers shall recognize the fact that they are public servants and not the masters of the
- they should perform their duties without arrogance
- they should recognize their own inadequacies, inabilities and limitations as individuals
- they should perform their duties without attracting attention or expecting the applause of others

6) Orderliness
- police officers shall follow logical procedures in accomplishing tasks assigned to them to minimize
wasted time and resources

7) Perseverance
- police officers must exert all efforts to achieve their goal or mission even in the face of difficulties
and obstacles

PNP Customs and Traditions

- established usage or social practices carried on by tradition that have obtained the force of law

PNP Customs On Courtesy

- a manifestation or expression of consideration and respect for others

- the usual greeting rendered by uniformed personnel upon meeting and recognizing persons entitled
to it

Salute To National Color and Standard

- police officers must stand at attention and salute the national color and standard as it passes by
them or when the national color is raised or lowered during ceremonies

- junior in rank must address senior members who are entitled to a salute with the Sir or Maam

Courtesy Calls

1) Courtesy Call of Newly-Assigned/ Appointed Member

- PNP members who are newly-assigned or appointed to a unit or command must call on the chief of
the unit or command and to other key personnel for accounting, orientation and other purposes

2) Christmas Call
- PNP members pay a Christmas call on their local executives in their respective area of responsibility

3) New Years Call

- PNP members pay a New Years call on their commanders and/or key officials in their respective
area of responsibility

4) Promotion Call
- newly-promoted PNP members call on their unit head

5) Exit Call
- PNP members pay an exit call on their superiors in the unit or command when relieved or
reassigned out of said unit or command

Courtesy of The Post

- the host unit extends hospitality to visiting personnel who pay respect to the command or unit

- PNP members must acknowledge that different ranks carry with them corresponding privileges

- a formal act or set of formal acts established by customs or authority as proper to special occasion

PNP Customs on Ceremonies

Flag-Raising Ceremony
- PNP members honor the flag by raising it and singing the National Anthem before the start of the
official days work

Flag-Retreat Ceremony
- PNP members salute the lowering of the flag at the end of the official days work

- the flag is raised at half-mast in deference to deceased uniformed members of the command

Funeral Service and Honors

- departed uniformed members, retirees, war veterans or former PNP members are given vigil,
necrological services and graveside honors

Ceremony Tendered To Retirees

- in recognition of their long, faithful and honorable service to the PNP, a testimonial activity shall be
tendered in their honor

Honor Ceremonies
- arrival and departure honor ceremonies are rendered to visiting dignitaries, VIPs, PNP officers with
the rank of Chief Superintendent and above and AFP officers of equivalent grade

Turn-Over Ceremony
- the relinquishment and assumption of command or key position is publicly announced by the
outgoing and incoming officers

Wedding Ceremony
- during marriage of PNP members, a ceremony is conducted with participants in uniform and swords

- the birth or institutional establishment of a command or unit is commemorated in an anniversary

Social Decorum

- a set of norms and standards practiced by members during social and other functions

PNP Customs on Social Decorum


- police officers must observe the following:

a) wearing of prescribed uniform
b) wearing, as part of the uniform, awards and decorations earned in accordance with the
prescribed rules and regulations
c) adherence to haircut prescribed by rules and regulations

Manner of Walking
- every PNP officer is expected to walk with pride and dignity

Other Police Customs

o Visiting the Sick
immediate commanders or other available officers of the unit visit PNP members who are sick in the
hospital, their residence or any place of confinement in order that their needs are attended to

o Survivor Assistance to Heirs of Deceased Members

a survivor officer is designated whenever PNP members die, to render maximum assistance to their
bereaved family until all benefits due shall have been received

o Visiting Religious Leaders

PNP officer visit religious leaders in their areas of assignment to establish or maintain rapport and
cooperation between the different religious leaders and the PNP

o Athletics
PNP members indulge in physical fitness activities to ensure that their proper physical appearance
and bearing are maintained with the waist line measurement always smaller than the size of his
chest and in conformity with the standard set forth by the organization

o Happy Hours
usually on Friday, or any other day suitable for the occasion, PNP members gather together at their
PNP Club for a light-hearted jesting or airing of minor gripes

- bodies of beliefs, stories, customs and usages handed down from generation to generation with the
effect of an unwritten law

Police Traditions

1) Spiritual Beliefs
- PNP members are traditionally religious and God-loving persons; they attend religious services
together with the members of their family
2) Valor
- police officers sacrifice their lives and limbs for the people they have pledged to serve
3) Patriotism
- police officers manifest their love of country with a pledge of allegiance to the flag and a vow to
defend the Constitution
4) Discipline
- police officers manifest discipline by instinctive obedience to lawful orders and through spontaneous
actions towards attainment of organizational objectives guided by moral, ethical and legal norms
5) Gentlemanliness
- police officers are upright in character, polite in manners, dignified in appearance and sincere in their
concern for their fellowmen
6) Word Of Honor
- police officers stand by, and commit to uphold, their word
7) Duty
- police officers are dedicated public servants who perform their tasks with a deep sense of
responsibility and self-sacrifice
8) Loyalty
- police officers are traditionally loyal to the organization, country and fellowmen

9) Camaraderie
- the binding spirit that enhances teamwork and cooperation in the police organization

Police Officers Pledge

1) I will love and serve God, my country and people;

2) I will uphold the Constitution and obey legal orders of the duly-constituted authorities
3) I will oblige myself to maintain a high standard of morality and professionalism
4) I will respect the customs and traditions of the police service; and
5) I will live a decent and virtuous life and to serve as an example to others.

Part Three - Police-Community Relations (PCR)

Background on Police-Community Relations

Section 2 of Republic Act No 6975 reads:

SECTION 2. Declaration of Policy. It is hereby declared to be the policy of the State to promote peace
and order, ensure public safety and further strengthen local government capability aimed towards the
effective delivery of the basic services to the citizenry through the establishment of a highly efficient and
competent police force that is national in scope and civilian in character. Towards this end, the State shall
bolster a system of coordination and cooperation among the citizenry, local executives and the
integrated law enforcement and public safety agencies created under this Act.

Said provision was later amended by RA 8551, which reads:

Section 2. Declaration of Policy and Principles. It is hereby declared the policy of the State to establish
a highly efficient and competent police force which is national in scope and civilian in character
administered and controlled by a national police commission.

The Philippine National Police (PNP) shall be a community and service oriented agency responsible
for the maintenance of peace and order and public safety.

Pnp Vision

The Men and Women of the PNP is committed to a vision of a professional, dynamic and highly
motivated Philippine National Police working in partnership with a responsive community towards the
attainment of a safe place to live, work, invest and do business with.

Pnp Mission

To enforce the law, to prevent and control crimes, to maintain peace and order, and to ensure public
safety and internal security with the active support of the community

Important Terms


- a group of persons established, maintained and organized for keeping order, safety, protection of
lives and property and for prevention and detection of crimes


- refers to the civilian populace or the public in general, and shall be used interchangeably with the
terms, public, citizenry, society and private sector

- a body of people organized into political, municipal or social unity or a body of persons living in the
same locality

- derived from the Latin words, communis, which means common, and tatis which means fellowship

Police-Community Relations

- the sum total of the dealings between the police and the people it serves, and whose goodwill and
cooperation it craves, for the greatest possible efficiency in the service

- refers to the reciprocal attitudes of the police and the community

Public Relations

- the act of bringing about better understanding, confidence and acceptance for an individual or an

Police Public Relations

- the continuing process by which endeavors are made to obtain the goodwill and cooperation of the
public for effective enforcement of the law and accomplishment of the police purposes

Human Relations

- consist of the fundamental rules both moral and legal, which govern the relationship of men in all
aspects of life

Media/Mass Media

- the channels through which information is disseminated to the public

- may be in the form of television, movies, radio or newspaper, and the like


- the planned use of mass communication for public purpose

Police Public Image

- refers to how the people in the community perceive or regard the police

Principles of Policing by Sir Robert Peel

a. The basic mission for which police exist is to prevent crime and disorder as an alternative to the
repression of crime and disorder by military force and severity of legal punishment.

b. The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police existence,
actions, and behavior and the ability of the police to secure and maintain public respect.

c. The police must secure the willing cooperation of the public in voluntary observance of the law to be
able to secure and maintain public respect.

d. The degree of the cooperation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionately the
necessity for the use of physical force and the compulsion in achieving police objectives.

e. The police seek and preserve public favor, not by catering to public opinion, but by constantly
demonstrating absolutely impartial service to the law, in complete independence of policy, and without
regard to the justice or injustice of the substance of individual laws; by ready offering of individual
service and friendship to all members of society without regard to their race or social standing, by
ready exercise of courtesy and friendly good humor, and by ready offering of individual sacrifice in
protecting and preserving life.

f. The police should use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to
restore order only when the exercise of persuasion, advice and warning is found to be insufficient to
achieve police objectives; and police should use only the minimum degree of physical force that is
necessary on any particular occasion for achieving police objectives.

g. The police at all times should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic
tradition that the police are the public and the public are the police; the police are only members of the
public who are paid to give full-time attention to duties that are incumbent on every citizen in the intent
of community welfare.

h. The police should always direct their actions toward their functions and never appear to usurp the
powers of the judiciary by avenging individuals or the state, or authoritatively judging guilt or punishing
the guilty.

i. The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of police
action in dealing with them.

Foundation of Community Relations

The foundation of community relations is EFFICIENT SERVICE.

Requirements for Good Community Relations

1) Sincerity in serving the public

2) Full knowledge of the job

3) Deep conviction in the mobility of his work as a necessary service to promote individual or national

4) Sound police ethics

5) High standard of management and operation

Three (3) Aspects of Police-Community Relations


- activities that provide service to the community

may be in the form of medical-dental mission, sports clinic, feeding programs, seminars, etc


- involvement of the community in the various social projects, particularly, in the area of crime

- awareness of the community of their role in crime prevention


- activities directed at creating and maintaining favorable impressions to the public

- projection of the police public image to the people to gain their support and cooperation

Objectives of Police-Community Relations

1) To maintain and develop the goodwill and confidence of the community for the police;

2) To obtain cooperation and assistance;

3) To develop public understanding and support and appreciation for the service of the police;

4) To create broader understanding and sympathy with the problems and needs of the police;

5) To facilitate law enforcement and compliance;

6) To build public opinion in favor of the police;

7) To achieve the police purpose of preserving the peace, protection of life and property, and the
prevention of crime.

Principles of Police-Community Relations

1) Community support must be maintained.

2) Community resentment must be avoided.

3) Community goodwill must be developed.

4) Community must be kept informed.

Four (4) General Approaches in Police-Community Relations

1) Externally-Oriented Approach

- directed towards the general public or various enclaves within the society

2) Youth-Oriented Approach

- directed the majority of police efforts towards the youth of the community

3) Service-Oriented Approach

- emphasis is given to the alleviation of social problems as the basic objective of the program

4) Internally-Oriented Approach

- essential characteristics is the realization that the officer on beat creates community relations
because Every officer of the organization is a police-community relations officer

Types of Police-Community Relations

1) Public Information Program

- designed to bridge the communication gap between the police and the public

Forms of Media Used:

a) Personal Media

- consists of face-to-face communication, such as meetings, rallies, delivering

speeches and house-to-house visitation

b) Mass Media

- includes printed matter and audio-visual communications

2) Public Relations Program

- designed to maintain harmony and mutual support between the police and the community

- designed to sell the police to the public

3) Civic Action Program

- designed to maintain and encourage community development

4) Psychological Program

- designed to condition both friendly and hostile public, ensuring the facilitation of the
attainment of police objectives

Duties of Public Relations Officer

1. He shall issue press releases from time to time regarding police activities which are of public

2. He shall build good image through actual commendable performance, without inefficiency
and corruption; and

3. He shall evaluate public opinion and attitude with respect to policies, methods and personnel
of the police station.

Duties of Civic Action Officer

a. He shall encourage and actively participate in athletic competitions to promote youth

development by wisely coordinating with the social elements of the populace;

b. He shall initiate fund-raising campaigns for juvenile delinquents who are being
c. He shall be alert to safeguard the community against loss and damages to properties and
possible death, in the events of calamity;

d. He shall render possible assistance, especially to the men folk in enabling them to obtain the
means of productive endeavors and discourage them from loitering in the street or engaging
uneconomic activities, such as illegal gambling and others

Measures To Enhance Police Public Image

a. increased police visibility through the dispersal of personnel from the headquarters to the
field offices;

b. efficient and optimized delivery of police services to the communities;

c. constant dialogue and meetings with the barangay officials in their respective territorial

d. Community service-oriented policing by conducting seminars for the traffic aides, police aides
and the barangay tanod; and

e. Coordination with the media for image-enhancing projects.


- an anti-social behavior or act which does not conform with the standards of society
- youth behavior which is against the norms and regulations of society which if left unchecked
would give rise to criminality
- describes a large number of disapproved behavior of children or youth
- anti-social acts or behavior of children which deviate from the normal pattern of rules and
regulations, custom and culture which society does not accept and which therefore justify some
kind of admonition, punishment or corrective measures in the public interest

- a child or a young person, who, under the legal system may be dealt with for an offense in a
manner different from that of an adult
- persons below the age of majority, that is, below eighteen years old

- majority commences at the age of eighteen (18) years
- freedom from parental authority, both over his person and property
- happens upon reaching the age of eighteen years

RA 6809
- the law amending the age of majority
- lowered the age of majority from twenty-one (21) to eighteen (18) years
- approved on 13 December 1989

- one whose behavior has brought him into repeated conflict with the law regardless whether he
has been taken before a court and adjudged a delinquent
- one who has committed an offense that violated the approved norms of conduct and is guilty of a

- certain acts or omissions which may not be punishable socially or legally if committed by adults
but become anti-social or illegal because the offender is a minor, such as:
a) truancy, or frequent, unreasonable absenteeism from school
b) use of profane language
c) running away from home
d) smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages
e) disobedience to parents, guardians or school officials
f) mendicancy or begging in the streets
g) association with delinquent gangs

- characterized by disobedience to, or disrespect for, authorities

PARENS PATRIAE (father of the country)

- the doctrine that does not consider delinquent acts as criminal violation, thus making delinquents
non-criminal persons and cannot be found guilty of a crime and punished like an adult criminal
- views minor who violate the laws as victims of improper care, custody and treatment at home
- assumption by the State of the role of guardian over children whose parents are deemed
incapable or unworthy
- the authority of the state to act on behalf of the children


- characterized by occasional law-breaking


- characterized by chronic law-breaking, a habit which this type cannot avoid or escape from

- characterized by serious emotional disturbances within the individual and in some cases
associated with tendencies towards mental illness


- an aggressive youth who resents authority of anyone who makes an effort to control his behavior

- one who has internalized his conflicts and is preoccupied with his own feelings

- one whose delinquent acts have a cold, brutal and vicious quality for which the youth feels no

- one who is essentially sociable and law-abiding but happens to be at the wrong time and place
and becomes involved in delinquent acts not typical of his general behavior
- gives an explanation that law violations and delinquency are a result of some physical defects

- argues that the critical factors in delinquency are personality problems to which misbehavior is
presumed to be the response

- attributes delinquency pattern to social structures
- views youthful misdeed as a result of a learning process through interactions with other
members of society


- based on the classical school of criminology that views an individual as having free will in
choosing his actions and that he calculates what he will gain or lose if he commits an act
- views the delinquent as a motivated offender who breaks the law because he or she perceives
an abundance of benefits and an absence of threat


- based on the view that both thought and behavior have biological and social bases
- contemporary explanation of the biogenic approach
- has three sub-theories: biochemical, neurological and genetics

- views that crime and delinquency, especially violence, are the result of diet, vitamin intake,
hormonal imbalance and other biological causes

- explains that crime and delinquency occur because the individual suffers from brain impairment
or abnormality in the structure of the brain
- learning disabilities such as attention deficit/hyperactive disorder and minimum brain dysfunction
are related to antisocial behavior

- explains that delinquent traits and predisposition to criminality are inherited from parents
- criminality of parents can predict delinquency of children
- supported by research on twin studies and adoption studies

- views delinquency as a result of emotional and mental disturbance of the individual
- contemporary explanation of the psychogenic approach
- has three sub-theories: psychodynamic, behavioral and cognitive

- based on the psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud
- delinquency is the result of the imbalance of the three components of personality: id, ego and
- delinquency is the product of the abnormal personality structure formed in early life and which
thereafter controls human behavior choices

- believes that individuals learn by observing how people react to their behavior
- behavior is reinforced by some positive reaction, and behavior is extinguished if punished
- misbehavior of children if left unchecked will persist until adolescence

- views that delinquency is a result of the faulty perception and analysis of data of an individual

- believes that when an individual make decisions, he engages in a sequence of cognitive thought
1) he first encodes the information so that it can be interpreted;
2) then, he searches for a proper response and decide upon the most appropriate action;
3) finally, he acts on his decision
- delinquency-prone adolescents may have cognitive deficits and use information incorrectly when
they make decisions

- views delinquency as a product of the different social factors and dynamics
- has four groups of theories which in turn contain several sub-theories: social structure theories,
social process theories, social reaction theories and social conflict theories


- hold that delinquency is a function of a persons place in the economic structure


- view delinquency as a result of poor or faulty socialization or upbringing


- view delinquent acts and criminality as products of stigma and labeling


- maintain that everyone has the potential to become a criminal but most people are controlled by
their bonds to society


- the first and most basic institution of society responsible for developing a childs potential in all its
aspects like physical, emotional, spiritual, moral, intellectual and social
- molds the child to learn to curb his desires and to accept rules that define the time, place and
circumstances under which highly personal needs may be satisfied in socially acceptable ways


- consists of father, mother and children
- consists of father, mother, children, grandparents, uncles and aunts, cousins,
nephews and niences, and in-laws

Ideally, a home must have the following:

a) structural completeness
- presence of both father and mother
b) economic security
- capability to provide for the basic needs and wants
c) cultural conformity
- typical family beliefs and practices
d) moral conformity
- moral uprightness, Christian way of living
e) physical and psychological normalcy
f) emotional adequacy
- affection, support, love and care between faulty members

Factors in the home life that may cause delinquency:

a) faulty development of the child
b) lack of parental guidance
c) parental rejection
d) broken homes
e) lack of love
f) unfair treatment
g) too harsh discipline by either or both parents
h) too much leniency by either or both parents
i) unfavorable parental example
- considered the second home of a child, with teachers as the second parents
- institution responsible for the training of young persons intellectual, moral, as well as social skills
which they need for them to grow up as productive, law-abiding and responsible citizens

Instances of deviant conduct attributed to school inadequacy:

a) failure of teachers to detect and address problems of children and report such problems
to the parents
b) poor academic atmosphere
c) membership in school gangs or development of friendships with the wrong crowd
d) lack of facilities for curricular and extra-curricular activities
e) failure of teachers in character development of the students
f) failure to actually finish school, resulting to being out-of-school youths with a lot of time to
waste and do unproductive activities
g) failure to get gainful employment due to lack of sufficient education

- the culture, norms and behavior of the childs surroundings may very well influence the upbringing of
the child especially during their formative years and such misbehavior learned is likely to be carried
on until the childs maturity

Some of the behavior modification by means of imitation as brought about by environmental

a) rampant drug addiction
b) vices such as gambling and drinking alcoholic beverages
c) association with criminal groups or gangs
d) too much exposure to sex and violence in movies, television, print and internet


The modern practice of legally separating adult and juvenile offenders can be traced back to two
developments in English custom and law that occurred centuries ago: the development of POOR LAWS
and the creation of the English CHANCERY COURTS. Both were designed to allow the state to take
control of the lives of needy but not necessarily criminal children. This system was brought to the United
States where it was developed further until later it became the basis of the juvenile justice system in the


- in 1535, statutes which mandated the appointed of overseers who placed destitute or neglected
children with families who then trained them in agricultural, trade or domestic services; this
practice is called indenture
- in 1601, a system was created wherein church workers with the consent of justice of the peace
identified vagrant, delinquent and neglected children and took measures to put them to work;
these children were placed in workhouses until their adulthood

- protected the property rights and welfare of minor children who could not care for themselves
- the courts dealt with issues of guardianship and the use and control of property
- the courts operated under the parens patriae philosophy which held that children were under the
protective control of the state


- the practice of indenture and chancery courts in England were adopted by the states of Virginia,
Connecticut and Massachusetts, however, those youths who committed serious criminal
offenses continued to be tried in the same courts as adults
- middle-class civic leaders, who referred to themselves as CHILD SAVERS began to develop
organizations and groups to help alleviate the burdens of the poor and immigrants by sponsoring

shelter care for youths, educational and social activities and the development of settlement
houses; this was called the CHILD SAVING MOVEMENT
- they are responsible for creating a number of programs for indigent youths, including the New
York House of Refuge, a reformatory, which began operations in 1825
- the House of Refuge was created to protect indigent youths who were at risk to crime by taking
them off the streets and reforming them in a family-like environment
- the first comprehensive juvenile court was established in Illinois in 1899 through the passage of
the Illinois Juvenile Court Act of 1899 which set up an independent court to handle criminal
law violations by children under sixteen (16) years of age, as well as to care for neglected,
dependent, and wayward youths
- the purpose of the act was to separate juveniles from adult offenders and provide a legal
framework in which juveniles could get adequate care and custody
- Congress passed the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 to identify
the needs of youths and to fund programs in the juvenile justice system
- its main goal was to separate wayward, non-dangerous youths from institutions housing
delinquents and to remove adolescents from institutions housing adult offenders

- a court that has original jurisdiction over persons defined by statute as juveniles and alleged to
be delinquents or status offenders

General Objectives

1. Understand the historical antecedents of Juvenile delinquency, some of the difficulties in defining
and measuring delinquency, abuse, neglect and the consequences of such difficulties as well as the
social and physical characteristics of juvenile offenders and victims and the implications of family
ties, social class and education.

2. Acquaint the students with the different theories of causation of juvenile delinquency, abuse neglect,
the violence by and against youth, the programs aimed of reducing such violence.

3. Know the purpose and scope of R.A. 9344 known as the Act Establishing a Comprehensive
Juvenile Justice and Welfare System, Creating the Juvenile Justice and Welfare Council
under the Department of Justice, Appropriate Funds Therefore and for Other Purposes.

1. Bail refers to the security given for the release of the person in custody of the law, furnished by him/her
or a bondsman, to guarantee his/her appearance before any court. Bail may be given in the form of
corporate security, property bond, cash deposit, or recognizance.

2. "Best Interest of the Child" refers to the totality of the circumstances and conditions which are most
congenial to the survival, protection and feelings of security of the child and most encouraging to the child's
physical, psychological and emotional development. It also means the least detrimental available alternative
for safeguarding the growth and development of the child.

3. "Child" refers to a person under the age of eighteen (18) years.

4. Child at Risk" refers to a child who is vulnerable to and at the risk of committing criminal offenses
because of personal, family and social circumstances, such as, but not limited to, the following:

a. .being abused by any person through sexual, physical, psychological, mental, economic or any
other means and the parents or guardian refuse, are unwilling, or unable to provide protection for the

b. being exploited including sexually or economically;

c. being abandoned or neglected, and after diligent search and inquiry, the parent or guardian
cannot be found;

d. .coming from a dysfunctional or broken family or without a parent or guardian;

e. .being out of school;

f. .being a street child;

g. being a member of a gang;

h. living in a community with a high level of criminality or drug abuse; and

i. living in situations of armed conflict.

5. Child in Conflict with the Law" refers to a child who is alleged as, accused of, or adjudged as, having
committed an offense under Philippine laws.

6. "Community-based Programs" refers to the programs provided in a community setting developed for
purposes of intervention and diversion, as well as rehabilitation of the child in conflict with the law, for
reintegration into his/her family and/or community.

7. Court" refers to a family court or, in places where there are no family courts, any regional trial court.

8. "Deprivation of Liberty" refers to any form of detention or imprisonment, or to the placement of a child in
conflict with the law in a public or private custodial setting, from which the child in conflict with the law is not
permitted to leave at will by order of any judicial or administrative authority.

9. Diversion" refers to an alternative, child-appropriate process of determining the responsibility and

treatment of a child in conflict with the law on the basis of his/her social, cultural, economic, psychological or
educational background without resorting to formal court proceedings.

10. "Diversion Program" refers to the program that the child in conflict with the law is required to undergo
after he/she is found responsible for an offense without resorting to formal court proceedings

11. Initial Contact With-the Child" refers to the apprehension or taking into custody of a child in conflict
with the law by law enforcement officers or private citizens.

It includes the time when the child alleged to be in conflict with the law receives a subpoena under
Section 3(b) of Rule 112 of the Revised Rules of Criminal Procedure or summons under Section 6(a) or
Section 9(b) of the same Rule in cases that do not require preliminary investigation or where there is no
necessity to place the child alleged to be in conflict with the law under immediate custody.

12. Intervention" refers to a series of activities which are designed to address issues that caused the child
to commit an offense. It may take the form of an individualized treatment program which may include
counseling, skills training, education, and other activities that will enhance his/her psychological, emotional
and psycho-social well-being.

13. "Juvenile Justice and Welfare System" refers to a system dealing with children at risk and children in
conflict with the law, which provides child-appropriate proceedings, including programs and services for
prevention, diversion, rehabilitation, re-integration and aftercare to ensure their normal growth and

14. "Law Enforcement Officer" refers to the person in authority or his/her agent as defined in Article 152 of
the Revised Penal Code, including a barangay tanod.

15. Offense" refers to any act or omission whether punishable under special laws or the Revised Penal
Code, as amended.

16. "Recognizance" refers to an undertaking in lieu of a bond assumed by a parent or custodian who shall
be responsible for the appearance in court of the child in conflict with the law, when required.

17. "Restorative Justice" refers to a principle which requires a process of resolving conflicts with the
maximum involvement of the victim, the offender and the community.

It seeks to obtain reparation for the victim; reconciliation of the offender, the offended and the
community; and reassurance to the offender that he/she can be reintegrated into society.
It also enhances public safety by activating the offender, the victim and the community in prevention
18. . "Status Offenses" refers to offenses which discriminate only against a child, while an adult does not
suffer any penalty for committing similar acts. These shall include curfew violations; truancy, parental
disobedience and the like.

19. "Youth Detention Home" refers to a 24-hour child-caring institution managed by accredited local
government units (LGUs) and licensed and/or accredited nongovernment organizations (NGOs) providing
short-term residential care for children in conflict with the law who are awaiting court disposition of their
cases or transfer to other agencies or jurisdiction.

20. Youth Rehabilitation Center" refers to a 24-hour residential care facility managed by the Department
of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD), LGUs, licensed and/or accredited NGOs monitored by the
DSWD, which provides care, treatment and rehabilitation services for children in conflict with the law.

Rehabilitation services are provided under the guidance of a trained staff where residents are cared
for under a structured therapeutic environment with the end view of reintegrating them into their
families and communities as socially functioning individuals.
Physical mobility of residents of said centers may be restricted pending court disposition of the
charges against them.
21. Victimless Crimes" refers to offenses where there is no private offended party


1) PD 603 Child and Youth Welfare Code
2) Ra 7610 Anti-Child Abuse Law
3) RA 6809 law amending the age of majority
4) RA 8552 AND RA 8043 laws on adoption
5) RA 9208 Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act
6) RA 9231 law amending RA 7610 on working children
7) RA 9255 law on the use of fathers surname of
illegitimate children
8) RA 9262 Anti-Violence Against Women and their Children
9) RA 9523 law amending the laws on adoption
10) RA 9344 - Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act
11) RA 9775 Anti-Child Pornography Act



- approved on 10 December 1974
- effectivity date is 10 June 1975 (six months after approval)
- shall apply to persons under eighteen (18) years of age


- the sum total of the rights of the parents over the person and property of their child
- the exercise of which has no distinction between a legitimate and an illegitimate child
- the father and the mother shall exercise jointly just and reasonable parental authority and
responsibility over their legitimate or adopted children
- in case of death of either parent, the surviving parent shall exercise sole parental authority
- in case of disagreement, the fathers decision shall prevail unless there is a judicial order to the

- the sum total of the duties and obligations of parents over their minor children

- parents and guardians are responsible for the damage or injury caused by the child under their
parental authority

- in case of separation of parents, no child under SEVEN (7) YEARS OF AGE shall be separated
from his mother unless the court decides otherwise

- a trust relation of the most sacred character, in which one person, called a guardian, acts for
another, called a ward, regarded as incapable of managing his own affairs


- in case of absence or death of both parents, substitute parental authority shall be given to the
following, in order of priority:
1) grandparents
2) oldest brother or sister at least 21 years of age
3) relative who has actual custody of the child/guardian duly appointed by the court


- the CIVIL PERSONALITY of the child shall commence from the MOMENT OF CONCEPTION

- the start of life
- the union of the sperm cell and the egg cell
- also called the process of fertilization

- pertains to the identity and recognition of an individual as person having rights
- shall commence from the moment of conception, thus all children shall have the right to be born
and the right to live

- the expulsion of the fetus from the mothers womb


- classified as intentional or unintentional as provided by the Revised Penal Code
- punishable by law

- recommended and performed by a certified physician when there are health risks and
- not punishable by law

- one who is without a parent, guardian or custodian, or whose parents, guardian or other
custodian for good cause desire to be relieved of his care and custody and is dependent upon
the public for support

- one who had no proper parental care or guardianship or whose parents or guardians have
deserted him for a period of at least six consecutive months (PD 603)
- refers to a child who has no proper parental care or guardianship, or whose parents have
deserted him or her for a period of at least three (3) continuous months (RA 9523

- one whose basic needs have been deliberately unattended or inadequately attended
- a child is unattended when left by himself without provision for his needs and without proper
- neglect may occur in two ways:
a) physical neglect
o Malnourishment, untidy and damaged clothing, no shelter
b) emotional neglect
o maltreated, raped, seduced, abused, exploited, made to work under conditions not conducive
to good health or placed in moral and physical danger

- socially incompetent, socially inadequate, occupationally incompetent and unable to manage
their own affairs
- mentally sub-normal
- retarded intellectually from birth or early age
- retarded at maturity
- mentally deficient as a result of constitutional origin through heredity or disease
- essentially incurable

- crippled, deaf-mute, blind and other conditions which restrict their means of action or
communication with others

- those who, although not afflicted with insanity or mental defect, are unable to maintain normal
social relations with others and the community in general due to emotional problems or
- may be caused by traumatic experiences

- those with any behavioral disorder, whether functional or organic, which is of such a degree of
severity as to require professional help or hospitalization

- includes mentally-retarded, physically-handicapped, emotionally-disturbed and mentally-ill


- an act by which relations of paternity and filiations are recognized as legally existing between
persons not so related by nature
- the taking into ones family of the child of another, as son or daughter and heir, and conferring on
it a title to the rights and privileges of such

- the acknowledgment of the father of his relationship with the child
- also called paternity

- natural-born child of the parents
- a child who underwent the judicial process of adoption

- refers to a deserted or abandoned infant or child whose parents, guardian or relatives are


- approved on 25 February 1998

- the person adopting or petitioning for the adoption of a child

- the child or person being petitioned for adoption


- a child who has been voluntarily or involuntarily committed to the DSWD or to a duly licensed
and accredited child-placing or child-caring agency, freed of the parental authority of his or her
biological parents or guardians or adopter, in case of rescission
- refers to a child in whose favor a certification was issued by the DSWD that he or she is legally
available for adoption after the fact of abandonment or neglect has been proven through the
submission of pertinent documents, or one who was voluntarily committed by his or her parents
or legal guardian (RA 9523)

- one whose parents or legal guardian knowingly and willingfully relinquished parental authority to
the DSWD or any duly accredited child-placement or child caring agency or institution


- refers to a private non-profit or government agency duly accredited by the DSWD that provides
twenty-four (24) hour residential care services for abandoned, neglected, or voluntarily
committed children (RA 9523)


- refers to a private non-profit institution or government agency duly accredited by the DSWD that
receives and processes applicants to become foster or adoptive parents and facilitate placement
of children eligible for foster care or adoption


1) any Filipino citizen of legal age at least sixteen (16) years older than the adoptee unless the adopter
is the biological parent of the adoptee, or is the spouse of the adoptees biological parent
2) any alien possessing the same qualifications as that of a Filipino citizen, who has been living in the
Philippines for at least three (3) consecutive years, and whose country has diplomatic relations with
the Philippines


1) any person below eighteen (18) years of age judicially declared available for adoption
2) the legitimate son or daughter of one spouse by the other spouse
3) an illegitimate son or daughter by a qualified adopter to improve his or her status to that of legitimacy
4) a person of legal age if prior to the adoption, said person has been consistently considered and
treated by the adopter as his or her own child since minority
5) a child whose adoption has been previously rescinded
6) a child whose biological or adoptive parents has died, but proceedings may only be initiated after six
(6) months from the time of the death of the parents


- a period of time within which a social worker oversees the adjustment and emotional readiness
of both adopter and adoptee in stabilizing their filial relationship
- the period is at least six (6) months

- the nullification of the adoption
- adoption shall not be subject to rescission by the adopter


1) repeated physical and verbal maltreatment by the adopter despite having undergone counseling
2) attempt on the life of the adoptee
3) sexual assault or violence
4) abandonment and failure to comply with parental obligations

- approved on 7 June 1995

- the socio-legal process of adopting a Filipino child by a foreigner or a Filipino citizen permanently
residing abroad where the petition is filed, the supervised trial custody is undertaken and the
decree of adoption is issued outside the Philippines


- acts as the central authority in matters relating to inter-country adoption
- shall act as the policy-making body for purposes of carrying out the provisions of RA 8043, in
consultation and coordination with the DSWD
- headed by the Secretary of the DSWD as ex officio chairman and six (6) members to be
appointed by the President, with a term of office of six (6) years


1) any alien or a Filipino citizen permanently residing abroad
2) at least twenty-seven (27) years of age
3) at least sixteen (16) years older than the adoptee unless the adopter is the parent by nature of the
adoptee or the spouse of such parent
4) coming from a country with whom the Philippines has diplomatic relations
5) possesses all the qualifications provided in other applicable Philippine laws


- shall be filed either with:
a) the Philippine Regional Trial Court; or
b) the Inter-Country Adoption Board, through an intermediate agency in the country of the
prospective adoptive parents


- shall be at least six (6) months


RA 9523 the law giving DSWD the sole authority to issue the certification declaring a child legally
available for adoption
- amended provisions of RA 8552 and RA 8043
- approved on 12 March 2009



- approved on 17 June 1992
- this law is also commonly referred to as the Anti-Child Abuse Act

RA 7658 amendatory law to RA 7610

- approved on 9 November 1993
- this law amended the provisions of RA 7610 regarding working children
- this law was further amended by RA 9231

- refers to maltreatment, whether habitual or not, of the child


1) CRUELTY refers to any word or deed which debases, degrades or demeans the intrinsic worth
and dignity of the child as human being
2) PHYSICAL INJURY includes but is not limited to lacerations, fractured bones, burns, internal
injuries, severe injuries, or serious bodily harm suffered by a child
3) PSYCHOLOGICAL INJURY means harm to a child psychological or intellectual functioning which
may be exhibited by severe anxiety, depression, withdrawal or outward aggressive behavior
4) NEGLECT means failure to provide, for reasons other than poverty, the basic needs of the child,
such as food, clothing, medical care, shelter and basic education
5) SEXUAL ABUSE includes the employment, use, inducement or coercion of a child to engage in
sexual intercourse or lascivious conduct; the molestation, prostitution and or incest with children

- exploitation of children, whether male or female, by coercing them into indulging in sexual
intercourse or lascivious conduct for money, profit or any other consideration


1) those who engage in or promote, facilitate or induce child prostitution, such as:
a) those acting as procurer of a child prostitute
b) parents, guardians, or relatives who knowingly allow or coerce their children or ward into
2) those who commit the act of sexual intercourse or lascivious conduct with a child exploited in child
prostitution, such as:
a) clients of child prostitutes
3) those who derive profit or advantage there from, such as:
a) managers or owners of the establishment where the prostitution takes place


- the use, hiring, employment and coercing of children as performers, actors or models for
obscene exhibitions and indecent shows, whether live or in video, or in printed pornographic


- children shall not be the object of attack in situations of armed conflict
- they shall be protected from any form of threat, assault, torture or other cruel, inhumane or
degrading treatment
- children shall not be recruited to become members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines of its
civilian units, nor be allowed to take part in the fighting, or used as guides, couriers or spies
- children shall be given priority during evacuation as a result of armed conflict



- approved on 26 May 2003

- the recruitment, transportation, transfer or harboring, or receipt of persons with or without the
victims consent or knowledge within or across national borders by means of threat or use of
force, or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or prostitution,
taking advantage of the vulnerability of the person, or giving or receiving of payments or benefits
to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of
exploitation which includes at a minimum, the exploitation or the prostitution of others or other
forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery, servitude or the removal or sale of

- the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of a child for the purpose of
exploitation shall also be considered as trafficking in person even if it does not involve any of
the means set forth in the preceding paragraph

1) When the trafficked person is a child;

2) When the adoption is effected through RA 8043 and said adoption is for the purpose of prostitution,
pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage;
3) When the offender is an ascendant, parent, sibling, guardian or a person who exercised authority
over the trafficked person or when the offense is committed by a public officer or employee


- refers to the extraction of work or services from any person by means of enticement, violence,
intimidation or threat, use of force or coercion, including deprivation of freedom, abuse of
authority or moral ascendancy, debt-bondage or deception


- refers to a program organized by travel and tourism related establishments and individuals which
consist of tourism packages or activities, utilizing and offering escort and sexual services as
enticement for tourists

- refers to any representation, through publication, exhibition, cinematography, indecent shows,
information technology, or by whatever means, of a person engaged in real or simulated explicit
sexual activities or any representation of the sexual parts of a person for primarily sexual

- refers to pledging by the debtor of his or her personal services or labor or those of a person
under his or her control as security or payment for a debt, when the length and nature of services
are not clearly defined or when the value of the services as reasonably assessed is not applied
toward the liquidation of debt


RA 9231 - the law prohibiting the worst forms of child labor

- amendatory law to RA 7160 and RA 7658
- amended the provisions of RA 7160 regarding working children
- approved on 19 December 2003

Children below fifteen (15) years of age shall not be employed, except:

1) When a child works directly under sole responsibility of his parents or legal guardian and where only
members of the employers family are employed
2) Where a childs employment or participation in public entertainment or information through cinema,
theatre, radio or television is essential, with the approval of the Department of Labor and
Employment (DOLE)
- it is the duty of the employer to submit to the DOLE a report of all children employed by him
- if a domestic is under sixteen (16) years of age, the head of the family shall give him or her an
opportunity to complete at least elementary education, the cost of which shall be a part of the
domestics compensation


- it shall be the duty of the employer to secure permit from the DOLE of working children employed
by him


- the contract shall be signed by the working childs parent or legal guardian, with the express
agreement of the child


If the child is under 15:

- may work for maximum of four (4) hours a day, twenty (20) hours a week
- may work between six oclock in the morning to eight oclock in the evening (6am to 8pm)

If the child is 15 but under 18:

- may work for maximum of eight (8) hours a day, forty (40) hours a week
- may work between six oclock in the morning to ten oclock in the evening (6am to 10pm)


- no child shall be employed as a model in any advertisement directly or indirectly promoting the
a) alcoholic beverages
b) intoxicating drinks
c) tobacco and cigarettes
d) gambling
e) any form of violence or pornography


- approved on 8 March 2004


- refers to any act or a series of acts committed by any person against a woman who is his wife,
former wife, or against a woman with whom the person has or had a sexual or dating relations,
or with whom he has a common child, or against her child, whether legitimate or illegitimate,
within or without the family abode, which result in or is likely to result in physical, sexual,
psychological harm or suffering, or economic abuse including threats of such acts, battery,
assault, coercion, harassment or arbitrary deprivation of liberty

- refers to acts that include bodily or physical harm

- refers to an act which is sexual in nature, committed against a woman or her child

- refers to acts or omissions causing or likely to cause mental or emotional suffering of the victim
such as but not limited to intimidation, harassment, stalking, damage to property, public ridicule
or humiliation, and repeated verbal abuse

- refers to acts that make or attempt to make a woman financially dependent

- refers to an act of inflicting physical harm upon the woman or her child resulting to the physical
and psychological or emotional distress

- refers to an intentional act committed by a person who knowingly and without lawful justification
follows the woman or her child or places the woman or her child under surveillance directly or



- approved on 28 April 2006
- became effective on 20 May 2006
- repealed the provisions of the Revised Penal Code and Presidential Decree No 603 on minor



- refers to a system dealing with children at risk and children in conflict with the law, which
provides child-appropriate proceedings, including programs and services for prevention,
diversion, rehabilitation, re-integration and aftercare to ensure their normal growth and

- refers to a principle which requires a process of resolving conflicts with the maximum
involvement of the victim, the offender and the community; seeks to obtain reparation for the
victim, reconciliation of the offender, the offended and the community and reassurance to the
offender that he or she can be reintegrated into society

- refers to a child who is vulnerable to and at the risk of committing criminal offenses because of
personal, family and social circumstances


- refers to a child who is alleged as, accused of, or adjudged as, having committed an offense
under Philippine laws

- refers to the apprehension or taking into custody of a child in conflict with the law by law
enforcement officers or private citizens

- refers to a series of activities which are designed to address issues that caused the child to
commit an offense
- may take the form of an individualized treatment program which may include counseling, skills
training, education, and other activities that will enhance his or her psychological, emotional and
psycho-social well-being

- refers to an alternative, child-appropriate process of determining the responsibility and treatment
of a child in conflict with the law on the basis of his or her social, cultural, economic,
psychological or educational background without resorting to formal court proceedings

- refers to the program that the child in conflict with the law is required to undergo after he or she
is found responsible for an offense without resorting to formal court proceedings


- refers to a 24-hour child-caring institution managed by accredited local government units and
licensed and/or accredited non-governmental organizations providing short-term residential
care for children in conflict with the law who are awaiting court disposition of their cases
or transfer to other agencies or jurisdiction


- refers to a 24-hour residential care facility managed by the DSWD, local government units,
licensed or accredited non-governmental organizations monitored by the DSWD, which
provides care, treatment and rehabilitation services for children in conflict with the law


1) the right not to be imposed a sentence of capital punishment or life imprisonment

2) the right to be detained or imprisoned as a disposition of last resort, which shall be for the shortest
appropriate period of time
3) the right to be separated from adult offenders at all times: during detention, while being transported
to and from the court and while waiting for the hearing
4) the right to be detained only with other detainees of the same sex, if detention is necessary
5) the right to be searched only by a law enforcement officer of the same gender
6) the right not to be handcuffed, when such is not necessary
7) the right to have his parents or guardians present
8) the right to diversion if he or she is qualified and voluntarily avails of the same
10) the right to probation as an alternative to imprisonment, if qualified under the Probation Law
11) the right to have the records and proceedings involving him be considered PRIVILEGED AND


- a child FIFTEEN (15) YEARS OF AGE OR UNDER at the time of the commission of the offense
shall likewise be EXEMPT from CRIMINAL LIABILITY, if he or she acted WITHOUT
- however, they are exempted only from criminal liability and not from civil liability
who acted WITH DISCERNMENT shall be subjected to the DIVERSION PROCEEDINGS and
shall undergo DIVERSION PROGRAM, if qualified
to undergo DIVERSION, shall be PROSECUTED


- it shall be the duty of the law enforcement officer to determine the age of the child apprehended

- if the child apprehended is FIFTEEN (15) YEARS OLD OR BELOW, the law enforcement
- it shall also be the duty of the law enforcement officer to give notice to the local social welfare
and development officer as to the apprehension of the child in conflict with the law


- shall be instituted in local government units from the barangay to the provincial levels
- shall include community-based programs on juvenile justice and welfare


- shall be instituted by the local government units through the school, youth organizations, and
other concerned agencies
- shall respond to the special needs, problems, interests and concerns of children and which offer
appropriate counseling and guidance to them and their families
- these programs shall consist of three (3) levels:

- includes general measures to promote social justice and equal opportunity, which tackle
perceived root causes of offending

- includes measures to assist children at risk

- includes measures to avoid unnecessary contact with the formal justice system and other
measures to prevent re-offending

- children in conflict with the law shall undergo diversion proceedings subject to the following

1) the imposable penalty for the crime committed is NOT MORE THAN SIX (6) YEARS
2) in victimless crimes, the imposable penalty is NOT MORE THAN SIX (6) YEARS IMPRISONMENT
3) in cases where the imposable penalty exceeds six (6) years, diversion measures may be resorted to
only by the court

- the diversion proceedings shall be completed within FORTY-FIVE (45) DAYS

- shall be prepared if the child:
1) is qualified for diversion; and
2) voluntarily admits the commission of the act and the parents or guardian of the child and the
child himself agrees to the diversion program
- it must be signed by the childs parents or guardian and the authorities concerned

- a child in conflict with the law shall undergo PROSECUTION if:
1) he is not qualified for diversion
2) he is qualified for diversion but he or his parents or guardian does not agree to diversion
3) diversion is not appropriate for the child in conflict with the law, based on the social workers


- there shall be a specially-trained prosecutor to conduct inquest, preliminary investigation and
prosecution of cases involving children in conflict with the law
- the information against the child shall be filed before the Family Court within FORTY-FIVE DAYS
from the start of the preliminary investigation

- during trial, the court shall order:
1) the release of the child on recognizance to his or her parents and other suitable persons
2) the release of the child on bail
3) if the child is to be detained, the transfer of the child to a youth detention home
- detention of the child shall be ordered only as a last resort


- if the child in conflict with the law is found guilty of the offense charged, the court shall place the
child under suspended sentence, without need of application
- the automatic suspension of sentence may be extended until the child reaches the maximum
- the court shall order the detention of the child in a youth rehabilitation center where he shall
undergo the appropriate disposition measures


- upon the recommendation of the social worker who has custody of the child, the court shall
DISMISS THE CASE AGAINST THE CHILD if the court finds that the disposition measures
have been fulfilled


- if the court finds that the objective of the disposition measures imposed upon the child have not
been fulfilled, or if the child has willfully failed to comply with the conditions of his or her
rehabilitation program, the child shall be returned to court for the EXECUTION OF

- a child in conflict with the law whose sentence was executed by the court upon reaching the
maximum age of TWENTY-ONE (21) shall be entitled to the benefits of probation under PD
968, the Probation Law of 1976


- persons below eighteen (18) years old shall be exempt from prosecution for the following crimes:
1) vagrancy and prostitution under the Revised Penal Code
2) mendicancy under PD No 1563
3) sniffing of rugby under PD 1619



- approved on
- the law that amended the provisions of RA 7610 on obscene publications and indecent shows
- it aims to protect every child from all forms of exploitation and abuse through the use of a child in
pornographic performances and materials and the inducement or coercion of a child to engage or to
be involved in pornography

- refers to any representation, whether visual, audio or written combination thereof, by electronic,
mechanical, digital, optical, magnetic or any other means, of child engaged or involved in real or
simulated explicit sexual activities


- committed if carried out by a group of three (3) or more persons conspiring or confederating with one


Human Behavior
- anything an individual does that involves self-initiated action and/or reaction to a given situation.
- the sum total of man's reaction to his environment or the way human beings act

Human Beings
Human beings are intelligent social animals with the mental capacity to comprehend, infer and think
in rational ways.

