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Expert Workshop E143 Chapter 3

Trouble Shooting

Extended Automation System 800xA

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Revision C
Architecture 800xA System Architecture

Domain Application Workplaces

Server(s) Server(s)

Client/Server Network

Aspect Connectivity
Server(s) Server(s)

- Single - Single
- 1oo2 - 1oo2
- 2oo3

Control Network


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Field devices
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Architecture Network Redundancy

Primary client
server net

Secondary client
server net

The network cables

should be color-
coded. The network
adapters as well.

Primary control net

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Secondary control net

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Architecture Redundant Ring Architecture

Secondary Network

Primary Network
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Architecture Connectivity Servers as Routers

Enable TCP/IP
forwarding must be set
in RNRP configuration
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Troubleshooting RNRP Modifies Routing Table
RNRP adds the Connectivity Server in the routing table.
Dynamically updated to path 1 if path 0 should fail.

Control Network
destinations use
Connectivity Server
as gateway.
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Architecture Building Physical Networks

Logical View
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Physical View
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Architecture Physical Network Installation
Serial Structure Tree Structure
Preferable when all nodes communicates
equally with each other reduces the
number or of hops
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RNRP Addressing
Troubleshooting Implicit Addressing
1. N1.N2.0.0 Choose a NetId which is
conform through the whole 800xA
2. This value must bet
set for the sub net mask

Use private Class B addresses: or or or less configuration efforts
Use scheme in network manual for selection of addresses
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800xA System RNRP Re-routing to CS Lib
1.Client 1.CS-Lib


1.SM Client

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RNRP Event Monitor

Left Click on the icon

Troubleshooting RNRP Fault Tracer

Invoked by a right
mouse double click

Use this to find any

network errors and
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Troubleshooting RNRP Event Messages

Add a pseudo node

for each controller in
order to get RNRP
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Troubleshooting RNRP Switch Considerations

Basic requirements
Link speed should be possible to set by auto-sensing
Transmission mode, half or full duplex, should be possible to set
by auto negotiation
Multicast traffic must be allowed
Port status should be visible on LEDs

Features not required

IGMP Snooping can not be used and must be disabled
Multicast filtering must be disabled
Intelligent Multicast must be disabled
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Troubleshooting Troubleshooting Network Guidance

Understand the Problem

Be aware of the network normal behavior
Is it a problem?

Identify the problem

A sharp increase in utilization indicates an abnormal condition
For example, a device might be causing "Broadcast Storms".
A sustained high or low level of utilization indicates an increasing
or decreasing load on your network.

Solve the problem

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Narrow the utilization problem to the ports that have excessively

high or low utilization.
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Troubleshooting Verify Network Settings
Considerations Primary Client Server net
9 Refer to the domain controller with the Path 0 addresses
9 Register the Path 0 address in DNS
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Troubleshooting Verify Network settings
Considerations Secondary Client Server net
9 Refer to the domain controller with the Path 0 addresses.
Note the opposite domain controller order for Path 1.
9 Dont Register Path 1 connection in DNS
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Troubleshooting Verify Network Settings NetBIOS
Enable NetBIOS for only for Primary Client/Server network
Disable NetBIOS for all other Networks
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Troubleshooting Verify Bindings Order
Primary Client/Server network must be in the first priority order
Check after reboot.
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Troubleshooting Troubleshooting Tools

Hardware LEDs (Especially on Switches e.g. Collisions)

Different command-line tools: ping, pathping, tracert,
netstat, netdiag
Large file copy technique
Task manager measurements
Performance Monitor measurements
WEB Interface on switches
From Microsoft Sysinternals: TCPView, TDIMon
Sniffer tools: Advanced IPScanner, Ethereal, Network
chemistry packetyzer
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Troubleshooting Command-line Tools

Ping can be used with several

name check how name is
-l buffer size check response
times with some load
-a resolves address to name
-t continues ping

Tracert shows the path to the

remote system.
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Troubleshooting RNRP Influences Ping Command
Pinging a physical address may
not be a verification that specific
NIC, switch is up and running.
Pinging a Path 0 address
response from
Primary Client/Server net switch
is shut down
Still response from Path 0
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Troubleshooting Command-line Tools

Pathping traces the path to a remote computer

and report packet losses along the way.

The example shows a packet loss between

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the Connectivity server and the controller.

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Troubleshooting Command-line Tools
Use Netstat to find out statistic about the net.
-a connection and listening ports
-e Ethernet statistics
-s statistics per protocol IP, UDP, TCP etc.
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Troubleshooting Command-line Tools
Netdiag checks the network connections.
The windows support tool must be installed. Use the correct
version, either Windows 2000, or Windows Server 2003.
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Troubleshooting Dos Commands summary
Utility Used to
Arp View the ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) cache on the interface of the local computer to
detect invalid entries.

Hostname Display the host name of the computer.

