Since the shear rate of a non-Newtonian fluid is of importance in fixing the rheological tory work, but because of the importance
or viscometric behavior of such a material, the present study has been conoerned with the of non-Newtonian materials a study of
development of a general relationship between impeller speed and the shear rate of the these systems is long overdue. The
fluid. The resulting relationship was then used to interpret and correlate power-consump- purposes of the present investigation
tion data on three non-Newtonian fluids by use of a generalized form of the conventional
power-number-Reynolds-number plot for Newtonians. therefore were as follows: (1) establish-
Flat-bladed turbines from 2 to 8 in. in diameter were used exclusively. Tank diameters ment of the quantitative relationships
ranged from 6 to 22 in. and power inputs from 0.5 to 176 hp./l,OOO gal. The study en- between power consumption and the
compassed a 130-fold range of Reynolds numbers in the laminar and transition regions. geometric, kinematic, and fluid property
The results to date indicate that power requirements for the rapid mixing of non-New- parameters for non-Newtonian fluids;
tonian fluids are much greater than for comparable Newtonian materials. (2) qualitative study of rates and quality
of mixing in non-Newtonian systems to
shed some preliminary light on these
The literature in the field of agitation plexity of this problem has resulted in factors; and attaining (3) a quantitative
and mixing of fluids may be divided into little quantitative progress in this field method of approach in classification of
two general categories. First and most except in the mixing of particulate non-Newtonian fluids and ascertaining
extensive are the numerous papers dealing solids, and the literature, therefore, its relation t o mixing.
with the dependence of power consump- presents primarily qualitative guides as
tion upon geometric, kinematic, and opposed to the quantitative generaliza- REVIEW OF PRIOR ART
fluid-property parameters. The broad tions available for prediction of power
fundamental and applications studies of requirements. The most recent review by In the study of the agitation or mixing of
Mack, Miller, Oldshue, Rushton, and Rushton (LO) discusses progress in this fluids, the system which has received the
most attention consists of a single impeller
various coworkers (5, 8, 15, 21, 62, for field. centered in a cylindrical tank, as shown in
example) are representative of work of A major limitation of the prior art is Figure 1. The results of Newtonian power-
this nature. Studies of rates and quality that it deals almost exclusively with consumption studies are presented in terms
of mixing, and of the effect of agitator Newtonian fluids. The comparative sim- of dimensionless groups involving power
geometric variables on these factors plicity of Newtonian systems has made (Pgc/D5N3p)and a mixing Reynolds number
comprise the second group. The com- them the logical first choice for explora- (D2Np/p)or modifications of these. Below a
Reynolds number of 300 the Froude number
(DNZ/g), which measures the variation in
flow due to changes in the free surface, was
not important (22). The effects of geo-
metrical parameters other than the impeller
diameter [such as ( C / D ) , (TID),and
(BID)]were not important within the wide
ranges specified by previous workers.
The entire power-number-Reynolds-number
curve (Figure 2) has been divided into three
sections which are directly analogous t o the
familiar three regions of flow in a circular
pipe, i.e., the turbulent region in which
the power number (or friction factor) is
not greatly affected by Reynolds number,
the laminar region where power number and
Fig. 1. Mixing system. friction factor are inversely proportional to
Reynolds number, and the intermediate or
transition region. However, unlike the case
of flow in a round tube, the transition from
laminar to turbulent flow does not occur
over the narrow rangc of Reynolds numbers
between 2,000 and 4,000 (6) but extends
over the large range from 10 to 1,000, as
shown in Figure 2.