Views in Human Behavior

1. Neurological View deals with human actions in relation to events taking place inside the body such as
the brain and the nervous system.
2. Behavioral View emphasizes on external functions of the human being that can be observed and
3. Cognitive View it is concerned with the way the brain processes and transforms information into various
4. Psychoanalytical View emphasizes unconscious motives that originate from aggressive impulses in
5. Humanistic View focuses on the subjects experience, freedom of choice and motivation toward self-

Two Basic Types of Behavior

1. Inherited (Inborn) behavior refers to any behavioral reactions or reflexes exhibited by people
because of their inherited capabilities or the process of natural selection.
2. Learned (Operant) behavior involves knowing or adaptation that enhances human beings ability
to cope with changes in the environment in ways which improve the chances of survival.
Learned behavior may be acquired through environment or training.

Classifications of Human Behavior

Habitual refers to motorized behavior usually manifested in language and emotion.
Instinctive are generally unlearned and simply comes out of mans instinct which can be seen
among instinct-instinct survival behaviors.
Symbolic are behaviors that are usually carried out by means of unsaid words and shown through
symbols or body signs.
Complex are those behaviors that combine two or more of the classified ones.

Causes of Human Behavior

Sensation is the feeling or impression created by a given stimulus or cause that leads to a
particular reaction or behavior.
Human Senses:
a. Visual sight
b. Olfactory smell
c. Cutaneous touch
d. Auditory hearing
e. Gustatory taste
Perception refers to the persons knowledge of a given stimulus which largely help to determine
the actual behavioral response in a given situation
Awareness refers to the psychological activity based on interpretation of past experiences with a
given stimulus or object.

Factors that affect Human Behavior

Heredity it is the passing of traits to offspring (from its parent or ancestors). This is the process by
which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to the characteristics of its
parent cell or organism.
Environment refers to surroundings of an object. It consists of conditions and factors that
surround and influence behavioral pattern.
Learning is the process by which an individuals behavior changes as a result of experience or

Personality Traits that Affect Human Behavior

1. Extroversion characterized by interests directed toward the external environment of people and things
rather than toward inner experiences and oneself.
2. Introversion characterized by direction of interest toward oneself and ones inner world of experiences.
Introverts, in contrast, tend to be more reserved, less outgoing, and less sociable.
3. Ambiversion is a balance of extrovert and introvert characteristics. An ambivert is normally comfortable
with groups and enjoys social interaction, but also relishes time alone and away from the crowd.
4. Neuroticism persons high in neuroticism react intensely and are generally moody, touchy, depressed,
sensitive and anxious or nervous. They respond more poorly to environmental stress, and are more likely to
interpret ordinary situations as threatening, and minor frustrations as hopelessly difficult.
5. Psychoticism is characterized by cold cruelty, social insensitivity, disregard for danger, troublesome
behavior, dislike of others and an attraction towards unusual. A person high on psychoticism tends to be
impulsive, aggressive individual without appreciable concern for others.

Frustration in Human Behavior

Frustration refers to the situation which blocks the individuals motivated behavior. Sustained frustration
may be characterized by anxiety, irritability, fatigue or depression.

Three Basic Forms of Conflict

1. Approach-Avoidance Conflict - occurs when an individual moves closer to a seemingly desirable
object, only to have the potentially negative consequences of contacting that object push back against the
closing behavior.
2. Approach-Approach Conflict - This is a conflict resulting from the necessity of choosing between two
desirable alternatives. There are usually two desirable things wanted, but only one option can be chosen.
3. Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict - This form of conflict involves two undesirable or unattractive
alternatives where a person has to decide of choosing one of the undesirable things.

Coping Mechanism
It is defined as the way people react to frustration. People differ in the way they react to frustration.
This could be attributed to individual differences and the way people prepared in the developmental task
they faced during the early stages of their life.

Frustration Tolerance
It is the ability to withstand frustration without developing inadequate modes of response such as
being emotionally depressed or irritated, becoming neurotic, or becoming aggressive.

Broad Reactions to Frustration

Fight is manifested by fighting the problem in a constructive and direct way by means of breaking
down the obstacles preventing the person reaching his goals.
Flight it can be manifested by sulking, retreating, becoming indifferent and giving up.

Different Types of Reaction to Frustration

Direct approach - can be seen among people who handle their problems in a very objective way.
They identify first the problem, look for the most practical and handy way to solve it, and proceeded
with the constructive manner of utilizing the solution which will produce the best results.
Detour - when an individual realizes that in finding for the right solution of the problem, he always
end up with a negative outcome or result. Thus, he tries to make a detour or change direction first
and find out if the solution or remedy is there.
Substitution - most of time are resulted to in handling frustration when an original plan intended to
solve the problem did not produce the intended result, thus the most practical way to face the
problem, is to look for most possible or alternative means.
Withdrawal or retreat - is corresponding to running away from the problem or flight which to some
is the safest way.
Developing feeling of inferiority - comes when a person is unable to hold on to any solution which
gives a positive result. Being discourage to go on working for a way to handle a frustration could
result to diminishing self-confidence, until the time when inferiority complex sets in.
Aggression - is a negative outcome of a person's inability to handle frustration rightly. Manifestation
in physical behavior can be observed in one's negative attitudes towards life both in the personal
and professional aspect.
Use of Defense Mechanism is the most tolerated way of handling frustration. It is a mans last
result when a person attempts to overcome fear from an anticipated situation or event.
Defense Mechanism is an unconscious psychological process that serves as safety valve that provides
relief from emotional conflict and anxiety.

Common Defense Mechanisms

Displacement - strong emotion, such as anger, is displaced onto another person or object as the
recipient of said emotion (anger), rather than being focused on the person or object which originally
was the cause of said emotion.
Rationalization - is the defense mechanism that enables individuals to justify their behavior to
themselves and others by making excuses or formulating fictitious, socially approved arguments to
convince themselves and others that their behavior is logical and acceptable

Compensation - is the psychological defense mechanism through which people attempt to

overcome the anxiety associated with feelings of inferiority and inadequacy in one is of personality
or body image, by concentrating on another area where they can excel.
Projection - manifest feelings and ideas which are unacceptable to the ego or the superego and are
projected onto others so that they seem to have these feelings or ideas, which free the individual
from the guilt and anxiety associated with them.
Reaction formation - is defined as the development of a trait or traits which are the opposite of
tendencies that we do not want to recognize. The person is motivated to act in a certain way, but
behaves in the opposite way. Consequently, he is able to keep his urges and impulses under control.
Denial when a person uses this, he refuses to recognize and deal with reality because of strong
inner needs.
Repression is unconscious process whereby unacceptable urges or painful traumatic experiences
are completely prevented from entering consciousness.
Suppression - which is sometimes confused with that of repression, is a conscious activity by which
an individual attempts to forget emotionally disturbing thoughts and experiences by pushing them
out of his mind.
Identification - an individual seeks to overcome his own feelings of inadequacy, loneliness, or
inferiority by taking on the characteristics of someone who is important to him.
An example is a child who identifies with his parents who are seen as models of intelligence,
strength and competence
Substitution - through this defense mechanism, the individual seeks to overcome feelings of
frustration and anxiety by achieving alternate goals and gratifications.

Fantasy - this is resulted to whenever unfulfilled ambitions and unconscious drives do not
Regression a person reverts to a pattern of feeling, thinking or behavior which was appropriate to
an earlier stage of development.
Sublimation is the process by which instinctual drives which consciously unacceptable are
diverted into personally and socially accepted channels. It is a positive and constructive mechanism
for defending against own unacceptable impulses and needs.

Normal Behavior
This refers to a lack of significant deviation from the average. Another possible definition is that "a
normal" is someone who conforms to the predominant behavior in a society.
Social norms rules that a group uses for appropriate and inappropriate values, beliefs, attitudes
and behaviors.

Abnormal Behavior
Literally means "away from the normal". It implies deviation from some clearly defined norm. In the
case of physical illness, the norm is the structural and functional integrity of the body.

A disorder in which the physical illness is considered to be highly associated with emotional factors.
The individual may not perceive that his emotional state is contributing to his physical illness.

Neurosis is a class of functional mental disorders involving distress but neither delusions nor
hallucinations, whereby behavior is not outside socially acceptable norms. The distinguishing feature of
neurosis is a sustained characteristic of showing anxiety, fear, endless troubles that carries significant
aspects of the individuals life.


Anxiety disorders are blanket terms covering several different forms of abnormal and
pathological fear and anxiety. People experience excessive levels of the kind of negative emotions that we
identify as being nervous, tense, worried, scared, and anxious. These terms all refer to anxiety.

Forms of Anxiety
A. Phobias
This is an intense, unrealistic fear. In this case, anxiety is focused so intensely on some objects or
situations that the individual is acutely uncomfortable around it and will often go to great pain to avoid it.
Acrophobia - high places
Agoraphobia - open spaces and market places
Malgophobia - pain
Astraphobia - storms, thunder, and lightning
Gynophobia fear of dogs
Claustrophobia - closed places
Hematophobia - blood
Mysophobia - contamination or germs
Monophobia - being alone
Nyctophobia - darkness
Ochlophobia - crowds
Hydrophobia - water
Pathophobia - disease
Pyrophobia - fire
Syphilophobia - syphilis
Zoophobia - animals or some particular animals

B. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders
1. Obsession This is an anxiety provoking thoughts that will not go away. Thoughts and impulses which
occur in the persons mind despite attempts to keep them out. They seem uncontrollable, as if they do not
belong to the individual's mind.

2. Compulsion It is an urge wherein a person is compelled to perform some actions against his free will
and with duress as a result of external factors. This is an irresistible urge to engage in certain pattern of
1. Arithomania the impulse to count anything.
2. Dipsomania the impulse to drink liquor.
3. Homicidal mania the impulse to kill.
4. Kleptomania the impulse to steal.
5. Megalomania the impulse for fame or power.
6. Pyromania the impulse to set fire.
7. Suicidal mania the impulse to take ones life.


"Soma" means body, and somatoform disorders involve a neurotic pattern in which the individuals
complain of bodily symptoms that suggest the presence of a physical problem, but for which no organic
basis can be found. Such individuals are typically preoccupied with their state of health and with various
presumed disorders or diseases of bodily organs.

Three Distinct Somatoform Patterns

1. Somatization Disorder
This is an intensely and chronically uncomfortable condition that indirectly creates a high risk
of medical complications. It takes the form of chronic and recurrent aches, pains, fever, tiredness and other
symptoms to bodily illness. Individuals frequently experience memory difficulties, problems with walking,
numbness, block-out spells, nausea, menstrual problems and a lack of pleasure from sex.
2. Conversion Disorders and Somatoform Pain Disorders
Conversion disorders are somatoform disorders in which individuals experience serious somatic
symptoms such as functional blindness, deafness, paralysis, fainting, seizures, inability to speak or
other serious impairments in the absence of any physical cause.
Somatoform pain disorders are somatoform disorders in which the individual experiences a
relatively specific and chronic pain that has a psychological rather than physical cause. It is very
similar to conversion disorders except that the primary symptom is pain that has no physical cause.
3. Dissociative Disorders
This covers a broad category of loosely related rare conditions involving sudden alterations in
cognition, characterized by change in memory, perceptions or "identity".
defined as conditions that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity and/or

Types of Dissociative Disorders

a. Amnesia This refers to loss of memory that can have either physical or psychological cause. It most
often occurs after a period of intense stress and involves loss of memory for all or part of the stressful
experience itself.
b. Psychogenic Fugue State This resembles amnesia in that there is a loss of memory but the loss is so
complete that the individuals cannot remember his or her identity or previous life.
c. Depersonalization This refers to experiences in which the individual feels that he or she has become
distorted or "unreal" or that distortions have occurred in one's surroundings. One might feel that she is a real
robot - even though she knows she is a real person - or that her room is not real or that her parents are not
real people.
d. Multiple Personality This is a dissociative disorder in which the individual shifts abruptly and repeatedly
from one personality to another as if more than one person were inhabiting the same body. This is
commonly known as "split personality disorder."

Personality disorders, formerly referred to as character disorders, are a class of personality
types and behaviors defined as an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates
markedly from the expectations of the culture of the individual who exhibits it. This category includes those
individuals who begin to develop a maladaptive behavior pattern early in childhood as a result of family,
social, and cultural influences.

Types of Personality Disorders

1. Paranoid Personality This is characterized by suspiciousness, hypersensitivity, rigidity, envy,
excessive self-importance, and argumentativeness plus a tendency to blame others for one's own mistakes
and failures and to ascribe evil motives to others.
2. Schizoid Personality Individuals with this personality disorder neither deserve nor enjoy close
relationship. They live a solitary life with little interest in developing friendships. They exhibit emotional
coldness, detachment, or a constricted affect.
- characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary lifestyle,
secretiveness, and emotional coldness.
3. Schizotypal Personality Individuals with this type of personality disorder exhibit odd behaviors based
on a belief in magic or superstition and may report unusual perceptual experiences.
4. Histrionic Personality this is characterized by attempt to be the center of attention through the use of
theatrical and self-dramatizing behavior. Sexual adjustment is poor and interpersonal relationships are
characterized by excessive emotionality and attention-seeking, including an excessive need for
approval and inappropriate seductiveness, usually beginning in early adulthood.
5. Narcissistic Personality Individuals with this type of personality have a pervasive sense of self-
A disorder and its derivatives can be caused by excessive praise and criticism in childhood,
particularly that from parental figures.
6. Antisocial Personality This is characterized by a lifelong history of inability to conform to social norms.
They are irritable and aggressive" and may have repeated physical fights. These individuals also have a
high prevalence of morbid substance abuse disorders.
7. Borderline Personality This is characterized by instability, reflected in drastic mood shifts and behavior
problems. Individuals with this type of personality are acutely sensitive to real or imagined abandonment
and have a pattern of repeated unstable but intense interpersonal relationships that alternate between
extreme idealization and devaluation. Such individuals may abuse substances or food, or be sexually
8. Avoidant Personality Individuals with this personality are fearful of becoming involved with people
because of excessive fears of criticism or rejection.
9. Dependent Personality This is characterized by inability to make even daily decisions without
excessive advice and reassurance from others and needs others to assume responsibility for most major
areas of his or her life.
10. Compulsive Personality This is characterized by excessive concern with rules, order efficiency, and
work coupled with insistence that everyone do things their way and an inability to express warm feelings.
11. Passive-Aggressive Personality The individual with personality disorder is usually found to have
overindulged in many things during the early years to the extent that the person comes to anticipate that his
needs will always be met and gratified.


The term affect is roughly equivalent to emotion or to mood. The affective disorders are mood
disorders in which extreme and inappropriate levels of mood
characterized by periods of depression or elation or both.
- A manic-depressive psychosis

- a psychotic condition marked by withdrawal from reality, indifference concerning everyday
problems, and tendency to live in a world of fantasy.
- formerly called dementia praecox by Emil Kreaplin, a German psychiatrist.
- the term schizophrenia was given by Eugene Bleuler which literally means splitting of minds.

Types of Schizophrenia
Simple Schizophrenia is characterized by a gradual decline of interest and ambition. The person
withdraws from social contacts as well as irritable and inattentive.
Paranoid Schizophrenia is characterized principally by delusions of persecutions and/or grandeur.
Hallucinations, usually auditory, are most of time present.
Hebephrenic Schizophrenia manifests severe integration of personality and can be observed
through inappropriate giggling and smiling without apparent reasons which to an untrained observer
may only be childish playfulness.
Catatonic Schizophrenia manifests extreme violence and shown with excessive motor activity,
grimacing, talkativeness and unpredictable emotional outburst.

Paranoia refers to cases showing delusions and impaired contact with reality but without the severe
personality disorganization characteristic of schizophrenia.
- The main symptom is characterized by suspicion


1. Persecutory Paranoia having delusions of persecution.
2. Litigious Paranoia both delusions of persecution and grandeur
3. Erotic Paranoia delusion that a certain person is in love with him or her.
4. Exalted Paranoia with great power of importance.
5. Jealous Paranoia characterized by irrational jealousy.

Copycat Crime
Copycat crime is crime inspired by another crime that has been publicized in the news media or
fictionally or artistically represented in which the offender incorporates aspects of the original offense.

A sexual act that seeks gratification by means other than heterosexual relationship.
HETEROSEXUALITY normal sexual relationship between members of the opposite sex which could lead
to reproduction.


- sexual desire towards the same sex
- obtaining sexual gratification by wearing the clothes of the opposite sex.
- obtaining sexual pleasure by watching the members of the opposite sex undressing or
engaging in sexual activities.
Exhibitionism - obtaining pleasure by exposing ones genitals to others.
Fetishism - obtaining sexual gratification primarily and exclusively from specific objects.
Sadism by inflicting pain to others
Masochism by inflicting pain upon themselves .
Sodomy sexual act through the anus of another human being.
Froilism a form of sexual perversion in which three (3) persons are participating in sexual act.
Pluralism a group participates in sexual orgies (sexual festival).
Cunnilingus licking of womans genitals
Fellatio sucking the penis
Pedophilia obtaining pleasure from sexual contact with children.
Incest sexual relations between persons related by blood.
Bestiality sexual intercourse with a living animal.
Necrophilia desire to engage in sexual intercourse with a dead body.


This refers to unstable and dangerous social condition characterized by an impending abrupt
change involving economic, military, political, police, societal or personal affairs that is approaching
emergency level event.
- came from the Greek word CRISIS which means to separate.

Came from the Latin word EMERGENTIA which means dipping; plunging. It is a sudden condition or
state of affairs calling for immediate action.

Crisis Management
It refers to the action undertaken to unify and coordinate resources and efforts to effectively and
efficiently quell a given criminal/life threatening situation.
Also defined as the expert handling of emergency or crisis to reduce or eliminate danger or damage.


If the situation is still controlled and the response given is for the purpose of containing the situation
from getting out of control, then it is just an EMERGENCY.
If the situation is already beyond normal control what is happening is already a CRISIS.
If the effects of the crisis can no longer be controlled even by its author, it is now a DISASTER.

Types of Crisis
Natural crisis is typically natural disasters considered as acts of God, such as environmental
phenomena as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tornadoes and hurricanes, floods, landslides,
tsunamis, storms, and droughts that threaten life, property, and the environment itself.
Man-Made Crisis
- civil disturbance, revolt, revolution, border incident, war, kidnapping, hijacking, hostage-taking,
terrorists activities, attacks on government facilities, etc.

Objectives of Crisis Management
Resolve without further incident.
Safety of all participants.
Apprehension of all perpetrators.
Accomplishment of the task within the framework of current community standard.


SALVARI VITAS to save lives


Proactive Phase
- includes prediction, prevention and preparation.
Reactive Phase
- performance, initial action, action, and post action.


Sec. 6, Article XVI, 1987 Constitution
- The State shall establish and maintain one police force, which shall be national in scope and
civilian in character, to be administered and controlled by the NPOLCOM. The authority of local executives
over the police units in their jurisdiction shall be provided by law
Sec. 444 and 445, R.A. 7160
- The mayor shall act as the deputized representative of the NAPOLCOM, which shall exercise
operational control and supervision over the local police forces in the city and municipality.

Hostage Incident
It is any incident in which people are being held by another person or persons against their will,
usually by force or coercion, and demands are being made by the hostage taker.

Characteristics of a Negotiable Incident

There must be a need to live on the part of a hostage taker.
There must be a threat of force on the part of the authorities.
There must be demands by the hostage taker.
The negotiator must be seen by the hostage taker as a person who can hurt the hostage taker but is
willing to help him.
There must be time to negotiate.
A reliable channel of communication must exists between the hostage taker and the negotiator.
Both the location and the communications of the incident need to be contained in order to encourage
The negotiator must be able to deal with the hostage taker making the decisions.

Hostage - Is a person held as a security for the fulfillment of certain terms

Negotiate - It means to arrange or settle by conferring or discussing.
Crisis Negotiation - means the use of communication techniques and strategies to influence a person to
change his behavior in accordance with goals within legal, ethical and moral constraints.


Preservation of live
Apprehend hostage taker
To successfully negotiate; there must be need to live on the part of the hostage taker and a threat of
force by the authorities.

- people who take hostages during a period of prolonged frustration, despair and problems.
- mentally-ill people who take hostage during a period of psychiatric disturbance.
- people who take hostages for personal reason.
- people who take hostage because of dissatisfaction and discontent regarding their living condition
in prison.
- people who take hostages because of political and ideological beliefs.


- easiest to handle
- rational thinker
- after assessing the situation and weighing the odds, usually come to terms with the police.
PROPER HANDLING: show force but refrain from unnecessary violence or useless killing.

- present different and somewhat complex problems
- irrational
PROPER HANDLING: the hostage taker may feel a degree of pleasure if he finds himself important, being
the center of attraction
- prolonging the time

- more difficult to handle
- when caught, they rationalize by claiming to be revolutionaries a situation they resolve to die for a
PROPER HANDLING: their causes may deteriorate in the passage of time.
- if they kill one of the hostages, the negotiators then must set to save the remaining hostages.


- food, cigarettes, drinks, alcohol, transportation, media coverage, freedom
- weapons, ammunitions, drugs, release of prisoners, exchange of hostages


the hostage has no value to the hostage taker
the priorities in the hostage situations are the preservation of life and the apprehension of the
hostage taker, recover and protect property.
hostage situation must not go violently
there must be a need to live on the part of the hostage taker


1. Containment
controlling situation and area by people involved.
2. Establish Contact
communicate with the leader
3. Time Lengthening
give more time to the police to organize and coordinate plan of action.
4. Telephone Negotiation Technique
4.1. Be the caller (talk with the leader only)
4.2. Plan and prepare
4.3. Be ready with graceful exit
4.4. Discipline yourself to listen.
4.5. Do not tell that you are the commander, neither your rank
4.6. Just tell My name isI am a police negotiator and willing to help.
4.7. Delay tactic to wear down hostage taker, physically, psychologically and emotionally. Will also
give more time for police organize and coordinate plan course of action.
4.8. In case hostage taker wont talk, continue negotiating. Dont loss hope!

Advantages of Telephone Conversation

1. easier to say NO
2. easier to conclude the conversation
3. conversation is quicker
4. important items are more easily committed
5. caller has the advantage
5. Need for face-to-face conversation
Dont be over anxious
wear body armor
have tactical back-up (snipers)

Face-to-face, maintain proper distance;
Proper distance 1 to 3 feet.
Intimate distance about 6 inches
in retreating, face hostage taker slowly backing out of the door.
6. Surrender approach start with a position approach, act as if hostage taker will surrender. Do not talk too
much. Gradually ask him to surrender. Reassurance is the wisest thing to do. Talk details of surrender
process. And explain why now is better than later.

Crisis Negotiation Bargaining Techniques

The use of time to increase basic needs, making it more likely that the subject will exchange a
hostage for some basic needs.
The used of time to collect intelligence on the subject that will help develop a trade.
The use of time to reduce the subjects expectation of getting what he wants.
Trades can be made for food, drink, transportation and money.
Trades cannot be made for weapons or the exchange of hostages.
The boss does not negotiate.
Start bidding high to give yourself room to negotiate.
Never draw attention to the hostages, it gives the subject too much bargaining power.
Manipulate anxiety levels by cutting off power, gas, etc.

Stockholm Syndrome
It is the development of unique relations between the hostages and the hostage taker. A strong
attachment of the hostage victim to the hostage takers after a long period of captivity, by the hostage
became sympathizer of the hostage takers.


Team is a small group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose,
performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.

The Negotiating Team

Negotiator Supervisor is responsible for the overall functioning of the negotiating team. In
addition to his supervisory skills, the supervisor must have leadership ability. He should see to it that
the situation is negotiable, appropriate personnel is available, intelligence is gathered in timely
manner, communications are established, negotiation strategy is working-out, an appropriate record
of the negotiation is kept and the commander is well informed.
Primary Negotiator is the direct communication link to the hostage taker and is responsible for
developing verbal tactics, monitoring and assessing the hostage takers level of emotional arousal
and helping the hostage taker engage in problem solving.
Secondary Negotiator is the pipeline between the negotiation team and primary. He helps to
develop verbal tactics, provides moral support for the primary.
Intelligence Officer is responsible for gathering intelligence from various sources, interviewing all
relevant persons involved in the incident, collating and disseminating that information, maintaining
and updating status boards and making sure that all response units are receiving accurate and
timely intelligence.
Mental Health Consultant is responsible for evaluating the personality of the hostage taker,
recommending negotiation strategies, monitoring team stress, monitoring stress among the hostage
takers and hostages.
Equipment Officer is someone who understands technical information regarding radios,
computers, phone systems, mechanical systems, etc. and can make minor repairs.

Command Post
It is the position from which a unit commander and his staff exercise command over the hostage

Ground Commander is the designated senior officer in command of the incident. Also termed incident

Inner and Outer Perimeter

Inner Perimeter is the immediate area of containment as designated by the on ground commander
Outer Perimeter is a secondary control area surrounding the inner perimeter, providing a safe zone
for access to the inner perimeter.

The Tactical Team
Is an assault team responsible in carrying out assault operation whenever negotiation fails. A unit of
specially selected, appointed, trained and equipped officers that provides assistance in those incidents that
would require special tactics, techniques and equipment.

Tactical Team Components

Tactical Supervisor is responsible for the mobilization of the members of the team, deployment of the
containment team, development of the tactical plan and operation of the assault and arrest teams.
The tactical team is divided into three major components:
1. First Component this component is responsible for maintaining perimeter control both inner
and outer. Also called containment sub-team.
2. Second Component the second component is apprehension and assault team. Members of
this sub-team make an undetected approach to the location, plan and prepare for the release of hostages,
and make an assault if necessary. Also called apprehension and assault sub-team.
3. Third Component is the sniper / observer sub-team. The sniper/observer sub-team (third
component) has two responsibilities:
Provide intelligence on factors present at the location. These factors may include physical layout,
placement of walls, furniture, specific location of hostages and hostage takers, clothing and mental
state of hostages and hostage takers.
Prepare for a shot on the hostage taker.
Verbal Tactics in Crisis Communications
Concerned attitude the negotiator communicates with an attitude that he has genuine interest in
the hostage taker. Example: Tell me what happened That must have been hard/sad/threatening
and Id really like to help you
Reasonable-problem solver the negotiator assumes the role of a leader. Example: Lets work
together to be sure everyone is safe What would you like to do about this Lets see what other
solutions are possible
Buddy-fellow traveler it is one of commiseration with the hostage taker and works well with
trapped felons, impulsive people and antisocial personalities. Example: Man I hear you, bosses
never understand You know how they are about
Columbo-dumb but trying persona the negotiator does not have all the answer but is trying to
do the best he can. Example: I know its taking a long time but we are trying I hate that I cant help
any faster but ____
Non-judgmental and directing the negotiator is compassionate but firm and competent. It is
good with depressed persons, disoriented or dependent people. Example: You sound pretty excited,
take a deep breath and relax Lets take this next step slow so nobody gets hurt Check on your
people for me to be sure everyone is alright

Active Listening Techniques

Open-Ended Questions/Statements question or statements directed at the hostage taker
designed to get him to open up and give a long, verbal answer.
Effective Pauses not saying anything when the hostage taker finishes talking, encouraging him to
fill the empty or blank space with additional communications or information. Periods of silence that is
used to emphasize a point or to encourage the subject to say more.
Minimal Encouragement saying yes, ok or other verbal indicators that the negotiator is actually
listening to the hostage taker. Brief, well-timed response that let the subject knows the negotiator is
paying attention. It is a neutral non-threatening response that can be used with any subject.
Mirroring (Reflecting Feelings) a response in which the negotiator mirrors back to the hostage
taker the emotions of the hostage taker in communicating, the negotiator repeats the last word or
Paraphrasing a response in which the negotiator gives the hostage taker the essence of his
message in the negotiators words. The negotiator repeats the subjects meaning in the negotiators
words. It shows that the negotiator is listening and understands the content of the subjects
Emotional Labeling (Reflecting Meaning) a response in which negotiator let the hostage taker
know he understands the facts and the feelings the hostage taker is communicating. The use of
emotionally descriptive words to show that the negotiator understands the feelings the subject is
I-Messages a response in which the negotiator expresses his emotions in response to the
hostage taker. These are messages that personalize the negotiator without becoming a personal
attack and allow negotiator to introduce new ideas without raising excessive resistance.
Summative Reflections a response in which the negotiator summarizes the main facts and
feelings that the hostage taker has expressed over a relatively long period.
Implementation of Methods to Deal with Hostage situation
Rule 22. Hostage Situation of the revised PNP Operational procedures
Sec.1. Procedures to be followed in a Hostage Situation the following steps shall be undertaken:
a. A crisis management task group shall be activated immediately
b. Incident scene shall be secured and isolated
c. Unauthorized persons shall not be allowed entry and exit to the incident scene
d. Witnesses names, addresses, and other information shall be recorded. Witnesses shall be
directed to a safe location.
Sec.2. Ground Commander there shall be only one Ground Commander in the area.
Sec.3. Negotiators negotiators shall be designated by the Ground commander. No one shall be
allowed to talk to the hostage-taker without clearance from the negotiating panel or Ground
Sec.4. Assault team an assault team shall be alerted for deployment in case the negotiation fails.
Members of the assault team shall wear authorized and easily recognizable uniform during the
conduct of the operation Bonnets shall not be used.
Sec.5. Assault plan the assault shall be planned to ensure minimal threat to life for all parties.
Sec.6. Support Personnel an ambulance with medical crew and a fire truck shall be detailed at the
Sec.7. Coordination proper coordination with all participating elements shall be done to
consolidate efforts in solving crisis.
Sec.8. Safety of Hostage(s) in negotiating for the release of a hostage, the safety of the hostage
shall always be paramount.
Sec.9. Procedures to be followed during negotiations

The following shall be undertaken in the conduct of negotiations:

a. Stabilize and contain the situation;
b. Select the right time to make contact with the hostage-taker;
c. Take time when negotiating;
d. Allow hostage-taker to speak;
e. Dont offer the hostage-taker anything. What he will ask for will be part of the negotiation;
f. Avoid directing frequent attention to the victim when talking to the hostage taker;
g. Do not call them Hostages. Be as honest as possible; avoid tricks; be sincere;
h. Never dismiss any request from the hostage-taker as trivial or unimportant;
i. Never say NO
j. Soften the demand
k. Never set deadline; try not to accept a deadline;
l. Do not make alternate suggestions not agreed upon in the negotiation;
m. Do not introduce outsiders (non-law enforcement officers) into the negotiation process, unless their
presence is extremely necessary in the solution of the crisis; provided that they shall be properly advised on
the dos and donts of hostage negotiations;
n. Do not allow any exchange of hostages, unless extremely necessary; in particular, do not exchange a
negotiator for a hostage;
o. Avoid negotiating face-to-face; and
p. Law enforcement officers without proper training shall not be allowed to participate in hostage

The Aftereffects of Captivity

Emotional Aftereffects the hostage taker is unable to emotionally relax, remains fearful of the
future, and becomes apprehensive, tense, and nervous, experiencing an anxiety like attack. The ex-
hostage may shake uncontrollably, experiencing unexplained fear.
Cognitive Aftereffects the hostages believed they failed themselves, co-workers, friends and
family. That somehow they are less of a person for having been captive. Self-criticizing and second-
guessing are common. Statements such as if only I had done so and so I wouldnt have been
captured, are commonly heard.
Behavioral Aftereffects this include social and self-isolation, uncontrollable crying, and increase
or decrease in aggression, poor concentration, intrusive thoughts, trouble with authority figures, an
increase startle response and alcohol and drug abuse.
Physical Aftereffects this include the following:
a. Sleep disorder most common physical aftereffects. Some cannot sleep the entire night, some
sleep too much than they did before captivity, some sleep much less, some can only cat-nap. Some
requires medication to sleep. Some do not enter into Stage 4 sleep and some very seldom engage
in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep.
Stage 4 Sleep is the deep sleep that immediately precedes REM sleep, it is necessary for the
body to replenish itself and it is the sleep where the greatest physiological benefits are derived.
b. Nightmares include sights, sounds, smells, tastes, physical pains and emotions of captivity.
c. Withdrawal from Close Personal Relationship the ex-hostage may erect an invisible wall and
not allow anyone inside that wall.
Medical Aftereffects majority of hostages do not experience medical aftereffects, however to a
few who experienced prolonged, severe, and physical abusive captivity, medical aftereffects may be
an issue.

Positive Aftereffects some hostages may experienced positive effects of the incident in which
instead of having lowered self-esteem, have heightened self-esteem. They believed themselves to
be better people for having suffered and endured captivity and it made them a better person.


Meaning of Research
= scientific investigation of phenomena which includes collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation
of facts that links mans speculation with reality.
= systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical proposition about the presumed
relations among natural phenomena.


A. According to Purpose
1. Predictive or Prognostic Research has the purpose of determining the future operation of the
variables under investigation with the aim of controlling or redirecting such for the better
2. Directive Research determines what should be done based on the findings this is to remedy an
unsatisfactory condition, if there is any
3. Illuminative Research is concerned with the interaction of the components of the variable being
investigated, as for example, interaction of the components of educational systems and aims to show the
connections among, for example, students characteristics, organizational pattern and policies, and
educational consequences

B. According to Goal
1. Basic or pure Research is done for the development of theories and Principles.
2. Applied Research is the application of the results of pure search. This is testing the efficacy of
theories and principles. aims to test theories and concepts developed for verification, application,
development and support and their relationship to the existing fund of knowledge

C. According to the Level of Investigation

1. Exploratory Research the researcher studies the variables pertinent to a specific situation.
2. Descriptive Research the researcher studies the relationships of the variables.
3. Experimental Research the experiment studies the effects of the variables on each other.

D. According to the Type of Analysis

1. Analytical Research the researcher attempts to identify and is isolate the components of the research
2. Holistic Research begins with the total situation. Focusing attention on the system first and then on its
internal relationships.

E. According to Scope Under this category is Action Research. This type of research is done on a very
limited scope to solve a particular problem which is not so big. It is almost problem solving.

F. According to Choice of Answers to Problems

1. In Evaluation research, all possible courses of action are specified and identified and the researcher
tries to find the most advantageous.
2. In developmental research, the focus is on finding or developing a more suitable instrument or process
than has been available.

G. According to Statistical Content

1. Quantitative or statistical research is one in which inferential statistics are utilized to determine the
results of the study. Inferential statistics such as correlation, chi-square, analysis of variance, etc. are used
to test the hypothesis. This type of research usually includes comparison studies, cause-and-effect
relationships, etc.

2. Non-quantitative research This is research in which the use of the quantity or statistics is practically
nil. This is especially true in anthropological studies where description is usually used. Descriptive data are
gathered rather than quantitative data.

H. According to Time Element

1. Historical research describes what was.
2. Descriptive research describes what is.
3. Experimental research describes what will be.

Steps in Scientific Method of Research (Sequential)

1. Determining (recognizing) the problem
2. Forming a hypothesis
3. Doing the library search
4. Designing the study
5. Developing the instruments for collecting data
6. Collecting the date
7. Analyzing the data
8. Determining implications and conclusions fro the findings
9. Making recommendations for further research.

Standard format of Thesis Writing

1. The Problem and the Setting
2. Related Literature and Studies
3. Methods of Research and Procedures
4. Analysis, Presentation, and Interpretation of Data
5. Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations.

Principles of the Scientific Method

1. Rigid control is the manipulation of the research variables.
2. Objectivity is that there should be no bias or partiality in treating the result of inquiry.
3. Systematic organization refers to proper and accurate tabulation of data as well as presenting them in
statistical tables ready for interpretation.
4. Rigorous standards refers to the setting up of standards or principles which serve as Basis for the
evaluating the findings of a study. This also refers to the accurate statistical computation and
interpretation of qualified data.

Three (3) Major Research Methods

Experimental methods of research

Attributes of Good Research Problem

S = Specific specifically stated
M = Measurable easy to measure by using research instrument in collection of data
A = Achievable data are achievable using correct statistical treatment/techniques to arrive at
precise results
R = Realistic real results are not manipulated
T = Time-bound time frame is required in every activity because the shorter completion of the
activity the better

Capsulizing Research Problem into Title

1. It should clearly and specifically stated
2. Variables investigated should by all means be written as part of the title
3. Relationship between and among variables should be indicated
4. Target population should be indicated in the title to achieve specificity
5. It should have a maximum of twenty substantive words.
6. Function words should not be placed at the end of each line
7. Title must take the form of an inverted pyramid
Avoid redundancies like A Review of, An Analysis of, An Evaluation of, An
Assessment. and the like because even without those terms, the researcher will review, evaluate, assess
or analyze the problem posted in the study.

Avoid Plagiarism
Plagiarism is an act of incorporating into ones work the work of another without indicating the source
= the unacknowledged used of somebody elses words or ideas
= an act wherein the writer uses passages, ideas, writings, and statements of others without giving due

Construction of the Main Problem and Sub-problem of the Study

1. The main problem of the study may be stated by briefly pointing out the objectives, the subject and the
coverage of the study.
Ex. The study aimed to assess the acceptance of an accurate polygraph results as evidence in court.
2. Specify the sub-problems of the main problem.
Ex. Specifically, it sought to answer the following sub-problems:
1. To what extent does the application of polygraph examination affect the attainment of an accurate
results to be presented as evidence in court in terms of:
1.1. examiners competency;
1.2. facility and instrument;
1.3. techniques and procedures; and
1.4. subjects condition?

Theoretical Framework
Theoretical framework is the foundation of the study.
The theory should have a relationship with the issues posted in the study

Types of Theories
1. Descriptive Theory = seeks to describe a phenomenon
2. Prescriptive Theory = seeks to tell how and sometimes why one should or ought to behave in certain

Guidelines in Choosing Theory

1. Research must be well-founded on universally accepted, known and tested theory, principles or
2. Research may be anchored on several theories available.

Presentation of Theoretical Framework

Ex. The framework of the study is anchored on ..

Conceptual Framework
= an illustration of how research problems are generated from the theoretical framework of the study
= it may be some sort of modification of the theoretical framework or personally conceptualized by the

Presentation of Conceptual Framework/Paradigm

1. The research paradigm must clearly show the major impact of the cited theory on the variables
(dependent and independent variables) of the study.
2. An existing theory may be capsulized in a research paradigm which may be adopted with some
3. There must be textual explanations of the variables in the paradigm. Textual explanations should come
before the figure or paradigm.

