Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 20

PV 6097

Group Standard Issue 2007-07


Class. No.: A6600
Descriptors: porosity, porosity determination, porosity test, porosity test on castings

Porosity Determination According to VW 50097

Contents
Page
1 Scope................................................................................................................................ 2
2 Aim.................................................................................................................................... 2
3 Description ........................................................................................................................ 2
4 Definitions ......................................................................................................................... 2
5 Test procedures ................................................................................................................ 2
5.1 Specification of reference areas ........................................................................................ 2
5.1.1 Permissible reference area geometries ............................................................................. 2
5.1.2 Selection and size of the reference area............................................................................ 3
5.1.3 Position of the reference area............................................................................................ 3
5.2 Selection of the section and projection planes ................................................................... 4
5.3 Quality of the reference areas to be evaluated .................................................................. 4
5.3.1 Reference areas for evaluation of pore class S ................................................................. 4
5.3.2 Reference areas for evaluation of pore class D ................................................................. 4
5.3.3 Reference areas for evaluation of pore class F.................................................................. 5
5.3.4 Reference areas for evaluation of pore class G ................................................................. 5
5.4 Evaluation of the reference areas ...................................................................................... 6
5.5 Result of the porosity test .................................................................................................. 7
5.6 Example of the porosity test .............................................................................................. 7
6 Referenced standards ....................................................................................................... 7
A.1 Pore class D - Problems and errors during specimen preparation and evaluation ............. 8
A.2 Porosity determination on a metallographic polished microsection .................................. 11
A.3 Representation of microsections of different porosity....................................................... 16

Check standard for current issue prior to usage. Page 1 of 20


The English translation is believed to be accurate. In case of discrepancies the German version shall govern.
Numerical notation acc. to ISO practice.
This electronically generated standard is authentic and valid without signature.

Technical Responsibility Standards

K-GQL-2 Dr. Stefan Eisenberg EKTC/4 Gabriela Bochynek EKTC


K-GQL-2/1 Hannes Wendt Tel.: +49-5361-9-38956 Tel: +49-5361-9-21698 Manfred Terlinden

Confidential. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be transmitted or reproduced without the prior permission of a Standards department within the Volkswagen
Group.Contract partners shall obtain the standard only through the B2B supplier platform www.vwgroupsupply.com.
VOLKSWAGEN AG vwnorm-2007-07
Page 2
Issue PV 6097: 2007-07

1 Scope
This standard applies to metal castings whose drawings or referenced standards contain porosity
specifications according to VW 50097.
Older porosity specifications based on the VDG (German Foundrymen's Association)
Specification P 201 shall be treated as corresponding specifications according to VW 50097.

2 Aim

The aim of this test specification (PV) is to test the porosity on the casting with regard to existing
drawing specifications (in conformity with VW 50097).

3 Description
Drawing notes according to VW 50097.

4 Definitions
Definitions according to VW 50099, VW 50097 and VDG Specification P 201.
Comparison diameter Diameter of a circle enclosing the pores.
Equivalent diameter Diameter of a circle having the same area as the compared pore.

5 Test procedures
The test method is based on the drawing specification and not on the type of load of the casting.
Pore class S Test on a microsection with a surface quality Rz 25
Pore class D Test on a metallographic polished microsection
Pore class F Test on a functional surface machined according to drawing
Pore class G Radiographic test by X-ray
Supplementary drawing notes are valid.

5.1 Specification of reference areas


The specifications in all pore classes refer to a so-called reference area. The same principle is
used in all pore classes to determine this area.

5.1.1 Permissible reference area geometries


Only the following geometries are permissible for selection of a suitable reference area.
Square
Circle
Triangle
These geometries are a special form of common area geometries.
Page 3
Issue PV 6097: 2007-07