To date only three papers have been
concerned with the agitation-power require-
ments of non-Newtonian fluids. Brown and
Petsiavas (2) presented a power-number
plot for a Bingham-plastic type* of non-
Newtonian that makes use of the Bingham-
plastic Reynolds and Hedstrom numbers
(4, IS) t o correlate the data. Their vis-
cometric data, taken with a Brookfield
viscometer, indicated that their fluids
deviated appreciably from Bingham-plastic
Fig. 2. Power-number-Reynolds-number behavior, but for those few fluids which
curve for Newtonian fluids in a baffled closely approach the ideal Bingham plastic
tank (22). this method of attack can be reworked into
- I-
and in both the laminar and transition
regions. The conclusion that the average
shear rate, hence apparent viscosity, of
the non-Newtonian fluid depends only
-\ on the rotational speed of the impeller
may not, a t first glance, appear to be
obvious. However, supporting evidence
mag also be obtained from Equation (10)
for-the shear rate a t the bob of a vis- Fig. 4. Flow of a Newtonian fluid about a
cometer in an infinite fluid. In this case flat plate.
Fig. 3. Flow of a Newtonian fluid about a the rate of shear also depends only on
sphere. the rotational speed, and not on dimen-
sions of the bob. In the laminar region holds for two greatly different types of
the analogy between a viscometer bob impellers, as well as for various different
fluids used in this work shows that their and the impeller of a mixer is rather fluids, it appears to be of general utility.
apparent viscosity must increase with close, since as a matter of fact, many No data are available, however, to con-
increasing distance from the impeller, in commercial viscometers employ bobs firm the constancy of k at a value of 13.0
view of the lower velocities, hence shear which are geometrically similar to mixing for systems other than those discussed
rates, of the fluids as they leave the vicin- impellers. In both the laminar and tran- here. In particular, k might be expected
ity of the impeller. A small volume of fluid sition regions investigated in this work to vary with the flow-behavior index n
leaving the high-shear-rate region near the impellers generally behaved as though of the fluid, which was not varied widely
the impeller therefore encounters progres- in an infinite fluid since changing the in the present studies. [Cf. Equation
sively more viscous material. This, in distance between the tip of the impeller (lo).] It should be noted in passing that
turn, would cause a depressive effect on and the wall of the tank (i.e., changing scale-up procedures cannot be carried
the propagation of eddies. The last factor the T / D ratio) had no effect on power out in the usual sense of the term, how-
would tend to decrease the rapidity with consumption. As will be discussed later, ever, because the Reynolds numbers will
which the power-number-Reynolds-num- this is in agreement with extensive work not be identical in the prototype and
ber curve begins to diverge from the on Newtonian fluids. However, as the model when N , p, and p, are all held
45-deg. line of the laminar region as the T / D ratio decreases toward unity, i.e., constant.
fluid becomes more non-Newtonian in the as the diameter of the impeller approaches
direction of greater pseudoplasticity (n that of the tank, a point must eventually Ranges of Variables
approaching zero). The net result of this be reached where the shear rate, hence The power range encompassed in this
behavior should be an extension of the power consumption, is a t least partly study was higher than the range which
laminar region to Reynolds numbers dependent on either the T / D ratio is used industrially for Newtonian fluids
above 10 or to power numbers below 7.1, (clearance between impeller and tank (16), because pseudoplastic non-New-
the point at which Newtonian fluids wall) or the peripheral speed of the tonian fluids are inherently more difficult
enter the transition region. Figure 7 impeller or both. It appears plausible to agitate. Since the exact power require-
shows that such a retardation was that a t T / D ratios close to unity the ments for different levels of mixing rate
indeed observed. It must be emphasized shear rate a t the impeller may take a are not yet known for these materials, the
that this extension of the laminar region mathematical form similar to that for a power input was varied over an extremely
is not due to the particular form of the bob-and-cup viscometer, Equation (6). wide range to ensure applicability of the
Reynolds number chosen in this work. Recorrelation of data in previous results 60 industrial conditions.
