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A CHRISTMAS CAROL

VOCABULARY

CHAPTER 1: MARLEYS GHOST


stingy informal not generous, especially with money [= mean]: She's too stingy to give money to charity.
heartless: cruel and not feeling any pity: How can you be so heartless?
cheerful: happy, or behaving in a way that shows you are happy: I'm making a real effort to be cheerful
despite everything.
humbug: [uncountable] insincere or dishonest words or behaviour: He dismissed the Prime Minister's
comments as 'pure humbug'.
keep Christmas: Observing faithfully the various customs and traditions of the holiday, especially the
charitable ones.
cheer up: phrasal verb to become less sad, or to make someone feel less sad:Cheer up! The
worst is over.
cheer somebody up Here's a bit of news that will cheer you up.
workhouse [countable] a building in Britain in the past where very poor people lived if they had nowhere
else to go [= poorhouse]
clerk [countable] someone who keeps records or accounts in an office: a clerk in a commercial firm
even bigger/better/brighter etc: used to emphasize that someone or something is bigger,
better etc:This will make our job even more difficult.
scary comparative scarier, superlative scariest informal frightening: a scary moment
spooky informal strange or frightening in a way that makes you think of GHOSTs: a spooky old house
unlock [transitive] to unfasten the lock on a door, box etc
drag past tense and past participle dragged, present participledragging[transitive] to pull something
along the ground, often because it is too heavy to carry
wander[intransitive and transitive] to walk slowly across or around an area, usually without a clear
direction or purpose
wander in/through/around etc I'll wander around the mall for half an hour.
warn [intransitive and transitive]: to tell someone that something bad or dangerous may happen, so that
they can avoid it or prevent it: 'Be careful, the rocks are slippery,' Alex warned.
toll [intransitive and transitive] if a large bell tolls, or if you toll it, it keeps ringing slowly, especially to
show that someone has died.

CHAPTER 2: THE FIRST OF THE THREE SPIRITS


bother[intransitive and transitive] to make someone feel slightly worried, upset, or concerned: Being in a
crowd really bothers me.
awake [not before noun] not sleeping:
strike past tense and past participle struck[intransitive and transitive] if a clock strikes one, two, six etc,
its bell makes a sound once, twice, six times etc according to what time it is: The church clock began to
strike twelve.
flash[intransitive and transitive] to shine suddenly and brightly for a short time, or to make something
shine in this way: Lightning flashed overhead.
figure [countable] someone with a particular type of appearance or character, especially when they are
far away or difficult to see: a tall figure in a hat / Through the window I could see the commanding figure of
Mrs Bradshaw.
wrinkle [countable] wrinkles are lines on your face and skin that you get when you are old: Her face was
a mass of wrinkles.
warehouse [countable] a large building for storing large quantities of goods
apprentice [countable] someone who works for an employer for a fixed period of time in order to learn a
particular skill or job: She works in the hairdresser's as an apprentice. / an apprentice electrician
isplace [transitive] to take the place or position of something or someone [= replace]: Coal has been
displaced by natural gas as a major source of energy.
part [intransitive] written to separate from someone, or end a relationship with them: They parted on
amicable terms.
part from He has parted from his wife.
former [only before noun] having a particular position in the past [= ex-; present]: my former
husband / former president Clinton
struggle [intransitive] to fight someone who is attacking you or holding you, especially so that you can
escape
struggle with: James was hit in the mouth as he struggled with the burglars.
Any longer
CHAPTER 3: THE SECOND OF THE THREE SPIRITS
sparkling: shining brightly with points of flashing light: a sparkling blue lake
bare: not covered by clothes [= naked]: a ragged child with bare feet / She felt the sun warm on her bare
arms.
wreath [countable] a circle made from leaves that a person wore on their head in the past as a sign of
honour: a laurel wreath
crutch [countable] [usually plural] one of a pair of long sticks that you put under your arms to help you
walk when you have hurt your leg. on crutches (=use crutches) I was on crutches for three months after
the operation.
bear past tense bore past participle borne [transitive] literary to carry someone or something,
especially something important
lame unable to walk properly because your leg or foot is injured or weak: a lame dog
go lame (=become lame) the lame [plural] people who are lame
cripple [countable] old-fashioned someone who is unable to walk properly because their legs are
damaged or injured - now considered offensive [ disabled]
blind unable to see a school for blind children
tremble [intransitive] to shake slightly in a way that you cannot control, especially because you are upset
or frightened: His lip started to tremble and then he started to cry.
joyful: very happy, or likely to make people very happy: Christmas is a joyful occasion for children.
fear [intransitive and transitive] to feel afraid or worried that something bad may happen: Fearing
violence, the group asked for police protection.
go on phrasal verb: to continue doing something or being in a situation

CHAPTER 4: THE LAST OF THE SPIRITS


clothing [uncountable] the clothes that people wear: the basic necessities such as food and clothing
move on phrasal verb to leave your present job, class, or activity and start doing another one
I enjoyed my job, but it was time to move on.
profit [intransitive and transitive] formal to be useful or helpful to someone
profit somebody to do something It might profit you to learn about the company before your
interview.
still: not moving: Keep still while I tie your shoe.
greet [transitive] to say hello to someone or welcome them: Belinda greeted her warmly.
greet somebody with something: Bill opened the door to Harold and greeted him with cries of
welcome.
break down phrasal verbto be unable to stop yourself crying, especially in public: He broke
down and cried. She broke down in tears when she heard the news.
churchyard [countable] a piece of land around a church where people are buried
grave [countable] the place in the ground where a dead body is buried [ tomb]: At the head of the grave
there was a small wooden cross.
point [intransitive and transitive] to show something to someone by holding up one of your fingers or a
thin object towards it: 'Look!' she said and pointed.
within literary or formal inside a person's body or mind [ outside]: Elaine felt a pain deep within her. /
I'm feeling more relaxed within myself.
shrink past tense shrank, past participle shrunk [intransitive and transitive] to become smaller, or to
make something smaller, through the effects of heat or water: I'm worried about washing that shirt in case
it shrinks.
fade: [intransitive] to gradually disappear: Hopes of a peace settlement are beginning to fade. /Over the
years her beauty had faded a little.
turn (somebody/something) into something phrasal verb to become something different, or to
make someone or something do this: The sofa turns into a bed.
bedpost [countable] one of the four main supports at the corners of an old-fashioned bed

CHAPTER 5: THE END OF IT


call: [intransitive and transitive] to say or shout something loudly so that someone can hear you: I heard
someone calling in the distance.
why old-fashioned used when you are surprised or have suddenly realized something: Why, look who's
here!
fellow [countable] old-fashioned a man: Paul's an easy-going sort of fellow.
poulterer: (old fashioned) someone who sells poultry (meat from birds such as chickens and ducks)
shilling [countable] an old British coin or unit of money. There were 20 shillings in one pound.
crown: an old British coin. Four crowns made a pound.
off: away from a place
like a shot: if you do something like a shot, you do it very quickly and eagerly: If he asked me to
go to Africa with him, I'd go like a shot!
whisper: [intransitive and transitive] to speak or say something very quietly, using your breath rather
than your voice: You don't have to whisper, no one can hear us.
hearty: happy and friendly and usually loud: a hearty laugh
wide: wide open/awake/apart: completely open, awake, or apart: Someone left the back door wide open.
growl: [intransitive] if an animal growls, it makes a long deep angry sound: The dog growled at me.
[intransitive and transitive] to say something in a low angry voice: 'Get out of my way,' he growled.
truly: [+ adjective/adverb] used to emphasize that the way you are describing something is really
true [= really]: His work is truly original.