Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 15

Personal Lesson Plan Template

Teacher: Johnathan Harvell Date: 04/03-04/07


School: Rocky Mountain High School Grade Level: 9-12th
Content Area: Mathematics- Algebra II (STEM: Parabolic Functions)
Title: Going Para with Newton: Parabolic Functions and Motion Lesson #: 1 of 2
Unpacking the Standard
Academic Standard:
NCTM F-BF 1.a: Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for
calculation from a context.
NCTM F-LE 2: Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and
geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two input-output pairs
(include reading these from a table).
NCTM F-LE 3: Observe using graphs and tables that a quantity increasing exponentially
eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically, or (more generally) as a
polynomial function.
NGSS HS-PS2-1: Analyze data to support the claim that Newtons second law of motion
describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass,
and its acceleration.
Understandings:
Determine the appropriate amount of significant figures of data, and recognize
rounding error by the act of carrying decimal places throughout all calculations.
Collect appropriate data regarding position, velocity, and acceleration that can be
further manipulated for predictions.
Sketch a line of best fit of accumulated data and explain how the line of best fit is
suitable for the data.
Define the line of best fit using the standard parabolic and vertex form equation models
with correct significant figures
Analyze the fitted data, and utilize the created linear equation model for prompted
predictions
Express the parabolic nature of the fitted data in sentences, and discuss what steps are
needed to properly acquire, fit, and predict certain data.
Evidence Outcomes: Inquiry Outcomes:
I can interpret functions that arise in Why are relations and functions
applications in terms of the context; represented in multiple ways?
this means, I can model a relationship How can a table, graph, and function
between two quantities, interpret key notation be used to explain how one
features of graphs and tables in terms function family is different from
of the quantities, and sketch graphs. and/or similar to another?
I can analyze functions using different How can Newtons Laws of Motion
representations; this means, I can be represented mathematically?
graph polynomial functions,
identifying zeros when suitable
factorizations are available, and
showing end behavior.
Personal Lesson Plan Template

List of Assessments:
Successful Completion of the entire Creating Parabolic Equations worksheet
Lesson Quiz: Manipulation of Parabolic Functions (standard and vertex form)

Planning the Activity


Name of Activity: Creating Quadratic Equations
Purpose: In this activity, students use geometric Time of Activity: 90 minutes
representations to explore equivalent expressions that can be (Two 45 min class periods)
expressed in the form 2 + x + where b and c are positive
integers. The emphasis is on using an area model to 1st Class Period:
represent the product of two binomials, continuing to build Creating Quadratic Equations:
on the interpretation of the distributive property of Group Activity Questions 1-5
multiplication over addition as each times every: given the
product of two binomials, each term in the sum of the first 2nd Class Period:
binomial multiplies every term in the sum of the second Creating Quadratic Equations:
binomial. By setting this up, it allows students to explore Group Activity Questions 6-
further into how polynomials are expressed, to which the 11
vertex form of a polynomial will be introduced by
completing the square, as well as be able to calculate x and
y-intercepts of quadratics using both forms if necessary.
Anticipatory Set: Anticipatory Set Goals:
Parabolas and Cannons Video: Students will begin to
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZNFNdvU0mDc understand that there
are physical
phenomena/ uses of
quadratic functions;
thus, they will associate
a particular academic
value to understanding
how to interpret and
manipulate quadratic
functions.
Materials Needed: Differentiation:
Projector with computer (to play video) Up-Field Students:
White board w/ markers Students can be given
Coloring pencils further, more difficult
Factoring Squares/Rectangles (for further visual aid) quadratic equations to
manipulate, interpret,
graph, and solve for.
Students can be given a
graph, and use their
knowledge of
parabolics to come up
with an equation that
Personal Lesson Plan Template

fits that particular


graph.
Students can begin to
predict and evaluate
how the motion of an
object (such as a
bouncing ball) could be
mathematically
represented by a
quadratic function
Down-field students:
Students can be allowed
more one-on-one time
with me to help
elaborate on any
confusion.
Students could be
allowed to use their
calculators to solve for
x-, and y-intercepts first
to be translated
algebraically.