The power number is used in its con- papers on non-Newtonian-fluid agitation While the range of Reynolds numbers
~~
might appear desirable to extend the covered was only l3O-fold, it is the range
Tabular material has been deposited as document results of this work; however, sufficiently in which viscous, highly non-Newtonian
5119 with the American Documentation Institute,
Photoduplication Service, Library of Congress,
Washington 25, D. C.. and may be obtained for
detailed tabulations of experimental data fluids are most likely to be agitated. With
$1.25 for photoprints or 35-mm. microfilm. were not available from one source ( 2 ) less viscous non-Newtonians the range
100
lL
a
v)
E 10
w
[L
z 5
(L
$ 2
v)
05
1 2 5 1 0 100 1000 10,000
100
N
SHEAR RATE, SEC.-
Fig. 6. Power number vs. impeller speed
Fig. 5. Flow curves of fluids used. for 2.5% CMC.
conclusions are valid also for non- the amount of power dissipation and of fluid turnover and high shear rates in
Newtonian materials in both the laminar then to turn to the more complex problem these non-Newtonian systems without
and transition regions. However, the of mixing patterns and rates. The high power requirements.
number of data points available is too measures of the rates of mixing studied Until really definitive data become
small to support such a conclusion to date (Table 4) are, therefore, qualita- available, adoption of the median values
firmly. tive. Nevertheless, several important of power input and Reynolds numbers
conclusions may be drawn at this time given in Table 4 is suggested as the
Similarity to Pipe Flow
concerning the comparative rates of criterion below which mixing will fre-
An interesting similarity appears to mixing of Newtonian and non-Newtonian quently be ineffective in these non-
exist between the means of correlating fluids at a given power input per unit Newtonian systems. Some confirmation
pipe-flow data and mixing-power-con- volume of fluid. of these high power-input levels may be
sumption data which suggests an alter- Hirsekorn and Miller (5) found that obtained from.industria1 practice: in one
nate means of correlation for the latter. particles could be suspended in viscous installation the mixing of non-Newtonian
For a non-Newtonian fluid which obeys Newtonian fluids during agitation within fluids is in the range of 5 to 50 hp./1,000
Equation (1) it may be readily shown the laminar region (NRabelow 10). The gal. in full-scale equipment, while pilot
that the friction factor for pipe flow is a maximum power input required to plant work (indicative of future opera-
+
function of (DnVz72-.)/gcK.8(n/6n 2)., suspend the particles was 6.0 hp./1,000 tions) ranges from 50 to 160 hp./1,000
which is a special form of the generalized gal. of fluid. While the data of Table 4 gal. This industrial experience also
number (DVz-p)/y proposed for pipe- are very irregular in the sense that indicates that to date no enormously
flow work ( I d ) . One will notice that these Reynolds numbers and power require- improved agitator or system designs
groups both degenerate to the usual ments for movement of all the fluid vary which might be particularly suitable for
Reynolds number for Newtonian fluids widely, in only one case out of thirteen the non-Newtonian fluids described here
( K = p/g, and n = 1.00). Application was reasonably complete fluid movement have been developed. Fundamentally,
of dimensional analysis to the mixing attained in the laminar region and, again this problem arises because the apparent
problem (with the only important length in only one case, was any fluid movement viscosity of a pseudoplastic fluid in-
dimension assumed to be the impeller a t the tank wall noticeable a t power creases with distance from the impeller;
diameter) shows that the power number inputs as low as 6.0 hp./l,OOO gal. hence the fluib tends to set up, or
ACKNOWLEDGMENl
remain motionless, under conditions 2. From viscometric data (shear stress vs. NOTATION
where a Kewtonian fluid is mixed rela- shear rate) for the fluid in question, la is
tively completely. Therefore the problem calculated at the above-average shear rate. NoTn:-since the final correlation is
is somewhat alleviated by use of multiple 3. The Reynolds number (DzNp)/pais then based on dimensionless groups, any con-
calculated and the corresponding power sistent set of units may be used. The units
impellers inside a single tank and by use number read from Figure 7. given in the following table refer to those
of very low T / D ratios in the industrial used by the authors in the data tables unless
examples cited. As the procedure is empirical, extrap- specific units are given.
olation of the variables beyond the
Design Procedure ranges covered cannot be recommended. B = width of baffles, ft.
Within the laminar region (NRe < 20 C = height of impeller off bottom of
when n ranges between about 0.25 and CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY tank, ft.