Assumption and Hypothesis

1. Assumption = self-evident truth which is based upon known fact or phenomenon. it is not usually
answered or proven because it is assumed true or correct which are beyond the control of the researcher.
Note: In historical and descriptive researches, it is often times not explicitly expressed but left implicit, that
is, unwritten
2. Hypothesis = tentative conclusion or answer to specific question raised at the beginning of the
investigation. It is an educated guess about the answer to a specific question.

Types of Hypothesis
1. Descriptive Hypothesis = use to answer descriptive questions
Ex. Sub-problem:
1. What is the profile of the polygraph examiners of law enforcement agencies in terms of:
1.1. age;
1.2. marital status;
1.3. educational attainment; and
1.4. Length of Service
Ex. Hypothesis

Majority of the respondents belong to the age bracket of 30 to 40, male, college graduate and about 20
years in service.

2. Statistical Hypothesis = use to answer questions on the relationship or differences of data obtained in
descriptive questions.

Forms of Statistical Hypothesis

1. Null Form = always the first temporary solution to a problem
= basis of the action of acceptance or rejection
= the word null in mathematics means empty zero
= asserts that there is no significant difference or relationship between the variable
= stated in negative
Ex. There is no significant difference between

2. Operational/Alternative (Ha) = stated in affirmative

Three forms of alternative hypothesis:
1. non-directional hypothesis
2. positive directional hypothesis
3. negative directive hypothesis

Nondirectional Hypothesis indicates that the researcher is not interested on whether one variable is
greater or lesser than the other, but only in the difference.
Ex. Drug A and Drug B have significant effects on the cure of fever.
Ha: A = B
Positive Directional Hypothesis
Ex. Drug A is more effective than Drug B on the treatment of fever.
Ha: A > B
Negative Directional Hypothesis
Ex. Drug B is more effective that Drug A on the treatment of fever.
Ha: A < B
Formulating Hypothesis
A hypothesis is formulated after the problem has been stated and the literature study has been
concluded. It is formulated when the researcher is totally aware of the theoretical and empirical background
of the problem.

Guidelines in the Formulation of Explicit Hypothesis

In experimental investigations, comparative and correlational studies, hypothesis has to be explicit
or expressed.
In descriptive and historical investigations, hypothesis are seldom expressed if not entirely absent.
The specific questions serve as the hypothesis.
Hypotheses are usually stated in the null form because testing a null hypothesis is easier than a
hypothesis in the operational form.
Hypotheses are formulated from the specific questions upon which they are based.
Ex. of Statistical Hypothesis
Is there any significant difference on the assessment of the groups of respondents with regards to the
extent of application of polygraph examination in the attainment to be accurate results to be presented as
evidence in court in terms of examiners competency, facility and instrument, techniques and procedures,
and subjects condition?

The is no significant difference on the assessment of the groups of respondents with regards to the extent
of application of polygraph examination in the attainment of accurate results to be presented as evidence in
court in terms of examiners competency, facility and instrument, techniques and procedures, and subjects

Research Designs
A. Qualitative Research Design = involves in depth analysis of the problems. Its focused is to provide
accurate description of problems w/o attempting to treat or employ sophisticated statistical tools or describe

Types of Qualitative Research

1. Historical = systematic and critical inquiry of the whole truth of past events using the critical method in
the understanding and the interpretation of facts, which are applicable to current issues and problems.

2. Ethnographic = aims to provide a holistic view of the problem. Data are gathered through observation,
interview and participation
3. Case Study = intensive investigation of a particular individual, institution, community or any group
considered as a unit which includes the development, adjustment, remedial, or corrective procedures that
suitably follow diagnosis of the causes of maladjustment or of favorable development.

B. Quantitative Research Design = its focused is to describe problems descriptively and numerically. It
utilizes more statistical tests to explain the nature, characteristics, relationships and differences of variables.

Types of Quantitative Research

1. Descriptive = describes and interprets WHAT is. It is concerned with conditions or relationship that exist,
practices that prevail, beliefs and processes that are going on, effects that are being felt or trends that are

Sub-types of Descriptive Research

a. Descriptive-Survey = involves collection of information on people, events and other topics of interest to
the researcher.
b. Descriptive-Documentary = involves content analysis because the documentary technique includes
analysis of content. It is used when data cannot be obtained through questionnaire or observation.
2. Correlational = it measures the extent or magnitude of association between two variables.
=measures the existing relationship of variables
=also known as Associational Research
3. Experimental = the researcher manipulates, changes or alters the inputs or independent variables to see
the effects on the dependent variables.
=most commonly used methods to advanced scientific knowledge

Sampling Designs
A. Scientific Sampling = each member of the population is given the chance of being included in the
Population = specific aggregation of the elements
= also known as universe
Sample = representative portion of a whole
= subset of a population

Types of Scientific Sampling

1. Restricted Random = applicable only when the population being investigated is homogenous.
2. Unrestricted Random = the best random sampling design because no restriction is imposed and every
member of the population has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample
3. Stratified Random = it divides first the population into two or more strata. For each stratum, the sample
items were drawn at random
4. Systematic = a design which all individual in the population are arranged in a methodical manner, i.e.
alphabetical or chronological (age, experience) and the name may be selected in the construction of the
5. Multistage = done in several stage, it can be two-stage, three, four or five stage, etc, depending on the
number of stages of sampling to be used.
6. Cluster Sampling = population is group into clusters or small units, for instance, block or districts, and
are selected by random sampling or systematic sampling.
=advantageous when individuals in the districts or blocks belong to the heterogeneous group
B. Non-Scientific Sampling = in this sampling there is subjectivity on the on the part of the researcher
because not all the individual in a population are given an equal chance of being included in the sample

Types of Non-Scientific Sampling

1. Purposive = based on choosing individuals as sample according to the purposes of the researcher
2. Incidental = a design applied to those samples which are take because they are most valuable
= the researcher simply takes the nearest individual as subjects of the study until the sample reaches the
desired size
3. Quota Sampling = popular in the field of opinion research due to the fact that it is done by merely looking
for individuals with requisite characteristics

Research Instrument = a device designed or adopted by researcher for data gathering

Classification of Research Instrument

1. Researcher Instrument = the researcher obtains information or data himself with little or no direct
involvement of the other people
2. Subject Instrument = the information is collected directly from the respondents
3. Informant Instrument = the information or data is collected from those knowledgeable of the subject

Commonly Used Instruments

1. Questionnaire = written or printed form containing the questions to be asked on the respondents.

Types of Questionnaire
a. Open-Ended = respondents are forced to answer the questions asked in the questionnaire.
=best suited to a qualitative research study
b. Closed-Ended = also referred as guided response type, closed form or restricted.
= respondents are guided in answering questions
= options may be provided like in multiple choice test while answers are based on the rating scales provided

2. Interview = involves face to face contact between the interviewee and the interviewer

Types of Interview
a. Structured Interview = there is a set of carefully prepared questions and their expected answers are
b. Unstructured Interview = respondents are free to express their opinions
= also termed as non-directive or informal

3. Observation = may be defined as perceiving data through the sense: sight, hearing, taste, touch and
=sense of sight is the most important and most used
= most direct way and most widely used in studying behavior

Types of Observation
a. Formal Observation = researcher makes a guide on what to observe. Possible responses may also be
b. Informal Observation = needs critical evaluation of the observation made to avoid biased results
= recommended for qualitative research

Recording of Results of Observation

1. Checklist = contains the items to be observed
2. Rating scale = used in observing behavior
3. Anecdotal Forms = provides for the fewer breakdowns of dimensions or factors
4. Mechanical Record = use of motion or still pictures, sound recording
5. Stenographic Recording

Qualities of Good Research Instrument

1. Validity = degree to which a measuring instrument measures what it intends to measure

Types of Validity
a. Content-Related Validity = refers to content and format of the instrument which must answer the
following criteria: appropriateness; logical; adequate; and, proper format
b. Criterion-Related Validity = refers to the relationship between scores obtained using one or more
instruments or measures
c. Construct-Related Validity = refers to the nature of psychological construction or characteristics being
measured by the instrument

2. Reliability = extent to which the instrument is dependable, self-consistent and stable

=consistency of responses from moment to moment
= even a person takes the same test twice, the test yields the same results
= reliable test may not always be valid

3. Usability = otherwise known as Practicability

= degree to which the research instrument can be satisfactorily used. It may be determined thru:
a. ease of administration
b. ease of scoring
c. ease of interpretation
d. low cost
e. proper mechanical make up

Statistics = science which deals with the systematic process of collecting, organizing, classifying,
presenting, interpreting and analyzing data

Types of Statistics
A. Descriptive Statistics = it is used to determine the nature of variables without any attempt to critically
compare the extent of relationships or differences with other variables

Tools of Descriptive Statistics

1. Frequency Counting/Distribution
2. Percentage
3. Ranking
4. Measures of Centralities
a. Mean
b. Median
c. Mode
d. Measures of Variability

B. Correlational Statistics = used to determine the degree or magnitude of association between two
=treats bivariate and multivariate problems

Specific Measures of Correlational

1. Pearson Product Moment Coefficient (Pearson r)
2. Spearman Rank-Order Coefficient of Correlation (Spearman rho)
3. Kendalls Tau Coefficient of Correlation
4. Kendalls Coefficient of Concordance W
5. Point Biserial Coefficient of Correlation
6. Phi Coefficient of Correlation

C. Inferential Statistics = used when in making inferences on the magnitude of differences of the samples
from a large universe.
= used in testing hypothesis like differences bet. two or more variables
= treats bivariate and multivariate problems

Types of Inferential Statistics

1. Parametric Test = applicable when the data measured is in interval or ratio scales

Types of Parametric
a. T-Test and Z-Test = used to determine two variable means which differ significantly
b. F-test = (Analysis of Variance ANNOVA) used to determine significant differences between three or
more variables

2. Non-Parametric = used in ordinal or rank or nominal data

Types of Non-parametric
a. Chi-Square Test (X2) = used to compare the frequencies obtained in categorized variables
= used to determine the difference between three or more variables
b. Mann-Whitney U-Test
c. Sign Test
d. Lambda
e. Kruskall-Wallis
f. Friedman Analysis of Variance
g. McNemar Test
Data Analysis = an examination of data or facts in terms of quantity, quality, attribute, trait, pattern, trend,
relationship among others so as to answer research questions which involve statistical techniques and

Types of Data Analysis

1. Univariate = tests a single variable to determine whether the sample is similar to the population from
which it has been drawn
2. Bivariate = it tests two variables on how they differ from each other
3. Multivariate = it tests three or more independent variables at a time on the degree of relationship with
dependent variables
4. Normative = the results of the study is compared with the norm
5. Status = stresses real facts relating to current conditions in a group of subjects chosen for study
6. Descriptive = describes the characteristics, compositions, structures that occur as units within the larger
7. Classification = analysis which is usually employed in natural science subjects
8. Evaluative = it appraises carefully the worthiness of the current study
9. Comparative = the researcher considers at least two entities and establishes a formal procedure for
obtaining criterion data on the basis of which he can compare and conclude which of the two is better
10. Cost-Effective = applicable in comparing the cost between two or more variables and to determine
which of the variable is most effective

Interpretation of Data = an act or instance of interpreting an explanation. This is done to give meaning to
data generated from the instrument to answer the problems raised in the study

Levels of Interpretation
1. Table Reading
2. Implications or Meaning of Data
3. Cross referencing or corroboration wherein the results are to be compared with the existing knowledge or
finished studies


Preliminary Pages
a. Title Page
b. Approval Sheet
c. Acknowledgment
d. Dedication
e. Table of Contents
f. List of Tables
g. List of Figures
h. Abstract

Presents the problem. What the problem is all about
Rational or reasons for conducting the study
Setting of the Study
Locality of the study. Place where the study is to be conducted
Theoretical / Conceptual Framework
Theoretical / conceptual foundation of the study
Statement of the Problem
General and specific statement of the problem determined in the study
Assumption or Hypothesis
Self-evident truth based upon known fact or phenomenon (Assumption)
Tentative conclusion or answer to specific questions (Hypothesis)
Significance of the Study
Contribution of the result of the study to individuals, institutions, administrators, society, etc
Scope and Limitation of the Study
Boundaries in terms of time, sample, location (Scope)
Weakness of the study beyond the control of the researcher (Limitation)
Definition of Terms
It can be lexical or operational definition or a combination thereof of different terms used in
the study which are arranged alphabetically

Foreign Literature
Published articles from foreign countries
Local Literature
Locally published articles

Foreign Studies
Foreign unpublished articles
Local Studies
Locally unpublished articles

Relevance of literature and studies to the present research

Research Method
Brief description and justification of the research method used in the study
Population and Sampling Scheme
Brief presentation of the entire population of the study and the type of sampling techniques
used in selecting sample respondents
Description of the Respondents
Contains detailed description of the respondents as to age, sex, marital status, nature of
employment, etc
Research Instrument
Explanation on how the instrument used in gathering data was develop as well as its detailed
Validation of Instrument
States brief discussion on how the instrument was validated
Instrument is tested on individuals who are knowledgeable of the subject matter but are not
part of the respondents of the study
Procedures in Gathering Data
Contains the step by step procedures used by the researcher in reaching the respondents in
order to gather data
Statistical Treatment
Contains discussion on the statistics used in consonance with the specific problem and
hypothesis to be tested

Contains the answers to all the sub-problems of the study
Answers to the problems are stated one by one according to the arrangement of sub-problems for
clarity and understanding
Answers are presented in textual and tabular forms. Textual explanations come after the tables

The introductory paragraph should contain the summary of statement of the problem, hypothesis as
well as research design.

Summary of Findings
Contains the specific findings/results of the study
Presented as they were organized and categorized in the sub-problems of the study
Written in past tense
Written in present tense
Should be based on the findings of the study
Logical and valid outgrowth of the findings
Should not contain any numerals from the findings
Organized and categorized according to the sub-problems

An appeal to people or institutions concerned to solve the problems discovered in the study
No recommendations that will be made for problems that were not discovered in the study
Practical and attainable



Etymologically, the term POLICE, was derived from the Greek word POLITEIA meaning government of
the city.

The term POLITIEA originates from another Greek word POLIS which means CITY-STATE or a
system of organized civil enforcement to preserve life, liberty, property, food sources, community health and
the enforcement of laws.

The Roman first used the term POLITIA to refer to the condition of the state or government. Then
the French used the term POLICE to refer to a governmental department charged with the regulation and
control of the affairs of a community, now, chiefly, the department established to maintain order, enforce the
law, and prevent and detect crime.

This refers to an association or group of individuals with a common goal and functions into a
productive relationship.
Defined as the consciously coordinated social entity, with a relatively identifiable boundary, that
functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or sets of goals and objectives.

Police Organization
A structured group of personnel specifically trained in the administration of public safety.
Members of the police organization are trained with the aim of achieving effectively and efficiently its
goals and objectives.

it is the act of managing and organizing all levels of an organization which includes the
establishment of the organizations goals and objectives.

Police Administration
This refers to the cooperative human efforts to achieve the purposes of Criminal Justice
It is also refers to the study of processes and conditions of law enforcement as the pillar of the
Criminal Justice System.

Law Enforcement Agency

Pertains to an organization responsible for enforcing the laws.
The collective term for professionals who are dedicated to upholding and enforcing the laws and
statutes that are currently in force in a given jurisdiction.

Theories of Police Service

1) Home Rule Theory

Policemen are regarded as servants of the community, who rely for the efficiency of their
functions upon the express needs of the people .
Policemen are civil servants whose key duty is the preservation of public peace and security.

2) Continental Theory
Policemen are regarded as state or servants of the higher authorities.
The people have no share or have little participation with the duties nor connection with the
police organization.

Concepts of Police Service

a. Old Concept
Police service gives the impression of being merely a suppressive machinery.
This philosophy advocates that the measurement of police competence is the increasing
number of arrests, throwing offenders in detention facilities rather than trying to prevent them
from committing crimes .

b. Modern Concept
Regards police as the first line of defense of the criminal justice system, an organ of crime
Police efficiency is measured by the decreasing number of crimes .
Broadens police activities to cater to social services and has for its mission the welfare of the
individual as well as that of the community in general.

Functions in a Police Organization Organic Units in a Police Organization

1.Primary or Line Functions I. Operational Units
Functions that carry out the major Those that perform primary or line functions.
purposes of the organization, delivering the Examples are patrol, traffic, investigation and
services and dealing directly with the vice control.
2.Staff/Administrative Functions II. Administrative Units
Functions that are designed to support the Those that perform the administrative
line functions and assist in the performance functions.
of the line functions. Examples are personnel, finance, planning
and training.
3.Auxiliary Functions III. Service Units
Functions involving the logistical operations Those that perform auxiliary functions.
of the organization. Examples are communication, records
Examples are communication, maintenance, management.
records management, supplies and
equipment management

Organizational Structure

The systematic arrangement of the relationship of the members, positions, departments and
functions or work of the organization.

It is comprised of functions, relationships, responsibilities and authorities of individuals within the


Organizational Chart

An illustration in the form of a chart which represents the organizational structure.

The mechanical means of depicting the organizational structure.

Principles of Police Organization

a. Hierarchy Of Authority
The relationship between superiors and subordinates
b. Span Of Control
The ability of one man to direct, coordinate, and control immediate subordinates.
c. Unity Of Command
Dictates that there should only be ONE MAN commanding the unit to ensure uniformity in the
execution of orders.
d. Delegation Of Authority
Conferring of certain specified authority by a superior to a subordinate.
e. Chain Of Command
The arrangement of officers from top to bottom on the basis of rank or position and authority.
f. Command Responsibility
Dictates that immediate commanders shall be responsible for the effective supervision and
control of their personnel and unit.
g. Specialization
The assignment of particular personnel to particular tasks which are highly technical and
require special skills and training.
h. Authority Level Principle
Is based on the premise that authority exists within an organization at all levels and that only
those decisions that cannot be made at a given level because of lack of authority should be
referred upward for resolution.


July 4, 1901 - The American Civil Government was inaugurated and its immediate task was to restore
peace and order throughout the country

January 9, 1901 - The Metropolitan Police Force of Manila was organized pursuant to Act No. 70 of
the Taft Commission. This has become the basis for the celebration of the anniversary of the Manilas
Finest every January 9th.

July 18, 1901 - The Philippine Commission was enacted under Act. No. 175, creating an insular police force
which became as the Philippine Constabulary.

August 8, 1901 - The first Chief of Constabulary Henry T. Allen was designated and confirmed by the
Civil Commission.

Capt. Henry Allen the first chief of the Philippine Constabulary in 1901

Police Accountability Act, No. 175 - Providing punishment to any officer or member of the Insular
Police force found guilty of obtaining for his own use any money or property from any person by threats of
arrest or actual arrest or intended prosecution.

ACT 183 enacted on July 13, 1901, created the Manila Police Department.

Capt George Curry - The first chief of police of the Manila Police Department in 1901.

The CA of 1917 - Provides that the mayor as chief executive officer of the municipal government is
empowered to issue orders relating to the public or to public safety.

The 1935 Phil. Constitution - Sec. 9, Article XIX provides that the government shall organize and maintain
a national police force to preserve public order and law enforcement

CA No. 88 of Oct. 26, 1936 - Issued by Pres. Manuel L. Quezon otherwise known as the National Defense
Act creating the Phil. Army with the Constabulary as it fighting core

CA No. 88 of Oct. 26 1936 - established the state police by integrating the police force in all municipalities,
chartered cities and provincial guard organization. Under this Law, the state police was place under the
Department of interior.

CA No. 88 - was repealed by CA No. 343 dated June 23, 1938 which resulted in the detachment of the
Philippine Constabulary Division from the Philippine Army to assume the function of the National Police.
Exec. Order No. 153 - Placing the local police forces as under the local executives which again placed
then under the Department of Interior.

Exec Order 308 and 309 - were promulgated at the height of the Huk rebellion in March 30, 1950 by
President Elpidio Quirino, reconstituted the Philippine Constabulary as major service command of the AFP

The 1973 Phil. Constitution - Sec. 12, Article XX states that the state shall establish and maintain an
integrated national police force whose organization administration and operation shall be provided by law,

3. R.A. 4864 otherwise known as the Police Act of 1966, enacted on August 8, 1966; created the Police
Commission (POLCOM) as a supervisory agency to oversee the training and professionalization of the local
police forces under the Office of the President; later POLCOM was renamed into National Police
Commission (NAPOLCOM)

PD No. 448 (May 9, 1974) - Effected major amendments to the police act of 1966 providing for stronger
powers for the Commission in the pursuit of its mandated goal.

PD No. 765 (Aug. 8, 1975) - otherwise known as the Integration Act of 1975, enacted on August 8, 1975;
established the Integrated National Police (INP) composed of the Philippine Constabulary (PC) as the
nucleus and the integrated local police forces as components, under the Ministry of National Defense.
-transferred the NAPOLCOM from the Office of the President to the Ministry of National Defense.
PD No. 1162 (June 8, 1977)- The Governor of metropolitan Manila, the Provincial Governors, the City and
Municipal Mayors were given power to exercise general supervision order units or elements of the INP
stationed or assigned within their respective jurisdictions.

The 1987 Philippine Constitution -Sec. 6, Art. XVI provides that the state shall establish and maintain one
police force which shall be national in scope and civilian in character.

R.A. 6975 otherwise known as the Department of the Interior and Local Government Act of 1990,
enacted on December 13, 1990; reorganized the DILG and established the Philippine National Police,
Bureau of Fire Protection, Bureau of Jail Management and Penology and the Philippine Public Safety

R.A. 8551 otherwise known as the Philippine National Police Reform and Reorganization Act of 1998,
enacted on February 25, 1998; this law amended certain provisions of RA 6975.

RA 9708 - Law amending the provisions of RA 6975 and RA 8551 on the minimum educational qualification
for appointment to the PNP and adjusting the promotion system; approved on 12 August 2009.
An Act Extending For Five (5) Years The Reglementary Period For Complying With The Minimum
Educational Qualification For Appointment To The Philippine National Police (PNP) And Adjusting
The Promotion System Thereof, Amending For The Purpose Pertinent Provisions Of Republic Act
No. 6975 And Republic Act No. 8551 And For Other Purposes


Gen Rafael Crame

the first Filipino chief of the Philippine Constabulary on December 17, 1917

Col Antonio Torres

the first Filipino chief of police of the Manila Police Department in 1935

Col Lamberto Javalera

the first chief of police of the Manila Police Department after the Philippine Independence from the
United States of America in 1946

P/DIR Gen Cesar Nazareno

the first chief of the Philippine National Police


- Formerly Department of Local Government (DLG)
-reorganized under R.A. 6975

The Department proper
Existing bureaus and offices of the DLG
The National Police Commission
The Philippine Public Safety College (PPSC)
Philippine National Police (PNP)
Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP)
Bureau of Jail Management and Penology (BJMP)
The PPSC, PNP, BFP and BJMP were created under RA 6975.
Headed by the Secretary to be appointed by the President and who shall serve at the pleasure of
the President.
The Secretary shall be assisted by two (2) Undersecretaries and three (3) Assistant Secretaries .
Undersecretary for Local Government.
Undersecretary for Peace and Order.
No retired or resigned military officer or police official may be appointed as Secretary within one (1)
year from date of retirement or resignation.
The Secretary is also the ex officio chairman of the National Police Commission.


Under RA 6975, the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) was in charge with external security
while the DILG was in charge with internal security.
Under RA 8551, the DILG shall be relieved of the primary responsibility on matters involving
suppression of insurgency and other serious threats to national security. The PNP shall through
information gathering and performance of its ordinary police functions, support the AFP on matters
involving suppression of insurgency.


An agency attached to the DILG for policy coordination.

Shall exercise administrative control and operational supervision over the PNP.


Consist of a Chairperson, four (4) regular Commissioners and the Chief of PNP as ex officio
Shall serve a term of office of six (6) years without reappointment or extension.
Three of the regular commissioners shall come from civilian sector who are neither active nor former
members of the police or military.
The fourth regular commissioner shall come from the law enforcement sector either active or retired.
Provided, that an active member of a law enforcement agency shall be considered resigned once
At least one (1) of the four regular commissioners shall be a woman.
From among the three regular commissioners from the civilian sector, the Vice Chairperson shall
be chosen.
The Vice Chairperson shall act as the Executive Officer of the Commission.


Organized pursuant to RA 6975, as amended by RA 8551

A law enforcement agency under the DILG.

Under administrative control and operational supervision of the National Police Commission.
It is an organization that is national in scope and civilian in character, as provided by Article XVI,

Section 6 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution:

The state shall establish and maintain one police force which shall be national in scope and
civilian in character
Headed by the Chief, PNP, with the rank of Director General, appointed by the President and
who shall serve a term of office of four (4) years.

National in Scope

Means that the PNP is a nationwide government organization whose jurisdiction covers the entire
breadth of the Philippine archipelago.
All uniformed and non-uniformed personnel of the PNP are national government employees.
Civilian in Character

Means that that the PNP is not a part of the military, although it retains some military attributes such
as discipline.

Powers and Functions of the PNP

Enforce all laws and ordinances relative to the protection of lives and properties;
Maintain peace and order and take all necessary steps to ensure public safety;
Investigate and prevent crimes, effect the arrest of criminal offenders, bring offenders to justice and
assist in their prosecution;
Exercise the general powers to make arrest, search and seizure in accordance with the Constitution
and pertinent laws;
Detain an arrested person for a period not beyond what is prescribed by law, informing the person
so detained of all his rights under the Constitution;
Issue licenses for the possession of firearms and explosives in accordance with law;
Supervise and control the training and operations of security agencies and issue licenses to operate
security agencies and to security guards and private detectives, for the purpose of their professions.


Shall be headed by a Chief who shall be assisted by two (2) deputy chiefs:
Deputy Chief for Administration.
Deputy Chief for Operations.
The Chief PNP and the two (2) deputy chiefs shall be appointed by the President .
No officer who is retirable within six (6) months shall be appointed Chief .
The PNP shall be composed of a national office, regional offices, provincial offices, district offices,
and city or municipal stations.


The national headquarters of the Philippine National Police, located in Quezon City
Houses the offices of the following:
Chief, PNP

o Two (2) deputy chiefs

o Chief, Directorial Staff
o Ten (10) directorial staff
o Ten (10) administrative support units
o Ten (10) operational support units

Directorial Staff
Directorate for Personnel and Records Management;
Directorate for Intelligence;
Directorate for Operations;
Directorate for Logistics;
Directorate for Integrated Police Operations
Directorate for Plans
Directorate for Comptrollership
Directorate for Police Community Relations
Directorate for Investigation and Detective Management
Directorate for Research and Development
Directorate for Information and Communication Technology Management.
Directorate for Human Resource and Doctrine Development

Administrative Support Units

Logistics Support Unit
Information Technology Management Service
Finance Service
Health Service

Communications and Electronic Service
Chaplain Service
Legal Service
Headquarters Support Service
Engineering Service
Training Service

Operational Support Units

Maritime Group
Intelligence Group
Police Security and Protection Group
Criminal Investigation and Detection Group
Special Action Force
Aviation Security Group
Highway Patrol Group
Police Community Relations Group
Civil Security Group
Crime Laboratory


The PNP is divided into seventeen (17) police regional offices (PRO), each headed by a Regional
PRO 1 13, NCRPO, CAR, and ARMM


For every region, there are provincial offices, each headed by a Provincial Director
In large provinces, police districts may be established to be headed by a District Director
At the city or municipal levels or stations, each is headed by a Chief of Police

NCRPO is divided into five (5) districts, each headed by a District Director:

a. Manila Police District (MPD) (formerly Western Police District)- Manila

b. Eastern Police District (EPD) Marikina, Pasig, San Juan and Mandaluyong,
c. Northern Police District (NPD) Caloocan, Malabon, Navotas, Valenzuela
d. Central Police District (CPD) Quezon City
e. Southern Police District (SPD) Pasay, Makati, Paranaque, Las Pinas, Muntinlupa, Taguig and


1:500 nationwide average
1:1000 minimum police-to-population ratio


Commissioned Officer
Four Star Director General General
Three Star Deputy Director General Lieutenant General
Two Star Director Major General
One Star Chief Superintendent Brigadier General
Three Sun Senior Superintendent Colonel
Two Sun Superintendent Lieutenant Colonel
One Sun Chief Inspector Major
Two Anahaw Leaf Senior Inspector Captain
One Anahaw Leaf Inspector Lieutenant

Non - Commissioned Officer

Senior Police Officer 4 Master Sergeant
Senior Police Officer 3 Technical Sergeant
Senior Police Officer 2 Staff Sergeant
Senior Police Officer 1 Sergeant
Police Officer 3 Corporal
Police Officer 2 Private First Class
Police Officer 1 Private

Key Positions and their Corresponding Ranks in The PNP

Chief highest position in the PNP, with the rank of Director General.
Deputy Chief for Administration the second-in command, with the rank of Deputy Director
Deputy Chief for Operations the third-in-command, with the rank of Deputy Director General
Chief Directorial Staff with the rank of Deputy Director General
Head of Directorial Staff with the rank of Director
NCR Director with the rank of DIRECTOR
Regional Director- with the rank of Chief Superintendent
Provincial Director-with the rank of Senior Superintendent
NCR District Director - with the rank of Chief Superintendent
Chief of Police


Police officers are employees of the national government and shall draw their salaries from the
national budget.

They shall have the same salary grade level as that of public school teachers, police officers
assigned in Metro Manila, chartered cities and first class municipalities may be paid financial
incentives by the local government unit concerned subject to availability of funds.

and RA 9708)
a. A citizen of the Philippines;
b. A person of good moral conduct;
c. Must have passed the psychiatric/psychological, drug and physical tests to be administered by the
PNP or by any NAPOLCOM accredited government hospital for the purpose of determining physical
and mental health;
d. Must possess a formal baccalaureate degree from a recognized institution of learning;
e. Must be eligible in accordance with the standards set by the Commission;
f. Must not have been dishonorably discharged from military employment or dismissed for cause from
any civilian position in the Government;
g. Must not have been convicted by final judgment of an offense or crime involving moral turpitude;
h. Must be at least one meter and sixty-two centimeters (1.62 m) in height for male and one meter and
fifty-seven (1.57 m) for female;
i. Must weigh not more or less than five kilograms (5kgs) from the standard weight corresponding to
his or her height, age and sex; and
j. For a new applicant, must not be less than twenty-one (21) nor more than thirty (30) years of age

Pursuant to RA 9708, PNP members who are already in the service upon the effectivity of Republic
Act No. 8551 shall be given five (5) years to obtain the minimum educational qualification preferably in law
enforcement related courses, to be reckoned from the date of the effectivity of this amendatory Act:
Provided, furthermore, That for concerned PNP members rendering more than fifteen (15) years of service
and who have exhibited exemplary performance as determined by the Commission, shall no longer be
required to comply with the aforementioned minimum educational requirement.

Examination and Eligibility

The National Police Commission shall administer the entrance and promotional examinations for
police officers on the basis of the standards set by the Commission (as amended by RA 8551).

POLICE ENTRANCE EXAMINATION taken by applicants of the PNP

POLICE PROMOTIONAL EXAMINATIONS taken by in-service police officers as part of the
mandatory requirements for promotion.


The appropriate eligibilities for PO1 are those acquired from the following:

NAPOLCOM PNP Entrance Examination

R.A. No. 6506 (Licensed Criminologist)
R.A. No. 1080 (Bar and Board Examinations of baccalaureate degree)
P.D. 907 (Granting Civil Service Eligibility to College Honor Graduates)
Civil Service Professional


Promotional Examinations
-Members of the Bar and Licensed Criminologists whose profession are germane to law
enforcement and police functions are no longer required to take promotional examinations.
- Up to the rank of Superintendent.


PO1 to SPO4 Appointed by the PNP Regional Director for regional personnel or by the Chief PNP for the
National Headquarters personnel.

INSP to SUPT Appointed by the Chief of the PNP, as recommended by their immediate superiors.
SSUPT to DDG Appointed by the President

Director General Appointed by the President from among the senior officers down to the rank of Chief


PERMANENT when an applicant possesses the upgraded general qualifications for appointment in
the PNP.

TEMPORARY Any PNP personnel who is admitted due to the waiver of the educational or weight
Any members who will fail to satisfy any of the waived requirements with the specified time periods
shall be dismissed from the service.
Pursuant to NAPOLCOM Memorandum Circular No. 2007-009, a newly recruited PO1 shall be
appointed in temporary status in twelve (12) months pending compliance with the Field Training
Program (FTP) involving actual experience and assignment in patrol, traffic and investigation.


(NAPOLCOM MC No. 2007-009)

1) Conditions on waivers for initial appointment to the PNP

The age, height and weight for initial appointment to the PNP may be waived only when the number
of qualified applicants falls below the approved national/regional quota.
The Commission en banc may grant age, height and weight waiver. The NAPOLCOM Regional
Director may grant height waiver to a member of an indigenous group.
Waiver of the age requirement may be granted provided that the applicant shall not be less than
twenty (20) nor more than thirty five (35) years of age.
Waiver of the height requirement may be granted to a male applicant who is at least 1 meter and 57
cm (1.57m) and to a female applicant who is at least 1 meter and 52cm (1.52m). Provided, that the
minimum height requirement for applicants who belong to indigenous group duly certified by the
Office of the Muslim Affairs (OMA) or the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP) shall
be 1.52m for male and 1.45m for female

An applicant who is granted a weight waiver shall be given reasonable time not exceeding six (6)
months within which to comply with the said requirement. Failure to attain the required weight shall
cause the termination from the service.

2) Factors to be considered in the Grant of Waivers

a) Outstanding accomplishments or possession of special skills in law enforcement, police work,
martial arts, marksmanship and similar skills;
b) Special talents in the field of sports, music and others;
c) Extensive experience or training in forensic science and other technical services.

3) Selection Criteria under the waiver program

a) Applicants who possess the least disqualifications shall take precedence over those who possess
more disqualifications.
b) The requirement shall be waived in the following order:
1. Age
2. Height
3. Weight


1) In general, all original appointments of commissioned officers in the PNP shall commence with the rank
of inspector, to include all those with highly technical qualifications applying for the PNP technical services
(R.A. 6975).

a) Senior Inspector
1) Chaplain;
2) Member of the Bar;
3) Doctor of Medicine

b) Inspector
1) Dentist
2) Optometrists
3) Nurses
4) Engineers
5) Graduates of forensic science
6) Graduates of Philippine National Police Academy
o Licensed criminologists may be appointed to the rank of inspector to fill up any vacancy after
promotions from the ranks are completed.

2) New policy on LATERAL ENTRY (NAPOLOCM M.C 2008-006

a) A person with highly technical qualifications such as:
1) Dentist
2) Optometrist
3) Nurse
4) Engineer
5) Graduate of Forensic Science
6) Doctor of Medicine
7) Member of the Philippine Bar
8) Chaplain
9) Information Technologist
10) Pilot
11) Psychologist
b) Graduate of PNPA
c) Licensed Criminologist
3) Top priority consideration for lateral entry into the rank of Police Inspector shall be given to top ten (10)
placers of the different Licensure Examinations. However, incumbent PNP members who landed in the top
ten shall be given first preference over the civilian provided that the qualifications are satisfied.
4).The maximum age of PNP members applicants through lateral entry shall be forty six (46) years old at
the time of appointment. Age waivers shall not be allowed.


Promotion is defined as the upward movement from one classification or rank to another carrying
higher benefits and more responsibility. It is the upgrading of ranks and/or advancement to a position of
1. Regular Promotion
2. Special/ Meritorious/Spot Promotion
3. Promotion by virtue of position

I. Regular Promotion - promotion granted to police officers meeting the mandatory requirements for


1. Educational attainment
2. Completion of appropriate training/schooling, such as:

o Masters Degree - Chief Superintendent and above

o Officers Senior Executive Course (OSEC) Supt to Sr. Supt
o Officers Advance Course (OAC) Chief Insp.
o Officers Basic Course (OBC) Sr. Insp.
o Officers Candidate Course (OCC) SPOIV
o Senior Leadership Course (SLC) SPOIII to SPOIV
o Junior Leadership Course (JLC) POIII to SPOI

3. Time-in Grade the number of years required for a police officer to hold a certain rank before he
can be promoted to the next higher rank. The time-in grade in the PNP is maintained as follows
(NAPOLCOM MC # 2011-196):

o 2 years from Sr Supt to Chief Supt.

o 3 years from Supt to Sr Supt
o 5 years Chief Insp to Supt
o 5 years Sr Insp to Chief Insp
o 4 years Insp to Sr Insp
o 3 years SPO4 to Insp
o 3 years SPO3 to SPO4
o 3 years SPO2 to SPO3
o 3 years SPO1 to SPO2
o 3 years PO3 to SPO1
o 3 year PO2 to PO3
o 4 years PO1 to PO2

4. Appropriate eligibility the required promotional examinations

a. Police Officer Promotional Examination
b. Senior Police Officer Promotional Examination
c. Police Inspector Promotional Examination
d. Police Superintendent Promotional Examination

Except for the Chief, PNP, no PNP member who has less than one (1) year of service before
reaching the compulsory retirement age shall be promoted to a higher rank or appointed to any other

Pursuant to RA 9708, In addition, the institution of a criminal action or complaint against a

police officer shall not be a bar to promotion: Provided, however, That upon finding of probable
cause, notwithstanding any challenge that may be raised against that finding thereafter, the
concerned police officer shall be ineligible for promotion: Provided, further, That if the case remains
unresolved after two (2) years from the aforementioned determination of probable cause, he
or she shall be considered for promotion. In the event he or she is held guilty of the crime by final
judgment, said promotion shall be recalled without prejudice to the imposition of the appropriate
penalties under applicable laws, rules and regulations:

Provided, furthermore, That if the complaint filed against the police officer is for a crime including,
but not limited to, a violation of human rights, punishable by reclusion perpetua or life
imprisonment, and the court has determined that the evidence of guilt is strong, said police officer
shall be completely ineligible for promotion during the pendency of the said criminal case.

II. Special Promotion promotion granted to police officers who have exhibited acts of conspicuous
courage and gallantry at the risk of his/her life above and beyond the call of duty.
Conspicuous courage is a courage that is clearly distinguished above others in the performance of ones


2007-003 and PNP Memorandum Circular No. 2009-019)

1. A deed of personal bravery and self sacrifice above and beyond the call of duty, so conspicuous as to
distinguish the act clearly over and above his/her comrades in the performance of more than ordinary
hazardous service, such as; but not limited to the following circumstances:
o Overwhelming number of enemies and firepower capability as against the strength of PNP
operatives and their firepower capability;
o Infiltration and penetration of the safe houses and hideouts of organized crime syndicates like
kidnapping, illegal drugs, carnapping, hijacking and terrorism;
o Shoot-out in robbery/hold-up incidents inside public places such as: malls, government offices,
business establishments and PUVs;
o Conduct of rescue/disaster operations that resulted in the saving of lives and properties.

2. An act of heroism exhibited in the face of an armed enemy or in the conduct of rescue/disaster operations
resulting in the loss of life (posthumous promotions).

Posthumous Award in case an individual who distinguish himself dies before the granting of the awards.


Any PNP personnel designated to any key position whose rank is lower than that which is
required for such position shall, after six (6) months of occupying the same, be entitled to a rank
adjustment corresponding to the position.
Provided, that the personnel shall not be reassigned to a position calling for a higher rank until after
two (2) years from the date of such rank adjustment.


Refers to the retirement or separation from police service of PNP uniformed personnel pursuant to
any of the means mentioned in Section 24 to 29 of RA 8551 and other means as provided in
NAPOLCOM Memorandum Circular No. 2008-005.)

a) Attrition by attainment of Maximum Tenure in Position.

Maximum Tenure in Position refers to the maximum cumulative period for a PNP member to hold
a particular position level.

Position Maximum Tenure

Chief Four (4) years
Deputy Chief Four (4) years
Director of the Staff Services Four (4) years
Regional Directors Six (6) years
Provincial/City Directors Nine (9) years

b) Attrition by Relief A PNP uniformed personnel who has been relieved for just cause and has not been
given an assignment within two (2) years after such relief shall be retired or separated.

c) Attrition by demotion in position or rank Any PNP personnel, civilian or uniformed, who are relieved
and assigned to a position lower than what is established for his or her grade in the PNP staffing pattern
and who shall not be assigned to a position commensurate to his or her grade within EIGHTEEN (18)
MONTHS after such demotion shall be retired or separated.

d) Attrition by non-promotion Any PNP personnel who has not been promoted for a continuous period
of TEN (10) YEARS shall be retired or separated

e) Attrition by other means - Any PNP member of officer with at least five (5) years of accumulated
active service shall be separated based on any of the following:

Inefficiency based on poor performance during the last two (2) successive annual rating periods;
1. Poor performance refers to the poor rating in the promulgated PNP Performance Evaluation Rating
2. Inefficiency based on poor performance for three (3) cumulative annual rating periods;
3. Physical and/or mental incapacity to perform police functions and duties.
4. Failure to pass the required entrance examinations twice and/or finish the required career course
except for justifiable reasons;
5. Refusal to take periodic PNP Physical Fitness Test without justifiable reason.

Physical Fitness Test refers to the method of evaluating the physical condition of PNP members in terms
of stamina, strength, speed and agility.

6. Failure to take PNP Physical Fitness Test for four (4) consecutive periodic tests due to health
7. Failure to pass PNP Physical Fitness Test for Two (2) consecutive periodic tests or four (4)
cumulative periodic tests; or
8. Non-compliance with the minimum qualification standards for the permanency or original

Retirement Or Separation Under The Attrition System

Any personnel who is dismissed from the PNP pursuant to different ways mentioned, shall be retired
if he or she has rendered at least twenty (20) years of service and separated if he or she has
rendered less than twenty (20) years of service, unless the personnel is disqualified by law to
receive such benefits.

The separation of the police personnel from the service by reason of reaching the age of retirement
provided by law, or upon completion of certain number of years in active service. a PNP uniformed
personnel shall retire to the next higher rank for purposes of retirement pay.


a. Compulsory for officer and non-officer, upon the attainment of age Fifty-Six (56). Provided, in
case of any officer with the rank of CSUPT, Director or Deputy Director General, the Commission
may allow his retention in the service for an unextendible of one (1) year.
b. Optional upon accumulation of at least Twenty (20) years of satisfactory active service.

Retirement Benefits
Monthly retirement pay shall be FIFTY PERCENT (50%) of the base pay in case of twenty years of
active service, increasing by TWO AND ONE-HALF PERCENT (2.5%) for every year of active
service rendered beyond twenty years.


Provided by RA 8551
Womens desk in all police stations shall administer and attend to cases involving crimes against
chastity, sexual harassment, abuses committed against women and children and other similar
The PNP shall reserve TEN PERCENT (10%) of its annual recruitment, training and education quota
for women.
Policewomen shall enjoy the same opportunities in terms of assignment, promotion and other
benefits and privileges extended to all police officers.


