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T H E F AM I LI AR Q UO T A T I O N S

S E RI ES OF B O O KS .

Pric e I S. c lo t h IS . 6d h a lf b o und in le a t h e r,
.
-
re d e dg e s .

1 . FA M I L I A R L A TI N Q UO TA TI ON S 67 PR O VE R BS .

2 . FA M I L I A R F R EN CH Q UO TA TI ON S 67 PR O V ER BS .

3. F A M I L I A R EN GL I S H Q UO TA TI ON S .

4 . A HA N D Y CL A S S I CA L D I C TI ON A R Y .

5 . BI BL E TR U TH S WI TH S H A KS PE A R I A N
PA R A L L EL S By J B s m x mx
. . . .

6 . A HA N D Y BOOK OF S YN ON YM S CON TA I N I N G ,

A B O UT 33 , 0 0 0 EN GL I S H W OR DS .

7 . THE S E CR E TA R Y S A S S I S TA N T A N D CO R R E

S PON DE N T S G UI D E Th irt ee nt h E d it io n

. .

TO UR I S T S F R EN CH PR ON O UN CI N G HA N DBOOK

8. .

9 . R EA S ON S WH Y WE BEL I E V E THE B I BL E By .

t h e R e v J A M E S C O PLA N D M A
. , . .

10 . TA L ES F R O M S H A KS IE A R E By C H A R LE S L AM B . .

11 . A D I C TI ON A R Y OF DA I L Y BL UN DER S .

12 . R A S S EL A S By Dr J O H N S O N
. . .

13 . EL I Z A B E TH OR THE EX I L ES OF S I BER I A
, .

14 . R E 7 E C TE D A DD R ES S ES .

15 . A D I C TI ON A R Y O F E N GL I S H PR O V ER BS .

16 . PL U TA R CH S L I VES OF I L L US TR I O US M E ZV

.

17 . D E Q UI N CE Y S OPI UM E A TE R
-
.

18 . THE S TOR Y OF THE N E W TES TA M EN T By t he .

R e v A CA R T ER, M A
. . . .

19 . A D I C TI ON A R Y OF M YTHOL OG Y .

m O L U M E S,
R I PL I C A T E
C o l o ur e d e d g e s
38 ea c h
V
, . .

1 . HA N DBOOK F OR WR I TER S A N D R EA D ER S .

2 . R EFER E N CE HA N D B O OK O F Q UO TA TI ON S , E ng
lis h , F ra nc h, a n d L a t in .

L A M B S TA L ES FR OM S H A KS P E A R E , RA SSE

8 .

L A S , A N D EL I Z A BE TH .

A R EFER EN CE HA N DB O OK F OR B I BL E A N D
GEN ER A L R EA DER S .
A H A N DY

D I C T I O N A RY

M YT H O L O G Y
F OR E V E RYDAY R E A DE R S

BY T H E A UT H O R O F

A DI CT I O NA RY O F DA I LY BLUN DER S

A DI CT I ON A RY O F E N G LI S H PROV ER BS
H A N DY BOO K O F S YN O N YM S

A

E T C. E T C .

L O N DO N : W H I TTA KE R CO .
R 8: R C LA RK,
.
.
P RE F A C E

TH I S H a n dy Dic tion a ry of Myth o logy is in t en d ed to


supply t h e everyday reader with concise accounts o f
the gods and goddess e s of the ancients in an acces s

sible form .

Besides c o nfron ting us at every tu rn in the muse


ums a n d picture galleries these d eities and heroes
,

ar e c o nstantly mentioned by poets and po rtraye d


by painters and sculptors and they are used for the
,

u
p p r os e p f ill ustration in the l iterature o f the d a y .

N othing is more common than to nd the comi c


newspapers reso rti ng to Mytholog y for subjects for
their pictures ; and quite recentl y Punc h has given
us some delightful c artoons by Tenniel which apart , ,

fro m the admirab l e drawing are intensel y amus ,

ing to pe o pl e who know enough o f Mytho l og y to s ee


t h e drift of the artist Fo r example there is a car
.
,

t oo n r epresenti ng ZEa c us Minos and R hadamanthus


, ,

sitting in j udgment on the unlucky e l ectioneerin g



b ribers and underneath is the word N emesis
, .