5.1.2 Selection and size of the reference area


When
components are cut,
surfaces are machined according to drawing,
curved machining surfaces are projected and thus developed onto a plane,
or bodies are projected onto a plane for the radiographic test,
the result is always surface sections that can be approximated by the following geometries:
Square (as a special form of a rectangular surface section)
Circle (as a special form of an elliptical surface section)
Triangle
According to VW 50097 and VDG Specification P 201, the reference area shall always be selected
so that it resembles the local component geometry and so that its position and size ensure local
coverage of a maximum, geometrically similar area.
For evaluation of mating surfaces, the reference area is selected in reference to the local width of
the seal used or the width of the bead passage described in the drawing.
NOTE: If the occurring distortion is neglected, for example, the ring around a hole can be
developed into a rectangle. Thus, a square inscribed within the width of the ring is the only valid
reference area for evaluating a ring. To evaluate the porosity of the ring, this square is moved
tangentially (according to Section 5.1.3) over the ring area. This definition is identical with that in
VDG Specification P 201, Section 5.1.2.
Allowing for a 1:1 reproduction ratio, the maximum permissible size of the reference area for the X-
ray test is 5 cm.
NOTE: Depending on the X-ray system and actual magnification used, this specification can lead
to problems during implementation. In this case, consult with the responsible engineering
department of the end purchaser. Agreements reached regarding a different testing method shall
be documented in a suitable form in the drawing or referenced documents.
Reference area selection with regard to strength considerations can result in small reference areas
overlapping with possibly larger reference areas or reference areas of different geometries. As a
rule of thumb, this overlapping should not exceed 50% of the smaller reference area.
With complex geometries, this stipulation does not always result in unambiguous specification of
local reference areas. If in doubt, consult with the releasing laboratory of the end purchaser.

5.1.3 Position of the reference area


Any number of section planes can be generated in a casting. As a result, every flat machined
surface represents a section plane.
Likewise, radiography makes it possible to generate any number of projections of a casting.
Within a section plane or projection surface, the permissible reference area shall always be
selected from the multitude of possible positions so that the porosity resulting from the evaluation is
maximized.
Page 4
Issue PV 6097: 2007-07

5.2 Selection of the section and projection planes


Provided the valid drawing or other referenced standards do not specify otherwise, suitable planes
shall be selected in at least those areas in which critical loads occur.
In addition, at the supplier's discretion microsections can also be placed in areas that are suitable
as indicators of an unstable process.
NOTE: If the person responsible for testing is uncertain about these areas, he/she shall consult
with the responsible engineering department of the end purchaser.

5.3 Quality of the reference areas to be evaluated


Provided the drawing or other referenced standards do not specify otherwise, the reference areas
to be evaluated shall exhibit the following quality.

5.3.1 Reference areas for evaluation of pore class S


Areas with a porosity specification of class S are evaluated on areas that exhibit a surface
roughness of Rz 25 or better. The areas to be evaluated shall be flat and free from impurities or
damage that can impair the test result. The reference areas are evaluated with a resolution that
corresponds to normal vision of the human eye.

5.3.2 Reference areas for evaluation of pore class D


Areas with a porosity specification of class D are evaluated on a metallographic (polished)
microsection.
A metallographic microsection shall comply with the following requirements:
Mirror-bright surface Viewed under a microscope at a magnification
of 100:1, no machining traces from the preceding
preparation phases may be visible (no scratches or
score marks).

Flatness of microsection surface The microsection must not exhibit any edge radiusing
or relief formation.

No plastic deformation of structure The microsection must not exhibit any permanent
plastic deformation as a result of preceding
preparation steps.
The area is evaluated under a reflected light microscope at magnifications in the range from 20:1 to
25:1. The use of a stereomicroscope is not permitted.
Attention shall be paid to suitable illumination when evaluating microsections, especially for the
purpose or recording digital images. The porosity appears to be less in images with excessive
illumination, while it appears to be greater in images with insufficient illumination.
NOTE: The contractor can at its own discretion use a stronger magnification than 25:1 to evaluate
the reference areas. The use of a magnification of less than 20:1 is also permissible for the end
purchaser at its discretion.
Page 5
Issue PV 6097: 2007-07

5.3.3 Reference areas for evaluation of pore class F


The quality of the reference area complies with the local machining specification in the drawing.
The area to be examined shall be free from impurities or damage that can impair the test result.
NOTE: Surfaces machined according to drawing also represent a section plane within the context
of pore classes S and D. If functional surfaces are subject to a local porosity specification of class F
as well as general porosity specifications of class S or D, they shall comply with both specifications.

5.3.4 Reference areas for evaluation of pore class G


Areas with a porosity specification of class G are evaluated on an X-ray film or video image (live
image or processed X-ray image) of an X-ray system. The combination of tubes, detectors and/or
film, the radiation parameters and the imaging unit (monitor, focusing screen) shall always ensure a
contrast resolution of at least 6% of the irradiated, cumulative wall thickness. The X-ray system
shall allow a void to be detected that is at least 15% smaller than the maximum permitted void size
according to the drawing. The void detection ability shall be demonstrated using a suitable void
simulation specimen.
If a permissible maximum void is not defined in the drawing, the following standard maximum void
criteria shall apply, both of which shall be complied with according the demonstration rule above.
Maximum pore dimension = 1 mm Maximum pore area = 0,8 mm
For testing, the casting shall be aligned in the beam path of the X-ray system so that the porosity is
maximized in the projection of the areas to be evaluated. Each reference area is evaluated using a
reproduction ratio that ensures the required void detection ability.
NOTE: If the reference area is evaluated using a reproduction ratio other than the 1:1 reproduction
ratio stipulated in Section 5.1.2, the maximum permissible size of each reference area (5 cm
according to Section 5.1.2, or as defined in a special drawing note) shall be adapted to the actual
reproduction ratio.
Page 6
Issue PV 6097: 2007-07