Governors and Mayors are deputized as representatives of the NAPOLCOM in their respective
territorial jurisdiction.
a) Provincial Governor
Power to choose the PNP Provincial Director from a list of 3 eligibles recommended by the PNP
Regional Director.
- oversee the implementation of the provincial public safety plan.
b) City and Municipal Mayors
Has the power to choose his CHIEF OF POLICE from a list of five (5) eligibles recommended by
the provincial police director.

He has the authority to recommend to the provincial director the transfer, reassignment or detail of
PNP members outside of their respective city or town .
Authority to recommend from a list of eligibles, the appointment of new members of the PNP to be
assigned in respective cities.
Exercise operational supervision and control over PNP units in their jurisdiction, except during the 30
days period immediately preceding and the 30 days following any national, local and barangay
During the election period, local police forces shall be under the supervision and control of the

Operational Supervision and control

Means the power to direct, superintend, and oversee the day to day functions of police investigation
of crime, crime prevention activities and traffic control.
Shall also include the power to direct the employment and deployment of units or elements of the
PNP, through the station commander, to ensure public safety and effective maintenance of peace
and order within the locality.

Refers to utilization of units or elements of the PNP for purposes of protection of lives and
properties, enforcement of laws, maintenance of peace and order, prevention of crimes, arrest of
criminal offenders and bringing the offenders to justice and ensuring public safety, particularly in the
suppression of disorders, riots, lawlessness, violence, rebellious and seditious conspiracy,
insurgency, subversion or other related activities.

Shall mean the orderly and organized physical movement of elements or units of the PNP within the
province, city or municipality for purposes of employment


Unless reversed by the President, the NAPOLCOM may, after consultation with the provincial
governor and congressman concerned, suspend or withdraw the deputation of any local executives
for any of the following grounds:
o Frequent unauthorized absences
o Abuse of authority
o Providing material support to criminal elements
o Engaging in acts inimical to national security or which negate the effectiveness of the peace
and order campaign.

Administrative Disciplinary Machineries

Citizen Complaints -pertains to any complaint initiated by a private citizen or his duly authorized
representative on account of an injury, damage or disturbance sustained due to an irregular or illegal act
committed by a member of the PNP

1. CHIEF OF POLICE - where the offense is punishable by withholding of privileges, restriction to
specified limits, suspension or forfeiture of salary, or any combination thereof, for a period not
exceeding fifteen (15) days

2. CITY/MUNICIPAL MAYORS - where the offense is punishable by withholding of privileges,

restriction to specified limits, suspension or forfeiture of salary, or any combination thereof, for a
period not less than Sixteen but not exceeding Thirty (30) Days.

3. PEOPLES LAW ENFORCEMENT BOARD (PLEB) -where the offense is punishable by withholding
of privileges, restriction to specified limits, suspension or forfeiture of salary, or any combination
thereof, for a period exceeding Thirty (30) Days, or by Dismissal.

INTERNAL DISCIPLINE On dealing with minor offense involving internal discipline found to have
committed by any PNP members, the duly designated supervisors shall, after due notice and hearings,
exercise disciplinary powers as follows:

1. CHIEF OF POLICE - may impose the administrative punishment of admonition or reprimand;

restriction to specified limits; withholding of privileges; forfeiture of salary or suspension; or any
combination of the foregoing for a period not exceeding Fifteen (15) Days.
2. PROVINCIAL DIRECTORS - may impose the administrative punishment of admonition or
reprimand; restriction to specified limits; withholding of privileges; forfeiture of salary or suspension;
or any combination of the foregoing for a period not exceeding Thirty (30) Days.
3. REGIONAL DIRECTORS - may impose the administrative punishment of admonition or reprimand;
restriction to specified limits; withholding of privileges; forfeiture of salary or suspension; demotion;
or any combination of the foregoing for a period not exceeding Sixty (60) Days.
4. CHIEF OF THE PNP - shall have the power to impose the disciplinary punishment of dismissal
from the service; suspension or forfeiture of salary; demotion; or any combination of the foregoing
for a period not exceeding One Hundred Eighty (180) Days.

MINOR OFFENSE - shall refer to an act or omission not involving moral turpitude but affecting the internal
discipline of the PNP, and shall include but not be limited to:
o Simple misconduct or negligence
o Insubordination
o Frequent absences or tardiness
o Habitual drunkenness
o Gambling prohibited by law



Pro-actively conduct inspections and audits on PNP personnel and units;

Investigate complaints and gather evidence in support of an open investigation;
Conduct summary hearings on PNP members facing administrative charges;
Submit a periodic report on the assessment, analysis, and evaluation of the character and behavior
of PNP personnel and units to the Chief PNP and the Commission;
File appropriate criminal cases against PNP members before the court as evidence warrants and
assists in the prosecution of the case;
Provide assistance to the Office of the Ombudsman in cases involving the personnel of the PNP;

The IAS shall also conduct, motu proprio (on its own initiative), automatic investigation of the
following cases:

Incidents where a police personnel discharges a firearm;

Incidents where death, serious physical injury, or any violation of human rights occurred in the
conduct of a police operation;
Incidents where evidence was compromised, tampered with, obliterated, or lost while in the custody
of police personnel;
Incidents where a suspect in the custody of the police was seriously injured; and
Incidents where the established rules of engagement have been violated.


Headed by the INSPECTOR GENERAL who is a CIVILIAN and appointed by the President upon
the recommendation of the Director General (Chief, PNP)
The Inspector General shall be assisted by a Deputy Inspector General
There shall be national, regional and provincial offices
The national office shall be headed by the Inspector General, the regional offices by a Director, and
the provincial offices by a Superintendent


Entry shall be voluntary

PNP personnel with at least five (5) years experience in law enforcement
With no derogatory service record

Members of the bar may enter the service laterally


A body created pursuant to RA 6975.
One of the disciplinary authorities of the PNP authorized to handle and investigate citizens
The central receiving entity for any citizens complaint against the PNP members
Shall be created by the sangguniang panlungssod/bayan in every city and municipality as may be
There shall be at least one (1) PLEB for every five hundred (500) city or municipal police personnel.
Membership in the PLEB is a civic duty.

composed of five (5) members who shall be as follows:

Any member of the sangguniang panlungsod/bayan.

Any barangay chairman of the locality concerned.
Three other members to be chosen by the local peace and order council from among the
members of the community.
For the three other members, the following conditions must be met:
o One must be a woman
o One must be a lawyer, or a college graduate, or the principal of an elementary school in the q
The CHAIRMAN of the PLEB shall be elected from among its members
The term of office of the members of the PLEB is THREE (3) YEARS


Formal administrative disciplinary appellate machinery of the National Police Commission.
Tasked to hear cases on appeal from the different disciplinary authorities in the PNP


National Appellate Board

Shall decide cases on appeal from decisions rendered by the PNP Chief and the National Internal
Affairs Service
Shall be composed of the four (4) regular commissioners and shall be chaired by the executive


Shall decide cases on appeal from decisions rendered by the Regional Director, Provincial Director,
Chief of Police, the city or municipal mayor and the PLEB
There shall be at least one (1) regional appellate board per administrative region

a. Withholding of privileges
b. Restriction to specified limits
c. Restrictive custody
d. Forfeiture of salary
e. Suspension
f. Any combination of the penalties above (1 to 5)
g. One (1) rank demotion
h. Dismissal from the service


The determination in advance of how the objectives of the organization will be attained; involves the
determination of a course of action to take in performing a particular function or activity
A management function concerned with visualizing future situation, making estimates concerning
them, identifying issues, needs and potential danger points, analyzing and evaluating the alternative
ways and means of reaching desired goals according to a certain schedule, estimating the
necessary funds and resources to do the work and initiating action in time to prepare what may be
needed to cope with changing conditions and contingent events


Deal with procedures that have been outlined and officially adopted by all members of the unit under
specified circumstances
Guidelines for actions to be taken.

General plan of action that serves as a guide in the operation of the organization or unit
Codes of procedures


1. S.O.P # 1 Police Beat Patrol Procedures
2. SOP # 2 Bantay-Kalye
3. SOP # 3 Siyasat
4. SOP # 4 REACT 166
5. SOP # 5 LIGTAS (anti-kidnapping)
6. SOP # 6 Anti-Carnapping
7. SOP # 7 Anti-Terrorism
8. SOP # 8 Joint Anti-Bank Robbery Action Committee (JABRAC)
9. SOP # 9 Anti-Hijacking or Highway Robbery
10. SOP # 10 PAGLALANSAG or PAG-AAYOS (against Partisan Armed Groups of Loose Fire)
11. SOP # 11 Manhunt Bravo (wanted persons)
12. SOP # 12 Anti-Illegal Gambling
13. SOP # 13 Anti-Squatting
14. SOP # 14 JERICHO
15. SOP # 15 NENA (Anti-Prostitution)
16. SOP # 16 Anti-Pornography
17. SOP # 17 Guidelines in the Conduct of Arrest, Search and Seizure
18. SOP # 18 Schematic Diagram of SANDIGAN Master Plan
19. SOP # 19 Anti-Illegal Logging
20. SOP # 20 Anti-Illegal Fishing
21. SOP # 21 Anti-Illegal Drugs


Procedures intended to be used in all situations of all kinds shall be outlined as guide to officers and
men in the field, such as: procedures that relate to reporting, to raids, arrests, stopping suspicious
persons, receiving complaints, investigation, etc

Include the procedures to be followed in the headquarters, usually reflected in the duty manual.


Procedures intended for specific operations to ensure uniformity of action

Often called work plan
The work program of the field units
Describe specific actions to be taken
The work to be done is estimated, manpower and equipment is allocated, proper objectives are
defined and methods of accomplishment are developed
Statistical analysis is widely used


1. OPLAN JUMBO ASG Strategic Plan against Terrorism

2. OPLAN SALIKOP CIDG Strategic Plan against Organized Crime Groups
3. OPLAN DISIPLINA TMG regarding vehicles and motorists

4. OPLAN BANTAY DALAMPASIGAN operation security measures and sea borne security patrols

Plans that concern methods of action to be taken at a designated location and under specific
Generally emergency type plans that can be put into effect on the sudden occurrence of a condition
requiring their use
Planning for emergencies of a specific nature at known locations
Developed for specific situations as they arise
Examples are: planning for major accidents; calamities or disasters; special events; hostage-
taking situations, etc


Those plans that relate to staffing, equipping, supplying and organizing
Include the structuring of functions, authority and responsibilities, the allocation of resources,
personnel management, budgeting and other concerns administrative in nature
Examples are: assignment and training of personnel; recruitment; equipment and supply
procedures, etc

Those which require actions or assistance from persons or agencies outside of the department
Involve coordination with other agencies
Examples are: exchange of information on wanted persons, known drug syndicates, known
organized crime groups, stolen vehicles, etc


a. SANDIGAN-MILENYO Anti-Criminality Master Plan
b. SANDUGO master plan supporting the Internal Security Operations
c. BANAT Anti-Illegal Drugs Master Plan
d. SANG-INGAT Security Operations Master Plan
e. SAKLOLO Disaster Management Master Plan
f. SANGYAMAN Protection and Preservation of Environment, Cultural Properties and Natural



Generally, the meaning of security is a kind of state where people, institution, authority or groups feel
fully secured of feeling, free from any threat or vulnerability from somewhere or someone in his/her life,
liberty, property or activity. It could be in physical, psychological, social or economical form.
It is a state or quality of being secured, freedom from fear or danger, assurance, certainty.
It is the degree of protection against danger, loss, and criminals.
Protection against any type of crime to safeguard life and assets by various methods and device.


1. Command Responsibility
Cannot be delegated but the security tasks can be assigned.
2. Compartmentation
Need to know basis
3. Balance between security and efficiency
Security prevails over efficiency
4. General principles of security remain constant
Specific measures to suit operations
5. Security is the concern of all personnel
Regardless of rank, position, designation


1. ACTIVE MEASURES these involve the installation of physical barriers, security lighting, use of
vaults, locks and others.

2. PASSIVE MEASURES those that will deter man from committing such act of fear of being caught,
charge in court or get dismissed, such as: security education, programs, investigations, seminars,
personnel security check.

Brief History of Security in the Philippines

The private security business began on March 11, 1933, when the first formally licensed
private security agency Special Watchman Agency started operations;
Later it renamed Jimenez Security Agency, founded by brothers Juan and Pedro Jimenez;
On May 30 1958, the Philippine Association of Detectives and Protective Agency
Operations (PADPAO) was formally organized;
RA 5487 was passed on June 13, 1969 through the continuous lobbying of the incorporators
and officers of PADPAO, which set the standards and minimum requirements for the
operations of security agencies.
P.D. 11 was passed on October 3, 1972, widening the coverage of RA 5487 to include
security guards employed in logging concessions, agricultural, mining and pasture lands;
P.D. 100 was issued on January 17, 1973, broadening the coverage of the security industry
to include employees of the national or local government or any agency who are employed to
watch or secure government building and properties.
On August 1969, the Philippine Constabulary activated the Security and Investigation
Supervisory office or SIASO to supervise and control the organization and operation of
private security and detective agencies nationwide;
Later it was renamed Philippine Constabulary Supervisory Office for Security and
Investigation Agencies or PCSUSIA.
With the passage of RA 6975, this unit was absorbed by the Philippine National Police;
Later it was made into a division of the PNP Civil Security Group and was renamed Security
Agencies and Guard Supervision Division (SAGSD);
It was renamed to PNP Supervisory Office for Security Investigation Agency (SOSIA).


1. Physical Security
2. Personnel Security
3. Document and Information Security


A system of barriers placed between the potential intruder and the objects/matter to be protected. It
is the broadest branch of security, which is concerned with physical measures adopted to prevent
unauthorized access to equipment, facilities, materials and documents and to safeguard them
against espionage, sabotage, damage and theft.

Purpose of Physical Security:

1. To deny, delay or make difficult the intrusion or access.
2. To prevent, or control, unauthorized entry.
3. To safeguard /secure assets and/or property from loss, theft, or destruction.
4. To protect persons from harm as to be caused by the intrusion on the Intruder.
5. To deter, prevent and/or detect attempt to commit crime or perpetrate sabotage or espionage.

Basic Principles of Physical Security

1. The type of access will depend on the number of variable factors and may be achieved in a number
of ways.
2. There is no impenetrable barrier
3. Defense in depth(barrier after barrier)
4. Delays against surreptitious entry and non-surreptitious entry.
5. Each installation is different.


1. Threat
An indication of impending danger or harm;
- positive inimical acts
2. Hazard
A chance of being injured or harmed;
-passive inimical acts
3. Vulnerability
inability to withstand the effects of a hostile environment
-measure of how open an establishment to intrusion, attack or injury
4. Risk
is the potential that a chosen action or activity (including the choice of inaction) will lead to a loss
(an undesirable outcome).
-probability of an event to happen that will lead to loss.

An act or condition which results in a situation conducive to a breach of the protection system and
the subsequent loss or compromise, or damage to personnel, property or facilities.

1. Man Made Hazards an acts or conditions affecting the safe of operation of the facility caused by
human action, accidental or intentional. It includes sabotage, espionage, pilferage and theft.
2. Natural Hazard cause by natural phenomena which cause damage, disturbance and problems of
normal functioning activities, including security. It includes flood, lighting, storms and volcanic



Is the importance of the firm which reference to the national economy and security.

The susceptibility of the plant or establishment to damage, loss, or disruption of operation due to
various hazard.

can be defined as any structure or physical device capable of restricting, deterring, delaying, illegal
access to an installation.

Generally, a barrier is use for the following purposes:

1. Outline the perimeter of the area to be secured;
2. Create a physical and psychological deterrent to unauthorized entry;
3. Delay intrusion, thus facilitating apprehension of intruders;
4. Assist in more efficient and economical employment of guards;
5. Facilitates and impose the control of pedestrian and vehicular traffic.

1. FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE Perimeter barrier/fences

Medium or structure which defines the physical limits of an installation or area to restrict or impede
access thereto.

Doors, floors, windows, walls, roofs and grills.


Storage system like steel cabinets, safes, vaults and interior files.


Include mountains, rivers, seas, desserts or terrain difficult to traverse. To be fully effective, these
barriers must be under surveillance of guards.


Structural constructions made by man like fences, walls, floors, roofs, grill or other physical
means to deter or impede penetration.

Constructed in such a way that visual access through the fence is denied. Its advantage is that it
denies the opportunity for the intruder to become familiar with the personnel, activities and the
scheduled movements of the security personnel. On the other hand, it prevents the guards from
observing the area around the installation and it creates shadow that may be used by the intruder for
cover and concealment.

WALL Masonry wall should have the same as the chain linked and surrounded by the barbed wire
as top guard.

b. FULL VIEW FENCE It is constructed in such a way that visuals access is permitted through the
fence. Its advantage is that it allows the security personnel to keep the surrounding of the installation
under observation. On the other hand, it allows the intruder to become familiar with the movements
the security personnel.


Should be constructed minimum
height of 7 feet excluding top guard;
9 gauges or heavier;
Mesh openings of not larger 2 inches per side;
Securely fastened to rigid material or reinforced concrete;
Reach within 2 inches of hard ground or paving;
On soft ground, it must reach below surface deep enough to compensate for shifting soil or sand.


Is a type of fencing wire constructed with sharp edges or points arranged at intervals along the
strand(s). It is used to construct inexpensive fences.
3. Concertina Wire or Dannert Wire
Is a type of barbed wire or razor wire that is formed in large coils which can be expanded like a
Opened concertina wire is 50 feet long and 3 feet diameter.


Top Guard
An addition overhang or barbed wire place on vertical perimeter fences facing upward and outward
with a 45 degree angle with three to four strands of barbed wires space six inches apart. This will
increase the protective height and prevent easy access.

Entry Stations
Provided at main perimeter entrances to secure areas located out of the doors, and manned by
guards on a full time basis.

A house like structures above the perimeter barrier. Height of tower increases the range of
observation during day and night with artificial illumination.

Clear Zones
Unobstructed area maintain on both sides of the perimeter barrier. It affords better observation and
patrol movement. It should be cleared of anything that may provide concealment or assistance to a
person seeking an authorized entry.

20 feet or more between the perimeter barrier and exterior structure.
50 feet or more between the perimeter barrier and structure within the protected areas.

In large open areas or ground, where fencing or walling is impracticable and expensive, warning
signs should be conspicuously placed.
The depth itself is protection.

6. Signs and Notices

Erected where necessary in the management of unauthorized ingress and preclude accidental entry.

Provides sufficient illumination to areas during hours of darkness.


1. It improves visibility so that intruders can be seen, identified and apprehend;
2. It gives psychological fear, which serves as a deterrent to thieves, pilferers, trespassers, and
3. It makes easier. The routine of work of guards in identifying employees, vehicles during night time;
4. If placed in certain areas, may even reduce the number of stationary guards, and instead, may
require only roving patrols at night.


1. Stationary Luminary most common type consisting of fixed series of luminaries. It is commonly
used on entry gates of employees and vehicles.

Glare Protection Type The intensity is focused to the intruder while the observer or the guard
remain in comparative darkness.
Controlled lighting- The lighting is focused on certain objects than the background.

2. Standby Lighting similar to continuous lighting but can be turned on manually or by special
device or other automatic means, when there is a suspicion of entry.
3. Emergency Lighting stand by lighting which can be utilized in the event of electrical failure.

Is an aural or visual signal given by the annunciator to the security when intruder actuate certain
devices in a protected area. An annunciator is a visual or audible signaling device, which initiates
conditions of associated circuits.

Basically, alarm system are designed to alert security personnel of a attempted or consummated
intrusion into an area, building or compound. Each type of alarm is activated in the event that an
intruder tampers with the circuitry, a beam or radiated waves. Alarm are also for fire, smoke, or other
emergencies and presence of hazards.


1. Sensors
Device that can sense an abnormal condition within the system and provide a signal indicating the
presence or nature of the abnormality
2. Circuit
It is the communication channel that conveys the information from all sensors in the system to the
signal by means of wire, radio waves.
3. Signal
The actual alarm may be audible or silent, a bell, buzzer, phone ringing, or flashing of light.


1. Central Station System

Several separate compounds tie their alarm system to a central station so that in case of need, the
central station calls for assistance to the police, fire department, hospital or with other government
assisting units.
2. Proprietary System
Similar to the central station type excepts that the proprietary console is located inside the
subscribers installation who owns or bases the system.
3. Auxiliary System
An installation owned system which is a direct extension of the local enforcement agency and/or fire
department by special arrangements.
4. Local Alarm System
Consists of rigging up a visual or audible alarm near the object to be protected. In case of alarm,
response will be made by the local guards and other personnel within sight or hearing.


FIRE ALARM - - Any visual or audible signal produced by a device or system to warn the occupants of the
building or fire fighting elements of the presence or danger of fire to enable them to undertake immediate
action to save life and property and to suppress the fire.

1. Smoke Detector - a device placed at the ceilings of the floor that detects smoke, typically as an
indicator of fire.
2. Fire Bell -a hollow device made of metal that makes a ringing sound.

A type of built in sprinklers which works by the increase of room temperature and which
automatically operates the system to put out the fire. Attached and distributed in the ceiling of the
rooms. These sprinklers will go into action once a fire starts, and those that will open are those that
are directly above the fire and water is delivered where it is needed.

Steel or plastic pipes located inside the building from the lowest to the top floor with water under
pressure for use in case of fire. Located near the standpipe is a fire hose usually enclosed in a glass

It is a mechanical device strategically located in an installation or in a street where a fire hose will be
connected so that the water will be available to extinguish a fire.

Is a firefighting equipment which can is a firefighting equipment which can be portable or in cart that
is used to put out fire depending on the contents to extinguish certain types of fire.

o Involving ordinary combustible materials such as wood, cloth, and paper, requires an
extinguishing agent which cools. A water or multi-purpose dry chemical can be used.
o Fires involving flammable and combustible liquids and gases, such as solvents, greases,
gasoline, and lubricating oil, require an extinguisher which removes oxygen or cuts the chain
reaction. Foam, carbon dioxide, dry chemical, are effective.
o Fires involve energized electrical equipment (live electrical wires, electrical appliances). A
non-conducting extinguishing agent such as carbon dioxide or multi-purpose dry chemical must
be used.
o The result of the combustion of certain materials in firely divided forms. These metals can be
magnesium, potassium, powdered aluminum and zinc.

-If you need to use a fire extinguisher, remember the word P-A-S-S :

o PULL the pin - Fire extinguishers often have a pin, latch, or puncture lever that you need to release
o AIM low - Aim the nozzle or hose of the extinguisher at the base of the fire.
o SQUEEZE the handle - This releases the extinguishing agent.
o SWEEP from side to side - Move in close, and sweep across the base of the fire. Watch for re-flash
of the fire.

1. Magnetic Door Contact -is a protective device usually placed in the door, and window that can
send notification when the opening and closure occurs
2. Vibration Contact devices mounted on barriers and are used primarily to detect an attack on the
structure itself. When movement or vibration occurs, the unstable portion of the circuit moves and
breaks the current flow, which produces an alarm.
3. Passive Infrared Detector (PIR) or Motion Sensor PIRs are able to distinguish if an infrared
emitting object is present by first learning the ambient temperature of the monitored space and then
detecting a change in the temperature caused by the presence of an object.
4. Panic button -Often located under the counter, the button can be pressed in times of distress (Such
as robbery, disruptive or threatening behavior, or a situation which may warrant assistance),
triggering a silent alarm.
5. CCTV - A video monitoring system is more commonly known as Closed Circuit Television Systems.
A CCTV system is a system consisting of a television camera, video monitor, and a
transmission medium (Cable, fiber or wireless) connecting the two. It is used to monitor the

o IP based cameras work by turning images and audio into data then transmitting this data over a
network or Internet connection.
o IP cameras are a type of Closed Circuit Television Camera (CCTV) used for capturing images and
audio recordings in surveillance for homes and businesses.

o The IP name stands for Internet Protocol, a system that allows the transmission of images
captured by a digital video recorder (DVR) to the end destination computers and these components
together make up a video security system.

LOCK defined as mechanical, electrical, hydraulic or electronic device designed to prevent entry to a
building or room.

Type of Locks
1. Key Operated Lock
- It uses some sort of arrangement of internal physical barriers which prevent the lock from operating unless
they are properly aligned. The key is the device used to align these internal barriers so that the lock may be

PADLOCK a portable and detachable lock having a pivoted or sliding hasp which possess through a
staple ring, or the like and is made fast or secured.

2. Combination Lock a lock that requires manipulation of parts according to a predetermined

combination code of numbers.
3. Card Operated Lock/Coded Lock type of lock that can be opened by inserting a coded card in a
slot in the lock, or by pushing the correct button on the surface of the lock.
4. Electronic Lock type of lock that can be closed and opened remotely by electronic means.

o A machine that can be used for identification of humans by their characteristics or traits.
o It is used as a form of identification and access control.
o It is equipped with recording device that can identify the person operating the lock and the time it
was operated.

Key Control

o Defined as the management of keys in a plant or business organization to prevent unauthorized
individual access to the keys.

o Change Key - a key to a single lock

o Sub-Master Key - a key that can open all locks within a particular area or grouping.
o Master Key a special key capable of opening a series of locks
o Grand Master Key a key that can open everything in a system involving two or more master key

o A term used in England for lock picker, safecrackers, and penetrators of restricted areas or rooms.

False Key
o Genuine key stolen from the owner

Physical Barrier

Is defined as any structure or physical device capable of restricting, deterring and delaying
unauthorized , or illegal, access into an installation.

Security guard
o Is any natural person who offers or renders personal service to watch or guard residential or
business premises or both, government and/or their premises for hire and compensation.

o Security Supervisor Is charged with directing the work and observing the behavioral performance
of the guard under his unit.

Protective barriers are divided into five (5) categories:

1. Human barrier, like guards, employees

2. Animal barrier, like dog, geese
3. Natural barrier , which are natural features, like river, cliff, mountain, ravine, forest, etc that delay or
make the entry of the Intruder more difficult.
4. Energy barrier, like electrical or electronic devices used to provide assistance to security
personnel/guards, i.e protective lighting, alarm system, etc
5. Structural barrier, which are man-made features that tend to delay the Intruder, such as walls, doors,
gates, fences, locks, etc.


Republic Act 5487, as amended The Private Security Agency Law, approved on June 13, 1969.

2003 Revised Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) of RA 5487, as amended,

PNPSOSIA Philippine National Police Supervisory Office for Security Investigation Agency office under
the Civil Security Group which is charged with the supervision, direction and control of all security agencies
in the Republic.


Any Filipino citizen or corporation, association, partnership, one hundred percent of which is owned
and controlled by Filipino citizens.


a. Filipino citizen;
b. Not be less than twenty five (25) years of age;
c. College graduate and/or a commissioned officer in the inactive service or retired from the
d. Has taken a course/seminar on Industrial Security Management and/or must have adequate
training or experience in security business,
e. Good moral character;
f. Having no previous record of conviction of crime or offense involving moral turpitude.


1. Filipino citizen;
2. High School graduate;
3. Physically and mentally fit;
4. At least eighteen (18) years of age but not more than fifty (50) years old;
5. Has undergone Pre-Licensing course or its equivalent.
6. Veterans and retired military/police personnel honorably discharge including graduates of
ROTC advance (or its equivalent in the PNP) are exempted from the required Basic-
Licensing Training.


1. Filipino citizen;
2. Holder of a Baccalaureate Degree;
3. Physically and mentally fit;
4. Has graduated from a Security Officer Training Course or its equivalent


1. Filipino citizen;
2. Physically and mentally fit;
3. Holder of Masters degree either in Criminology, Public Administration, MNSA, Industrial Security
Administration, or Law
4. Must have at least ten (10) years experience in the operation and management of security


o Any person who does detective work for hire, reward or commission, other than members of the
AFP, BJMP, PNP or any other law enforcement agencies.


1. Filipino citizen;
2. Physically and mentally fit;
3. Holder of baccalaureate degree, preferably Bachelor of Laws or Bachelor of Science in
4. Graduate of a Criminal Investigation Course offered by the PNP or NBI or any police training
school, or a detective training in any authorized/recognized training center;
5. Advance ROTC/CMT graduate or its equivalent


1. Having previous record of any conviction of any crime;

2. Having previous record of any conviction of any offense involving moral turpitude;
3. Having been dishonorably discharged or separated from employment or service;
3. Being a mental incompetent;
4. Being addicted to the use of narcotic drug or drugs, and
5. Being a habitual drunkard
6. Dummy of a foreigner

o It is an act of baseness, vileness or depravity in the private and social duties which a man owes to
his fellowmen or to society in general, contrary to the accepted and customary rule of right and duty
between a man and man.
o Conduct that is considered contrary to community standards of justice, honesty and good morals.
o Examples . Rape, Forgery, Robbery


1. Company Guard Force security force maintained and operated by any private
company/corporation utilizing any of its employees to watch secure and guard its establishment.

2. Security Agency service security guard belonging to privately licensed agency (contractual
3. Government Guard Forces security unit maintained and operated by any government entity other
than military or police.

1. One (1) firearm for every two (2) security guards;
2. Private security agency/private detective agency/company security force/government security
force shall not be allowed to possess firearms in excess of five hundred (500) units.
3. Shotguns not higher than 12 gauge
4. Weapons with bores not bigger than cal .22 to include pistols and revolvers with bores bigger
than cal .38

Exemptions: in areas where there is an upsurge of lawlessness and criminality as determined by the Chief
PNP, Regional Office or their authorized representative, they may be allowed to acquire, possess and use
high powered firearms.



1. Private Security Agency minimum of two hundred (200) licensed private security personnel
and a maximum of one thousand (1,000).

2. Company Guard Force/Private Detective Agency minimum of thirty (30) and a maximum of
One thousand (1,000)


1. No firearm shall be borne nor be in the possession of any private security personnel except
when in actual performance of duty, in the prescribed uniform, in the place and time so specified
in the Duty Detail Order (DDO).
2. Shall be carried only within the compound of the establishment where he is assigned to guard.
3. While escorting big amount of cash or valuable outside of its jurisdiction or area of operation,
private security agency shall issue an appropriate Duty Detail Order to the security personnel

Duty Detail Order (DDO) is a written order/schedule issued by a superior officer usually the private
security agency/branch manager or operations officer assigning the performance of private
security/detective services duties.

o DDO for the purpose of post duties not requiring transport of firearms outside of the physical
compound or property of a client or client establishment shall be issued for not more than a thirty
(30) days duration


1. Basic Security Guard Course (Pre-Licensing Course) 150 hours;
2. Re-Training Course- 48 hours;
3. Security Officers Training Course 300 hours
4. Basic Security Supervisory Course 48 hours

All Licenses to Operate have a validity of Two (2) years;

All applications for renewal of License to operate (LTO) shall be filed at least sixty (60) days before
the expiry date of LTO;
No application shall be approved unless a certification is issued by FED-CSG to the effect that all
licenses of firearms of the agency are updated/renewed for at least one (1) year forthcoming during
the validity of the renewed LTO.

Approval, Cancellation, Suspension of LTO

Chief PNP
-Approval of New Regular LTO
-Cancellation of Regular LTO
-Re-instatement of Regular LTO
-Suspension of Regular LTO

Director Civil Security Group

Renewal of Regular LTO
Approval of Temporary LTO
Reversion of Regular to Temporary LTO
Cancellation of Temporary LTO
Suspension of Temporary LTO

Agency with 1 -199 guards P50,000.00
Agency with 200-499 guards P100,000.00
Agency with 500-799 guards P150,000.00
Agency with 800-1000 guards P200,000.00

1. Stocks of ammunition in the agency shall not exceed fifty (50) rounds of ammunition per unit of duly
licensed firearms.
2. Individual issue to each security guards shall be limited to twenty five (25) rounds for every security


1. When the firearm is about to be used in the commission of a crime;
2. When the firearm is actually being used in the commission of a crime;
3. When the firearm has just been used in the commission of a crime;
4. When the firearm being carried by the security guard is unlicensed or a firearm is not authorized by
law and regulation for his use;
5. When the confiscation of the firearm is directed by the order of the court;
6. When the firearm is used or carried outside the property, compound or establishment serviced by
the agency without proper authority; or
7. When a security guard does not possess any license to exercise his profession.
a. In all the above cases, the confiscating officer shall inform immediately the agency


1. Failure to submit any issued firearm for verification as required;
2. Carrying firearms by security personnel without appropriate Duty Detail Order;
3. When the firearm serial number has been duplicated on another firearm or using one firearms
license for more than one firearm other than those stipulated in the license;
4. Carrying of firearms outside of the place stated in the permit or in places prohibited under the
5. When the firearm was reported lost.


1. Security Management Staff
1.1 Security Director (SD) Agency Manager/Chief Security Officer responsible for the entire
operation and administration/management of the security agency.
1.2 Security Executive Director (SED) Assistant Agency Manager/Asst. Chief Security Officer
Assist the Security Director
1.3 Security Staff Director (SSD) Staff Director for Operation and Staff Director for Administration
a. >The Staff Director for operation -assistant of the security manager for the efficient operation
of the agency.
b. >The Staff Director for Administration - is the staff assistant of the agency manager for the
effective and efficient administration and management of the agency.
c. 1.4Security Staff Director for Training- Staff in charge for Training responsible for the
training of the Agencys security personnel

2. Line Leadership Staff

2.1 Security Supervisor 3 Detachment Commander is the field or area commander of the
2.2 Security Supervisor 2 Chief Inspector responsible for inspecting the entire area covered by
the detachment;
2.3 Security Supervisor 1 Inspector responsible for the area assigned by the Chief Inspector or
the Detachment Commander.

3. Security guard
3.1 Security Guard 1 Watchman/guard- the one actually posted as watchman and or guard
3.2 Security Guard 2 Shift in- charge responsible for the security officers who are scheduled in
a certain shift for a particular period
3.3 Security Guard 3 Post in- charge responsible for the entire detailed security office within a
certain establishment.

Note: Security Agency operator/manager/owner can put its own staffing pattern provided it is
consistent with the provisions of IRR of RA 5487.


1. High caliber and receives higher salary;
2. Provides better service;
3. Can be trained to handle some of the more complex security duties;
4. More familiar with facilities they protect;
5. Tend to be more loyal with the company.

a. May be required to join the union;
b. Cost more;
c. Problem of ensuring availability of back-up personnel.


1. Less expensive;
2. Use is convenient;
3. Less administrative and personnel problems;
4. Agency assumes full responsibility for the scheduling and supervising of all guard personnel
5. Can easily obtain extra guard if needed;
6. Agency easily usually accepts liability of civil suits.

1. Lack of training, low caliber employee;
2. No loyalty to the company;
3. Large turnover
4. Not familiar with facilities


1. Alertness being watchful in spotting violator, a person, a vehicle or an incident;
2. Judgment sound and good judgment to arrive at wise and timely decisions;
3. Confidence faith in oneself and his abilities;
4. Physical Fitness always in a condition to render effective service even under the most strenuous
5. Tactfulness ability to deal with others successfully without offending;
6. Self Control ability to take hold of oneself regardless of a provoking situation.


1. Enforce company rules and regulations;
2. Operate and enforce the personnel identification system;
3. Patrol and observe designated areas, perimeter, structures, installation;
4. Take into custody a person attempting or giving unauthorized access in restricted, limited and
controlled areas
5. Check rooms, buildings, storage rooms of security interest and after working hours, check proper
locking of doors and gates.
6. Perform escort duties when required;
7. Respond to alarm signals or other indications suspicious activities and emergencies;
8. Safeguard equipment and material against sabotage, unauthorized access, loss, theft or damage;
9. At quickly in situations affecting the security of installation and personnel, to fire accidents, internal
disorder, attempts to commit criminal acts;
10. Control and regulate vehicle and personnel traffic within the compound as well as parking of vehicle;
11. Other duties that is necessary in the security guard function;


1. Territorial Power
A security guard shall watch and secure the property of the person, firm or establishment
with whom he or his agency has a contract for security services. Such services shall not
extend beyond the property or compound of said person, firm or establishment except when
required by the latter in accordance with the terms of their contract, or in hot pursuit of
criminal offenders.

2. Arrest by Security Guard

A security guard or private detective is not a police officer and is not, therefore, clothed with
police authority. However, he may arrest a person under the circumstances mentioned in
Section 5, Rule 113, Revised Rules of Criminal Procedure.

3. Search without Warrant

Any security guard may, incident to the arrest, search the person so arrested in the presence
of at least two (2) witnesses. He may search employees of the firm or establishment with
which he or his agency has a contract, when such search is required by the very nature of
the business of the person, firm or establishment.


a. All private security personnel in direct confrontation with strikers, marchers or demonstrators shall
not carry firearms. They may carry only night sticks (baton) which may or may not be provided with
tear gas canister and dispenser. Security personnel not in direct confrontation with the strikers may
carry in the usual prescribed manner their issued firearm.
b. Private Security personnel shall avoid direct contact either physically or otherwise with the strikers;

c. They shall stay only within the perimeter of the installation which they are protecting at all times;
d. In protecting and securing the assets and persons of their clients, shall only use sufficient and
reasonable force necessary to overcome the risk or danger posed by strikers or hostile crowds.
e. They shall refrain from abetting or assisting acts of management leading to physical clash of forces
between labor and management.
f. They must at all times be in complete uniform with their names and agencys name shown on their
shirts above the breast pockets.


1. Background Investigation;
2. Locating missing person;
3. Conduct surveillance work;
4. Such other detective work as may become the subject matter of contract between the agency and its
clients. Except not contrary to law, public order, public policy morale and good custom.


In case of emergency or in times of disaster or calamity when the services of any security
agency/entity and his personnel are needed. The city or municipal mayor, may muster or
incorporate the members of the agency or agencies nearest the area of such disaster or
calamity to help in the maintenance of peace and order, prevention of crime, or apprehension
of violators of laws and ordinance, and in the protection of lives and properties.
They shall receive direct orders from the Chief of Police of the city or municipality for the
duration of the emergency, disaster or calamity.


In case of emergency or in times of disaster or calamities, the Chief, PNP may deputize any security
guard to assist the PNP in the performance of police duties for the duration of such emergency,
disaster or calamity. Licensed guards, who are actually assigned to clients with DDO, shall be
deputized by the Chief, PNP, and clothed with authority to enforce laws, rules and regulations within
his area of responsibility.


1. Private security personnel are always subordinate to members of the PNP on matters pertaining to
law enforcement and crime prevention. They cannot enforce any provision of the law except in
executing citizens arrest and/or conducting initial investigation of a commission of a crime. In such
case, any arrested person shall be turned over immediately to the nearest PNP unit/station.
2. Criminal investigation is the responsibility of the PNP. All results of initial investigation conducted by
the private security personnel and all evidence gathered by them shall be turned over to the PNP
unit/station concerned as a matter of course without delay.


1. Assisting or protecting criminals during on or off duty status;
2. Providing confidential information to unauthorized person;
3. Posted security guard found drunk or drinking intoxicating liquor; and
4. Other similar acts


Theft committed by any person, who with intent to gain but without violence, against, or
intimidation of persons nor force upon things shall take personal property of another without the latter


a. The need or desire . An individual may need or desire to commit the act because of financial
problem, inadequate income, extravagant living, gambling.
b. The psychological need (Kleptomania) -is an irresistible urge to steal items of trivial value.
People with this disorder are compelled to steal things, generally, but not limited to, objects of
little or no significant value.
c. The criminal tendency. The individual with such tendency may be more tempted to steal if
security control are inadequate.


Casual Pilferer One who steals due to his inability to resist the unexpected opportunity and has a little
fear of detection.
Systematic Pilferer One who steals with preconceived plans and takes away any or all types of items or
supplies for economic gain.

COMMUNICATION SECURITY is the protection resulting from the application of various measures which
prevent or delay the enemy or unauthorized persons in gaining information through the communication
system. This includes:
a. Transmission Security component of communications security which results from all
measures designed to protect transmission from interception.
b. Cryptographic Security results from the provisions of technically sound crypto-system
and their proper use.
c. Physical Security providing safeguards to equipment and material from access by
unauthorized persons.


a. Wiretapping - is the monitoring of telephone conversations by a third party, often by covert

b. Bugging means to secretly listen to or record a conversation using a hidden electronic
c. Eavesdropping (unauthorized listening)- is the unauthorized real-time interception of a
private communication, such as a phone call, instant message, videoconference or fax

RA No. 4200, Approved June 19, 1965

An Act to prohibit and penalize wiretapping and other related violations of privacy of communication,
and other purposes.

Unlawful Acts
Sec. 1
It shall be unlawful for any person, not being authorized by all the parties to any private
communication or spoken word, to tap any wire or cable, or by using any other device or arrangement, to
secretly overhear, intercept, or record such communication or spoken word by using a device commonly
known as a dictaphone or dictagraph or dictaphone or walkie-talkie or tape recorder

It shall also be unlawful for any person, be he a participant or not in the act or acts penalized in the next
preceding sentence, to knowingly possess any tape record, wire record, disc record, or any other such
record, or copies thereof, of any communication or spoken word secured either before or after the effective
date of this Act in the manner prohibited by this law; or to replay the same for any other person or persons;
or to communicate the contents thereof, either verbally or in writing, or to furnish transcriptions thereof,
whether complete or partial, to any other person:

Provided, That the use of such record or any copies thereof as evidence in any civil, criminal
investigation or trial of offenses mentioned in section 3 hereof, shall not be covered by this prohibition.

Sec. 3

Nothing contained in this Act, however, shall render it unlawful or punishable for any peace officer,
who is authorized by a written order of the Court, to execute any of the acts declared to be unlawful in the
two preceding sections in cases involving the crimes of treason, espionage, provoking war and disloyalty in
case of war, piracy, mutiny in the high seas, rebellion, conspiracy and proposal to commit rebellion, inciting
to rebellion, sedition, conspiracy to commit sedition, inciting to sedition, kidnapping as defined by the
Revised Penal Code, and violations of Commonwealth Act No. 616, punishing espionage and other
offenses against national security:


The authorization shall be effective for the period specified in the order which shall not exceed sixty
(60) days from the date of issuance of the order, unless extended or renewed by the court upon being
satisfied that such extension or renewal is in the public interest.

The court referred to in this section shall be understood to mean the Court of First Instance within
whose territorial jurisdiction the acts for which authority is applied for are to be executed.

Bank Security
A specialized type of physical security protecting the assets, personnel and operation of a bank, with
special emphasis on the precaution and measures to safeguard the cash and assets while in s
storage, in transit, and during transaction.
Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) Circular No. 620 Issued on September 3, 2008 a Circular
issued by BSP concerning regulations on Bank protection which aims to promote maximum
protection of life and property against crimes (robbery, theft, etc), and other destructive causes.