0.45, and N R e < 10 when n = 1.00) D = impeller diameter or bob diam-
1. The assumption that average fluid eter, ft.
conditions are sufficiently well defined for shear rates are related only to impeller
the mixing equation, which is somewhat speed has led to an understanding and g = gravitational acceleration, ft./
analogous t o Poiseuilles law for friction correlation of the power requirements for sec.2
in a round tube, to be written as sug- agitation of non-Newtonian fluids. The gc = conversion factor, (lb. mass)(ft.)/
gested by Rushton and Oldshue (2f). quantitative relationships, which are ap- (lb. force)(sec.z)
This equation is the same for Newtonian plicable to both Newtonian and non- h = height of viscometer bob, ft.
and non-Newtonian fluids: K = fluid property in Equation (l),
Newtonian fluids over the ranges of (lb. force) (sec.m/sq. ft.)
N, = 71/NR, (3) variables investigated, represent a simple k = proportionality constant, dimen-
generalization of the well-known Tesults sionless
Substitution of the definitions of the from Newtonian systems.
Reynolds numbers used in this work gives L = length of pipe or capillary, ft.
2. The laminar region may extend N = rotational speed, rev./sec.
71cl, DzNz to higher Reynolds numbers in pseudo- N , = power number, dimensionless, Pgc
P= (4) plastic fluids than in Newtonian systems. /D5N3p
9. 3. Preliminary qualitative observa- N R e = Reynolds number, dimensionless,
It has been suggested that these tions indicate that more power is required taken as ( D z N p ) / p a
equations are particularly useful for for the rapid mixing of highly non- n = flow-behavior index, dimension-
design purposes. The constant given was Newtonian systems than for Newtonian less
developed for hlixco turbines with six fluids.
flat blades and is dependent on the
particular type of impeller used. As RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER WORK n = d In (ApD/4L)
d In (8&/7rD3)
would be expected from the analogous
1. Although data were taken on 8-in.
problem of flow in tubes (f2), highly impellers, the limitations of the present ,tr = -d In (2tl7rD;h)
non-Newtonian fluids with a flow-be- equipment did not allow high rotational d In ( 4 ~ N / - l l/sz)
havior index n near zero show a smaller speeds for these larger systems. Therefore,
change of power with impeller speed in order to approach plant-scale conditions P = power, (ft.)(lb. force)/sec.
than do Newtonian fluids (n = 1.00), more closely one must extend the data to p = pressure, lb. force/sq. ft.
since pa decreases as N increases. larger and more powerful mixing systems. Q = flow rate, cu. ft./sec.
Under any flow Conditions the recom- 2. In some commercial installations the T = radius, ft.
mended procedure for estimating power T / D ratio may be smaller than the values S = scale reading, Ib. force
consumption once the type, size, and studied in the present work. Limited data s = D,/Di
indicate that the power consumption may
speed of the impeller have all been not be significantly affected by such changes, T = tank diameter, ft.
fixed may be reviewed as follows: but this influence of small values of T / D t = torque, ft.(lb. force)
1. Knowing N , one may evaluate kN should be investigated further for both u = point velocity, ft./sec.
[Equation (2)] to determine the average Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. V = volumetric average velocity, ft./
shear rate in the system. 3. The quality of mixing of Newtonian see.
Pigford, Chem. Eng. Progr., 48, 385 constant and defined as the viscosity of The mixing equipment used in this work
the fluid. For the non-Newtonian, the is shown in Figures 10 and 11. It consisted
(1952).
2. Brown, G. A., and D. N. Petsiavas, equivalent, or apparent, viscosity is not of a x-hp. variable-speed motor, four
paper presented a t New York A.1.Ch.E. a constant. Instead the ratio of shear stress Mixco Standard flat-bladed turbines (Mix-
Meeting (December, 1954). divided by shear rate changes with shear ing Equipment Go.), and four cylindrical
rate. For Bingham-plastic and pseudoplastic tanks. To measure torque accurately, the
3. Christiansen, E. B., N. W. Ryan, and
materials this ratio decreases with increas- motor was mounted on a large ball-bearing
W. E. Stevens, A.1.Ch.E. Journal, 1, ing values of shear rate; for dilatant
544 (1955). ring fixed in a cast-aluminum plate; the
4. Hedstrom, B. 0. A,, Ind. Eng. Chem., materials it increases. motor rotated freely with very little friction.
44, 651 (1952).