5.4 Evaluation of the reference areas


With the exception of pore class F, the result of the area evaluation is the sum of the porous areas
as a percentage of the size of the evaluated reference area. The evaluation shall be performed
using a suitable method. Suitable methods in the context of this test specification are
Planimetric method
Linear intercept method
Methods deviating from the above methods are only permissible with approval of the responsible
laboratory of the end purchaser.
Evaluation of reference areas with a porosity specification of VW 50097-D4 and lower represent a
special case. Provided the dimensions of each examined reference area exceed a rectangular
dimension of (3 x 4) mm, the porous area may not exceed 4% in any (3 x 4) mm subarea of the
examined reference area.
Areas of pore class F are evaluated using suitable comparison dimensions (measuring lens,
caliper, steel rule) or comparison templates. The resolution of each utilized aid shall be appropriate
for the measurement task.
Provided the valid drawing or other referenced standards do not specify otherwise, the size
evaluation of individual pores always refers to the respective comparison diameter.
NOTE: Some X-ray systems with connected image evaluation are only able to evaluate so-called
equivalent diameters. If this causes a conflict with the applicable standards for the porosity
evaluation, the responsible laboratory of the end purchaser shall be consulted.
Page 7
Issue PV 6097: 2007-07

5.5 Result of the porosity test

The result of the porosity test is the actual porosity of the tested areas. Every discrete area, or in
the case of class F specifications every discrete functional surface, is evaluated separately in this
regard.
In each case, the actual porosity represents the result of the reference area with the highest local
porosity. Averaging of results of individual reference areas is not permitted.
The result of an evaluation of the porous area is always rounded up to an integer percentage value.
The following shall be taken into consideration for the rounding rules:
For a porosity specification of VW 50097-D4 and lower, each porosity measurement result is
indicated in whole 1% increments. For a porosity specification of VW 50097-D5 and higher, the
result is rounded up to whole 5% increments.
The same rule applies to porosity specifications of class S, but for this class any results that are
less than 5% are reported with VW 50097-S5.
Results for porosity specifications of class G are reported in whole 1% increments. The result
VW 50097-G0 is also permissible in this pore class. This result means that no pores could be
detected within the resolution capacity of the system used.
The individual void sizes determined are always classified in rounded-up value increments. The
maximum individual pore size determined is classified in 0,5 mm increments. Pores that are not
taken into consideration when examining functional surfaces are classified in 0,1 mm increments.

5.6 Example of the porosity test


Porosity specification VW 50097-D5/1 applies to all areas of a component. The casting exhibits
two strength-critical areas and one area that exhibits an especially critical response to process
fluctuations. In all three areas, metallographic microsections were prepared into which the
reference area whose evaluation results in a maximum area porosity or a maximum individual pore
size was generated from the multitude of possible reference areas. This yields a total of four
reference areas with the following individual results:
Area 1: 3,4% porous area, maximum individual pore size 2,1 mm
Local result: VW 50097-D5/2,5
Area 2: 8,6% porous area, maximum individual pore size 0,8 mm
Local result: VW 50097-D10/1
Area 3: 0,4% porous area, maximum individual pore size 0,1 mm
Local result: VW 50097-D5/0,5
Area 4: 4,4% porous area, maximum individual pore size 0,6 mm
Local result: VW 50097-D5/1
The actual porosity of the component is VW 50097-D10/2,5. This means that the casting is not OK
with regard to area porosity and maximum permissible individual pore size.

6 Referenced standards
The following documents cited in this standard are necessary for application of this standard.
In this Section, terminological inconsistencies may occur as the original titles are used.
VW 50097 Porosity of Metal Castings; Requirements
VW 50099 Foundry and Casting Technology; Definitions
VDG Specification P201 Volumendefizite von Gussstcken aus Nichteisenmetallen (Volume
Deficits of Non-Ferrous Metal Castings only available in German)
Page 8
Issue PV 6097: 2007-07

Appendix A (informative)
The example images shown below are intended for visualization purposes and to explain errors
that can occur in a porosity evaluation not in compliance with the standards. The example images
below make no claim for completeness. In other words, there are a multitude of possible
methodological errors that are not represented here.
Images with percentage porosity indications are for information purposes only. They are not
suitable for creation of comparison charts.