Guard System
BSP requires that all banking offices be manned by adequate number of security personnel to be
determined by the bank, taking into consideration its size, location, costs and overall bank protection

Security Devices
Banks are required to have a robbery alarm or other appropriate device for promptly notifying law
enforcement office either directly or through an intermediary of an attempted, ongoing or perpetrated

In armored Car operations

All armored vehicles are required to be built with bullet resistant materials capable of withstanding
the firepower of high powered firearm (M16, M14). Also equipped with a vault or safe or a partition
wall with a combination lock designed to prevent retrieval of the cargo while in transit.

Document And Information Security

Security involving the protection of documents and information from loss, access by unauthorized
Prescribes the policies and establishes the standard basic procedures governing the classification
and security of official matter.

General Principles
1. The authority and responsibility for the preparation and classification of classified matter rest
exclusively with the originating office;

2. Classified matter should be classified according to content and not the classification of the
file in which they are held or of another document to which they refer;
3. Classification should be made as soon as possible by placing the appropriate marks on the
matter to be classified;

4. Each individual whose duty allows access to classified matter is responsible for the
protection of the classified matter while it is in his/her possession and shall insure that
dissemination of such classified matter is on the need to know basis and to property
cleared personnel only.


Any material that contains marks, symbols, or signs, either visible, partially visible or completely
invisible that may be presently or ultimately convey a meaning or message to someone.

Refers to the act of assigning to information or material one of the four security classification
categories after determination has been made that the information requires the security protection
as provided for in the regulation;

Is an administrative determination that an individual is eligible from a security standpoint for access
to classified matter of a specific category;

Refers to the grant of access to classified matter only to properly cleared persons when such
classified information is required in the performance of their official duties, and restricting it to
specific physical confine when feasible.

Term given to the requirement that the dissemination of classified matters be limited strictly to those
persons whose official duties require knowledge thereof.


-Memorandum Circular No. 196, dated 07/19/1968 (Security of Classified Matter in government offices.)

1. TOP SECRET any information and material, the unauthorized disclosure of which would cause
exceptionally grave damage to the nation, politically, economically or militarily;
2. SECRET- any information and material, the unauthorized disclosure of which would endanger
national security, cause serious injury to the interest or prestige of the nation or any governmental
3. CONFIDENTIAL any information and materials, the unauthorized disclosure of which would be
prejudicial to the interest or prestige of the nation or governmental activity or would cause
administrative embarrassment or unwarranted injury.
4. RESTRICTED any information and material which requires special protection other than those
determined to be Confidential, Secret, and Top Secret matters.

1. By direct contact of officer or personnel concerned;
2. By official courier;
3. Electrical means in cryptographic form
4. Registered Mail

1. Burning
2. Shredding

Shall be in a safe, steel filing cabinet with built in dial type combination lock of such weight, size and
construction as to minimize the possibility of physical theft or damage to fire.

Part of physical security that deals primarily with the protection of processes, formulas, patents, and
other industrial and manufacturing activities from espionage, infiltration, loss, compromise or

1. The Creation Information is discovered and develop;
2. Used Some action is take with the information;
3. Storage and Retrieval Stored for future use;
4. Transfer transferring of information from active to inactive use;
5. Disposition decision may be made to retain the information indefinitely.


information which some special way is related to the status, operations or activities of the possessor
over which the possessor asserts ownership.

It may consist of any formula, pattern, device or compilation of information which is used in ones
business and which gives one opportunity to gain an advantage over competitors who do not know
or use it.

A grant given by the government to an inventor, conveying and securing to him the exclusive rights
to make, use and sell his invention for term of twenty (20) years.


6, 1997




Competitive Intelligence systematic program for gathering and analyzing information about competitors
activities and general business trends to further companys goals.

Types of Competitive Intelligence

1. White information available from company publication, public records or commercial reporting
2. Gray not readily available but which is usually can be obtained without acquiring any
civil/criminal liability in the process.
3. Black obtained through clearly unethical or illegal means.

Class I Vital Document This is an irreplaceable records , reproduction of which does not have
the same value as the original;
Class II Important Document- This is a record, reproduction of which cause considerable
expense and labor, or considerable delay.
Class III Useful Document This is a record, the loss of which may cause inconvenience but
could be readily replaced and may not present insurmountable obstacle to the prompt restoration of
the business;
Class IV- Non essential Document This record may include daily files, routine in nature, lost of
which will not affect the organization.

1. SAFE a metallic container used for safekeeping of documents or small items in office or
2. VAULT a heavily constructed fire and burglar resistant container usually part of the building
structure use to keep and protect cash, documents and negotiable instruments.
3. FILE ROOM a cubicle in a building constructed a little lighter than a vault but of bigger size to
accommodate limited people to work on the records inside,

Refers to the procedure followed, inquiries conducted, and criteria applied to determine the work
suitability of a particular applicant or the retention of a particular employee.

1. To ensure that hired employees are best suited to assist the organization in achieving its mission
and vision;
2. To assist in providing the necessary security to the employees while they carry out their functions.


It is an inquiry into the character, reputation, discretion, integrity, morals, and loyalty of an individual
in order to determine a persons suitability for appointment or access to classified matter.

National Agency Check
Local Agency Check
Partial Background Investigation
Complete Background Investigation


It is an inquiry which aims to verify applicants information written at the applicants form, to ascertain
his/her past employment experiences and to obtain other information pertinent to the decision to


1. Loyalty faithful allegiance to the Philippine government and its duly constitutional authorities;
2. Integrity uprightness in character, soundness of moral principle, freedom from moral
3. Discretion the ability or tendency to act or to decide with prudence, the habit of wise judgment;
4. Morals distinctive identifying qualities which serve as an index to the essential or intrinsic nature of
a person;
5. Character the sum of traits that have been impresses by nature, education and habit upon the
6. Reputation opinion or estimation in which one is generally held. It is what a person is reported to
be whereas character is what a person is.

1. Prior Employment;
2. Claimed education;
3. Claimed residence for the period covered in the employment and educational institutes;
4. If the candidate indicates a criminal record, then the details should be checked.

a. Information sought should be relevant;
b. Information should be reliable;
c. If unfavorable, the information should be confirmed by at least two sources.

A fact finding probe to determine a plants adequacy in all aspects of security, with the corresponding
Refers to checklist, audits, or inventories of security conditions.
Security Surveys are often called RISK ANALYSIS SURVEYS or RISK ASESSMENT


1. To determine the existing state of security;
2. Identifying weaknesses in defense;
3. To determine the degree of protection required;
4. To produce recommendations for a total security systems.

The survey should be undertaken by either suitably trained staff security personnel, or a fully
qualified independent security specialist.
No universal checklist can be applied to all sites for survey purposes, as no two facilities are alike.


1. Written authority should be obtained from proper authority.
2. Previous surveys should be reviewed;
3. An orientation tour should be made;
a. 4. Photographs should be taken of things which will be difficult to describe in a report. (Only with

After completing the survey an immediate review of the findings should be undertaken with the plant
supervisor so that urgent deficiencies can be addressed.
A follow-up survey should always be conducted to ensure improvements
Any survey report including lists of recommendations is incomplete without including a
cost-benefit analysis, which is ;

A direct comparison of the cost of operation of the security unit and all the existing security
measures with the amount of the corporate assets saved or recovered as well as reduction of losses
caused by injuries and lost production and recommendations have been made.

Process of developing methods or procedures or an arrangement of parts intended to facilitate the
accomplishment of a definite objective.
The process of setting goals, developing strategies, and outlining tasks and schedules to accomplish
the goals.

Security Planning
It is PRE-DETERMINING a course of action;
It is deciding IN ADVANCE what to do, how to do it, and who is to do it.

Goals Of Security Planning

1. To minimize effects of any incident upon plant and personnel;
2. To keep property and equipment loss at a minimum;
3. To ensure cooperation of all plant departments charged with specific activities of an
4. To ensure appropriate cooperative action by and with outside civic and government

Key Steps In Planning

1. Get in touch/coordinate with your Local Civil Authorities. (Tie your programs with theirs and
standardize equipment with them thus creating compatibility.);
2. Visit neighboring Plants/offices (coordinate your activities with theirs.);
3. Survey your plant for possible hazards and take immediate action to lessen or eliminate
4. Appoint a disaster Director or Disaster coordinator;
5. Early in the planning stage, present the Program to your Employees and enlist their active
6. Call an organization meeting of Heads of services, employee representatives and key
personnel. (out line purpose of the program and explain how the plant should organize for
7. Define the Program.

Testing the Plan

Benefits in testing the plan
Deficiencies will be uncovered;
People involved in the implementation of the plan will receive valuable training.

Two Types of Testing The Plan

Partial (by elements);
Complete (entire organization)

Keeping the Plan Up To Date

Changes in Personnel and Facilities
Security Education
It is defined as the exposure and teaching of employees on security and its relevance to their work.
Security education is conducted to develop security awareness among employees of the company. It
should cover all employees, regardless of rank or position.

Personal Security
Protection of personnel especially ranking official from any harm, kidnap, and others act. VIP
security is type of personnel security;

Police Security Protection Group (PSPG)

Is mandated by law to provide protective security to government officials, foreign dignitaries, and
private individuals authorized to be given protection and also provide physical security to vital
installations, and assist the Presidential Security Group (PSG) in securing the President and the
members of the First Family.

Protective Custody
State or quality of being secured or freed from danger. It may also includes the various means or
device designed to guard a persons and property against a broad range of security hazard.

Is an indication of something impending and usually undesirable or unpleasant, with an intention to
inflict evil, injury or damage on another, usually as retribution or punishment for something done or
left undone. It is an expression of an intention to inflict loss or harm on another by illegal means, and
especially by involving coercion or duress over the person or his welfare.

Threat Assessment
The process of investigation/validating the truthfulness of the existence of threat to an individual.

Emergency Situation
Condition or state that danger has already occurred which resulted to loss of life/liberty and/or there
is imminent danger or threat to life and property where delay will endanger or may cause the loss of


1. Access List
Authenticated list of personnel given to the security allowing entry to a compound or installation or
part thereof;
2. Controlled Area
In area near or adjacent to limited or exclusive areas where entry is restricted;
3. Dry-run
Practical test or exercise of plans or any activity to test its validity, an operational readiness
4. Duress Code
Type of code system so that security personnel or any employee when forced by armed men
intending to enter an installation can five alarm by the use of certain words in casual
conversation with personnel in the installation.
5. Exclusion Area
restricted area containing materials or operation of security interest;
6. Restricted area
Any area access to which is subject to special restriction control;
7. Security Hazard
Is any act or condition, which may result in the compromise of information, loss of life, loss or
destruction of property or disruption of objectives of the installation.


1. Industrial Security
A form of physical security that is concerned with the physical measures designed to safeguard
personnel and prevent unauthorized access to equipment, facilities, materials, documents, and
to protect them from espionage, sabotage, damage or theft.
2. Bank Security
Is the protection resulting from the application of various measures which safeguards cash and
assets which are in storage, in transit and or during transaction.

3. Operational Security
Involves the protection of processes, formulas and patents, industrial and manufacturing
activities from espionage, infiltration, loss, compromise or photocopying.

Safety is everybodys responsibility

Is freedom from harm or the danger of harm. The word safety also refers to the precautions people
take to prevent accidents.
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY, area of safety engineering and public health, which deals with the protection of
workers health through control of the work environment to reduce or eliminate hazards.

Industrial accidents and unsafe working conditions can result in temporary or permanent injury,
illness , or even death. Industrial accidents also take a toll in reduced efficiency and loss of

SAFETY ENGINEERING, In recent years, safety engineers have attempted to develop a systems approach
(termed safety engineering) to industrial accident prevention. Because accidents arise from the interaction
of workers and their work environment, both must be carefully examined to reduce the risk of injury.
Injury can result from poor working conditions, the use of improperly designed equipment and tools,
fatigue, distraction, lack of skill, and risk taking.

Unsafe Act
A violation of an accepted safe procedure which could permit the occurrence of an accident.

Unsafe Condition
A hazardous physical condition or circumstance which could directly permit the occurrence of an

It relates to any undesired or unwanted event that could (or does) degrade the efficiency of the
business operation resulting in the loss. The incident could be an accident on quality or production
problem or even breach to security (theft). Effective management principle can be used to eliminate
or control downgrading incidents that affect production and quality as well as such areas are safely.


It relates to any undesired events that result to a physical harm (injury/illness) to a person or
damage to property. It is usually the result of a contact with a source of energy (i.e. kinetic, electrical,
chemical, thermal, etc.)
Sources of Accidents/Incidents: People, Equipment, Materials, Environment

Safety Inspection

Is the quality control of accident prevention. As such, it is the procedures of any well established and
proper program of accident loss control.



Greek word, origin of the word Police.
= The Romans changed it to POLITIA and the French to Police and applied it to those persons who
actually enforce the law.

PATROUILLER - Origin of the word PATROL, meaning rough by, to travel on foot.


1. Patrol is the only unit working round the clock.
2. Patrol is the working horse of the Police Department.
4. Patrol is the Backbone of Police Department.
5. Patrol is the Operational Heart of Police Organization in crime prevention.
6. Patrol is the Show Window of Police Department
7. Patrol is the center or focal point of all police activities.
8. Patrol is very vital to police organization because society cannot exist without people who will help
maintain law and order.


The history of patrol is as old as organized society. Men have always needed protection, first from
animals, and then his own kind. His first attempt is to protect himself and his family which involves
barricading the entrance to his cave.

Boston = in 1636 formed the first Night Watch
New York = after 20 years, formed a Ratelwatch
Philadelphia = 20th century, formed a Watchman, a system of obligated duty for citizens
The American Watchman was called Leatherheads because they wore varnished
leather hats.
1833 = Philadelphia instituted the first daytime paid police service.
1844 = New York organized the First Modern American Police Force based on English
Metropolitan Police System.
Pendleton Act of 1883 = an act that established the Civil Service for federal employees
1920s modern period in patrol began with the use of automobile patrol and voice radio

Section 2275, Book III, Title IX, Art. XI of the Revised Administrative Code of the Philippines =
authorizes a mayor upon approval of the governor to require all able-bodied male residents
between the ages of 18 and 30 year old, to assist for a period of five days in any one month in
apprehending outlaws or other law breakers and act as PATROLS for the protection of municipality,
not exceeding one day in each week.
Metropolitan Police Force (MPF) = established as the police force in Manila on January 9, 1901
Gen. Arthur McArthur (Father of Douglas MacArthur) = first District Director of MPF
July 31, 1901 = MPF evolved into Manila Police Department (MPD)
Goldenberg Mansion = initial headquarters of MPD located along Gen. Solano St., San Miguel,
Manila and then moved to Manila City Hall where it stayed until 1945 and after WWII in United
Nations where it stands today.
1978 = MPD underwent another transformations with its integration into the Integrated National
Police (INP)
1986 = MPD further evolved into the Western Police District (WPD) Command.
July 20, 2005 = WPD was renamed Manila Police District pursuant to General Order 05-10
Captain George Curry = first chief of Police of Manila
Col. Antonio C. Torres = first Filipino Police Chief
December 8, 1941 = Col. Torres declared Manila as an open city
Col. Lamberto T. Javalera = first Filipino Chief of Police of Manila, appointed by Pres. Manuel
1939 the Manila Police District introduced the bicycle patrol.
March 17, 1954 Automobile Patrol was introduced in Metro Manila.
Isaias Alma Jose first chief of Mobile Patrol of MPD


1. Crime Prevention it includes crime suppression
2. Crime Solution covers investigation of crimes
3. Traffic Management covers direction and control, traffic accident investigation


I. Patrol as the Backbone of Police Organization
Patrol is the single largest element in the police organization. The actions taken by the
officers have direct impact on the citizens.
Patrol provides the ears and eyes of the department.

II. Patrol as the Essence of Police Function

Patrol is the only police service that directly attempts to eliminate the desire and
opportunity to commit crime.

III. Patrol as the Operational Heart of Police Organization

The patrol force incorporates all objectives inherent in the police organization.


1. Crime Prevention and Suppression
2. Crime Investigation
a. Preliminary Investigation

3 Purposes
1. To determine what, if any, crime has been committed.
2. To determine who has jurisdiction.
3. To attempt the immediate apprehension of the suspect.

P = Proceed to the scene with safety and dispatch

R = Render assistance to the injured
E = Effect arrest of the perpetrator
L = Locate and identify the perpetrator
I = Interview complainants and witnesses
M = Maintain scene and protect evidence
I = Interrogate suspects
N = Note all conditions, events
A = Arrange for collection of evidence
R = Report incident fully and accurately
Y = Yield Responsibility to investigators
Follow-up Investigation

Collection of Evidence

Crime Reporting

3. Law Enforcement
Primary function of the police the greatest responsibility is on patrol officers because of the nature of
their duties.
4. Maintenance of Social Order
Fundamental and primary obligation of the police department which includes the element of Peace
considered as the most important function performed by the patrol officers.
5. Police Service
It is one that creates confusion and discord among police authorities in which police officers should
provide public service or social service which is an important part of police patrol.




a. Protection of Life and Property

b. Preservation of Peace and Order
c. Prevention of Crime
d. Suppression of Criminal Activities
e. Apprehension of Criminals
f. Enforcement of Laws and Ordinances
g. Regulation of Non-Criminal Conduct
h. Performing Necessary Services and Inspection


1. To prevent the commission of crime.

2. To safeguard life and property.
3. To maintain peace and order.


The duties and objectives of police patrol are many, but the basic duties could probably be summed up
in two words, protection, and service.


1. Preventive Enforcement
Preventive enforcement falls under the heading of protection, and involves the prevention of crime
through the noticeable presence of police vehicles and personnel.
Sir Robert Peel first presented preventive enforcement as a criminological philosophy. And
this had been regarded as the soundest of all criminological theories. It is much easier to patch
a crack in the dike than to repair the wall after it has broken. An ounce of prevention being worth a
pound of cure.

2. Selective Enforcement
This involves going either where the trouble is, or where the trouble likely to occur.

If a certain area is subject to a high crime rate, the patrol cars spend a greater part of their patrolling
time in that area.
3. Traffic Enforcement
Large police departments have traffic divisions, but the majorities of the departments are small, and
have only patrol division to handle traffic enforcement.
Traffic enforcement is strongly dependent upon personal contact between the patrol officers and the
violators. The important thing is that the violator is stopped and the violation is brought to his

4. Emergency Call for Service

One of the duties and purposes of patrol is the handling of emergency calls for service. Since the
handling of emergency calls for service is one of the basic duties of the patrol officer, he should be
trained in first aid and water life-saving emergencies.
5. Routine Call for Service
Routine call account for the majority of services provided by the patrol division. Because of this,
officers have to guard against becoming callused and indifferent to calls of this nature.


1. Called for Service = incidents requiring immediate police action
2. Inspectional Service = patrol activity tends to reduce criminal opportunity and accidents
3. Routine Patrol = directed at less tangible hazards such as poor lighted areas, business section, etc.


1. Resident and transient populations in the business and tourist district, and University belt
2. Number and types of crimes and arrests
3. Location of crimes and arrests
4. Traffic collision statistics and patterns
5. Location of frequent incidents or hazard requiring concentrated police coverage
6. Disproportionate concentration of population
7. Socio-economic factors
8. Zoning plan of the city
9. Size and shape of Area of Responsibility (AOR)
10. Location, size and access to parks and recreational facilities
11. Age, gender and civil status ratio of population
12. Homogeneity of population
13. Modes of transportation and location of criminals
14. Number and qualification of officers available for field duties
15. Level of trust and confidence of the people to the police


Patrol force an organization within an organization. It serves as the nucleus or focal point of the
department. Functions are distributed as follows:

1. Patrol Function = 50%

2. Criminal Investigation = 15%
3. Traffic Functions = 10%
4. Vice and Juvenile Related Functions = 10%
5. Administrative Functions = 10%
6. Auxiliary Functions = 5%

Manning Level of Patrol Force

The patrol unit must have the most number of personnel.
Rule of the Thumb regarding manning level of any police department must be observed.
R.A. 6975 standard manning level is 1:500, however, in extreme conditions, this may be stretched to
maximum of 1:100.


1. Police Hazard
Situations or conditions that may induce incidents calling for some kind of police action.
Includes any person, place, thing, situation, condition possessing a high potential for criminal attack
or for creation of any other type of problem necessitating a demand for immediate police service.


a. Persons = such as criminals, alcoholics, addicts, gamblers, prostitutes, drug peddlers, juvenile
delinquents, insane persons
b. Property = includes piers, warehouse, unoccupied dwellings, gambling joints, banks,
pawnshops, drug dens, gambling dens
c. Places = terminals, demonstrations, parks, bars, parades, conventions, political meetings,
lodging houses, schools, athletic events


a. Deficient Visibility = resulting from inadequate illumination or obstruction of views

b. Insecurity of Premises = created by the absence of suitable locks, bars and gratings
c. Presence of Conditions of Things = poorly designed roadways, defects or obstruction in public
spaces and presence of combustibles

d. Presence of People = crowd offers opportunities for theft, loss of persons or things, fights and
e. Lack of regulation

2. Chronological Distribution

Involves consideration of the nature and causes of crimes. Patrol officers should know how crimes
are committed, when and who commits them.

Crime Clock = signifies what time crime is often or frequently committed

Crime Map = location or place or crime prone areas wherein crime is frequently or often committed.

3. Geographical Distribution
Involves weighing categories of incidents and accounting the number of identifiable hazards and
street mileage.

4. Walking Beats
It involved determining man hours needed to cover the streets and alleys to inspect the police
hazards predominating the AOR.

5. Motor Patrol Distribution

Involves determining the need to shift motor patrol units hour-by-hour at the area according to where
and when crime mostly likely to occur.

1. Regular Post - Assigning members to regular/usual post which usually based on seniority.
2. Post Rotation - Is the process of assigning members of patrol force from post to post


1. General Preparation - Attitude is the first and foremost preparation of patrol officer since he will be
dealing with different persons in the society. His value system must be in harmony with the objective
of law enforcement and sense of fair play.

2. Pre-Patrol Preparation the police officer should be armed with knowledge and equipment. This
can be done thru fall-in formation in the headquarters, precincts or police blocks devoted to giving of

3. Vehicle Inspection involves inspection of patrol vehicle to be used before going out on patrol

4. In-Field Preparation this is made by having debriefing conference with the officer who is being
relieved and who has just spent the previous tour of duty.

5. District Orientation Tour this involves familiarization of assigned area for patrolling upon arrival in
the field.

This refers to thorough geographical knowledge of the patrol area or an understanding of the
character, fears, concerns, problems and attitudes of the local residents


1. Post a fixed point or location to which an officer is assigned for duty
2. Route a length of street or streets designated for patrol purposes
3. Beat area assigned for foot patrol purposes
4. Sector area containing two or more beats, routes or posts


1. Foot Patrol it is the most expensive type of patrol in terms of human resources and most
departments had reduced their foot patrols to a minimum because of this. However, it does have certain
advantages that warrant its continued use if even on a limited basis.
Usually, foot patrol is used to secure two types of geographical units:
a. Post
b. Beat

Types of Foot Patrol

1. Fixed Foot Patrol usually used for traffic, surveillance, parades and special events.
2. Mobile Foot Patrol used where there is considerable foot movement such as business and
shopping center, family dwellings and the like.
a. Line Beat Patrol used in securing certain portion of the road.
b. Random Foot Patrol used in checking residential buildings, business establishments, dark
alley, parking lots

Foot Patrol Procedures and Techniques

1. Dont establish a set of patterns of patrol.

2. When checking doors for forced entry, use flashlight on or around the clock to see if there are
noticeable jimmy marks.
3. When an open door is found, NEVER ENTER ALONE.
4. At least once a night use the fire escapes to check the roof in the downtown area for possible cut
through burglaries as they are sometimes referred to.
5. Be alert for boxes that are being pulled up behind building, or ropes that are hanging down the sides
of building, or ladders that might have been used to gain access to a roof.
6. At night time, the foot patrol officer should occasionally step into alleys or store entrance,
and get out of the light as much as possible.
7. When patrolling at night, always approach each building with caution, always assume that a
felon may be lurking inside.
8. Know the personalities in the area, particularly wanted person, establishments which usually fall
prey to armed robbery and burglary.
9. Walk close to the curb during day time and close to the building during night time. The
objective of patrolling during night time is to be seen by as few people as possible and to catch the
criminals in the act.
10. Foot patrol must walk his best during all type of weather.
11. A foot patrol officer should never smoke while in uniform on the street, nor should chew gum.
12. The foot patrol officer should make a conscious effort to make friends on the beat.
13. Use all five senses while walking the beat.

Advantages of the Foot Patrol

1. The foot patrolman can provide immediate traffic control when it is needed.
2. More person-to-person contact can be made with the public.
3. The officer can actually get to know the physical layout of his beat better.
4. He can also get to know the people in his beat better, and can develop criminal informants easier.
5. A foot officer can sneak up on situation, where a patrol car is easily noticed when it approaches.
6. By the use of a two-way radio, the officer can maintain communications with the department and the
mobile unit.

Disadvantages of Foot Patrol

1. Low mobility resulting to limited coverage

2. Low response time to telephone complaints
3. It involves large numbers of personnel.

2. Automobile Patrol is the most economical type of patrol and offers tactical ability when used in
numbers. It is considered as the most extensively used and most effective means of transportation for
police patrol.

Features of State-of-the-Art Patrol Car

1. Vehicle-Mounted TV high resolution video camera with wide angle lens

2. Mobile Data Terminal (MDT) computer that allow officers in patrol cars to access files from NHQ and
other Law Enforcement agencies
3. High-Intensity Emergency Lighting Plan (HELP) a heavy duty light that can provide 2 million candle
power of light.

Automobile Patrol Techniques and Procedures

1. Check the police car thoroughly before leaving the garage.

2. Do not establish route patterns in patrolling.
3. Do not develop the habit of using the main roads, most criminal activity occurs at the back streets.

4. Do not spent too much time in drive-inns or coffee spots.

5. Always take note the plate number of suspicious vehicles.
6. Avoid driving too fast on general patrol except during emergencies in pursuing criminals. Maintain a
cruising speed of 20-25kph.
7. Make it a habit to never leave the keys in the police car, even if it is just for a minute.
8. Since we are creators of habits, a police officer must make a habit to use the seat belt at all times.
9. Frequently get out of the car to be visible and accessible to the public.
10. Minimize hiding behind hills, curves or signboard to trap traffic violators, this may erode community
11. Park the patrol car in legal manner unless, in case of emergency.
12. Patrol the district so that patrol car will be seen by the greatest number of people, frequently turning
the corners and covering the side streets as well as the main thoroughfares.
13. Whatever patrol pattern is used, do it in irregular and unpredictable manner.
14. When conducting solo patrol, frequent contact should be made with other units in the field.
15. When patrolling with a partner, divide the observation area inside the vehicle
a. Driving Officer must cover 100% of his vision in front.
b. Passenger Officer cover a field of view twice more than the driving officer. Take into
consideration the safe operation of patrol vehicle.
c. Driver and passenger officer must be alert for possible informants


1. Routine Call a call where mobile car is required to observed the traffic laws and does not normally
used flashing lights and siren while on its way to the scene of the crime
2. Urgent Call the responding patrol car has to observed the traffic laws without need of using
flashing lights and siren but proceed directly to its destination without stopping en-route unless
incident of far more serious occurs
3. Emergency Call requires the use of flashing lights and siren except when there is an attempt to
surprise the criminals in the act.

Advantages of the Automobile Patrol

1. Where speed and mobility are needed such as in a large area that must be covered by few officers,
the speed of the automobile allow them to service the whole area and do so efficiently.
2. It is one of the best means of Preventive Enforcement.
3. It offers the officer protection.
4. It permits the officer to carry extra equipment.
5. The patrol car allows the police officer to have a partner when needed, and to transport one or
several prisoners.
6. In the case of station wagons, which are becoming popular as patrol vehicles, they can be used to
carry police dogs on patrol and emergency ambulance during disaster.
7. Patrol cars can be used as barricades in roadblocks, and they offer a high degree of safety during
high-speed pursuits.

Disadvantages of Automobile Patrol

1. It diminishes personal contact with the public and sources of information

2. It hampers apprehension and surveillance operations

One Man Versus the Two Man Automobile Patrol

One Man Patrol Car
1. Having twice as many police cars on the street doubles the preventive enforcement.
2. When the officer is alone he devotes full attention to his driving and the beat rather than to the
conversation with his partner.
4. A one man alone developed self-reliance.
5. Personality clashes are reduced.

Two Man Patrol Car

1. A two-man patrol car provides the officer with a greater safety factor by doubling the firepower and
the physical protection.
2. The mistakes that one-man make may be caught by his partner, and vice versa.
3. One officer does not have to drive a full eight hours, and he is therefore more rested and can do a
better job.
4. Two pair of eyes is better than one.
6. One man can operate the radio while the other drives.
7. On the quiet night, the driver can have someone to talk to and help keep him awake.

3. Motorcycle Patrol
The two-wheeled motorcycle is quite adaptable to traffic enforcement, parades, escort duty and
congested areas because of its high mobility. Motorcycle Patrol is usually fielded in areas where
banks and pawnshops are concentrated.
It has the disadvantages of being used only in fair weather, of causing a greater number of accidents
which are usually quite serious, and in the long run costing the department almost as much as a
patrol vehicle despite the apparent low first cost.

4. Bicycle Patrol
It is considered as the simple and inexpensive means of silent transportation in patrol operation. Its
versatility makes it indispensable for covering crowded areas unreachable by automobile and

Advantages of Bicycle Patrol

1. It has the combine advantage of mobility and stealth

2. Inexpensive to operate
3. It can cover areas not accessible by motorcycle or patrol cars.
4. Effectively used by plainclothes officers on surveillance.
5. It is quiet in patrolling without alerting the criminal, thus the element of surprise is attained.
6. Found effective in combating theft, burglary, vandalism in residential areas, parks and shopping malls
which difficult to be covered by foot patrol.
7. Expedite the delivery of police assistance in congested areas.
8. Biking is a good form of exercise to maintain fine physique and good health.

Disadvantages of Bicycle Patrol

1. Transport of apprehended criminals is difficult.

2. There is limited chances of bringing equipment needed by patrol officers in patrolling.

5. Horse Patrol
Next to walking patrol, the horse patrol is one of the oldest types of patrol. It is useful in areas where
in automobile or motorcycle is suitable for patrolling.
The following are some of the more common uses of the Horse patrol:
a. Park Patrol
b. Beach Patrol
c. Parade and Crowd Control

- Mounted officers can see three blocks away than on foot patrol

6. Marine or Boat Patrol

This is specialized type of patrol which is used in large bodies of water for the purpose of
controlling smuggling.
The recorded history of our earliest civilization indicates the use of tariffs. Where there are tariffs
there is smuggling, and the control of smuggling in any community near water necessitates the use
of water patrol.

7. Air Patrol
A type of patrol using Helicopter or Fixed-Wing Aircraft. This is considered as the most economical
type of patrol in terms of human resources.

1925 Los Angeles County Sheriff Department formed a volunteer Reserved Aero Squadron
Before 1929 NYPD began using aircraft
1947 New York Port Authority began using helicopters for surveillance, transportation and rescue
1986 State of California developed an experimental program using helicopters for police patrolling
1959 Public Safety Department in Dade County in Florida used aerial patrol concept.

Advantages of Fixed-Air Wing Aircraft Patrol

1. Patrolling of long stretches of highway of inaccessible land.

2. Excellent of traffic control in long stretches of highways, for search and surveillance and other
special missions.

Disadvantages of Fixed-Air Wing Aircraft Patrol

1. It has very little flexibility in congested areas.

2. Needs wide span of flat land for lift and landing.
3. Very expensive to procure and maintain.

Advantages of Helicopter Patrol

1. Agency calls foe service.

2. Increase apprehension of offenders.
3. Increase prevention of crime.
4. Improved efficiency of regular patrol units through air borne information.
5. Increase ability in conducting roof searches for suspected felons.
6. Easier location of both lost and escaped persons.
7. More efficient rescue operations and emergency ambulance service.
8. A better system of floodlighting areas at night.
9. Information can be broadcast to large areas through airborne loudspeakers.
10. Able to travel at low speed, to hover if necessary, and to land in small patch of flat land.
11. Added security to patrol officers through backup offered by aerial patrol.
12. Possible use in fire fighting.

Disadvantages of helicopter Patrol

1. Bad weather will ground the helicopter.

2. Smog and light or intermittent clouds might affect vision.
3. This type of service requires special skills and training.
4. There is a danger from high wire, trees, and similar object.
5. There can be difficulty of landing in urban areas.
6. Special facilities are required for housing and repairs.
7. Refuelling problems.

8. Plain Clothes Patrol

This is particularly effective for saturation drive coverage of high crime areas. This allows police
officers to infiltrate the crime areas without alarming the criminals following the element of surprise.

9. Canine (K-9) Patrol or Dog Patrol

Dog was first used by Egyptians in patrolling.
A single K-9 team can complete building searches seven times faster than four officers working
Dog team can find hidden suspects 93 percent of the time, while human officers can only find
hidden suspects 53 percent.
Dog is capable of recognizing an odor 10 million times better than a human.


1. German Shepherd high scoring dog, most frequently used for police work.
2. Black Labrador Retrievers
3. Giant Schnauzers
4. Rootweilers
5. Doberman Pinschers
6. Bouvers
7. Newfoundlands
8. Airedale Terriers
9. Alaskan Malamutes

Is a large dog formerly used for tracking. It has sagging jaw, dropping ears and keen sense of smell.

Wireless Operational Link and Video Exploration System (WOLVES)

It is the system of attaching miniature camera and transmitter to a search dog which makes the dog
the eyes and ears of his handler.

10. Television Patrol

It is basically used for traffic control which originates in West Germany.
Television cameras are mounted in a weatherproof housing. They were equipped with Zoom lenses
and were remotely controlled by the operator at the control board who can adjust each camera to a
panoramic view of 270 degrees. It makes possible to pick up the license of fleeing automobiles.

The Traditional Foot Patrol Pattern

1. Clockwise Patrol Pattern

The officer walk from one beat to another making sure that he stays on the left side and at the
center or middle portion of any street between adjoining beats. For every beat, the officer
calls the station until the clockwise patter is completed. Ideal for rectangular of square beat.
Usually conducted during the first hour of duty.

2. Counter-clockwise Patrol Pattern

The reverse of clockwise pattern with the same characteristic of an area to be patrolled. Usually
done during the last hour of the tour of duty to ensure that nothing unusual happened in the

3. Zigzag or Free Wheeling Pattern

Done by patrolling the streets within the perimeter of the beat not at random but with definite
target location where he knows his presence is necessary.
It starts at one corner of the patrol area and work your way diagonally across it to the opposite

4. Straightway and Criss-cross Patrol Pattern

It is considered as Hazard Oriented Patrol.
In straightway pattern, it involves patrolling the length of the street, therefore, movement of
officer is easy to observe. On the other hand, criss-cross is almost similar with zigzag.
In any patrol pattern, the relieving patrol officer shall make his first hourly call before starting his
patrol duty.
5. Cloverleaf (Cloverleaf Pattern) a highway intersection designed to route traffic without
interference, by means of a system of curving ramps from one level to another, in the form of a 4-leaf


I. The Psychology Of Omnipresence

Psychology of omnipresence as an initial police strategy is to establish the aura of police

presence in the community through uniformed foot patrol and mobile (marked and equipped)
patrol cars.
Patrol officer cannot detect the thinking or desire of the criminal, yet he can destroy the opportunity
to commit a crime by his presence, thus, it best for crime prevention.

Strategic Objectives:

High visibility police presence

Feeling of security for law abiding
Feeling of fear for would be criminal
Feeling of confidence for the public that police are constantly available
II. Proactive and Reactive Patrol
Proactive Patrol
it is the deployment of patrol officers in their area with prescribe objectives and verifiable
task for the day.
More economical alternative patrol system, it addresses crime at its very root before it
can be developed into felonious act.
Reactive Patrol
It involves going around the area of responsibility waiting for something to happen and to
react accordingly if something does happen

III. Crime Prevention and Crime Suppression

1. Crime Prevention
It involves recognition of crime risk and initiation of positive action to remove or reduce
its objective is to eliminate or reduce the desire to commit crime
2. Crime Suppression
Is the actual prevention of the commission of crime

IV. High and Low Visibility

Police Visibility - Not just presence of patrol officer but actual presence which involves: 1) Physical
Presence 2) Patrolling Scheme 3) Response Time is the running time of the dispatched patrol car
from his position where the assignment was received and the arrival at the scene (the ideal time is

*Critical Time it is the time between the call of concerned individual to the police regarding crime incident
and the arrival at the scene of patrol officer.

1. High Visibility it is accomplished by deploying uniformed patrol officers and marked patrol cars in
the AOR with the objective of increasing the aura of police omnipresence.

2. Low Visibility a strategy wherein patrol officers are in civilian clothes or in unmarked patrol cars
with the primary purpose of increasing the apprehension of criminal engage in street crimes and
deterrence of criminal activity as a result of greater probability of apprehension.

V. Directed, Interactive and Aggressive Patrol

1. Directed Patrol Strategy patrol activities designed by patrol officers are based on analysis of
specific community problems. The emphasis is on participative decision making and sophisticated
methods of crime analysis.
2. Interactive Patrol Strategy the emphasis in on police-citizen interaction wherein the community
input is sought in resolving patrol problems
3. Aggressive Patrol Strategy the emphasis is on positive, target oriented activities which includes
physical security inspection. This is effective if the information regarding identifiable crime trends is
based on crime analysis.

VI. Stop and Frisk

It involves stopping of person on the street whose behavior is suspicious, questioning them and
frisking them for concealed weapons. This heightens the effect of high visibility.

VII. Street Interview/Interrogation

It is an aspect of stop and frisk strategy where individuals of doubtful character are being questioned.

VIII. Decoy
Decoy means trap, bait or induce. This strategy involves disguise or deception which is specifically
used in high crimes areas by highly trained specialist rather that regular patrol officer.


All police intervention operations (arrest, raid, search and seizure, checkpoint, demolition, civil
disturbance management) shall be conducted:
a. with a marked police vehicle;
b. preferably led by a Police Commissioned
c. Officer (PCO); and
d. with personnel in prescribed police uniform.

During actual police intervention operations, the TL shall use peaceful means including the use of
megaphones or any other similar instruments to influence/warn the offenders/suspects to stop and/or
peacefully give up.

The police shall not use warning shots during police interventions.

Issuance of Warning

The police officer must first issue a warning before he could use force against an offender. The
warning is issued for the police officer to identify himself and to give opportunity to the
offender to surrender.
The duty to issue a warning is however not absolute. The directive to issue a warning is necessary
only in situations where several options are still available to the police officer but in cases where the
threat to the life of a police officer is already imminent, and there is no other option but to use force to
subdue the offender, the law enforcers failure to issue a warning is excusable.

Reasonable Force
During an armed confrontation, only such necessary and reasonable force should be applied as
would be sufficient to overcome resistance put up by the offender; subdue the clear and imminent
danger posed by him; or to justify the force/act under the principles of self defense, defense of
relative, or defense of stranger. The Officer-in-Charge of the operation shall, at all times, exercise
control over his men in the area, and shall exhaust all possible means so that no innocent civilian is
caught in the crossfire.
The reasonableness of the force employed will depend upon the number of aggressor, nature and
characteristic of the weapon used, physical condition, size and other circumstances to include the
place and occasion of the assault. A police officer, however, is not required to afford a person
attacking him the opportunity for a fair or equal struggle. His duty requires him to overcome his
opponent. In the lawful performance of his duty, the police officer must stand his ground to
accomplish his mandated task of enforcing the law and maintenance of peace and order.

Use of Weapon

The excessive use of force is prohibited. The use of weapon is justified if the suspect poses
imminent danger of causing death or injury to the police officer or other persons.
The use of weapon is also justified under the Doctrines of Self-Defense, Defense of Relative, and
Defense of Stranger. However, one who resorts to self-defense must face a real threat on his life,
and the peril sought to be avoided must be actual, imminent and real.
Moreover, unlawful aggression should be present for self-defense to be considered as justifying

Unlawful Aggression refers to an attack amounting to actual or eminent threat to the life, limb, or right of
the person claiming self-defense.

Necessary and Legal means as used in the definition shall include, but not limited to, the employment of
appropriate number of troops, armor assets and tactical or special units to effectively and permanently quell
the threat or present danger, or to swiftly restrain or arrest the suspect or suspects.

Imminent Danger the danger is imminent if it is on the point of happening. It is not required that the
attack already begins, for it may be too late. (The Revised Penal Code, Book I, JBL Reyes). The elements
of imminent danger are the following:

1. Intent of the suspect to harm the policeman;

2. The capability of the suspect to harm the policeman or other persons; and,
3. Accessibility or the proximity of the suspect in harming the policeman and other persons.

Reportorial Requirements

Any police officer who used his firearm against a suspect must submit an after-encounter report
outlining the circumstances necessitating the use of weapon against the suspect.


A moving vehicle shall not be fired upon except when its occupants pose imminent danger of
causing death or injury to the police officer or any other person, and that the use of firearm does not
create a danger to the public and outweighs the likely benefits of its non-use.
In firing upon a moving vehicle, the following parameters should be considered:
a. the intent of the fleeing suspect/s to harm the police officer or other persons;
b. the capability of the fleeing suspect/s to harm in certainty the police officer or other persons;
c. accessibility or the proximity of the fleeing suspect/s with the police officer and other persons.


Immediately after an armed confrontation, the Officer-in-Charge shall:

a. Secure the site of confrontation;

b. Take photographs;
c. Check whether the situation still poses imminent danger;
d. Evacuate the wounded to the nearest hospital;
e. Ensure that all persons who died on the spot are not moved from their original position. Arrested
suspects, on the other hand, should be kept in isolation;
f. Conduct debriefing on all involved PNP operatives; and
g. Submit After-Operations Report.

Spot Check/Accosting

It is the brief stopping of an individual, whether on foot or in a vehicle, based on reasonable

suspicion/probable cause, for the purpose of determining the individuals identity and resolving the
officers suspicion concerning criminal activity.

Reasonable Suspicion
Acts that, within totality of the circumstances, lead an officer to reasonably suspect, or to have
probable cause to believe, that criminal activity has been, is being, or is about to be committed.