There are two other kinds of non- The reaction torque developed by the
5. Hirsekorn, F. S., and S. A. Miller, Newtonian behavior, termed thixotropy and motor in driving the turbine was taken
Chem. Eng. Progr., 49, 459 (1953). rheopezy. The apparent viscosities of from the motor by a torque ring attached
6. Hunsaker, J. C., and B. G. Rightmire,
thixotropic and rheopectic fluids depend to the motor hesd and transferred by a
Engineering Applications of Fluid on the time of shear as well as on rate of small, essentially frictionless pulley to a
Mechanics, McGraw-Hill Book Com- shear. These two kinds of behavior have dynamometer scale. The turbine shaft was
been too complex to study and, since they fitted inside a special hollow shaft provided
pany, Inc., New York (1947).
are of less frequent industrial importance, on the motor by the manufacturer (Mixco)
7. Krieger, I. M., and S. H. Maron, J .
A p p l . Phys., 25, 72 (1954).
will not be discussed here. Industrially, so that the shaft height was variable.
pseudoplastic behavior is probably more Turbine speeds were measured by an
8. Mack, D. E., and V. W. Uhl, Chem.
important than the other types of non- electric tachometer geared to the motor
Eng., 54, 119 (1947).
Newtonian behavior combined. shaft.
9. Magnusson, Karl, Iva. (Sweden),23, 56
All the foregoing definitions are restricted Four cylindrical flat-bottomed tanks 6,
(1952).
t o materials which do not exhibit elastic re- 8.2, 11.6, and 22 in. in diameter were used
10. Matthews, T. A., 11, private com-
covery or viscoelasticity. That is to say, in this work. The smallest was a beaker,
munication (April 29, 1954).
once they have been sheared there is no the next two were Pyrex tanks, and the final
11. Metzner, A . B., Chenz. Eng. Progr., 50,
tendency for the fluid to return to its original one was a 55-gal. drum. All tanks except
27 (1954). shape or configuration. The necessity of this
12. --, and J. C. Reed, A.Z.Ch.E. the smallest one were fitted with four
assumption may prove to be a more serious removable baffles with a width of one tenth
Journal, 1, 434 (1955).
limitation of the present work than the of the tznk diameter.
13. Metzner, A. B., in Advances in
assumed absence of thixotropy and rheo- The impellers which were used had
Chemical Engineering, Vol. I, Aca-
pexy but cannot be dealt with until the diameters of 2, 4, 6, and 8 in. The ratios of
demic Press, Inc., New York (1956). engineering problems of design for pseudo-
14. Mooney, Melvin, J. Rheol., 2, 210 the width and length of the impeller blades
plastic, Bingham-plastic, and dilatant be- relative to their diameter were 1:5 and 1:4
(1931). havior hsve been well-developed.
15. OConnell, F. P., and D. E. Mack, respectivcly. With the smallest flat-bladed
Chem. Eng. Progr., 46, 358 (1950). turbine the torque readings were too low
16. Oldshue, J. Y., grivate communication
I _
(1954).
17. Otto. R. E.. Ph.D. thesis. Univ. Dela-
ware: Sew&k (1957). BINGHAM
18. Reed, J. C., M.Ch.E. thesis, Univ. PLASTIC 1001
25. -
Eng. Chem., 46, 2369 (1954).
APPENDIX
, private communication (1956).
$!-
K
I
I 10
SHEAR RATE 9
0
Figure 5 illustrates on arithmetic coordi- Fig. 8. Fluid characteristics (arithmetic Fig. 9. Fluid characteristics (logarithmic
nates the classical definitions used by scale). scale).
C. Viscometry
General equations (which do not require
--[-I
du 32Q 3n
dr - 7rD3 +1 (9)
Fig. 11. Impellers and viscoinetric equipment. Presented at A.I.Ch.E. Detroit meeting