Performing the Activity


Procedure: 1st Class Period: 45 minutes
Instructor: Students:
5 mins: Class Announcements, 5 mins: Listening to announcements,
Learning Targets, Introduction to preparing for activity (getting out
Quadratic Equations paper, pencil, etc).
5 mins: Parabolas and Cannon Video, 5 mins: Students are watching
pass out Creating Quadratic Parabola and Cannon Video, writing
Equations: Group Activity down identifying information on their
Worksheet group activity worksheets.
10 mins: Observe, and help students 10 mins: Working together in groups
work through questions 1-2. of 3-4 to complete questions 1-2 on
5 mins: Review with students on their worksheet
answers and concepts for questions 1- 5 mins: Giving answers, responses,
2 and questions regarding the concepts
5 mins: Observe, and help students around questions 1-2
work through questions 3. 5 mins: Working together in groups of
5 mins: Review with students on their 3-4 to complete question 3 on
answers and concepts for question 3. worksheet
10 mins: Observe, help students with
questions 4-5.
Personal Lesson Plan Template

5 mins: Giving answers, responses,


and questions regarding the concepts
around question 3.
10 mins: Working on questions 4-5
with group of 3-4 to end of class
period.
Procedure: 2nd Class Period: 45 minutes
Instructor: Students:
5 mins: Review with students on their 5 mins: Giving answers, responses,
answers, and concepts for questions 4- and questions regarding the concepts
5. around questions 4-5 (which was
5 mins: Observe and help students homework if not completed in class).
with question 6 5 mins: Working in groups of 3-4 on
5 mins: Review with students on their question 6
answers, and concepts for question 6 5 mins: Giving answers, responses,
15 mins: Observe and help students and questions regarding the concepts
with question 7-9. around question 6
5 mins: Review with students on their 15 mins: Working in groups of 3-4 on
answers, and concepts for questions 7- question 7-9
9. 5 mins: Giving answers, responses,
10 mins: Observe and help students and questions regarding the concepts
with questions 10-11. around questions 7-9
10 mins: Working in groups of 3-4 on
questions 10-11.
Closure:
Verify and clarify concepts of quadratic functions with students in regards to different
forms of quadratic functions, determining intercepts of quadratics, determining vertices
of quadratic functions.
Promote thought/discussion in how parabolic functions are related to Newtons Laws
of Motion (using a cannon projectile and bouncing ball as examples).
Assessment:
Students submit their completed Creating Parabolic Equations: Group Activity
worksheet in on the beginning of the 3rd class period in this unit (1st day of Lesson #2).
Students will complete Parabolic Quiz #1 on the beginning of the 3rd class period in
this unit (1st day of Lesson #2).

Lesson Reflection
Was the lesson successful? Why or why not?
What needs to be changed about the lesson? Why?
What shouldnt be changed about the lesson? Why?
How does this lesson set up for the next lesson of the standard?
Personal Lesson Plan Template

Creating Quadratic Equations: Group Activity


Name__________________________ Date_____________ Class Period_______
Quadratic equations are essential in the realm of mathematics and can be used to express
a variety of physical phenomena. In this activity, we will explore on how to set quadratic
equations, and interpret on what they represent numerically, graphically, symbolically, and
verbally. In understanding this, we will be able to move on to how quadratic equations have
multiple representations, as well as some physical applications that it can be applied to.

X 1

X
X

1
1

1. Color all rectangles and squares different colors. How are the areas of each polygon
related? Explain using mathematical expressions (Hint: use the distributive property).
Personal Lesson Plan Template

2. Use the shapes provided in Question #1 to illustrate each of the following expression, and
sketch your arrangements with appropriate labels.
a. x (x+2) + 1(1)

b. x (x+1) +1(1)
Personal Lesson Plan Template

X 1 1

X
X

X X

3. Using the figures above, determine if each of the following statements are true or false.
Provide mathematical reasoning as evidence for each of your answers.
a. The area of the long rectangle can be represented by 1 (x+1).

b. x (x 2 represents the area of the rectangle enclosing the irregular shape.