Grounds for Spot Check

a. The appearance or demeanor of the individual suggests that he is part of a criminal enterprise or is
engaged in a criminal act;
b. The actions of the individual suggest that he is engaged in a criminal activity;
c. Questionable presence of the individual in the area;
d. The subject is carrying a suspicious object;
e. The suspects clothing bulges in a manner that suggests he is carrying a weapon;
f. The suspect has been found in the time and place proximate to an alleged crime;
g. The police officer has knowledge of the suspects prior criminal record or involvement in criminal
activity; and
h. The individual flees at the sight of a police officer.


a. When approaching the individual, the police officer shall clearly identify himself as a police officer. If
not in uniform, by announcing his identity and displaying official identification card and/or badge.
b. Police officers shall be courteous at all times but maintain caution and vigilance for suspicious
movements like tending to retrieve weapon, conceal or discard contraband, or other similar actions.
c. Before approaching more than one individual, police officers should determine whether the
circumstances warrant a request for back-up and whether the spot check/ accosting can and should
be delayed until such back-up arrives.
d. Police officers shall confine their questions as to suspects identity, place of residence, and other
inquiries necessary to resolve the police officers suspicion. However, in no instance shall a police
officer hold a suspect longer than the period reasonably necessary to be able to make these limited
inquiries and to resolve suspicions.
e. Police officers are not required to give the suspect Miranda Warning unless the person is placed
under arrest.

Pat-down Search
It is a frisk or external feeling of the outer garments of an individual for weapons only.


a. The type of crime believed to be committed by the subject particularly crimes of violence where
the threat of use or use of deadly weapon is involved;
b. Where the police officer handles several suspects;
c. The time of the day and the location where the pat-down search took place;
d. Prior knowledge by the police officer of the suspects use of force and/or propensity to carry deadly
e. The appearance and demeanor of the suspect;
f. Visual indications suggesting that the suspect is carrying a firearm or other deadly weapon; and
g. Whenever possible, pat-down searches should be performed by police officers of the same gender.


a. Whenever possible, pat-down searches should be conducted by at least two (2) police officers, one
to perform the search while the other provides protective cover.
b. Because pat-down searches are cursory in nature, they should be performed with the suspect in a
standing position, or with hands placed against a stationary object, and feet spread apart. However,
should an officer visually observe a weapon, a more secure search position may be used like the
prone (lying face down) position.
c. In a pat-down search, officers are permitted only to feel the outer clothing of the suspect. Police
officers may not place their hands inside the pockets of the subjects clothing unless they feel an
object that could probably be a weapon, such as a gun, knife, club, or the likes.
d. If the suspect is carrying an object such as handbag, suitcase, briefcase, sack, or other similar items
that may conceal a weapon, the police officer should not open the item but instead put it in a
place out of the suspects reach.
e. If the external patting of the suspects clothing fails to disclose evidence of a weapon, no further
search may be made. If a weapon is found and the possession of which amounts to a
violation of the law, the police officer shall arrest the suspect and conduct a complete search.

Reporting after the Spot Check/Accosting or Pat-Down Search

If after conducting a spot check/accosting or pat-down search, the police officer has no basis for
making an arrest, he should record the facts of such spot check/accosting or pat-down search and
forward a report to the appropriate authority.
If the spot check/accosting or pat-down search gives a justification for a valid warrantless arrest,
then an arrest shall be made.

Police Checkpoint
It is a location where the search, which is duly authorized by the PNP, is conducted to deter/prevent
the commission of crimes, enforce the law, and for other legitimate purposes.


a. Team Leader (TL) - shall lead and take responsibility in the conduct of checkpoint preferably an
officer with the rank of at least Police Inspector;
b. Spotter - PNP personnel who will point/profile suspected vehicle subject for checkpoint;
c. Spokesperson - TL or member who is solely in charge of communicating with the motorists subject
for checkpoint;
d. Investigation Sub-team - in charge of investigation and documentation of possible incidents in the
checkpoint to include issuance of Traffic Citation Ticket (TCT) or Traffic Violation Report (TVR);
e. Search/Arresting Sub-Team - designated to conduct search, seizure and arrest, if necessary;
f. Security Sub-Team - tasked to provide security in the checkpoint area; and
g. Blocking/Pursuing Sub-Team - team tasked to block/pursue fleeing suspects/vehicle.


a. Mobile checkpoints are authorized only when established in conjunction with ongoing police
operations. Only officially marked vehicles shall be used in establishing mobile checkpoints.
b. Checkpoints may be established when there is a need to arrest a criminal or fugitive from
c. The composition of the personnel manning the checkpoint shall be left to the sound
discretion of the PNP unit commander.
d. Encourage the participation of, but not limited to, the Local Government Units (LGUs), Civil
Society Groups, Non- Governmental Organizations (NGOs), business organizations, other
civic groups, media and other stakeholders during the conduct of Police Checkpoint.

e. The participation of the civilians and the presence of the media in the conduct of checkpoint
must be confined only as observers to give police additional eyes and promote transparency
of activities in the area.
f. All civic groups or organizations to include the media, who are inclined to participate in police
checkpoints, must be duly registered and accredited by the PNP for such purpose. The
accreditation of the civilian groups to join in the conduct of checkpoint shall be administered
by the Police Regional and Provincial Offices.
g. PNP personnel manning the checkpoint must have a presentable appearance, wearing the
prescribed PNP uniform. Likewise, the civilian members must also be in their organizations
uniform with their names conspicuously displayed for identification. In no case shall the
civilian components be allowed to bear firearms during the checkpoint.
h. In Metro Manila and other major cities, police officers manning the checkpoints should not
wear Field Service Uniforms (FSU) or black fatigues in lieu of the PNP General Office Attire
unless the conduct of checkpoint is a result of a Hot Pursuit Operation or a High Risk
Checkpoint. The use of mixed uniforms (GOA, FSU, black fatigue) in the conduct of
checkpoint is strictly prohibited.
i. As much as possible, the area where the checkpoints shall be established must be properly
lighted, with a noticeable signage bearing the name of the PNP unit and the participating
organization/s visibly displayed in the checkpoint site, to prevent any apprehension from the
public of the existence of the same.
j. Due courtesy must be accorded to the motorists, traders and the commuters during the
conduct of checkpoint.
k. The spokesperson must greet the people subject for inspection, ask apology for the
inconvenience, appeal for understanding and state the reasons of the operation. Thank the
person/s searched.
l. Except in the actual commission of crime during checkpoints or in a hot pursuit operation,
the conduct of inspection of vehicle during a routine checkpoint is limited to a visual
search and therefore must be done with due respect to innocent passersby, commuters, or
bystanders and be conducted in a manner that is least inconvenient to the public. Searches,
seizures, and arrest made during checkpoints shall be within the ambit of the law.
m. Violations/Infractions of the law discovered during the checkpoint operation shall be
expeditiously disposed of following legal procedures. Arrested persons must be apprised of
their rights in reference to the Miranda Doctrine.
n. The security of the PNP personnel, and most especially that of the civilians participating in
the checkpoint operation, must be given due consideration in the planning stage of the
o. Only the security sub-team and blocking/pursuing sub-team members are allowed to
display high-powered firearms and are positioned where they can best provide security to
the Checkpoint team including themselves.
p. Checkpoint personnel must not limit their task in law enforcement and crime deterrence.
They should also be ready to provide police assistance in the vicinity e.g., giving directions to
inquiring motorists or passersby.
q. The PNP operating units must provide their own logistical and financial requirements to avoid
soliciting support from the civilians for their personal or operational needs.
r. Police personnel assigned in the checkpoint shall not mulct, extort, or harass drivers,
passengers, and traders. Designated TL assigned at the checkpoint shall be responsible for
the actuations and behavior of his personnel and shall be accountable under the doctrine of
Command Responsibility.
s. Voluntary offers of cash or in kind from the traders/motorists passing the checkpoint should
be absolutely refused because the offer might be misconstrued as a bribe.
t. The police and the civilian component must separately submit their After Checkpoint
Operation Report to their respective units or organization for proper evaluation of the
efficacy of the operation.

Procedure in the Conduct of Regular Police Checkpoint

a. Unit Commanders should inform Higher Headquarters (HHQs) Tactical Operations Center (TOC)
and coordinate with adjacent units, such as Public Safety Management Forces and other friendly
forces, personally or through an official representative, before commencing with the checkpoint to
avoid misencounter and any untoward incident;

b. The TL shall brief the PNP personnel, as well as the civilian components present, including the
media regarding the proper conduct of the checkpoint and their assigned tasks prior to their

c. The TL shall initially account for the PNP personnel and check if they are in the prescribed
uniform. PNP personnel conducting the checkpoint shall display their nameplates at all times. If
wearing a jacket, the flap of the jacket bearing their names should also be displayed. Likewise,
the equipment will include, but not limited to, the following:

1. Marked Patrol vehicles;

2. Firearms with basic load of ammunition;
3. Handheld and vehicle base radios;
4. Flashlights;
5. Megaphone; and
6. Signage
d. The Spotter of the team will be pre-positioned in a place where he can best point/profile
suspected vehicles prior to their approach to the checkpoint;
e. Search/Arresting Sub-Team shall flag down suspected vehicles and conduct search, seizure and
arrest if necessary;
f. Arrested persons and seized items shall be turned-over to the investigation sub-team for
documentation and proper disposition;
g. In the event that the checkpoint is ignored, and the occupants of the vehicle open fire on the
personnel manning the checkpoint, reasonable force to overcome the suspects aggression may
be employed;
h. Inform Higher Headquarters before terminating the conduct of Checkpoint;
i. The TL shall conduct debriefing of personnel after termination of the Checkpoint; and
j. Unit Commander shall submit After Activity Report to Higher Headquarters.

Hasty Checkpoint
It is an immediate response to block the escape of lawless elements from a crime scene, and
is also established when nearby checkpoints are ignored or during hot pursuit operations. It is
set up by police personnel conducting mobile patrol on board a marked police vehicle, or those
conducting ISO and foot patrol operations within the vicinity/periphery of the national or provincial

Hot Pursuit (Cross Jurisdictional Pursuit) - (also termed in the US as fresh pursuit) shall mean an
immediate, recent chase or follow-up without material interval for the purpose of taking into custody any
person wanted by virtue of a warrant, or one suspected to have committed a recent offense while fleeing
from one police jurisdictional boundary to another that will normally require prior official inter-unit
coordination but which the pursuing unit cannot, at that moment, comply due to the urgency of the situation.

Procedures in the Conduct of Hasty Checkpoints

a. PNP personnel conducting mobile patrols on board patrol vehicles will initially man the checkpoint, to
be complemented by additional personnel upon arrival of reinforcement. A collapsible signage with
markings: Stop, Police Checkpoint, indicating also the name of the concerned police office/unit
conducting the operations, will be used for the purpose;
b. In the case of PNP personnel conducting Internal Security Operation (ISO) or foot patrol, where a
vehicle and collapsible signage is not readily available, the checkpoint shall be manned initially by
said personnel;
c. The team shall immediately inform Higher Headquarters of the exact location of the Hasty
Checkpoint to include personnel involved and available equipment;
d. In a hasty checkpoint, where there is a possibility of high risk stop and high risk arrest, and that there
is an urgency for troop deployment and that public safety might be at risk, the participation of the
civilian component and the presence of the media in the checkpoint operation shall not be allowed;
e. The Unit Commander of the personnel manning the hasty checkpoint shall immediately send
additional personnel, equipment and signage to the area in order to convert the Hasty Checkpoint
into a Regular Checkpoint; and
1. f. As soon as the Hasty Checkpoint is converted into a Regular Checkpoint, TL shall follow the
procedures in the Conduct of Regular Police Checkpoint paragraph c.

Procedures to be Followed When Checkpoints are Ignored

a. In the event that checkpoints/roadblocks are ignored and the motorists/suspects bumped the
roadblock in an attempt to elude arrest or avoid inspection, the TL shall immediately contact
adjacent units to inform them of the situation so that these units can conduct dragnet
operation, while the members of the blocking/pursuing team shall block or pursue the errant fleeing
b. Warning shots shall not be allowed due to the confusion it may create to the driver and passengers
of the vehicle. Megaphones or police sirens shall be used instead during the pursuit. The plate
number of the vehicle shall be noted and given to other units in adjacent areas to prevent the
possibility that the vehicle may elude the pursuit operation; and
c. In the event that the occupants of the vehicle open fire on the personnel manning the checkpoint,
reasonable force to overcome the suspects aggression may be employed.

Procedures in Flagging Down or Accosting Vehicles While in Mobile Car

a. Call Headquarters to inform of the make or type and plate number of the motor vehicle to be
accosted including the number and, if possible, identity of occupants;
b. State the reason(s) for the planned intervention of the suspected motor vehicle;
c. Give mobile cars location and its direction before making actual intervention;
d. Try to get alongside the suspects vehicle and check the occupants without alarming them of your
purpose. You can even overtake the vehicle and wait for it at an advantageous location before
stopping the suspects vehicle;
e. Determine whether the suspects are hostile or not;
f. Make known to the suspect that you are after them through the use of a siren or megaphone;
g. Instruct the driver to pull over or stop on the side of the road;
h. Park behind the suspects vehicle at an appropriate distance and cautiously approach the vehicle on
the drivers side;
i. If the vehicles windows are heavily tinted and the occupants cannot be seen, instruct the driver to
open all windows to have a clear view of the interior of the vehicle;
j. Instruct the driver to turn off the ignition, if this was not done when the vehicle stopped;
k. The other members of the team must be on guard for any eventuality while the vehicle is being
l. Talk to the driver in a most courteous manner and inform him of the nature of his violation. Demand
to see the drivers license, photocopies of the certificate of registration and the official receipt.
Examine these documents and counter-check the driver on the information reflected therein;
m. If it concerns traffic violations, immediately issue a Traffic Citation Ticket (TCT) or Traffic Violation
Report (TVR). Never indulge in prolonged, unnecessary conversation or argument with the driver or
any of the vehicles occupants;
n. In cases of other violations that require the impounding of the vehicle, inform the driver regarding
this situation and instruct him to follow you, after issuing the TCT/TVR; and,
o. Before moving out, inform Headquarters regarding the situation/ status and disposition of the person
and motor vehicle accosted.

Procedures to be Followed in Dealing with Hostile Drivers:

a. Stopping Vehicles
1) Follow the Procedure in Flagging Down or Accosting Vehicles While in Mobile Car stated in
paragraphs a to c;
2) Immediately request for back-up;
3) Follow the suspect and always keep him within visual range;
4) Expect that the suspect will notice your action at any time. Be prepared for a car chase or actual
hostile confrontation;
5) If the back-up is already in the vicinity, inform Headquarters that you are proceeding to accost
the suspect;
6) Inform the suspects that you are after them through the use of siren or megaphone and instruct
the driver to pull over or stop on the side of the street;
7) Park at an appropriate distance behind the suspects vehicle;
8) While the vehicle is being approached, the other members of the crew and back-up must be on
guard for any eventuality. Overreactions should be avoided;
9) If the vehicles windows are heavily tinted and the occupants cannot be seen, instruct the driver
to open all windows for a clear view of the vehicles interior;
10) Direct the driver and other occupants of the vehicle not to make unnecessary movements and to
show their hands outside the car;
11) Instruct the driver to turn off the ignition and toss the key to the ground. Demand to see the
Drivers License and photocopies of the vehicles certificate of registration and the official receipt.
Examine the documents and counter-check the driver on the information reflected therein; and,
12) If there are other suspects aside from the driver, separate them from one another.

b. Fleeing Vehicles

1) In the event that the motor vehicle did not stop despite the warning given, inform Headquarters
or adjacent units so that roadblocks or hasty checkpoints can be set-up;
2) Call Headquarters to inform of the make or type, plate number and color of the motor vehicle to
be accosted including the number of occupants and, if possible, their identity;
3) State the reason(s) for flagging down the suspected motor vehicle;
4) Give mobile cars location and its direction before making actual intervention;
5) When the vehicle of the suspect is cornered or stopped, instruct the driver and other occupants
in a clear and commanding voice to follow specifically what you will require of them. Failure
on their part to follow will be construed as a hostile act on their part. Execute instructions
on the use of reasonable force;
6) Instruct the driver to turn off the ignition and toss the key to the ground, open the door and step
out of the vehicle, followed by his hands to be placed on top of the vehicle, or to move towards
you with his hands up;
7) Instruct other occupants of the vehicle, if any, to come out one by one, and follow what the driver
has been instructed to do earlier;
8) Arrest, handcuff and search the suspects and bring them to Headquarters for proper disposition;
9) Before moving out, inform Headquarters about the situation, status and disposition of the
suspects and motor vehicle accosted.

High Risk Stop is the actual stopping or accosting of armed and dangerous person or persons, aboard a
vehicle or on foot, including the power to use all necessary and legal means to accomplish such end.

High Risk Arrest is the actual restraint of armed persons following a high-risk stop.

Pre-Determined Area is the specific or projected spot where the armed and dangerous person or
persons would pass or likely to pass and so tactically located as to gain calculated advantage against said
person or persons.

Stopping Zone - is the strategic predetermined area strongly sealed off, barricaded and occupied by
tactical forces in a lawful display of authority to maintain law and order or in defensive response to an event
of criminal nature or of such gravity that occurred or likely to occur calling for a high risk stop or arrest.

Dragnet Operation - is a police operation purposely to seal-off the probable exit points of fleeing suspects
from the crime scene to prevent their escape.

High Risk Stop and High Risk Arrest

a. Initial Stage
Upon receipt of information involving movement of armed person or persons, either singly or in
group, including unauthorized movement of government troops, or in immediate response to a reported
commission of crime perpetrated by armed persons, the PNP shall immediately:

1) Organize appropriate tactical security forces utilizing maximum firepower and armor
2) Deploy the security forces to stopping zones in defensive position; and
3) Seal off the area and establish strong roadblocks/ barricades.

b. Effecting a High Risk Stop

When effecting high-risk stop, the police officer shall:
1) Exert utmost effort to persuade the suspects to halt or stop their movement.
2) Start with the procedural conduct of regular warrantless arrest where arrest is inevitable.
3) Ensure proper documentation of the process.
4) Respect the rights of all the persons involved.

c. During Violent Stage

The PNP shall strictly adhere to the PNP Operational Procedures (POP) particularly on the use of
reasonable force.

Public Assembly
It means any rally, demonstration, march, parade, procession or any other form of mass or
concerted action held in a public place for the purpose of presenting a lawful cause; or expressing
an opinion to the general public on any particular issue; or protesting or influencing any state of
affairs whether political, economic or social; or petitioning the government for redress of grievances.

Public Place shall include any highway, boulevard, avenue, road, street, bridge or other thoroughfare,
park, plaza, square, and/or any open space of public ownership where the people are allowed access.
Freedom Park shall mean the venue or place established or designated by local government units within
their respective jurisdictions where a public assembly could be held without securing any permit for such
purpose from the local government unit concerned.
Maximum Tolerance means the highest degree of restraint that the police, military and other peace
keeping authorities shall observe during a public assembly or in the dispersal of the same.

Limitations on the Role of the PNP on Public Assembly

The PNP shall not interfere with the holding of a public assembly. However, to ensure public safety
and to maintain peace and order during the assembly, the police contingent under the command of a
PCO preferably with the rank of Police Senior Inspector may be detailed and stationed in a place at
least one hundred (100) meters away from the area of activity.

Guidelines for Civil Disturbance Management (CDM) Contingent During Rallies / Demonstrations

a. CDM contingent shall be in prescribed uniform and without firearm.

b. Tear gas, smoke grenades, water cannons, or any similar anti- riot device shall be used only when
the public assembly is attended by actual violence or serious threats of violence, or deliberate
destruction of property.

Dispersal of Public Assembly with Permit

All public assembly with a permit shall not be dispersed. However, when an assembly becomes
violent, the police may disperse such public assembly in the following manner:
a. At the first sign of impending violence, the Ground Commander of the PNP contingent shall call the
attention of the leaders of the public assembly and ask the latter to prevent any possible
b. If actual violence reaches a point where rocks or other harmful objects from the participants
are thrown at the police officers or at the non-participants, or at any property causing damage to it,
the Ground Commander of the PNP contingent shall audibly warn the participants that if the
disturbance persists, the public assembly will be dispersed;
c. If the violence or disturbance does not stop, the Ground Commander of the PNP contingent shall
audibly issue a warning to the participants of the public assembly, and after allowing a reasonable
period of time to lapse, he shall immediately order it to disperse; and
d. No arrest of any leader, organizer or participant shall be made unless he violates during the
assembly a law, statute, or ordinance.

Dispersal of Public Assembly Without Permit

When the public assembly is held without a permit where a permit is required, the said public
assembly may be peacefully dispersed. However, when the leaders or organizers of public assembly can
show an application for permit duly filed at the Office of the Mayor which has jurisdiction over the place
where the rally will be held, at least five (5) days prior to the intended activity and the Mayor did not act
on the same, the grant of the permit being then presumed under the law, and it will be the burden of the
authorities to show that there has been a denial of the application, in which case, the rally may be
peacefully dispersed following the procedure of maximum tolerance prescribed by law.

Police Responses During Public Assembly

a. During Planning Stage

1. Initiate dialogue with the leaders/organizers to ensure the peaceful holding of a public assembly,
including among others, the detail of police escorts.
2. Prepare appropriate security and CDM contingency plans.

b. During Initial and Peaceful Stage

1) With Permit or Held in Freedom Parks/ Private Properties
1.1 The PNP shall not interfere with the holding of a public assembly. However, to adequately
ensure public safety, a CDM contingent, under the control and supervision of a PCO shall be
stationed at least one hundred (100) meters away from the area where the public assembly
is being held.
1.2 Monitor the activities at the public assembly area and respond to any request for police
2) Without Permit or Permit has been Revoked
2.1 As soon as it becomes apparent that an assembly is being held in a public place, the Ground
Commander shall immediately conduct an inquiry whether the assembly is covered with a
permit or not.
1.1 If a permit could not be shown, verification should immediately be done with the Office of
the Mayor having jurisdiction over the place where the public assembly is being held.
Should the Office of the Mayor confirm that a permit has not been issued, the
leaders/organizers shall be informed of the fact that they are violating the law and will be asked
to disperse peacefully.
2.2 The PNP shall exhaust all peaceful remedies to persuade the demonstrators to disperse. This
may include the involvement of Local Chief Executives / community leaders when available to
intervene in the situation so that dispersal operations could be avoided.
2.3. Should negotiation fail and the demonstrators refuse to disperse voluntarily and peacefully,
thereby causing public inconvenience, CDM contingents may commence dispersal

c. During Breach of Peace/Confrontational Stage (With or without permit)

No public assembly with a permit shall be dispersed. However, when a public assembly becomes
violent, the CDM contingents may disperse such public assembly in the following manner:

1) At the first sign of impending violence, the Ground Commander shall call the attention of the
leaders/organizers of the public assembly and ask the latter to prevent any possible disturbance.
CDM contingents shall hold the line to prevent demonstrators from proceeding to other areas
where the holding of a public assembly is prohibited.
2) If actual violence reaches a point where rocks or other harmful objects from the participants are
thrown at the CDM contingents or the non-participants, or at any property causing damage to it,
the Ground Commander shall audibly warn the participants that if the disturbance persists, the
public assembly will be dispersed;
3) If the violence or disturbance does not stop, the Ground Commander shall audibly issue a
warning to the participants of the public assembly, and after allowing a reasonable period of time
to lapse, shall immediately order it to disperse. With the use of CDM formations, the rank of
demonstrators shall be disbanded, contained, and isolated from each other, and should be
prevented from regrouping.
4) Water cannons and riot sticks maybe used to repel aggression and to disperse demonstrators
and reserve CDM contingents may be employed when situation requires.
5) No arrest of any leader, organizer or participant shall be made unless he violates during the
assembly a law, statute, or ordinance.

d. During Violent Stage

1) Non-lethal weapons and equipment may be used to suppress violence, to protect lives and prevent
further damage to properties.
2) The PNP security elements shall be tactically deployed to provide immediate assistance to the CDM

e. Post-Operation Stage
1) CDM contingents shall be withdrawn after the area has been cleared of possible danger to public
2) Sufficient police force shall be maintained to ensure peace and order in the area.

Guidelines in the Use of Non-Lethal Weapons

a. Shield and Truncheon

a. During the confrontational stage, truncheon may be utilized only to push back demonstrators
and not as an instrument to strike individuals. However, when demonstrators become
aggressive, truncheon shall be the principal non-lethal weapon for dispersal. In such
situation, CDM contingents shall nonetheless, use the same with caution and due diligence
to avoid unnecessary injury.
b. Water Cannons
c. Water cannons may be utilized when demonstrators become unruly and aggressive forcing
troops to fall back to their secondary positions.
d. Tear Gas
e. Tear gas may be utilized to break up formations or groupings of demonstrations who
continue to be aggressive and refused to disperse despite earlier efforts.


o PNPs answer to the requirement of police visibility.
o PATROL means Policemen Assigned To Reinforce Order in the Locality
o best way of immersing policemen in various activities
o provides a symbiotic relationship between the police and the community which would
eventually draw active support and cooperation of the populace.


1. Fixed Components these are different stations, precincts, police visibility points, traffic posts and

a. Station Desk serves as the 3 Cs of police force: Communication; Coordinating;

Center/Command Post
b. Situation/Locator Map capable of providing visual IPS situation which shows the AOR, Real
Time Current Situation and Real Time Status of the IPS
c. PCP headed by PCO with a rank of Chief Inspector or Superintendent with a minimum of 30
personnel including the Commander divided in 3 shifts of 8-hours duty.

2. Patrol Components include line beat, mobile patrol, motorcycle, bicycle, air patrol and detective
repressive patrol

a. Police Beats consist of identifiable boundaries within the AOR where an officer can conduct
patrol. Police Beats identification:
PBs for NCR

Identifiable by a 5 digit number. 1st digit refers to the numerical assigned to the district
2nd refers to the number assigned to each of the city/municipality within the district
3rd digit refers to the number assigned to particular PCP
4th and 5th digits refer to the numbers assigned to particular beat

PBs for Regional Officers

Identifiable by a 7 digit number

First 2 digits refer to the number of the region
3rd digit refer to the number assigned to a particular province within the region
4th digit refers to the PCPs
5th and 6th refer to the beat

b. Mobile Patrol similar with mobile patrol discussed

c. Detective Beat System contiguous area where a team of police investigators is assigned with
a specific task of conducting follow-up investigation to all complaints, reports, referrals and other
requests with the end in view of full compliance and/or filing of case

DETECTIVE BEAT SYSTEM (DBS) one of the concrete responses of PNP in reinventing the field of
- it is concerned with crime solution and detectives are charged with total investigation responsibility

POLICE BEAT is concerned with crime prevention

- the patrol officers usually respond to crime incidents for arrest, protection of crime scene until
detectives arrive to investigate.

Guidelines in the Conduct of Patrol

I. Pre-Deployment Phase conducted by means of formation or assembly in police stations for at least
30minutes which will be allotted for:
a. inspection as to appearance and completeness of individual equipment.
b. dissemination of assignments, instructions and orders.

II. Deployment Phase

- Upon arrival at the patrol beat, officer shall report to the desk officer or dispatcher
- while on patrol, they shall adopt the buddy-buddy system
- upon reaching the end of the line beat, officer shall make a situation report before returning
to their point of origin
- any unusual incident must be reported and/or recorded in the patrol sheet report.

III. Post-Deployment Phase after the tour of duty, officers shall return to police stations for the following:
a. surrender the equipment
b. accomplish the Daily Patrol Report
c. Turn-over to the Front-Desk Officer all items confiscated or recovered during
the tour of duty
d. Patrol commander shall conduct an accounting of patrol officers before being

3. Auxiliary Components include security guards, traffic enforcers, barangay tanods, civilian volunteers
and non-governmental organizations


Is an attempt to integrate the police and the community interest into a working relationship so
as to produce the desired objective of peace keeping in the community.
Originated in Aberdeen, Scotland
Team of 5-10 men is assigned according to concentration of crimes and citizens-calls for
police service.
Effective police-community cooperation is critical to the success of a team policing system.

Characteristics of Team Policing

1. Geographic Stability of the Patrol Force The application of permanent patrolling to foster
greater awareness and sensitivity to local police problems by team members.
2. Maximum Interaction between Team Members Members must be given opportunity to work
closely together in solving problems.
- Members are encouraged to share information with one another through informal meetings
or conference.
3. Maximum Communication between Team Members and Community Residents Team policing
is intended to develop a greater sense of understanding and increased cooperation between
members of the team and community residents.
- Encourage members of the community to attend informal sessions in which they discussed
community problems with the team.


In Japan, they have operationalized and even institutionalized it through the Koban or
Police Box System.
In Singapore, they are wielding it through the Neighborhood Police Post.
In the United States about 60 % of the police departments are implementing it through
Oriented Policing/Problem Oriented Policing COP/POP.
In Canada and several countries in Europe and other parts of the world, they are into it also.
In the Philippines, the implementation of National Anti-Crime Strategy (NACS) at the
community level started as mere initiative of some innovative police commanders.
In Bacolod City, the Negros Occidental Provincial Commander of the defunct PC/INP
managed to mobilize the community to support and team up with Bacolod City Police Station
through the Bacolod Citizens for Unity and Peace (BACUP) Foundation from June 7,
1986 to date.
On August 8, 1991, the Davao Del Norte Provincial PNP Commander instituted the
KAUBAN, an integrated undertaking of the police/barangay/citizenry to maintain peace and
It was also in 1991 when the PNP started implementing the Koban Philippine style dubbed
as Pulis Patrol Lingkod Bayan (PPLB).
On May 04, 1993, the PNP started establishing the KABABAYAN Center as Community
Oriented Policing Units.
Finally on August 15, 1994, the PNP adopted and started implementing the Community
Oriented Policing System (COPS).

Basic Principles / Foundation Of COPS

1. Democracy Philippines is a democratic and republic state.

- It is imperative for the people to participate in and support the processes, programs and activities
of the government to attain SUMMUM BONUM or the greatest good for the greatest number
of our people.

2. Criminal Justice a machinery used by a democratic government to protect the society against
crime and disorder.
3. Who are the Police according to Robert Peel, The police are the public and the public are the
4. Peoples Power the greatest source of power to wage war against crime and other threats to
society lies among the people.

COPS is a philosophy of full service, personalized policing where the same patrol officers works in
the same area on a permanent basis, from a decentralized place, working in a proactive partnership
with the citizens to identify and solve problems.


1. Philosophy the present and future crime and other disorder requires the police to provide full
service policing and problem solving with the active participation and support of the community.
2. Personalized officers should have person to person contact with the members of the community
3. Patrol officers must work and patrol their defined beat or AOR as often as possible.
4. Permanent officers should be assigned permanently for at least 18 months to defined beat.
5. Place the AOR should be divided/sectorized into distinct neighborhoods in urban areas and
clusters of barangays in rural areas.
6. Proactive shall have proactive focus of pre-empting, preventing, suppressing, and deterring
crimes. Anticipate or at least detect as early as possible the occurrence of crimes.
7. Policing provide full service policing in the community
8. Problem Solving includes those abets or serves as breeding grounds of crime
9. Partnership establish community partnership



1. Communication in general, it is the transfer of thought or idea from one person to another
through channel or medium. Technically, it refers to equipment used which can be electrical or
electronic used to exchange information.
2. Communications refers to the technical field of study or science which involves exchange of
information through various channels.
3. Communications Medium the language or code used in transferring information or idea.
4. Amplitude Modulation modulation in which the amplitude of a wave is subject to variation of
changes. This is used in single side band, double side band, and independent side band.
5. Frequency Modulation the amplitude is made constant in the carrier wave together with the
6. Antenna metallic wire or rod used for radiating and receiving waves to and from space. Also
termed Aerial.
7. Coordinating Center is a center base station of a police or law enforcement communications.
Also called Center.
8. Intercommunication (Inter-Com) wires system used within a building or compound for direct
exchange of calls
9. Intra-Communication a communication existing within a province, organization or communication
that exists between institutions of farthest distance.
10. Radio a communication by means of electromagnetic waves transmitted through space.
11. Landline is a wired form of communication
12. Television Broadcasting (Telecast) a form of broadcasting through television
13. Subscriber refers to person, residence or office connected to the Private Base Exchange (PBX)
14. Dispatcher personnel in police communication center charged with receiving and transmitting of

POLICE COMMUNICATIONS refers to the technical means used by the police which consists of
interrelated but relatively independent sub-systems such as telephone, telegraph, teletype, radio and
television systems and other electronic and automated processes.


1. Training messages should be committed to standard handling procedures by trained personnel

2. Dependability provides that communications must be reliable and available at all times in good
3. Security provides that communications system must be secured from any criminal action toward
destruction of police organizations functions.
4. Accessibility provides that operational units must have convenient access to every
communication that is essential to its efficient operation.
5. Speed provides that communications must be adequate considering that the quick response of
officers depend on the transfer of information.
6. Confidentiality/Secrecy provides that informations in the organization must be private and should
not be held public as it relates to suspects or victims.


1. Administrative Communications Net it involves the exchange of non-operational information

among police precincts, units, departments or headquarters.
2. Operational Communications Net it pertains to exchange of police field informations involving
peace, law and orders as well as general public well being.

Police Radio Operator/Voice Radio Operator/ Dispatcher/ Coordinator is a person charged with
receiving and transmitting information and is trained in his job.

Requisites of a Good Police Radio Operator

1. Alertness gives an impression that the operator is awake and interested what the person is saying
on the other line
2. Pleasantness creates a proverbial voice with smile
3. Naturalness it involves the utilization of simple straightforward words and avoidance of repetition.
4. Expressiveness use of normal tone of voice which should not be too fast or too slow. The tone of
voice will vary on meaning of sentence that the operator is saying
5. Distinctiveness it involves speaking clearly and distinctly by moving the lips, tongue and jaw freely.

Radio is a system of communication using electromagnetic waves propagated through space

A. Radio Waves
The radio or electromagnetic waves travel as fast as the speed of light at 186,000 miles per second
or 300,000 kilometers per second.


1. Ground Wave is radiated energy that touches along the surface of the earth
2. Sky Wave is a radiated energy that travels to the ionosphere and is reflected back to earth.

B. Radio Transmitters generates electrical oscillations at a radio frequency called the carrier frequency
a. Oscillation Generator converts electrical power into oscillations of a predetermined radio
b. Amplifiers increases the intensity of oscillations while retaining the desired frequency
c. Transducer converts the information to be transmitted into varying electrical voltage
proportional to each successive instantaneous intensity.

C. Radio Receivers
a. Antenna receives the electromagnetic waves and converts them into electrical oscillations
b. Amplifier increases the intensity of oscillations
c. Demodulator detection equipment for demodulating
d. Speaker converts the impulses into sound waves audible by the human ear
e. Oscillators to generate radio frequency that can be mixed with incoming waves.


Above 30 MHz or within Very High Frequency (30300MHz) is the frequency needed by the
police departments.
30300 MHz is intended for short distances transmission.

a. Accuracy the correctness and truthfulness what is being communicated

b. Brevity using of few words. No unnecessary words or repetitious words in the transmission
c. Courtesy politeness of the words being used in the communication.

Associated Public Safety Communication officers, In APCO TEN SIGNALS

10-0 Caution 10-79 Notified

10-1 Unable to copy/Change Location 10-80 Kidnapping
10-2 Signal good 10-81 Stolen vehicle
10-3 Stop transmitting 10-82 Reserve lodging
10-4 Acknowledgement/ Roger 10-83 Found vehicle
10-5 Relay 10-84 If meeting advice ETA
10-6 Busy-standby unless urgent 10-85 Will be late
10-7 Out of service 10-86 Missing person
10-8 In Service 10-87 Pick-up checks for distribution
10-9 Repeat/ Say again 10-88 Advice precent telephone number of
10-10 Fight in progress 10-89 Found person
10-25 Report in person (meet) 10-90 Bank alarm
10-26 Detaining subject, expedite 10-91 Unnecessary use of radio
10-27 Drivers License Information 10-92 Wanted person
10-28 Vehicle Registration Information 10-93 Blockade
10-29 Check record for wanted 10-94 Drag racing
10-30 Illegal use of radio 10-95 Stole cattle
10-31 Crime progress 10-96 Mental subject
10-32 Man with gun 10-97 Secret
10-33 Emergency 10-98 Prison jail break
10-34 Riot 0-99 Record indicate wanted or stolen
10-35 Major crime alert
10-53 Road Blocked
10-54 Firestock highway
10-55 Intoxicated driver
10-56 Intixicated pedestrian
10-57 Hit and Run
10-58 Direct traffic
10-59 Convoy or escort
10-60 Squad in vicinity
10-61 Personnel in area
10-62 Reply to message
10-63 Prepare to make written copy
10-64 Message to local delivery
10-65 Next message assignment
10-66 Message cancellation
10-67 Clear to net message
10-68 Dispatch information
10-69 Message received
10-70 Fire alarm
10-71 Nature of fire
10-72 Report progress in fire
10-73 Smoke report
10-74 Negative
10-75 In contact with
10-76 En route
10-77 ETA (estimate time of arrival)
10-78 Need assistancE


o In Military Parlance, it is the end product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis,
integration, and interpretation of all available information which may have immediate or potential
significance to the development and execution of plan, policies and programs of the user.

o In Police Parlance, it is the end product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis,
integration and interpretation of all available information regarding the activities of criminals and
other law violators for the purpose of affecting their arrest, obtaining evidence, and forestalling
plan to commit crimes.


Numbers 13:17-32, Old Testament (Holy Bible) = Moses sent twelve (12) scouts to the land of
Canaan where he directed them to spy the land, the people and their location and the nature
of their living.

Rahab known as the Harlot of Jericho who sheltered and concealed the agents of Israel.
Made a covenant with the agents and duped their pursuers.

Delilah an impromptu philistine agent. Used her sex to gain information that lead to the
location of the largest effective forces of the enemy.

Sun tzu a Chinese philosopher takes a more practical view in intelligence history. According
to him, what is called foreknowledge cannot be elicited from spirits, nor from gods. It must be
obtained from men who knew the enemy situation. Sun tzu wrote a book entitled the Art of
War which is the favorite book of the late Communist leader Mao Tse Tung.

Alexander the Great when Alexander the Great was marching to Asia, there were rumors
of disaffection growing among his allies and mercenaries. He sought the truth and got it by
simplest expedient. He devised the first letter sorting and opening to obtain information.
(modern day mail censorship for prisoners)

General Romano Sertorius (Quintus Sertorius of Rome) The Roman commander in Spain
who possessed a white fawn and allowed it to become widely known that he derived both
secrets and guidance from its fawn. His allies also believed that he can communicate with

Akbar known as the Great Mogul master of Hindustan who employed more than 4,000
agents for the sole purpose of bringing him the truth that his throne might rest upon it.

Genghis Khan known as the Great Mongol. A leader of the so-called Mongol
Conquererors who used effective propaganda machine by spreading rumors of mongol terror.
The Leaders usually disguise as Merchants

The Renaissance Period

Sir Francis Walsingham protector of Queen Elizabeth I. he utilizes students as his agents.
He gave the England its first National Secret Service. Regarded as the First Great
o He employed spies on the staff of the Spanish army and able to obtain information
regarding Spanish army as to their strength and weaknesses.
Armand Jean du Plessis (Richelieu) became a Cardinal and Chief or prime minister of
King Louis XIII. Cardinal Richelieu became the most powerful in France.

Louis XIV systematized political policy, continuous surveillance, postal censorship and
military intelligence organization.

Napoleon Bonaparte one spy in the right place is worth 20,000 men in the field.
Organized two bureaus:
1. The bureau of intelligence consolidate all incoming information regarding the enemy to
obtain information.

2. The topographical bureau maintains a large map, which covers the latest information
regarding both enemy and friendly forces.

Frederick the Great known as the father of organized military espionage. He divided his
agents into four classes:
1. Common spies recruited among poor folk, glad to earn small sum or to accommodate a
military officer.
2. Double spies the law enforcers and unreliable renegades of value. Chiefly in spreading
false information to the enemy.
3. Spies of consequences couriers and noblemen, invariable requiring a substantial bribes or
4. Persons who are forced to undertake espionage against his will

Hannibal Considered one of the brilliant military strategies in history. He had developed an
effective intelligence system for 15 years in Rome, and he usually roam around the city often
disguised as a beggar to gather first-hand information.

Julius Caesar during his time, his staff of each legion includes ten speculators who served
as an information collecting agency. The speculators were the first intelligence personnel to
appear definitely in a military organization.

George Washington served as the Grand Master in intelligence who mobilized the free
masons of the colonies at the outbreak of the American war of independence.

Karl Schulmeister Renowned as "Napoleon's Eye". He was credited for establishing

counter intelligence conducted against spies. He is a master of deceit who used black mail to
obtain vital information pertaining to the personality and identify of the enemies of Napoleon
during the 18th Century.

Alfred Redl brilliant intelligence agent although a homosexual. Become chief of the Austro
Hungarian Secret Service, but in fact a double agent of Russia. In 1913, his treason was
discovered and he was forced to commit suicide.
His treason lead to the death of 500,000 agents and soldiers combine in 13 years of
espionage service.

Wilhelm Johann Karl Eduard Steiber Known as the Prussia's "King of Sleuthhounds" as
minister of police he studied the use of propaganda and censorship as well as utilizing
statistical intelligence accounting. Steiber's thorough organization and ruthless, his sinister
innovations and cold, calculating manipulation of human weakness made him the spymaster
who most shape the course of the 20th century espionage.

The Brahma Kautlya in ancient india, he overthrew the NANDA dynasty and established the
first MAYURYAN king in the Indian throne.

Mayuryan Spy System

Rivaled the modern Soviets and had the following tasks:
a. Shadow the kings ministers and officials and attempt to determine their very
b. Report wrong doings of the people
c. Operate secretly in foreign countries
d. Spread unrest
e. Commit act of sabotage
f. Assassinate political and military leaders
g. Official envoys were instructed to make friends with officials of the enemy to
compare their military strengths with their own

William "Wild Bill" Donovan Headed the Office of Strategic Service (OSS), the immediate
forerunner of the Central Intelligence Agency, a lawyer and millionaire Republican, Donovan
enjoyed Roosevelt's trust, friendship, and most crucial of all direct access to the inner
sanctums of the White House. His jovial outgoing personality and his upper class social
background played a considerable part in setting overall tone and style of "THE COMPANY"

Herbert Yardley Head of MI-8, The forerunner of the Top Secret National Security
Administration a.k.a Black Chamber, a Cryptanalytic Organization.

Battle of Midway In June 1442, the turning point of the Naval in the Pacific, the victory
gained by the Americans was due to the disrupted messages from the Imperial Japanese

Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto April 1943, the Cryptoanalyst of the U.S. Navy
Communications Intelligence intercepted a top secret signal relaying the travel of the Admiral.
En route ha was intercepted and crashed in the Jungles of Baungainville.

King Edward I King of England in 1725 organized a systematic police system so called
Witch and Ward. By Royal proclamation, the profession State Informer was created in 1734
enjoining all informers to expose criminal activities and be compensated.