Ipconfig Display current TCP/IP network configuration values, and update or release Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol (DHCP) allocated leases, and display, register, or flush Domain Name
System (DNS) names.

Nbtstat Check the state of current NetBIOS over TCP/IP connections, update the NetBIOS name cache,
and determine the registered names and scope.

Netstat Display statistics for current TCP/IP connections.

Netdiag Check all aspects of the network connection.

Nslookup Check records, domain host aliases, domain host services, and operating system information by
querying Internet domain name servers.

Pathping Trace a path to a remote system and report packet losses at each router along the way.

Ping Send ICMP Echo Requests to verify that TCP/IP is configured correctly and that a remote TCP/IP
system is available.
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Route Display the IP routing table, and add or delete IP routes.

Tracert Trace a path to a remote system.

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Troubleshooting Test Throughput by Large File Copy

On a 100 MBit network deduct 20% for synchronization

divide the rest with 8 and you get 10 Mbytes/s.
As a rule of thumb a 50 MByte file should take
approximately 5 sec.
With this technique you can check that speed and duplex
setting is correct on NIC card and switch.
You will notice dramatically changes if some settings are
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Troubleshooting Networking in Task Manager
The Task Manager can be used to
check the network utilization on-line
when specific actions are taken e.g.
Display changes or to check if there
is a constant high load.

As general guidelines, your network is

healthy in these conditions:

Utilization is running up to 15 percent most

of the time.
Utilization is peaking at 30 to 35 percent for
a few seconds at a time, with large gaps of
time between peaks.
Utilization is peaking at 60 percent for a few
seconds, with large gaps of time between
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Link speed can not always be trusted

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Troubleshooting Performance Logs
Call perfmon from the Run menu.

Add a counter
Select the Network interface as performance object
Select the desired counter
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Troubleshooting Performance Logs
For long time troubleshooting open the Computer Management dialog
from Administrative Tools or add the Performance Logs and Alerts
snap-in to the Microsoft Management Console (MMC).
A counter log can only be created in the snap-in. The data is stored in a
file which can later be read in performance management console.
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Troubleshooting Sysinternals Tools (TDIMon)

TDIMon monitors activity at the Transport Driver

Interface (TDI) level, TCP and UDP activities
RNRP I am alive telegram
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Troubleshooting Sysinternals Tools (TCPView)

Dont show any unconnected endpoints

TDCPView shows network activities. Can be

used to see if connections are deleted and build
up again. Deleted connections are shown in red.
New end points are shown in green.
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Troubleshooting Sniffer Tools Ethereal or WireShark
Start of Capture Packets

Protocols can be analyzed after

you have stopped the capture.
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Troubleshooting Conclusions Most Common Causes

Cable problems such as bad connections or cable

specifications not met
Connectivity Problems
DNS not configured properly
Mismatch between switch and NIC
Switch settings or interconnections incorrect
Old Firmware in switch
Mistakes in network architecture
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Maintenenance Expert workshop

Exercise 3.1 Troubleshoot network

3.1.1 Description
This exercise deals with network trouble shooting using different DOS commands.
The exercise emphasize on a faulty hardware connections and faulty DNS settings.
The exercise shows also how managed switches can be used for diagnostic.

3.1.2 Objectives
Upon completion of this exercise you will be able to:
Understand how name resolution problem will cause bad performance in the
Be able to use simple file copy to get an overview of the network
Understand how to use DOS commands for network analyze. E.g. nslookup
tracert, and pathping.
Be able to use WEB server interfaces from managed switches and 3:rd party
sniffer tools.

3.1.3 Reference documentation

Microsoft Tech. net articles.

E143-03 Exercise 4.1 - RevD.doc

3.1.4 Exercise Steps

) You suspect network problems. Your task is to identify problems in the network
configuration of TCP/IP. There are a number of problems planted in DCASCSx1.
What do you find on Primary Client Server Net?
What do you find on secondary Client Server net?
What do you find on Control Net?
What more should you consider concerning the Network Settings?

) Edit the host file and put an incorrect address in for one of the nodes. Try pinging that
node by name. Try pinging it by address. What were the results this time? What is the
priority between DNS and host fille?

) Eliminate the incorrect host file entries so that everything should be back to normal on
all nodes. You suspect network performance problem. You will verify the
performance by copy a large file (at least 50 MB) from one node to the other. Is the
throughput reasonable for the connection speed of your NIC? Copy in the other
direction. Are the results the same? Test both network cards. Did you get the same
result? What can be the reason

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) Test the RNRP response time to the controller from the client. Do you get any
response? Do you see the controller from the client? If not try to find out the reason
and correct the problem.

) Test the network activities when a workplace is started. First you start the TCPView
program from sysinternals on all machines. Do you notice any network activities on
any special processes? Make the same test by setting not showing established TCP/IP
connections by selecting File|Close Connections.

) Make a ping command with IP address 172.16.4.x. Where x is the node number of
your server. Turn off the power of the primary client server network switch. What
happens? Can you explain what happens?