Personal Lesson Plan Template

c. The area represented by (x 2x is the same as the area represented by x x 2.

d. The total area represented by the two shapes will be x (x+1) + (2x+1) (1).

e. Show that the total area represented by the two shapes can be expressed as x +1)
(x+2)

4. Use the sketch in a to help you decide which of the following would be equivalent to x.
a. x2 + 4

b. x2 + 2x + 4

c. x2 +4x + 4
Personal Lesson Plan Template

5. Use what you know about the distributive property to help you decide which of the
following will be equivalent expressions. Check your thinking using the sketch. \
a. (x+1)2 + 1 (x +2) + 1 (x+1)

b. x (x+2) + 2 (x+2)

c. (x+2) + (x+1) 1(x+1) + 2x +3

d. (x)2 + x (x+2) + 1 (x+4)

e. (x+1) (x+1) + 2 (x+2)

f. x(1+2)x + 2(x)2 + 1(1+x)

g. x (x) + 1(1) + 2(2) + (x+1)(x+2)


Personal Lesson Plan Template

By completing the previous equations with the distributive property, you should notice
that each of the simplified equations have a form similar to:
2 + +
where (b) and (c) are positive integers. This form of the quadratic equation can be referred to as
the standard form of quadratic equations; however, there are other forms of this that can be
used to represent a quadratic equation.
6. To explore this further, suppose we have the following equation:
= 2 2 4 + 5
a. Using algebra, isolate all x terms to one side of the equation.

b. Factor the isolated x-term side of the equation with the greatest common factor.

c. Now add a box to each side of the equation, it should look similar to this:
+ [ ] = ( 2 + [ ])

d. Now take half of (a), and place the value inside each box.

e. Factor the quadratic inside the parentheses. Use the Punnet square below to help you:

X + or -

X X2

+ or -

[ ]
Personal Lesson Plan Template

f. Use algebra to isolate (y) by itself.

You have just completed the square! We use this technique to transform the standard form
of the quadratic equation to what we call the vertex form of a quadratic equation. The vertex form
of the quadratic equation can be generalized by the following equation:
= ( )2 +
where (a) is the amplitude or (what I call) the widening coefficient, and the point (h,k) is
the vertex of the created quadratic or parabola.
7. Using your calculator, draw the graph of the vertex form of the quadratic that you created
in question #6.

a. What is the vertex of this graph? Write it as a point.

b. Is this parabola concave up or concave down? Explain.


Personal Lesson Plan Template

c. Using the table function on your calculator, fill in the table of values found below:
X Y
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
d. What trend in values do you see as you increase in value?

e. Is there are particular value at which the trend seems to change? What point (X,Y) is
this? Does it seem familiar?

f. Based on your knowledge of linear functions, do you consider this function to be


linear? Why or Why not? Is there a difference between linear and parabolic functions
numerically and graphically? Explain.
Personal Lesson Plan Template

One of useful aspects of parabolic equations is that it can have multiple solutions for the
variable (x) for one y output. To solve for these x values, we use what is called the quadratic
formula. The quadratic formula is typically written in the following form:

2 4
=
2
where the values of (a), (b), and (c) come from the standard form of the quadratic equation. The
important thing to understand that you should obtain two values from this formula! To help
visualize this concept, consider breaking the quadratic formula into two separate equations, one
with addition and one with subtraction:

+ 2 4 2 4
= =
2 2
8. Use the quadratic formula to solve for the values of (x) for each of the following
quadratics:
a. x2 + x 4

b. x2 3x 4

c. x2 4
Personal Lesson Plan Template

9. Now, take the values of (x) that you calculate in number #8, and plug the values into each
respective standard form equation to determine the value of (y).
a. x2 + x 4

b. x2 3x 4

c. x2 4

d. What trend did you notice for each calculated value of (y)? What does this mean
graphically? Use a graph of one of the equations to illustrate your reasoning
Personal Lesson Plan Template

The values of (x) that you calculated are called x-intercepts. An x-intercept is the point at
which the function crosses the x-axis; however, as in linear equations, quadratics can have a y-
intercept as well, which is the point at which the function crosses the y-axis.
10. Using algebra, determine the y-intercept of each of the quadratics from question #9. If
you believe that the intercept does not exist, state D.N.E and draw a graph of the function
to help validate your argument.
a. x2 + x 4

b. x2 3x 4

c. x2 4

11. Based on your answers from question #10, does every parabola have a y-intercept?