Joseph Fouche The French statesman (1759-1820) served as minister of police under
Napoleon and was influential in the return of Louis XVIII to the throne in 1815.
He rose to become the most feared and respected intelligence director in French history. He
founded the system spying against spy which later know as counter-espionage

JOSEPH PETROSINO member of the New York Police Department in early 1900, he was
the head of the Italian Squad. Through extensive intelligence network, he is credited to smash
the Black Society.

Frey Tomas de Toquemada Master Planner. Conducted espionage during the 15th century
under the inquisition wherein purging and ecclesiastical cleansing was undertaken to fortify
and solidify the church

Sir Samuel Luke

Chief Scout of Oliver Cromwell who was able to dethrone King Charles I in British Civil War of
1640's. Sir Samuel Luke was said to be industrious in snooping on the enemy.

John Churchill first duke of Malborough, told critics of his enormous expenditure on
espionage, that " No war can be conducted successfully without early and good intelligence,
and such advices cannot be had but a very great expense".

Sir Arthur Wellesly Duke of Wellington, who defeated Napoleon's at Waterloo in 1815.
Regarded as the "Greatest Military Spymaster at All Time". He live by the motto; "All the
business of war is to find out what you dont know by what you do." He always studied the
enemy in depth, finding out not only where the opposing army was and how strong it was, but
the character of it's commander, the spirit and training of its troops, their battle experience, and
how they were supplied with arms and rations. He also studied and mapped the roads, rivers
and topography of the war theatre.

William Stephenson A film mogul in England who founded the British Security Coordination
in New York to cooperate with American spy agencies on secret orders from Winston Churchill
in coordination with Franklin D. Roosevelt. Stephenson commented that "Battles were won
because of advance knowledge f enemy plans could influence those plans, and could
anticipate enemy actions by methods heretofore concealed.

V2 Rackets OSS agents working in conjunction with the British Intelligence, through
penetration and technical intelligence discovered Pneumundo, which was the V2 guide missile
research project of Nazi Germany.

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) The agency was created under the US National
Security Act of 1947 a.k.a. Public Law 110 established by the late President Truman in
January 1946.The CIA is under the National Security Council. The First Director of the Agency
was Rear Admiral Roscoe Hillenkoetter. It is called THE COMPANY.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) First established in 1908 as an investigative

arm of the U.S. Department of Justice. It becomes what is known as the F.B.I. under its first
director John Edgar Hoover in 1942.

The Committee for State Security Russia The intelligence agency known as the KGB
Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti (KGB)

The British Secret Service (BSS MI5/MI6) established in 1909 as an internal

departments under the control of Secret Service Bureau. It is now known as Secret
Intelligence Service (SIS)

The Mossad (Ha-mosad le modiin u-letafquidim meyuhadim) The agencys motto is found
in Proverbs XI, 14 Where no counsel is, the people fall, but in the multitude of counselors
there is safety. Mossad has two branches namely:
1. Aman Military Intelligence (Israels Defense Forces)
2. Shabak General Security Service (Internal Security
Shabak is from the word shin bet that means a defender who shall not be seen. Reuven
Shiloah was the First Director of MOSSAD.


agency in the Philippines under the Office of the National Security Adviser

o Refers to all evaluated materials of every description including those derived from
observation, reports, rumors, imagery, and other sources from which intelligence is

Two General Classifications of Sources of Information:

1. Open Sources 99% of the information collected are coming from open sources.
a. Enemy Activities
b. POW
c. Captured Documents
d. Map
e. Weather Forecast, Studies, Reports
f. Agencies

2. Close Sources 1% of information from close sources.

Close/Covert Method
a. Surveillance
b. Casing
c. Elicitation
d. Surreptitious Entry
e. Employment of Technical Means
f. Bugging and Tapping Devices
g. Tactical Interrogation
h. Observation and Description


Informant Net a controlled group of people who work through the direction of the agent handler
Informant persons who give information to the police voluntarily
Informer persons who give information for reward or price


1. Criminal Informant an informant who gives information to the police pertaining to the
underworld about organized criminals with the understanding that his identity will be protected.
2. Confidential Informant is similar to the former but he gives information violate of the law to
includes crimes and criminals.
3. Voluntary Informant a type of informant who give information freely and willfully as a witness
to a certain act.
4. Special Informant those who gives information concerning specialized cases only and it is
regarded a special treatment by the operatives (ex. Teachers, businessman)
5. Anonymous Informant those who gives information through telephone with the hope that the
informant cannot be identified.


1. Incidental Informant person who casually imparts information to an officer with no intention
of providing subsequent information
2. Recruited Informant person selected, cultivated and developed into a continuous source of

1. Spontaneous Informant informant who by reason of his position or work has certain legal,
moral o ethical responsibilities to report an info to the police. Also known as Automatic
2. Ordinary (Out-of-Their-Will) Informant informant that is under the compulsion to repot the
info to the police
3. Special Employee informant who is of a specific operational value

Functional Classifications Of Police Intelligence

1. Criminal Intelligence refers to the knowledge essential to the prevention of crimes and the
investigation, arrest, and prosecution of criminal offenders.
2. Internal Security Intelligence refers to the knowledge essential to the maintenance of
peace and order.
3. Public Safety Intelligence refers to the knowledge essential to ensure the protection of
lives and properties.

Principles Of Intelligence
1. Intelligence and operation are interdependent separate and distinct activities but compliment
each other.
2. Intelligence requires continuous security measures deny unauthorized personnel information
about operation and intelligence product.
3. Intelligence must be useful must serve the commanders need and requirements
4. Intelligence must be timely must reach the user in time to serve as basis for appropriate
5. Intelligence must be flexible based on reason and sound judgment
6. Intelligence requires imagination and foresight agents must be given the leeway to be
resourceful to obtain more than what is normally acquired

Broad Categories of Intelligence

1. National Intelligence integrated product of intelligence developed by all government
departments concerning the broad aspect of national policy and national security.
a. National Policy specific courses of action to achieve the national
b. National Security this relate to the protection and preservation of military,
economic and a productive strength of a country including the security of the
government and domestics and foreign affairs against espionage, sabotage
and subversion.
2. Department of Intelligence the intelligence required by department or agencies of the
government to execute its mission and discharge its responsibilities.
3. Military Intelligence used in the preparation and execution of tactical plans.

Fields of Police Intelligence

1. Strategic Intelligence knowledge pertaining to the capabilities and vulnerabilities of a foreign
nation, which is required by the National Planners for the formulation of an adequate National
Defense in peace and forms the basis for, projected military operations in time of war.

Components of Strategic Intelligence

a. Political Intelligence deals with Domestic and Foreign affairs and relation of government
1. Basic Principles of the Government
2. Government Structures
3. Public Order and Safety
4. Subversion
5. Intelligence and Security Organization
b. Economic Intelligence deals with the extent and utilization of Natural and Human resources
to the industrial potential of the Nations.

c. Transportation and Telecommunication Intelligence concerned with the operations and
facilities not only the Military but also the Civilians.
d. Sociological Intelligence deals with the demographic and psychological aspects of groups of
1. Population and Manpower
2. Characteristics of the People
a. 3. Public Opinion attitudes of the majority of the people towards matters of public
3. Education based on literacy rate
e. Biographical Intelligence deals with individual personalities who have actual possession of
f. Armed Forces Intelligence deals with the armed forces of the Nation.
1. Position of the Armed Forces constitutional and legal basis of its creation and actual
2. Organization and structure and territorial disposition
3. Military Manpower Recruitment
4. Order of Battle
g. Geographical Intelligence deals with the natural as well as man-made features of the
physical environment of man considered from the point in view of military operations.
1. Location military and economic importance
2. Size measurement of which a nation can exchange space or time during
3. Shape
4. Weather and Climate
h. Scientific Intelligence deals with the progress of the research and development as it affects
the economic and military potential of a nation.

2. Line Intelligence (Tactical and Combat) is the intelligence required by the commander to
provide for planning and conduct of tactical operation.

- Knowledge of the People, Weather, Enemy, and Terrain (PWET) used in planning and
conducting tactical and administrative operation in a counter insurgency.

What are the Intelligence Information to be Determined in Line Intelligence?

a. living condition of the people
b. sources of income
c. education of the people
d. government livelihood of the people
e. extent of enemy influence to the people

a. visibility
b. cloudy
c. temperature
d. precipitation(rain)
e. wind

a. location of the enemy
b. strength of the enemy
c. disposition
d. tactical capability
e. enemy vulnerability

a. relief and drainage system
b. vegetation
c. surface material
d. man made features

3. Counterintelligence phase of intelligence covering the activity devoted in destroying the
effectiveness of hostile foreign activities and the protection of information against espionage,
subversion and sabotage.

Three Activity of Counterintelligence

1. Protection of information against espionage

2. Protection of personnel against subversion
3. Protection of installations and materials against sabotage

Two General Types of Counterintelligence

1. Passive Measures are those measures, which seek to conceal information from the enemy.
2. Active Measures are those measures, which seek actively to block the enemies effort to gain
information or engage in espionage, subversion, and sabotage.

Five Categories of Counterintelligence Operation

1. Military Security it encompasses the measures taken by a command to protect itself against
espionage, enemy operation, sabotage, subversion or surprise.
2. Port Frontier and Travel Security has to do with the application of both military and civil
security measures for counterintelligence control at point of entry and departure, international
borders and boundaries.
3. Civil Security it encompasses active and passive counterintelligence measures affecting the
non-military nationals permanently or temporarily residing in an area under military jurisdiction.
4. Censorship it is the control and examination of the following;
a. Civil
b. national
c. armed forces
d. field press
e. POW

Counterintelligence Investigation is an activity which constitutes the value of the

counterintelligence workload, worldwide and includes specific investigation of individual and
incidence, which for the most part are conducted in an overt but discreet manner.

Three Categories of Counterintelligence Measures

1. Denial Measures secrecy discipline, document security, camouflage and concealment,

communication security, military censorship, counter reconnaissance effort

2. Detection Measures security tag or pass card, challenge or password, reconnaissance

3. Deception Measures ruse use of escape and evasion, dummy position, fabricated


Intelligence Cycle The process through which intelligence is obtained, produced and made
available to users.

PHASE I Planning the Collection Effort it involves the determination of the requirements of
intelligence operation

1. Determination of Requirements

a. Enemy capabilities, including time, place, strength, or other details

b. Enemy vulnerabilities, including nature, extent, performance and other details
c. Enemy order of battle and factors
d. Terrain, including natural and artificial obstacles
e. Weather
f. Information desired by higher, lower or adjacent headquarters

2. Determination of the Essential Elements of Information

Essential Element of Information an item of information of the characteristics of the area of
operations and the enemy which the commander feels he needs before he can reasonably arrive at a

3. Establishment of Priorities
Priorities reflect the criticality of the need for the particular information. No formula exists which can
automatically determine priorities. Such determination is a matter of judgment.

PHASE II Collection of Information

a. Determine collecting agency

b. Send orders or request
c. Supervise collection efforts
d. Use tools or technique in collection
e. Ensure timely collection

Factors in Choosing Collection Agents

1. Capability agents placement or access to the target

2. Multiplicity more agents
3. Balance the number of agents needed in the operation

PHASE III Processing the Collected Information

1. Recording is the reduction of information into writing or some other form of graphical
representation and the arranging of this information into groups related items.
2. Evaluation is the determination of the pertinence of the information to the operation,
reliability of the source of or agency and the accuracy of the information.

Evaluation to Determine

a. Pertinence does it holds some value to current operation

is it needed immediately
b. Reliability judging the source of information or agency
c. Credibility truth of information

Judging Credibility

a. It is possible for the reported fact or event to have taken place?

b. Is the report consistent within itself?
c. Is the report confirmed or corroborated by information from different sources or agencies?
d. If the report does not agree with information from other sources which one is more likely to be

3. Interpretation it is the determination of the meaning and significance of the information relative to
the information and intelligence already known and drawing deductions about probable meaning of
the evaluated information.
a. Assessment shifting and isolating those elements the have significance in the light of the
mission or objective
b. Integration combining the elements isolated in analysis and known information to form a
logical picture or theory
c. Deduction the formulation of conclusions from the theory developed, tested and considered
valid in determination of effort and meaning of the information


Reliability of Information Accuracy of Information Sources of Information

A Completely Reliable 1 Confirmed By Other T-Direct observation by a commander of a unit
B Usually Reliable 2 Probably True U-Report by a penetration or resident agent

C - Fairly Reliable 3 Possibly True V-Report by an AFP trooper or PNP personnel
in encounter or operation
D Not Usually Reliable 4 Doubtfully True W-Interrogation of a captured enemy agent or
E Unreliable 5 Improbable X-Observation by a government or civilian
employee or official
F Reliability Cannot Be 6 Truth Cannot Be Y-Observation by a member of populace
Judged Judged Z-Documentary

PHASE IV Dissemination and Use of Information

1. Timeliness intelligence must reach the users on time to be of value.
2. Propriety the message must be clear, concise and complete and must be in the proper form
for the receiver to be readily understandable


1. Intelligence Journal permanent official chronological record of the operations of the

intelligence section, unit or agency. Includes all incoming and outgoing messages
2. Intelligence Workbook a device that provides a means of systematic arrangement of
information by type or subject for particular topic are group together
3. Situation Map graphic representation of the current enemy situation


Cover the means by which an individual, goup or organization conceals the true nature of its
acts and/or existence from the observer
Cover Story a biographic account, true or fictitious that will portray the personality of the agent
he assumed, a scenario to cover up the operation.


1. Natural Cover using actual or true background

2. Artificial Cover cover using biographical data adopted for such purpose
3. Cover Within a Cover use of secondary cover in case of compromise for justification of
4. Multiple Cover any cover wished


1. Offensive gives access to the target and facilitates the achievement of clandestine objective
2. Defensive serves to prevent detection

Organizational Cover an account consisting of biographical data which when adopted by an

individual will assume the personality he wants to adopt


1. Static or Dormant Opposition

2. Inhostile Active Opposition
3. Hostile Active Opposition


1. Move out immediately

2. Start new facility for operations and develop it
3. Build entirely new cover
4. Use circuitous route and provide careful counter-surveillance
5. Be patient, build slowly and carefully


1. Make a physical move or relocate

2. Start new facility and let it grow

3. Use new personnel
4. Let old personnel remain in place
5. Build entirely new cover identity

UNDERCOVER OPERATION an investigative technique in which the agent conceal his official
identity to obtain information from the target organization


1. Dwelling one in which the agent establishes residence in or near the dwelling which houses
the subject
2. Work Assignment places the undercover agent in a type of employment where he can
observe the activities of the target
3. Social Assignment requires to frequent places of entertainment and amusement known to
be habitually visited by the target
4. Multiple Assignment agent is given the task of covering two or more of the above specific
assignments simultaneously
5. Personal Contact Assignment or Rope Job agent is required to develop friendship and
trust with the target for purposes of obtaining information or evidence


1. Direct employment and utilization of special agents

2. Indirect employment and utilization of controlled informants


1. Placement location of prospective agent with respect to the target

2. Access the capability of a prospective agent to obtain the desired information


1. Primary Access the physical access to the desired information

2. Secondary Access the access to the desired information through a principal source where
the agent has direct access
3. Outside Access agent employed outside target and merely monitor information from a third
person who is monitoring info in the area

CONTROL is the authority to direct the agent to carry out task or requirement on behalf of the
clandestine organization in an acceptable manner and security


1. Positive Control characterized by professionalism and rapport like agent motivation or
psychological control
2. Negative Control characterized by threat which includes:
a. Disciplinary Action includes verbal reprimand for poor performance or insecure
actions of withholding certain rewards, reduction of agents, salary or threat of
terminating professional relationship
b. Escrow Account control of agent by putting his salary in a bank to be withdrawn
only after a fulfilment of a condition
c. Blackmail


1. Agent in Place agent who has been recruited by an intelligence service within a highly
sensitive target, who is just beginning a career or have been long or insider
2. Double Agent an enemy agent who has been captured, turned around as an agent of his
3. Expandable agent agent whom false information is leaked to the enemy
4. Penetration Agent agent who reached the enemy gets information and manage to get back

5. Agent of Influence agent who uses influence to gain information
6. Agent of Provocation agent who provoke the enemy to get information

It is a form of clandestine investigation which consists of keeping persons, place or other
targets under physical observation in order to obtain evidence or information pertinent to an

Important Terms

Surveillant person conducting the surveillance

Subject a party under observation or surveillance
Stakeout the surveillant remains in one or fixed position or locale. Also called Plant or Fixed
Convoy a countermeasure to detect or elude surveillance
Decoy a cover supporting the surveillant who can become a convoy whenever surveillance
is burned out
Drop any convenient, secure and unsuspecting place where police undercover man meet
his action agent for debriefing or reporting purposes
Contact any person whom the subject picks or deals with while he is under observation and
identifies the observer
Mustard Plaster the subject is followed so closely that surveillant and subject are almost in
lock step.. It is tantamount to protective custody
Tailgaiting open surveillance in which the subejects vehicle is closely followed
Tailing or Shadowing surveillance of person
Casing or Reconnaissance surveillance of place
Roping surveillance of events, activities or other things


A. According to Intensity and Sensitivity

1. Loose or Discreet a cautious surveillance in which the subject is unaware that he is
being followed or observed
2. Open or Rough a surveillance with little or no attempt of concealment. The subject is
most likely aware that he is followed.
3. Close or Tight the subject is kept undr constant surveillance. The aim is not to lose
the subject even at the risk of being detected.

B. According to Methods

1. Stationary the surveillant is in fixed position

2. Moving the surveillant follow the subject from place to place to maintain
continuous watch
3. Technical surveillance with the use of electronic gadgets, equipments or systems

Casing is the term used in the police organization while reconnaissance is the term used in
the military. It is the visual inspection of an area, installation or building to determine its
suitability for operational activities.


1. Exterior Casing observation of the whole area, building or installation, possible exits and
approaches and the type vicinity
2. Interior close observation of the layout of the building. Includes item that can be observed a
building which are of intelligence value

Methods of Casing

1. Personal Reconnaissance the most effective method and will produce the most information
2. Map Reconnaissance it may not be sufficient but may produce a certain amount of
3. Research sometimes additional info can be gathered through research
4. Prior Information information from records of file
5. Hearsay info usually gain by operating personnel

a. One-Man Tailing most difficult method which must be a close one otherwise the person
being followed will be lost
b. Leapfrog Method one member of the team maintains contact with the subject. The other
members of the team keep contact with those immediately ahead of them.
c. Group Method involves several men, each man maintains contact with the subject. One
may be abreast of the subject and others in similar position. In order not to prevent discovery,
such positions may be exchange between members of the group.


Observation encompasses the use of all the major senses to register and recognize the
significance of given operation
Description actual and factual reporting of ones observation
85% of knowledge gathered through sight
13% gathered through hearing
2% gathered through three other senses

Dos and Donts in Surveillance

1. Do not make abrupt or unnatural movement

2. Do not make use of disguise that will attract attention
3. Never stare at the subject
4. Never speak to other surveillant unless absolutely necessary
5. Plan ahead and be aware on changes of action
6. Take down notes safely
7. Make use of street furniture
8. Retrace the step of the subject in case the latter turn around during shadowing

o A system in which information of value is obtained through the process of direct
communication in which one or more of the parties is unaware of the specific purpose of the


o It is the identification of strength, command structure and disposition of the personnel, units
and equipment of any threat force.

o The system of placing barrier between the potential intruder and the material being

o The protection resulting from the application of measures to deny unauthorized
persons from gaining access from information of value

o Document is any recorded information regardless of its physical form or characteristics.

Classified Matter
o Information or matter in any form or nature, the safeguarding of which is necessary in
the interest of national security.

o Granting of access to classified document or information only to properly cleared
persons when such classified document or info is required in the performance of their
official duties and restricting it to specific physical confines when feasible

o The term given to the requirement that the dissemination of classified matters be limited
strictly to those persons whose official duty requires possession therof.

o Lose of security resulting to unauthorized person obtaining knowledge on classified

o The assigning of information or material to one or of the four security classification

o The changing of classified matter to a categories higher than the previously assigned to

o Act of changing the assigned classification of a document or material

o Removal of the security classification from document or material.


1. Top Secret Document record containing information and material, the unauthorized
disclosure of which would caused exceptionally grave damage to the nation, politically,
economically or from the point of national security. This category is reserved for the nations
closest secrets and is to be used with great reserve. It is covered with legal size bond paper
lined with a 1/2-inch green border.

2. Secret Document record containing information or material, the unauthorized disclosure of

which would endanger national security, cause serious injury to the interest and prestige of the
nation or any governmental activity or would be of great advantage to other nation. It is
covered with legal size bond paper lined with a -inch red border.

3. Confidential Document containing information or materials, the unauthorized disclosure of

which would be prejudicial to the interest or prestige of the nation or any government activity or
would cause administrative embarrassment or unwarranted injury to the honor and dignity of
an individual or would be of advantage to foreign nation. Covered with legal size bond paper
lined with a -inch blue border

4. Restricted Record Information and material which requires special protection other than
that determined to be top secret, secret or confidential. Cover sheet is not necessary, what is
important is a bold RESTRICTED word at the top and at the bottom of the bond paper.


o It is an inquiry into the character, reputation, discretion and loyalty of an individual in order to
determine a persons suitability or access to classified matters prior to the granting of security


1. National Agency Check (NAC) investigation of an individual made on the basis of written
information supplied buy him in response to an official inquiry. It is simply a check no the files
and records of national agencies
2. Local Agency Check (LAC) inquiry sent to local government agencies, former employers,
character references and schools where the subject attended.
3. Background Investigation (BI) more comprehensive than LAC or NAC.


1. Complete Background Investigation (CBI) it consists of the thorough and complete

investigation of the background of the subject including all the circumstances of his life.
2. Partial Background Investigation (PBI) investigation of the background of the subject but
limited only to circumstances of his personal life which are deemed pertinent to an

Security Clearance administrative determination from a security standpoint that an individual is
eligible for access to classified matter

1. Security Clearance a certification issued by the proper authority that the person described
has an access to classified matter at the appropriate level.
2. Directed Clearance a clearance granted for a specific purpose upon completion of
prescribed records check or background check

CRYPTOGRAPHY the art and science of code and ciphers. It is done through the use of
telephone scrambler or technically speaking, Speech Inverter where speech frequencies are
divided to produce a scrambling speech when intercepted.
Cryptographer person skilled in converting messages from clear to unintelligible forms by the
use of codes and ciphers. Also known as Coder, Encrypter or Code Clerk.
Crypto-Analyst one who break intercepted codes
Coding changing of message from plain clear text to unintelligible form. Also known as
Decoding transforming of coded message into plain text. Also known as Decrypting.


Management pertains to the utilization of available resources in an organization to achieve its
organizational objectives. It also refers to the process of directing and facilitating the work of
people organized in formal groups in order to achieve a desired goal. It is concerned in placing
the right people on the right job and in maintaining a satisfied work force.


1. Authority is the right to command and control the behavior of employees in lower positions
within an organizational hierarchy. A particular position within an organization carries the same
regardless of who occupies that position.


1. Law
2. Tradition
3. Delegation

2. Responsibility means that the management shall be held accountable for whatever result
that may arise in the exercise of authority. Thus, responsibility limits the exercise of ones
Command Responsibility - is the doctrine that imposes commensurate accountability to
one who is vested with management and leadership functions.

- is an organizational process concerned with the implementation of objectives and plans
and internal operating efficiency. It connotes bureaucratic structure and behavior, relatively
routine decision making and maintenance of the internal status quo.

1. PLANNING - refers to the determination in advance of how the objectives of the organization
will be attained.

2. ORGANIZING - involves the determination and allocation of the men and women as well as
the resource of an organization to achieve pre-determined goals or objectives of the

3. DIRECTING - involves the overseeing and supervising of the human resources and the
various activities in an organization to achieve through cooperative efforts the pre-determined
goals or objectives of the organization.

4. STAFFING - the task of providing competent men to do the job and choosing the right men for
the right job. It involves good selection and processing of reliable and well-trained personnel.
5. CONTROLLING - involves the checking or evaluation and measurement of work performance
and comparing it with planned goals or objectives of the organization, and making the
necessary corrective actions so that work is accomplished as planned.

6. REPORTING - the making of detailed account of activities, work progress, investigations and
unusual in order to keep everyone informed or what is going on.

7. BUDGETING - the forecasting in detail of the results of an officially recognized program of

operations based on the highest reasonable expectations of operating efficiency.

Scientific Management
- proposed by Frederick Taylor
Under this theory, workers are motivated by economic rewards and that if they are paid
commensurate to work being done they produce maximum amount of work. This
management theory entails that good salary and incentives must be given to workers
to ensure their hard work, innovative action and good will.

This behavioral science approach was introduced by D. McGregor. Theory X assumes
that people have little ambition, dislike work, and must be coerced in order to perform
satisfactory. Theory Y assumes that people do not inherently dislike work and if
properly rewarded, people will perform well on the job.


The art of preparing, organizing and directing the efforts of members of a police force
in order that they may achieve the accomplishment of the police purpose. The primary
objective of an effective police personnel management is the establishment and
maintenance for the public service of a competent and well-trained police force.


1. Police Personnel Planning study of the labor supply of jobs which are composed of the
demands for employees in an organization to determine future personnel requirements which
either increase or decrease.

2. Police Recruitment is the process of encouraging police applicant form outside an

organization to seek employment in an organization. It consists of developing a recruitment
plan, recruitment strategy and maintaining a list of qualified applicants.

3. Police Screening/Selection the process of determining the most qualified police applicant
for a given position in the police organization.

4. Police Placement the process of making police officers adjusted and knowledgeable in a
new job and/or working environment.

5. Police Training and Development refers to any method used to improve the attitude,
knowledge and skill or behavior pattern of an employee for adequate performance of a given

6. Police Appraisal process of measuring the performance of people in achieving goals and
objectives. Also known as Performance Evaluation System

7. Police Compensation constitute the largest single expenditure for most organizations

The process of attracting candidates who have maximum qualifications to be eligible
for selection procedure. It is the process of searching the candidates for employment
and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization.

The process of screening out or eliminating undesirable applicants who do not meet
the organizations criteria.

In the Philippine National Police, the recruitment and selection of applicants who will be
appointed to the police service is the responsibility of the Directorate for Personnel and Records
Management (DPRM). DPRM is tasked in the management of PNP uniformed and non-uniformed
personnel as individuals, manpower procurement and control and in the records management of the

Responsible for the widest dissemination of vacancies in their respective areas, the
evaluation of the applicants qualifications and the selection of the most qualified applicants
to be recommended for appointment to the police service.
Established at the NHQ, NSUs and PROs.


Chairman: Deputy Director for Administration of the respective National Support Unit/ the Deputy
Director General for Administration.
Vice Chairperson: Senior NAPOLCOM official with Salary Grade 24 or higher which shall be
designated by the Vice Chairperson and Executive Officer of the NAPOLCOM.

1. National Peace and Order Council (NPOC) member designated by the NPOC Chairman;
2. Private Sector representative designated by the NPOC Secretary General; and
3. Womens representative from private sector with known probity designated by the NSU

Secretariat: Assistant Director for Personnel and Records Management (ADPRM) /

Human Resource Management Officer (HRMO)


Chairman: Deputy Regional Director for Administration

Vice Chairperson: Senior NAPOLCOM official with Salary Grade 24 or higher which shall be
designated by the NAPOLCOM Regional Director

1. Regional Peace and Order Council (RPOC) member designated by the RPOC Chairman;
2. Senior Regional DILG Officer designated by the DILG Regional Director;
3. Womens representative from private sector with known probity designated by the PNP
Regional Director.

Secretariat: Chief, Regional Personnel on Human Resource and Doctrine Development (RPHRDD)


1. Preparation and proper approval of quota allocation

The PNP shall prepare, through the Directorate for Personnel and Records Management
(DPRM) and submit it to the NAPOLCOM for approval of the PNP annual recruitment quota.

2. Posting and publication of Notice of Recruitment

The Notice of Recruitment shall include the following data for the information of prospective
a. Quota for the city/municipal police station;
b. Vacancies are open to both male and female applicant;
c. General qualification standards;
d. Documentary requirements;
e. Where to submit the application papers and documents;
f. Deadline for submission; and
g. Schedule of screening/evaluation.

3. Submission of the application folders

4. Selection and evaluation process by the PNP Screening Committee
5. Psychiatric/Psychological Examination (PPE)
6. Complete Physical, Medical and Dental Examination (PMDE)
7. Physical Agility Test
8. Final Committee Interview
9. Certification by the NAPOLCOM and attestation by the Civil Service Commission
10. Issuance of appointment order and oath taking

The final evaluation includes the sequential conduct of the following examinations, test and

1. Psychiatric/Psychological Examination (PPE) to exclude applicants that may be suffering

from any mental disorder. It shall be administered to all applicants under the supervision of the
PNP Medical Officer and NAPOLCOM Representative. Only those applicants who passed the
PPE shall proceed to the next stage, the Physical, Medical and Dental Examination (PMDE).

2. Complete Physical, Medical and Dental Examination (PMDE) this test shall determine
whether or not the applicants are in good health and free from any contagious diseases. It shall
be conducted by the PNP Health Service under the supervision of the PNP Medical Officer and
NAPOLCOM Representative. Applicants who passed the PMDE shall be indorsed for the
conduct of the Physical Agility Test (PAT).

3. Physical Agility Test (PAT) this test shall determine whether or not the applicant possesses
the required coordination, strength and speed of movement necessary in the police service. The
PAT consists of the following:
o Pull-up for Men; Horizontal Bar Hang for Women;
o Two (2) Minutes Push-ups;
o Two (2) Minutes Sit-ups;
o 100 meter dash; and
o 100 meter run.

4. Final Committee Interview (FCI) it shall determine the applicants aptitude to join the police
service, likableness, affability, outside interest, conversational ability, disagreeable mannerisms, etc.

The drug test (DT) shall not follow the sequential steps but shall be conducted on passers only
anytime after the PPE, PMDE, or PAT but before the Final Committee Interview. It shall be
administered by the PNP Crime Laboratory.
The conduct of the Physical Agility Test (PAT) and Neuro-Psychiatric (NP) examination shall
be simultaneous nationwide to prevent a retake in another place of said tests by applicants who
initially failed on the same.
The complete Character and Background Investigation (CBI) shall be conducted on all PPE
passers and must be completed before the start of the Final Committee Interview. The complete CBI
shall determine their reputation and possible involvement in any questionable or criminal activities or
violent incidents.


NAPOLCOM representatives to the PNP Recruitment Screening Committees are actively

involved in the recruitment and selection process including interview of applicants, the PNP Neuro-
Psychiatric Examinations, Physical/Medical and Dental Examination, Physical Agility Test (PAT) and
Drug Test.
There are also NAPOLCOM Representatives to the following PNP Promotion Boards:
1. PCO Promotion Boards;
2. PNCO Promotion Boards; and
3. Lateral Entry Board

- is a means of providing knowledge and skill to police officers which are needed in the
performance of their functions. It is the objective of police training to bring the police force to the
desired standards of discipline and efficiency by making each police officer fully aware of his
duties and responsibilities and by providing him with a working knowledge of police procedures
and techniques.


1. Basic Recruit Training is the most basic of all police training. It is a pre-requisite for
permanency of appointment and is required for newly hired police officers. In the Philippine
National Police, a newly appointed Police Officer 1 is required to undergo a Public Safety Basic
Recruit Course (PSBRC) as a basic recruit training.

2. Field Training Program (FTP) or on-the-job training is the process by which an individual
police officer who is recruited into the service receives formal instruction on the job for special
and defined purpose and performs actual job functions with periodic appraisal on his
performance and progress.
a. As provided for under R.A. 8551, police officers are required to undergo a Field Training
Program for twelve (12) months (inclusive of the PSBRC) involving actual experience and
assignment in patrol, traffic and investigation which is required for permanency in the police


o Under Section 33, R.A. 6975, PNPA Graduates shall be automatically appointed to the initial
rank of Inspector via Lateral Entry.
o Taking into consideration that the PNPA Cadetship Program is a four-year course that includes
academic subjects on core police functions such as patrol, traffic and criminal investigation,
and on-the-job training in urban and rural areas, PNPA graduates are exempted to undergo
the FTP and that they shall be issued with a permanent status.

3. In-Service Training Program or refresher training program.

The following are examples of in-service training programs as mandatory requirement for
1. Junior Leadership Training PO1 to PO3
2. Senior Leadership Training SPO1 to SPO4
3. Police Basic Course (PBC) for senior police officers
4. Officers Basic Course (OBC) Inspectors to Chief Inspectors
5. Officers Advance Course (OAC) for Chief Inspectors to Senior Superintendent
6. Officers Senior Executive Course (OSEC) Superintendent and above
7. Directorial Staff Course (DSC) for Directors and above

4. Departmental Training Program

a. Roll-Call Training instructional courses of several hours a day concerning
departmental activities
b. Supervisory Development, Specialized or Technical Training seminars or special
sessions on criminal investigation, traffic, drug control, etc
c. Training conducted by other law enforcement units or agencies


Police assignment refers to the process of designation a police officer at a particular function,
duty or responsibility. The very purpose of police assignment is to ensure systematic and effective
utilization of all the members of the police force.
Police Officer 1s, specifically those who were recruited under the attrition recruitment program,
after undergoing the required Field Training Program (FTP), shall be assigned with the
Regional/Provincial/City Public Safety Battalion/Company of their place of recruitment for a maximum
period of two (2) years.
After their assignment with the Regional/Provincial/City Public Safety Battalion/Company, they
shall be downloaded/assigned to their respective city/municipal police stations where they were


Promotion is defined as the upward movement from one classification or rank to another
carrying higher benefits and more responsibility. It is the upgrading of ranks and/or advancement to a
position of leadership.


a. Regular Promotion - promotion granted to police officers meeting the mandatory

requirements for promotion.
b. Special Promotion promotion granted to police officers who have exhibited acts of
conspicuous courage and gallantry at the risk of his/her life above and beyond the call of

c. Promotion by Virtue of Position Any PNP personnel designated to any key position
whose rank is lower than that which is required for such position shall, after six (6) months
of occupying the same, be entitled to a rank adjustment corresponding to the position.


- refers to the process of measuring the performance of PNP members. It is also known as
performance evaluation system. The Performance Evaluation System in the PNP is
focused on two (2) areas: administrative (40%) and operational (60%). It is conducted
every six (6) months or twice a year.


- The frequency of the individual performance shall be undertaken every six (6) months.
Evaluation report covering the period of January to June shall be submitted on the 1 st week
of July and the report from July to December shall be submitted on the 1 st week of January
of the succeeding year.


a. Serves as guide for promotion, salary increase, retirement and disciplinary actions.
b. Increases productivity and efficiency of police works
c. Assimilates supervision
d. Informs the officer of the quality of his work for improvements


- The uniformed members of the PNP are considered employees of the National
Government and shall draw their salaries therefrom. The salary of a Police Officer 1 of the
PNP is equivalent to a salary of a public school teacher 1 with salary grade scale of 10
under existing laws as of year 2012.
- The PNP members assigned in Metropolitan Manila, chartered cities and first class
municipalities may be paid financial incentive by the local government unit concerned
subject to the availability of funds.


- A uniformed personnel of the PNP is entitled to a longevity pay of ten percent (10%) of basic
monthly salaries for every five (5) years of service, which is reckoned from the date of the
personnel's original appointment in the AFP, or appointment in the police, fire jail or other allied
services to the integration of the PC and the INP.
- The totality of such longevity pay should not exceed fifty percent (50%) of the basic pay. It
should also continue to enjoy the subsistence allowance, quarters allowance, clothing
allowance cost of living allowance, hazard pay, and all other allowances as provided by
existing laws.

The total earnings of a police officer consist of the following:

a. Base pay;
b. Longevity pay;
c. Personnel Economic Relief Allowance (PERA);
d. Incentive pay;
e. Hazard pay;

f. Subsistence allowance;
g. Quarter allowance;
h. Additional compensation;
i. Clothing allowance;
j. Laundry allowance; and
k. Gratuity


Total Permanent Physical Disability refers to any impairment of the body which renders
PNP member indefinitely incapable of substantially performing the mandated duties and functions of
his positions.

- entitled to one year's salary and to lifetime pension equivalent to eighty percent (80%) of his
last salary, in addition to other benefits as provided under existing laws.


- Retirement is the separation of the police personnel from the service by reason of reaching the
age of retirement provided by law, or upon completion of certain number of years in active

- A PNP uniformed personnel shall retire to the next higher rank for purposes of retirement pay.

- Active Service shall refer to services rendered as an officer and non-officer, cadet, trainee or
draftee in the PNP


a. Compulsory retirement separation from the PNP upon reaching the age of fifty-six (56),
the compulsory age of retirement.
b. Optional Retirement - separation from the PNP upon accumulation of at least twenty (20)
years of satisfactory active service.


- The PNP member who has been retired from the service is entitled to a monthly retirement pay
of fifty percent (50%) of the base pay and longevity pay of the retired grade in case of twenty
(20) years of active service, increasing by two and one-half percent (2.5%) for every year of
active service rendered beyond twenty (20) years to a maximum of ninety percent (90%) for
thirty-six (36) years of active service and over.


- Refers to the information whether in its original form or otherwise including documents,
signatures, seals, texts, images, sounds, speeches or data compiled, recorded or stored, as the
case may be:
1. in written form on any material;
2. on film, negative, tape or other medium so as to be capable of being reproduced; or
3. any means of recording device or process, computer or other electronic device or

Record management
- refers to the managerial activities involved with respect to the record creation, record
maintenance, and use, transmission, retention, and record disposition in order to achieve
adequate and proper documentation of policies and transactions of government for its efficient,
effective and economical operation.

- also known as birth-through-death cycle

- the life span of records from creation to final disposition:

1. Birth or Creation the period during which the record is created or comes into existence.

2. Records Maintenance and Use refers to the period when the records serve its purpose:
a. Active Life during which the record is maintained, used and controlled
b. Inactive Life the time when the record is very rarely or no longer referred to and must
be transferred to a cheaper place. These records have already served their purpose
but must be kept for legal requirement or other compelling reasons.

3. Classification records are classified for filing purposes.

4. Storage refers to the filing of records according to classification.
5. Retrieval the act of taking out of record from the storage for reference purposes.
6. Purging or Retention the act of determining if the record is for retention or ready for
7. Transfer the process of moving the record from one storage to another.
8. Archival Storage or Records Disposition the systematic transfer of non-current records
from the office to any storage area or archives for long term storage, the identification of
preservation of permanent records and the destruction of valueless records.

A. According to Period of Retention:

1. Permanent Record to be kept for not less than ten (10) years
2. Semi-Permanent to be kept for five (5) years
3. Temporary no specified period but usually less than (5) years.

B. According to Importance or Essentiality:

1. Vital Records are records that are irreplaceable, but can be reproduced.
2. Important Records records that can be reproduced after considerable delay.
3. Useful Records records that would cause inconvenience if lost but could be readily
4. Non-essential Records records that are previously determined by retention schedule to be
illegible for destruction.

C. According to Phases of its Life Cycle

1. Current Phase (Current or Active Records) - records that are regularly used and
2. Semi-current Phase (Semi-current Records) - records that are still used but only
3. Non-current Phase (Non-current or Inactive Records) - records that are no longer used.


1. Case Records it is the heart of any police records system. It serves as the basis for an analysis
of offenses and the methods by which they are committed.

a. Complaint Sheet it is the foundation record of the police department. It reflects all information
regarding complaints and reports received by the police from citizens and other agencies or actions
taken by the police.

b. Investigative Report it contains the findings and actions taken by the investigating officer based
on the inquiries made and by obtaining the available facts of the incident.

1. Initial or Advance Report is an advance information on a new or fresh case. It is written

and submitted immediately after having conducted the initial investigation of the case.

2. Progress or Follow-up Report it is the result of the follow-up investigation of a new or fresh
case. It is written and submitted every time or whenever any development or progress is
accomplished in the follow-up investigation.

3. Final or Closing Report is a complete written narration of facts based on an exhausted
investigation of the case. It is the result of evaluated, summation, analysis of all facts and
circumstances of the case. This is written and submitted whenever the case is solved and
closed. A case is solved and closed when the offender was arrested; evidence against him
was completely gathered to warrant prosecution and witness located to testify in the trial.
4. Technical Report a report on the laboratory examination of the physical evidence gathered
in order to supplement the findings of the investigator.

5. Accident Report an investigation report regarding an accident which includes vehicular

accident and damage to property.

6. Wanted Persons Report a report on persons who are wanted by the police.

7. Daily Record of Events a record needed to keep all members of the police force informed
concerning police operations, assignments, and administrative functions.

2. Arrest and Booking Records these records maintain the arrest and jail booking report which is
required for all persons arrested.
a. Arrest Report it contains the information regarding the full name of the offender,
charges and circumstances of arrest.
b. Booking Report it contains the list of the prisoners in custody which indicates the
status and disposition thereof.
c. Prisoners Property Receipt - contains all the information regarding the property
taken from the prisoner and accomplish in duplicate.

3. Identification Records third major division of police records. It provides identification criminals
which includes names, physical characteristics and in some cases photograph.
a. Fingerprint Record heart of any identification system.
1. Civilian Fingerprint
2. Alien Fingerprint
b. Criminal Specialty/Modus Operandi (MO) File contains photographic record of the
modus operandi of criminals

4. Administrative Records essential in administering personnel matters and designed to aid in

assignment, promotion, and disciplinary action of personnel.
a. Personnel Records
b. Correspondence File
c. Memoranda, Orders, Policy Files
d. Assignment Record

5. Miscellaneous Records these are records which are not related to the recorded complaints and
investigation reports but are essential to the daily police activities.

1. Alphabetical all materials are filed in dictionary order. It is the most widely used form of

2. Encyclopedic Order the subjects are grouped into major headings, individual folders are
filed in alphabetical order behind each heading.
3. Chronological Order folders are arranged by sequential date order. It is useful for records
that are created and monitored on a daily basis.

4. Geographical files are arranged alphabetically by geographical name of the place.

5. Numerical assigning of numerical value or number into a specific file which can be managed
through the following system:
a. Serial Number
b. Digit Filing

6. Centralized Filing places all record series in one central location in an office. Most useful when
the majority of individuals within an office require access to majority of files

7. Decentralized Filing it physically locates record series in different places within an office. Most
useful when only one individual requires access to a specific record series.
As provided in the PNP Personnel Records Management Manual of 2008, the PNP shall
establish a centralized records management system and create, maintain, protect and preserve
records both in physical and electronic form.


The Records Management Division (RMD) was established to oversee the records
management functions of the DPRM. The RMD shall develop, coordinate and implement PNP-wide
programs, policies and procedures for creation, usage, maintenance, storage and disposition of
personnel records. The RMD is headed by a division chief with a rank of Police Senior Superintendent
and assisted by an assistant division chief with a rank of Superintendent.