A.1 Pore class D - Problems and errors during specimen preparation and evaluation
The microsection represented in Figure 1 satisfies the preparation specifications of pore class S
only.
Figure 2 shows the same area after the specimen was prepared again in compliance with the
standard.

Figure 1 - Unpolished microsection Figure 2 - Polished microsection

Figure 3 shows a micrograph that is unsuitable for the test of class D pores. In addition to the
under-illuminated image, the striated surface caused by poor cleaning after the last polishing step,
in particular, negatively impacts the result of the digital porosity evaluation.

Figure 3 - Poorly prepared microsection, photograph too dark


Page 9
Issue PV 6097: 2007-07

Several problems occurred when preparing this casting from an austenitic cast iron (D5S) (see
Figure 4).
First, the image exhibits a shading effect that produces a non-optimal result during binarization.
Second, a binarization cannot be performed optimally because of the graphitic structure. The
graphite causes the porosity evaluation result to be too high.
To determine an exact porosity percentage, the area percentage of the graphite shall first be
measured followed by the total percentage of graphite and pores. This enables the true porosity
value to be calculated.

Figure 4 - Photograph with shading effect


Page 10
Issue PV 6097: 2007-07

The porosity is finally determined using a digital image analysis on a binarized image. The
microsection quality is ultimately the critical factor for the binarization quality and the accuracy of
the result. Relief and score mark formation result in an apparent porosity increase (for original
image, see Figure 5 and for image with standard binarization, see Figure 6).
If the binarization is undone, the score marks disappear but the porosity appears smaller than in
the original image (for binarization setting for suppressing the score marks, see Figure 7).

Figure 5 - Original photograph Figure 6 Photograph with standard


binarization

Figure 7 Original photograph and


different binarization levels
Page 11
Issue PV 6097: 2007-07

A.2 Porosity determination on a metallographic polished microsection


Along with preparation of the specimen in compliance with the standard, selection of the suitable
reference area plays a key role in the porosity determination. During implementation of the porosity
specifications according to VW 50097, errors are made frequently when selecting the reference
area.
Figure 8 to Figure 17 present the indication of the actual porosity of different castings in
compliance with the standard. The reference areas associated with each indication are color-
coded.
NOTE: The method for selecting reference areas in compliance with the standard as shown in the
examples using polished microsections is irrespective of the pore class specification.

Figure 8
Measured porosity: 21,2%
Actual porosity according to PV 6097: VW 50097-D25

Figure 9
Measured porosity: 22,5%
Actual porosity according to PV 6097: VW 50097-D25
Page 12
Issue PV 6097: 2007-07

Figure 10
Measured porosity: 24,9%
Actual porosity according to PV 6097: VW 50097-D25

Figure 11
Measured porosities: 36,4%; 70,2%; 37,8%; 5,6%
Actual porosity according to PV 6097: VW 50097-D75
Page 13
Issue PV 6097: 2007-07

Figure 12
Measured porosity: 43,1%; 67,8%
Actual porosity according to PV 6097: VW 50097-D70

Figure 13
Measured porosity: 65,1%; 9,6%
Actual porosity according to PV 6097: VW 50097-D70
Page 14
Issue PV 6097: 2007-07

Figure 14
Measured porosity: 18,6%
Actual porosity according to PV 6097: VW 50097-D20

Figure 15
Measured porosity: 7,3%
Actual porosity according to PV 6097: VW 50097-D10
Page 15
Issue PV 6097: 2007-07

Figure 16
Measured porosity: 31,7%
Actual porosity according to PV 6097: VW 50097-D35

Figure 17
Measured porosity: 11,2%
Actual porosity according to PV 6097: VW 50097-D15
Page 16
Issue PV 6097: 2007-07

A.3 Representation of microsections of different porosity


Figure 18 to Figure 26 show structures with different porosity. The images are for information
purposes only and are not suitable for use as a comparison chart for determining the porous area.

Figure 18 - Porous area = 0,8%

Figure 19 - Porous area = 2,1%


Page 17
Issue PV 6097: 2007-07

Figure 20 - Porous area = 4,6%

Figure 21 - Porous area = 5,6%


Page 18
Issue PV 6097: 2007-07

Figure 22 - Porous area = 9,2%

Figure 23 - Porous area = 14,7%


Page 19
Issue PV 6097: 2007-07

Figure 24 - Porous area = 16,8%

Figure 25 - Porous area = 25,0%


Page 20
Issue PV 6097: 2007-07

Figure 26 - Porous area = 26,4%