Records creation refers to the act of exchanging written ideas between two (2) sources. At this
point, the life of the record begins. However, due to the fast pace at which the records of PNP
personnel are created, and the cost involved in maintaining them, a control system is necessary.


The PNP Personnel File which is also known as 201 File is a folder containing a set of
personal records and information pertaining to an individual member of the PNP, which serves as
basis in availing of service record, leave record, PNP ID, legal beneficiaries, authentication of
photocopies, etc.

The color of the folder for the PPFs shall be as follows:

a. Red, for Police Commissioned Officers (PCO);

b. Blue, for Police Non-Commissioned Officers (PNCO)
c. Green, for Non-Uniformed Personnel (NUP)


Records maintenance refers to the activities involving proper handling of records, arranging
them into usable filing sequence, using the most efficient type of filing equipment.


Records Disposition is the systematic transfer on non-current records from an office to any
records storage area, the identification and preservation of permanent records and the outright
destruction of valueless records.
No PNP personnel or units/offices shall dispose of, destroy or authorize the disposal or
destruction of records or PPFs which are in the custody or under its control except with the prior
written authority of the Executive Director, National Archives of the Philippines (Section 18, R.A.
Any PNP personnel who, willfully or negligently, damages a police record or disposes of or
destroys a police record shall be deemed to have committed an offense.


- refers to the preventive and preventive and protective measures and actions undertaken in
order to safeguard records/documents in all government agencies from unauthorized and
indiscriminate disclosure, damage, destruction and loss, whether records are filed in current of non-
current storage area.


a. Duplication records shall be created with additional copies or duplicates depending on the
needs and circumstances.
b. Dispersal records shall be distributed without additional copies or duplicates.
c. Vaulting vital records shall be stored in a vault.
d. Evacuation original and older records considered to be vital shall be transferred to a secure


i. Vital or top protection priority, consists of all essential records considered as mission critical
and irreplaceable.
ii. Important or second protection priority, consists of all documents still considered as
essential but could be replaced or recreated.
iii. Useful or lowest protection priority, consists of all other documents considered to be non-
essential to normal operations but inconvenient when lost.


The governmental department charged with the regulation and control of the affairs of a
community, now chiefly the department established to maintain order, enforce the law, and
prevent and detect crime. (French word)

An estimate of relative likeness or unlikeness of two objects or event

Package of transnational flow of people, production, investment, information, ideas and
Growing interpenetration of states, markets, communication and ideas.
The process of creating transnational markets, politics, and legal systems in an effort to form
and sustain a global economy.


Law enforcers are expected to be the protector of the people unaccountable flow of migration
and open markets present new threats to state-based human rights regimes great challenge
to law enforcement.

Threats to Law Enforcement

increasing volume of human rights violations as evidence by genocide and mass killing
conflict between nations
Transnational criminal networks for drug trafficking, money laundering, terrorism


1. Common Law Systems Usually exists in English speaking countries of the world
a. There is strong adversarial system and rely upon oral system of evidence in which the
public trial is a main focal point
b. Also known as Anglo-American Justice
2. Civil Law Systems Distinguished by strong inquisitorial system where less right is granted to
the accused and the written law is taken as gospel and subject to little interpretation
a. also known as Continental Justice or Romano-Germanic Justice
3. Socialist System Distinguished by procedures designed to rehabilitate the offender.
b. known as Marxist-Leninist Justice and exist in places such as Africa and Asia
4. Islamic System Based more on the concept of natural justice or customary law or tribal


Continental Is the theory of police service which maintains that police officers are servants
of higher authorities. This theory prevails in the continental countries like France, Italy and

Home Rule The theory of police service which states that police officers are servants of the
community or the people. This theory prevails in England and United States. It is also the
police service which prevails in country with decentralized form of government. This is likewise
the police service theory that should prevail in the Philippines based on the existing laws,
concepts and principles.


a. Old police service = states that the yardstick of police proficiency relies on the number of
arrest made.

b. Modern police service = states that the yardstick of police proficiency relies on the absence
of crime.

Deviance Control = is the modern police function which primarily involves the mission to reinforce
community values and laws. This was adopted by Germany, China and Japan.

Civil order control = is not organizationally separated from deviance control but is performed by
regular street police in the country of England and United States.


Praetorian guards = military bodies who serve as guardians of peace in ancient Rome in
which the idea of policing said to have originated
Officer de la Paix = a French term which claimed to be the origin of the term Police Officer

1. Anglo-Saxon Period of Policing System (Ancient England)

A. Tun Policing System

A system of policing emerged during the Anglo-Saxon period whereby all male residents
were required to guard the town (tun) to preserve peace and protect the lives and properties of the

About 700 AD, the people living in England in small rural towns used the Anglo-Saxon
System. Ten families in a town (tun) equaled a tithing. Each tithing elected a leader who was known
as the Tithingman. Since 10 tithings amounted to 100, the leader of the 100 families was named the
reeve. Both the tithingman and reeve were elected officials. They possessed judicial power as well
as police authority.

B. Hue and Cry

A village law started in Britain which provided methods of apprehending a criminal by an act of
the complainant to shout to call all male residents to assemble and arrest the suspect.

C. Trial by Ordeal
A judicial practice where in the guilt or innocence of the accused is determined by subjecting
him to an unpleasant, usually dangerous, experience. (In present terminologies, it would mean an
employment of a 3rd degree.) The word ordeal was derived from the Medieval Latin word Dei
Indicum which means a miraculous decision.

2. Norman Period of Policing System

This system of policing existed during the time of Norman William The Conqueror (King of
France). When he invaded and conquered England, a military regime of conquers and dictators began
and changed the concept of crime being committed against the state.

A. Shire-Rieve
Shire-Rieve was a policing system during the Norman Period when England was divided into
fifty-five (55) military areas, each headed by a ruler called the Rieve (head-man or lieutenant of the
army). The fifty-five (55) military divisions in England are called shires. The shire-rieve had absolute
powers that no one could questions his or her actions.
Two Constabuli or The Keeper of the Horse were appointed to each village to aid the
Rieve in his duties. It became the source of the word Constable.
The term Shire-Rieve is said to be the origin of the word Sheriff.

B. Travelling Judge or Circuit Judge

A judge selected to hear cases which were formerly being judged by the Shire-Rieve and
tasked to travel through and hear criminal cases. This was the first instance of the division of
the police and judicial powers.

C. Legis Henrici
An act that was enacted during this period with the following features:
Offenses were classified as against the king and individual.
Policeman becomes public servant.
The police and the citizens have the broad power to arrest. It introduced the system called
citizens arrest.
Grand Jury was created to inquire on the facts of the law. A system which made inquisition
onto the facts of a crime and eliminate the Anglo-Saxon Trial or Trial by Ordeal System.

D. Frankpledge System
A system of policing whereby a group of ten neighboring male residents over twelve years
of age were required to guard the town to preserve peace and protect the lives and properties of the

3. Westminster Period of Policing System

It is called by this name because the laws governing policing came out of the capital of
England, which at the time was Westminster. This period has the following features:
Guards were appointed and the duties of the constables at night (watch) and in daytime
(ward) were defined
Statute of Westminster of 1285, a collection of regulations aimed at keeping the peace.

B. Statute of 1295

o The law that marks the beginning of the curfew hours, which demanded the closing of the
gates of London during sundown.

C. Justice of the Peace (About 1361)

o Three or four men who were learned in the law of the land were given authority to pursue,
arrest, chastise and imprisonment violators of law. They handled felonies, misdemeanors
and infractions of city or village ordinances. This was later abolished about 75 years after.

D. Star Chamber Court (1487)

o A special court designed to try offenders against the state. The room set-up is formed in a
shape of a star and judges were given great powers such as the power to force
testimony from a defendant leading to a great abuse of power or brutality on the part of
the judges.

4. Keepers of the Peace

o A proclamation issued by King Richard of England sometime in 1195 that required the
appointment of knights to keep the Kings peace by standing as guards on bridges and
gates while checking the people entering and leaving the cities and towns.

5. King Charles II of England (1663)

o King Charles II passed an act which established or promoted the employment of watchmen or
bellmen to be on duty from sunset to sunrise.

6. Magna Carta or "The Great Charter"

A law promulgated by King John of England upon the demand of the Knights of the Round
Table forcing the King to sign the same with the following features:

o No freeman shall be taken, imprisoned, banished or exiled except by legal judgment of his
o No person shall be tried for murder unless there is proof of the body of the victim.


Henry Fielding = appointed as Magistrate in 1748, introduced the first detective force, known as
the Bow Street Runners

Bow Runners - A group of men organized by Henry Fielding and named by his brother John
Fielding task to catch thieves and robbers
identified by carrying a Tipstaff with the Royal Crown
Made up of eight constables who also investigated crimes handed over to them by
the volunteer constables and watchmen

1798 - Marine Police Force was established, salaried constables were being paid by local
Initially made up of 220 Constables assisted by 1,000 registered dock workers, and was
responsible for preventing the theft of cargo. = widely regarded as being the first modern
police force in the world, in the sense that they were not government controlled and were
responsible for the prevention of crime.


Sir Robert Peel - Appointed as Home Secretary in 1822

Organized in 1829 by Sir Robert Peel (Metropolitan Police Act of 1829)
o The largest of the police services that operate in greater London (the others include the
City of London Police and the British Transport Police)
o Finest police force around the world.

TOTAL POLICING = motto of London Metropolitan Police

1833 = Coldbath Fields Riot (Grays Inn Road). A major crowd disturbance dealt with by the
Metropolitan Police with controversial use of force.
1836 = The Metropolitan Police absorb the Bow Street Horse Patrol into its control.
1838 = incorporates Marine Police and Bow Street Runners into the Metropolitan Police and
the disbandment of the Bow Street Office and other Offices. These were all agreed and put
into effect.

Administration Policing Principles of London Metropolitan Police

1. Stable and effective civil police under government control
2. Absence of crime is the best proof of efficiency
3. Fast distribution of crime news to the police is essential.

Commissioner = highest rank in the Metropolitan Police

Police Constable = lowest rank

Contributions of the French in Policing

Assigning house numbers
Installing street lights
Use of police ambulances
Use of warrant card and ID signifying the authority to arrest


1. Municipal Police = includes village, township, city and country police departments, sheriff
Types of Local Police
a. Country Sheriff = in charged with the operation of county jail, civil function such as service of
eviction notices and other court orders and police responsibility.
b. City Police = most common local police organization. It has jurisdiction in matters that occur
in an incorporated municipality.
2. State Police = includes special investigative agencies that concentrate on statewide law
3. Federal Police = agencies operated by federal government at the national level

Some Federal Agencies Having Police Functions

a. Protection of Life, Property and Enforcement of Penal Statutes

1. Federal Bureau of Investigation (Department of Justice) = investigates all violations of federal
law except when the enforcement authority was given to other specific federal agency
2. United States Secret Service (Department of Treasury) = concerned with investigation of
counterfeiting, forging or altering of any of the money or other securities of the U.S. It is also in
charged of the protection of the president and his family, and of the executive mansion grounds
3. Bureau of Narcotics (Department of Treasury) = investigated all violations of federal law relating
to prohibited drugs
4. Immigration and Naturalization Service (Department of Justice) = investigates all violations of
immigration and naturalization laws, patrol boarders to prevent surreptitious entry of aliens,

b. Protection of the National Revenue

1. Intelligence Unit of the Bureau of Internal Revenue = investigation of violations of income tax
2. Alcohol Tax Unit of the Bureau of Internal Revenue = violations of internal revenue laws
3. Division of Investigation and Patrol, Bureau of Customs = investigates smuggling activities and
enforces customs and navigation laws.
4. Private Police = additional police protection made by employing sworn officers through contract
when they are not officially on duty

Two Basic Forms of Private Police

a. Proprietary Police = when a person wish to receive service, he hires and security personnel
b. Contract Security = services of an independent security company

U.S. Police Agencies

o New York City = it is where the first full time police force was organized in the
United States
o New York Police Department = the largest police force in the United States
o Texas Ranger = police force originally created in response to colonization
o Boston Police Department = first local modern police department established in the
United States
o Pennsylvania State Police = the first state police agency established
o Los Angeles Police Department = police force that hired the first female police officer
named, Alice Stebbins Wells

The United States police rank model is generally quasi-military in structure. Although the large
and varied number of federal, state, and local police departments and sheriff's office have different
ranks, a general model, from highest to lowest rank, would be:

o Chief of Police/Police Commissioner/Superintendent/Sheriff

o Deputy Chief of Police/Deputy Commissioner/Deputy
o Inspector/Commander/Colonel
o Major/Deputy Inspector
o Captain
o Lieutenant
o Sergeant
o Detective/Inspector/Investigator
o Officer/Deputy Sheriff/Corporal

Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) = colloquially known as Mounties and internally as The
Force = is the national police force of Canada and one of the most recognized of its kind in the word
being a national, federal, provincial and municipal policing body. It is founded in 1920 by the Merger
of Royal Northwest Mounted Police(1873) with the Dominion Police (1868).
= headed by the Commission under the direction of the Minister of Public Safety Canada.

Commissioner = highest rank in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police

Police Constable 4th Class = lowest rank

Australian Police = a progressive and multi-faceted law enforcement organization, taking strong
lead in the fight against 21st century crime.
Commissioner = highest rank
Constable = lowest rank

Hong Kong Police Force
= is the largest disciplined service under the Security Bureau of Hong Kong. It is the
world's second, and Asia's first, police agency to operate with a modern policing system. It was
formed on 1 May 1844.
In 1969, Queen Elizabeth II granted the Royal Charter to the Hong Kong Police Force for their
handling of the Hong Kong 1967 riots renaming them: the Royal Hong Kong Police Force.
Following the transfer of sovereignty, the Force is once again named the Hong Kong Police Force

Structure HKPF
The Force is commanded by the Commissioner of Police, who is assisted by two deputy
1. Deputy Commissioner Operations = supervises all operational matters including
crime and
2. Deputy Commissioner Management = is responsible for the direction and
coordination of force management including personnel, training, and management

Motto =We Serve with Pride and Care

The Hong Kong Police Force is organized into Six Regions:

Hong Kong Island
Kowloon East
Kowloon West
New Territories North
New Territories South
Marine Region

The Force Headquarters (Management) is made up of five departments:

Operations & Support
Crime & Security
Personnel & Training
Management Services
Finance, Administration and Planning

Hong Kong Police College = s responsible for all matters relating to training within the Hong
Kong Police except internal security, Auxiliary and Marine Police training. Training provided by the
Police College includes recruit and continuation training, crime investigation training, police driver
training and weapon tactics training. The information technology training, command training, local
and overseas management training, some specialist courses and periodic courses on firearms
and first aid are also provided by the Police College.

Service Quality Wing = is responsible for spearheading initiatives to improve services provided to
force customers both external and internal. The wing comprises three branches: Performance
Review, Research and Inspections and Complaints and Internal Investigations (C&II)
Complaints and Internal Investigations (C&II) = includes the Complaints Against Police
Office (CAPO) oversees the investigation and successful resolution of all complaints made both
externally and internally against members of the force.

Entry Requirements to HKPF

Must be a permanent resident of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and have lived in
Hong Kong for at least seven years.

For Inspector
Academic Requirements
Hong Kong degree, or equivalent; or
An accredited Associate Degree from Hong Kong tertiary institution / A Higher Diploma
from a Hong Kong polytechnic / polytechnic university, or a Diploma from a registered post-
secondary college awarded after the date of its registration, or equivalent; or
A pass in two subjects at Advanced Level in the Hong Kong Advanced Level Examination
(2A) plus three other subjects at Grade C or above in the HKCEE (3O), or a combination of
results in five Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education (HKDSE) subjects of Level 3 in
New Senior Secondary (NSS) subjects, Attained with Distinction in Applied Learning
(ApL) subjects (subject to a maximum of two ApL subjects) and Grade C in Other
Language subjects, or equivalent.

For Police Constable

Academic Requirements

Five passes or above, which may include Chinese Language and English Language, in the
HKCEE, or a combination of results in five Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education
(HKDSE) subjects of Level 2 in New Senior Secondary (NSS) subjects, Attained in Applied
Learning (ApL) subjects (subject to a maximum of two ApL subjects) and Grade E in Other
Language subjects, or equivalent.

Selection Processes For Inspector

Written Examination
Extended Interview
Psychometric Test

Final Interview Board
Physical Fitness Test
Integrity Checks and Medical Examination

Selection Processes for Police Constable

Physical Fitness Test
Group Interview
Psychometric Test
Final Interview Board
Basic Law Test
Integrity Checks and Medical Examination

Commissioner of Police (CP)
Deputy Commissioner of Police (DCP)
Senior Assistant Commissioner of Police (SACP)
Assistant Commissioner of Police (ACP)
Chief Superintendent of Police (CSP)
Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP)
Superintendent of Police (SP)
Chief Inspector of Police (CIP)
Senior Inspector of Police (SIP)
Inspector of Police (IP)
Probationary Inspector of Police (PI)
Station Sergeant (SSGT)
Sergeant (SGT)
Senior Constable (SPC)
Police Constable (PC)

TAIWAN POLICE FORCE = is the unified police force of taiwan
= under the supervision of NATIONAL POLICE AGENCY which is directly under the
= under effective civilian control


1) To maintain public order,

2) To protect social security,
3) To prevent all dangers, and
4) To promote the welfare of all people.


1. Administration Police = are generally referred to those who are required to wear uniforms to
carry out duties of household visits, patrolling, raid, guarding, duty officer, and reserves.
2. Traffic Police = the primary duties of the Traffic Police are to keep traffic order, to ensure
traffic safety, to prevent traffic accidents, and to smooth traffic flow.
3. Special Police = are those who are responsible for protecting the Central Government,
establishing contingent plans and assisting local and specialized police units in maintaining
public order.
4. Criminal Investigation Police = the primary duties of the criminal investigation police are to
prevent and detect crimes.
5. Specialized Police = main duties are to protect state-run enterprises and public facilities like
railways, highways, airports, harbors, MRT and Bank of Taiwan.


Police Supervisor General
Police Supervisor Rank
Police Supervisor Rank Two
Police Supervisor Rank Three
Police Supervisor Rank Four
Police Officer Rank One
Police Officer Rank Two
Police Officer Rank Three
Police Officer Rank Four
Police Rank One
Police Rank Two
Police Rank Three
Police Rank Four

Myanmar Police Force
Formally known as The People's Police Force (Burmese: Pyi Thu Yae Tup Pwe)
Established in 1964 as independent department under Ministry of Home Affairs. It was
reorganized on 1 October 1995.
There are 14 State and Divisional Police Forces and three additional State/Division Police

Each State and Divisional Police Force consist of four components

Office of the Commander of the State and Divisional Police Force

Office of the Commander of the District Police Force
Office of the Commander of the Township Police Force
Police Stations


1. Central Training Institute of Myanmar Police Force

2. No.1 Police Training Depot = undertakes Basic Training Course for Police Sergeant for 2 years;
Warrant Officer and Police Sergeants Course for 12 Weeks; and Basic Training Course for
Constables for 6 Month

3. No. 2 Police Training Depot = undertakes only Basic Training Course for Constables, which
normally takes around 6 months to complete.


Indonesian National Police (Kepolisian Negara Republika Indonesia) = is the official police force
of Indonesia
= organized 1946
= also known as Polri

Markasbesar/Mabes = name of the headquaters of Indonesian National Police located in

KebayoranBaru, South, Jakarta, Indonesia


1. Kepolisian Daerah or polda = provincial police

2. Kepolisian Wilayah or Polwil = regional police
3. Kepolisian Resort or Polres = city police
4. Kepolisian Sector or Polsek = sub-district police

1. Brigade Mobile (BRIMOB) = the most militarized trained to deal with mass demonstrations
a. Paramilitary role to conduct security stabilization operations and providing security for
VIP and vital facilities
2. Anti-Riot Unit (Pasukan Anti Huru-Hura) = received special anti-riot training
3. Sea and Air Police = responsible patrolling the airspace
4. Plainclothes Unit = assigned in conducting investigations
5. Maritime Police = responsible in protecting the territorial sea
6. Anti-Terrorist Unit = trained in counter-terrorism
7. Forensics = in-charged of laboratory examination of evidence
At least sixth-grade education and should pass the competitive examination.
After 3 years, personnel with junior secondary diploma could enter into training to become NCO.


Police General = equivalent of Director General of PNP
Second Bhayangkara = equivalent of police officer 1 of the PNP

ROYAL MALAYSIAN POLICE (RMP: Malay: Polis Diraja Malaysia, PDRM) = police force of
= headquarters is located at Bukit Aman, Kuala Lumpur
= The constitution, control, employment, recruitment,fund, discipline, duties and powers of the
police force is specified and governed by the Police Act 1967

Motto = TEGAS, ADIL DAN BERHEMAH = Firm, Fair And Prudent

RMP Organizations
1. Management Department = the Management Department is tasked with the routine of
management and administration affairs of the RMP. This department is also the nerve centre
of the RMP and acts as the support services platform for the rest of the force.
2. Logistics Department = has the role to provide several equipments needed in RMP
3. Criminal Investigation Division = deals with the investigation, arrest and prosecution of hard
crimes (murder, robbery, rape etc) and petty crimes (theft, house-breaking etc).
= This department also specializes in gambling, vice and secret societies (triads)
Branches of Criminal Investigation Division
D1 Administrative Division
D2 Criminal Record Registration
D3 Internal Affairs
D4 Statistics
D5 Prosecution and Law Divisions
D6 Technical Assistance Division
D7 Gambling / Vice / Secret Societies
D8 Investigation Division / Planning
D9 Special Investigation Division
D10 Forensic Laboratory Division
D11 Sexual Investigation Division
D12 National Centre Bureau-Interpol Division

4. Narcotics Criminal Investigation Division = this department's function is to fight against

dangerous drugs by enforcing the law to stop and reduce the demand and supply of
dangerous drugs.
5. Internal Security and Public Order Department = responsible for traffic control and Search
& Rescue (SAR) operations
6. The Police Field Force (PFF) = organized in battalions and was a para-military units of the
Royal Malaysia Police. Also known as the Jungle Squad
a. = established in 1948
7. Police Counter-Terrorism Unit = an elite unit of RMP responsible in counter-terrorism
8. UNGERIN = Unit Gempur Marin (UNGERIN) (Marine Combat Unit) was established in 2006
and it was fully operational by the end of 2007
b. = first name was Unit Selam Tempur due to the pressing need to suppress the pirate
attacks alongside the coastal area of Malacca Straits and open sea area of South
China Sea which were continuously widespread from time to time despite various
efforts done to overcome the problem
c. = members received training from U.S
9. Federal Reserve Unit (FRU) = (Malay: Pasukan Simpanan Persekutuan)
d. = its role is riot suppression, crowd control, disaster relief & rescue, as well as
special operations assistance
e. = organized in 1955
10. C4-i Implementations System = (abbreviation for Command, Control, Communications,
Computer-Integrated) = based at Police Control Centre in all police contingents in Malaysia.
f. = this unit is assigned to patrol the city and the suburbs.
11. The Marine Operations Force or (Malay: Pasukan Gerakan Marin) = tasked with
maintaining law and order and coordinating search and rescue operations in the Malaysian
Maritime Zone and on the high seas
12. Royal Malaysian Police Air Wing Unit or Unit Udara PDRM (UUP) = is a special unit of
Royal Malaysia Police with a vital role in maintaining national security with thorough
surveillance and patrol from the air
13. Special Branch = This department is responsible for collecting intelligence for national
14. Traffic Unit = responsible in maintaining the flow of traffic
15. Commercial Crimes Investigation Department = this department's main function is to
investigate, arrest, and prosecute offenders committing white collar crimes such as fraud,
breach of trust, cyber-crimes, forgery, counterfeiting etc
16. Mounted Police = police who patrol on horseback (equestrians) or camelback. They continue
to serve in remote areas and in metropolitan areas where their day-to-day function may be
picturesque or ceremonial, but they are also employed in crowd control because of their
mobile mass and height advantage


INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF POLICE = equivalent of director general (Philippines)

POLICE CONSTABLE = equivalent of police officer 1 (Philippines)

Francis James Bernard = formed the skeleton force as the heritage of Singapore Police Force in
Singapore Police Force (SPF) is the main agency task with the maintaining law and order in
the city-state. It is formerly known as Republic of Singapore Police. Organized with split
staff (15) and line functions (13) roughly modeled after the military. Headquarters at New
Poenix Park in Novena. The highest rank is Commissioner of Police and the lowest is
Police Constable.
Section 7 of Police Force Act of 1857 = constitution of the SPF
High school graduates who were interested in law enforcement as a career can be recruited
and those who are selected for officers had to be approved by the Public Service Commission.
Career development course were encouraged for officer and senior officers are required to
travel oversees for training such as in Police Staff College in Britain, FBI Natl Academy
in US and Police Academy in Japan.
Nine (9) months training. Newly appointed officer will be placed on a one year probation


Commissioner of Police = equivalent of director general in the Philippines

Constable = equivalent of Police Officer 1 in the PNP


Keihoryo (Police Bureau within the Ministry of Home affairs to 1945)

Japanese Colonial Government = the one which organized the first formal policing in
Japanese Yakuza = considered as the center of Asian organized crime action.


1. National Public Safety Commission - A government body responsible for the administrative
supervision of the police. Under the jurisdiction of the Prime Minister
2. Japan National Police Agency (NPA) = a totally gunless police force, except for its special
attack team.

Organizations Attached to the NPA

a. National Police Agency = provides training to police officers and conduct academic research
b. National Research Institute of Police Science = conducts research in police science

c. Imperial Guards = provides escort to the Emperor, Empress, Crown Prince and other Imperial
d. = responsible for the security of Imperial Palace

3. Regional Police Bureau = exercise control and supervision over regional police offices and
provides support with the prefectural police.
Director General = heads each Regional Bureau acting upon orders from the Commission
General of the NPA.

Regional Police Bureau = the local organizations to carry out part of the NPAs functions. There are
about 7 Bureaus in the major cities except for Tokyo and Hokkaido where in Tokyo,
Metropolitan Police department (headed by Superintendent General) has long been established
and shares the same location with the NPA. Prefectural Police has the whole of Hokkaido under
its jurisdiction.

4. Prefectural Public Safety Commission (PPSC) = administrative commission functioning under

the representative system which supervise the prefectural police. Under the Jurisdiction of the
Governor. Though not empowered to give order to the Commission.

5. Koban = a system of policing adopted in Japan, a substation near major transportation hubs and
shopping areas and in residential districts which forms the first line of police response to the public.
= Koban usually staffed by 3-5 officers and about 7000 residential police boxes (Chuzaisho-
staffed by a single officer). About 20 % of police is assigned to Koban.


Ministry of National Defense = is the top of the hierarchy with judicial and public security
agencies such as Ministry of Public safety and the Ministry of State Security.
Ministry of Public Security= is the principal police authority of the mainland of the Peoples
Republic of China which oversee the day to day law enforcement. (It is the equivalent of the
National Police Agency in Japan).
Ministry of State Security = the Chinese governments largest and most active foreign
intelligence agency, though it is also involved in domestic security matters.

Kinds of police

1. Peoples Armed Police (PAP), 1980s deals with domestic disturbances, acts as riot police and
guards government compounds and foreign embassies. Usually handles border defense but is called
sometimes to back up local police.
2. State Security Police = (1983) safeguards state security, prevent foreign espionage,
sabotage and conspiracies. Under the Ministry of State Security and directly accountable to the
State council.
3. Prison Police = a part of the correctional arm of the overall police system stationed in prisons
and correction units. This is under the leadership of the Ministry of Justice.
4. Judicial Police = responsible for maintaining the security and order in courts and serving
instruments and some also executing death sentences.
5. Quasi parapolice (Cheng guan) = operate in many places and hired by officials to help carry out
some unpopular actions such as collecting taxes and fines and ousting peasants from seized land.

Special Police College = conducts nationwide recruitment once a year.

Central Military Commission = appoints police in China
Peoples Liberation Army = Chinese Armed forces.
Civil Service Promotion Examinations = basis for regulation of the Rank promotion Examination for
police officer.


Commissioner General = equivalent of Director General in the PNP
Constable 2nd Class = equivalent of Police Officer 1 in the PNP


Royal Thai Police = formerly known as THAILAND NATIONAL POLICE DEPARTMENT (TNPD)
= In 1998, TNPD was transferred from the Ministry of Interior of Thailand to be directly under
the Office of the Prime Minister using the name Royal Thai Police. The position of its supreme
head was changed from that of the Director-General of the TNPD to the Commissioner-General of
the Royal Thai Police
Royal Thai Police Headquarters = based in Bangkok
Police-General = highest rank of the Royal Thai Police
Policeman / Constable = lowest rank


Royal Brunei Police Force (Polis Diraja Brunei PDRB) = created in 1921 which is
responsible for keeping law and order and providing law enforcement services throughout
Inspector-General of Police = highest rank
Lance Corporal = lowest rank

Philippine Police System

During the Spanish Regime
Maintenance of law and order is a part of the military system for the defense of the colony;
Locally organized police forces although performing civil duties is a direct adjunct of the
colonial military establishments; (policemen in appearance yet colonial soldiers in the ultimate
Police functions consisted mainly of (1) suppression of brigandage by patrolling unsettled
areas; (2) detection of local or petty uprising by spying upon the work and movements of the
people and; (3) the enforcement of tax collection including church revenues.
Cuardilleros = a body of rural police organized in each town established by Royal decree of Jan.
8, 1836. It mandates that 5% of the able bodied male inhabitants of each province where to be
enlisted in this police organization for 3 years. There services are originally not paid or gratuitous
subject to some privileges although in some province they received a proportionate pay ranging
from 4.00 to 8.00 depending on the revenue collection.
Carabineros De Seguridad Publica = Organized in 1712 for the purpose of carrying the
regulations of the Department of State. This was armed and considered as the mounted police
who later discharged the duties of a port, harbor and river police. It was later given special
commission by Royal Decree of December 20, 1842 and it was called Cuerco De Seguridad
Publica ( Corps of Crabbiness for Public Security).
Gurdia Civil = Created by Royal decree on February 12, 1852, to partially relieve the Spanish
peninsula troops of their works in policing towns. It is consisted of a body of Filipino policemen
organized originally in each of the provincial capital of the province of Luzon under the Alcalde
Philippine Commission Act No. of 175 = (July 18, 1901) an act providing for the organization
and government of an Insular Constabulary.
Sec. 1, Act 255 of October 3, 1901 = renamed the Insular Constabulary to Philippine
Constabulary (a national police institution for preserving peace, keeping order and enforcing the
Henry Allen = the first Chief of the Philippine Constabulary.
Rafael Crame = the first Filipino Chief of the Philippine Constabulary.
Act No 70 = (On January 9, 1901) The Metropolitan Police Force of Manila was organized
E.O. 389 = Ordered that the PC be one of the four services of the AFP, dated December 23, 1940.
P.D. 765 = Integration Act of 1975, dated August 8, 1975, established the Integrated National
Police (INP) composed of the PC as the nucleus and the Integrated local police forces as
components, under the Ministry of National Defense.
E.O. 1012 =transferred to the city and municipal government the operational supervision and
direction over the INP units assigned within their locality.
R.A. 4864 =It created the POLCOM (Police Commission) as a supervisory agency to oversee the
training and professionalization of the local police under the Officer of the President. Otherwise
known as the Police Professionalization act of 1966, dated September 8, 1966. It was later
renamed as the National Police Commission (NAPOLCOM).
E.O. 1040 = Transferred the Admin. Control and Supervision of the INP from the ministry of
National Defense to the National Police Commission
R.A. 6975 = It is otherwise known as the Department of Interior and Local Government Act of
1990, enacted on December 13, 1990. Established the PNP, BFP, BJMP and the PPSC.
R.A. 8551 Philippine National Police Reform and Reorganization Act of 1998, enacted 1998,
amending the provision of R.A. 6975
Act No. 181 = created the Division of Investigation (DI) of the Department of Justice dated
November 1938.

R.A. 157 = created the National Bureau of Investigation, enacted June 19, 1947 and later
reorganized by R,A. 2678
Line and Staff = the organizational structure of the P.N.P. which is also adopted by many police
organization in the world.
P.N.P. = headed by Chief with a rank of Director General with two (2) Deputy Director General (1)
for Administration and (2) for Operation. Although there are three (3) Deputy Director General
SOP No. 7 = prescribed PNP guidelines in the conduct of operations against terrorists and other
lawless elements involved in terrorist activities.

United Nations
Officially came into existence on October 24, 1945
Coined by Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt in the declaration by United Nation.
This declaration was made to officially state the Cooperation of the allies (Great Britain, the
United States, and the Union of soviet Socialist Republics)

Branches of UN
1. UN general Assembly = This is the main decision- making and representative assembly in the
UN through its policies and recommendations. It is composed of all member states , is headed by a
president elected from the member states, and meets from September to December

Functions of General Assembly

a. Deliberative = initiating studies and making recommendations for the development of
international law
b. Supervisory = receiving and considering annual and special reports from another
c. Financial = approval and apportionment of budget
d. Elective = election of non-permanent members of the security council
e. Constituent = admissions of members and the amendments of charter

2. UN Security Council = is another branch in the organization of the UN and is the most powerful
of all the branches.

a. Preventive Action = consist of provisional measures to prevent a conflict from worsening, and may
involve the deployment of PEACEKEEPING AND OBSERVER missions
b. Enforcement Action = consist of deployment of air, sea and land forces
Five Permanent Members of Security Council
1) China
2) France
3) Russia
4) United Kingdom
5) United States
*The other 10 members are rotating or elective members for a period of two years by the
General Assembly

3. International Court of Justice = Located in the Hague, Netherlands. This branch is responsible
for the judicial matters of the UN.
4.Secretariat = Its main responsibility is providing studies, information, and other data needed
5. Economic and Social Council = consists of 45 members elected by the General Assembly for a 3
year term.

Efforts are Towards the Following:

a. Higher standards of living
b. Condition of economic and social progress and development
c. Solutions of international economic, social, health and related problems
d. Universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms

6. Trusteeship Council = assists the security council and the general assembly in the administration
of the International Trusteeship System

UN CHARTER = it is closest to a constitution that basically governs the relations of international

persons. Technically, it is a Treaty.

TREATY = an international agreement concluded between states in written form and sworn by
international law, whether embodied in a single instrument or in two or more instruments and
whatever its particular designation.

Interpol (1923) = (International Criminal Police Organization) is the police forces organization
that primarily manifest global or international cooperation in addressing transnational crime. Its
headquarters was initially located in Vienna Austria (it is where Interpol was founded) but at
present it is transferred to Lyon France.
INTERPOL = is the worlds largest international police organization, with 190 member
countries. It exists to help create a safer world by supporting law enforcement agencies
worldwide to combat crime.
It aims to facilitate international police co-operation, and supports and assists all
organizations, authorities and services whose mission is to prevent or combat internal crime.
= the organization of law enforcement agencies worldwide that serves as transmission or
communication line for the exchange of information, data and request for assistance
between and among the member countries.
It focuses on: (1) Combat crimes and transnational crimes; (2) protect minorities against
the dominant groups; and (3) Maintain law enforcement regardless of race or religion.

INTERPOL s Structure
General Assembly
Executive Committee
General Secretariat
National Central Bureaus
The Commission for the Control of INTERPOLs Files.

General Assembly = is the supreme governing body of the Interpol, it meets annually and
comprises delegates appointed by each member country. The assembly takes all important
decisions related to policy, resources, working methods, finances, activities and programmes.

Executive Committee = consisting of 13 members elected by the General Assembly and

comprises the president, three vice presidents and nine delegates covering the four regions.
o It is the INTERPOLs select deliberate organ which meets three times a year, usually in
March, July and immediately before the General Assembly.

Current Members of the EC as of 2012

KHOO Boon Hui (Singapore) Current President and Singapores Senior Deputy Secretary
of the Ministry of Home Affairs and former Commissioner of Police.

3 Vice Presidents

Adamu Abubakar MOHAMMED (Nigeria)

Mireille BALLESTRAZZI (France)
Oscar Adolfo NARANJO TRUJILLO (Colombia)

9 Delegates
Pieter Jaap AALBERSBERG (The Netherlands)
Fath ELRAHMAN Osman (Sudan)
Emmanuel GASANA (Rwanda)
Francisco GIL MONTERO (Spain)
Nobuyuki KAWAI (Japan)
Tariq KHOSA (Pakistan)
Sanna PALO (Finland)
Marcos VASQUEZ MEZA (Chile)
Timothy A. WILLIAMS (United States)

General Secretariat = (Lyon, France) operates 24 hours a day, 365 days a year and is run by the
Secretary General. It Works with Officials of more than 80 countries side-by-side using four official

languages: Arabic, English, French and Spanish. It consists of seven (7) regional offices across the
world namely:

o Argentina,
o Cameron,
o Cote DIvoire,
o Kenya,
o El Salvador,
o Thailand, and
o Zimbabwe.

National Central Bureaus (NCB) = Each INTERPOL member country maintains a National
Central Bureau staffed by National law enforcement officers. The NCB is the designated
contact point for the General Secretariat, regional offices and other member countries
requiring assistance with overseas investigations and the location and apprehension of

Advisers = these are experts in a purely advisory capacity, who may be appointed by the
Executive Committee and confirmed by the General Assembly.

Commission for the Control of INTERPOL File (CCF) = this is an independent body whose
mandate is threefold:
to ensure that the processing of personal information by INTERPOL complies
with the Organizations regulations,
to advice INTERPOL on any project, operation, set of rules or other matter
concerning the information contained in INTERPOLS files.

INTERPOLs Governance = comprises the General Assembly and the Executive Committee,
which is headed by the President.
o The President of the Organization is elected by the General Assembly for a period of
four (4) years. His role is to chair the General Assembly and Executive Committee and
ensure that INTERPOLS activities conform with decisions made at these meetings.

Oskar Dressler = the first secretary general of the Interpol.

Johann Schober = the first president of the Interpol.

1. Red Notice a notice which is issued to seek the arrest or provisional arrest of wanted
persons with a view to extradition.
2. Blue Notice this type of notice is issued in order to locate, identify or obtain information on a
person of interest in a criminal investigation.
3. Green Notice to warn about a person's criminal activities if that person is considered to be a
possible threat to public safety.
4. Yellow Notice to help locate missing persons, often minors, or to help identify persons who
are unable to identify themselves.
5. Black Notice a notice issued to seek information on unidentified bodies.
6. Orange Notice to warn of an event, a person, an object or a process representing an
imminent threat and danger to persons or property.
7. Purple Notice issued to provide information on modus operandi, objects, devices and
concealment methods used by criminals.
8. INTERPOLUnited Nations Security Council Special Notice is issued for individuals and
entities that are subject to UN sanctions.

The following are channels of global bilateral and multilateral international cooperation against
transnational crime:
Global multi-lateral cooperation via Interpol;
Bilateral police cooperation agreements with individual states;
European multilateral cooperation via Europol.

*System of policing that serves as a grass root approach to bring the people and the police together in
cooperative manners:
Problem Oriented Policing
Community Oriented Policing
Cooperative Policing
Team Policing


1. Secure Global Police Communications Services
a. INTERPOL developed the I-24/7 global police communications system to exchange
crucial data quickly and securely is a cornerstone of effective international law

2. Operational Data Services and Databases for Police

i. INTERPOL provides operational data services and databases for police to fight
international crime, police need access to information which can assist
investigations or help prevent crime. INTERPOL manages several databases,
accessible to the INTERPOL bureaus in all member countries through its I-24/7.

3. Operational Police Support Services

a. 24-Hour Support
The Command and Co-ordination Centre(CCC) operates round the
clock in all of INTERPOLs four official languages (English, French, Spanish and
Arabic) and serves as the first point of contact for any member country faced
with a crisis situation.

b. Crisis Response and Major Events

In the event of a disaster or major crime, INTERPOL Response Teams
or Disaster Victim Identification teams composed of officers from the General
Secretariat and member countries can be dispatched to the scene within hours
of an event.

c. International Alert System

An important component of INTERPOLs operational police support is
the notice system, of which the Red Notice for wanted persons is the most
well known. In addition to the six color-coded notices (Red, Blue, Green,
Yellow, Black and Orange), is the INTERPOL-United Nations Special Notice
issued for groups or individuals who are the targets of UN sanctions against Al
Qaeda and the Taliban.
d. Analyzing Crime Data
Criminal intelligence analysis is recognized by the law enforcement
community as a valuable tool, helping to provide timely warning of threats and
operational police activities. INTERPOL contributes to investigations by
assisting officers working at the General Secretariat and in member countries
with research and analysis on crime trends and with training courses in criminal
analysis techniques.

Divisions of Criminal Intelligence Analysis

a. Operational Analysis = aims to achieve a specific law enforcement outcome. Usually, it has
immediate benefit
b. Strategic Analysis = provides early warning signals of threats and to support decision making in
setting priorities to deal with criminal issues

4. Police Training and Development

As one of the 4 INTERPOL core functions, Police Training and Development continues to
evolve as a priority for INTERPOL and member countries.


1981 (Manila) = The first formal meeting of The Chiefs of ASEAN Police
= Attended by 5 original member countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines,
Singapore and Thailand)


1. Brunei 4. Myanmar
2. Cambodia 5. Vietnam
3. Lao

o 1983 (Jakarta) = Endorsement of the model & design of ASEANAPOL logo
o 1984 (Kuala Lumpur) = Royal Brunei Police became a member and joined the annual
o 1996 (Kuala Lumpur) = Vietnam joined as a new member
o 1998 (Brunei) = Laos joined ASEANAPOL
o 2000 (Myanmar) = Myanmar became the 10th country to joined as a new member
o 2005 (Bali) = The setting up of a working group to consider the viability of establishing a
permanent ASEANAPOL Secretariat
o = Silver Jubilee Commemoration of ASEANAPOL
o 2008 (Brunei) = The Royal Malaysia Police was chosen as a host of permanent ASEANAPOL
o 2009 (Vietnam) = Adoption of Terms of Reference (TOR)
o 2010 = On 1st January 2010 commencement of ASEANAPOL Secretariat in Kuala Lumpur,


1. ASEANAPOL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE = comprise of deputy heads of delegation attending

the annual ASEANAPOL conference. It provides a summary reports of the activities of the
Secretariat to the Head of the Delegation

2. ASEANAPOL PERMANENT SECRETARIAT = is on rotational basis with member countries

taking turn to host the ASEANAPOL conference and automatically assume the role of the
secretariat for the current year.
o Headed by executive director and assisted by 2 directors

Tenure of Services

a. Executive Director - 2 years

b. Directors - 3 years (one for Police Services and one for Plans and Programs
*During the 29th ASEANAPOL Conference in Hanoi, Vietnam in 2009, the Terms of Reference
on the establishment of ASEANAPOL Secretariat was finally endorsed. Kuala Lumpur was made
the permanent seat.
*The ASEANAPOL Secretariat started its operation fully on January 1, 2010.