Again there was a c apital ca rtoon representing the


,

Ju dgm ent of Pa ris in whi c h th e D uk e of R ich
7 ,
vi PREFA CD .

mond E arl Cairns and L o r d S alisbury gu re as


, ,

Juno Minerva and Venus This had reference to


, , .

the selecti on of a Cons e rvative L eader fo r the House


o f L ords and was very popular
,
I n order fully to .

enj oy similar works and to appreciate the al lusions


, ,

it is ne c essary that we sho uld be able to nd out


readily something about these mythological beings .


But to ascerta i n this something we do not want
to waste time in wading through such a number of
volumes as the compiler has used in makin g this
D ictionary even if it were possible to get access to
,

them .

I t has been a matter o f astonishment to him to nd


how many different vers i ons there ar e o f the same
fable and to s ee how oft en various writers attribute
,

t he same actions to different gods or heroes I n fact .


,

it has frequently been a d ifcult task to decide


which vers i on should be adopted which authority ,

accepted I t may therefore be desirable to state


.

that Where doubts have arisen either the various ,

versions are given o r el se Lempriere s Cla ss ica l Di c


,

t iona ry has been re ferred to to decide the questions


, .

B esides L empriere the following works with many


, ,

others o f less authority hav e b een consulted in c o m


,

pil ing thi s D ictionary


P O E T I CAL HIS T ORIES Written origi nall y in
.

F rench by the learned Jesuit P GALT R UCH I US



.
, .

Translated into E nglish by MARIUS D A SS I GN Y

B D S econd e dition , 1 6 72
. .
.1
.
PR EFA CE . vii

THE P AN T H E ON . R epresenting th e fab ul o us his


tories of the Heathen Go ds in a plain and fami
l iar method B y ANDRE W T O O KE A M 1713
. , . . .

A N E W P AN T H EON ; or Fabulous History o f ,

Heathen Gods Heroes and G o ddesse s,


By ,
.

S AM UEL B O YS E A M 1 753 , . . .

MY T H OLO G I C AL ET YM OLO G I C AL and HIS T ORI CAL


, ,

DI C T IONAR Y B y W H O WELL B D 1793


. .
, . . .

Bo wDE N s PA GAN Bu rn s 1 820



.

N ow supposin g that al l these books were acces


,

sible to the general reader it would stil l be in many


,

instances impossible for him w i thout considerable ,

labour to nd therein much of the information c o n


,

t a in ed in this Di ct i onary for some o f the bes t of


,

them hav e no index but this book is an ind e x to


,

them all .

T he proper pron u nciation of the n ames being im


port ant the accent is always marked and the ill us
,

t ra t iv e quotations from the poets have been specially


selected with the intention o f assisti ng the reader in
nding o ut the number o f syllables in a name and ,

by this means xin g the pronunciation .

I t will be seen that the compiler has not conned


hi msel f to Greek and R oman Mythology but has ,

included the more important of the E gyptian ,

S candinavian and Hindoo de i ti es references to which


, ,

o ften occur in modern literature .

Th e l imited spac e at c ommand has made it n ec es

s ar y t o be as c o n c is e as possib l e but e very nam e c on ,


.
v ii i PREF A CE .

n e c t edwith Mythology o f any note at all h a s it is


, , ,

hoped been included and care has been taken t o


, ,

avoid repetit ions as mu c h as possibl e Wh e re tw o


.

o r three names o c cur in connection with one fable ,

the tale is told on c e and reference is made to it under


,

the name of the other deities concerned therein .

There are a fe w names inserted which though not ,

stri c tly mythological are mentioned because it fre


,

quently happens that in the history of ancient heroes


there is someth ing fabulous in the tales to l d con c ern
ing them .

As to some o f the gods and heroes the H a nd y ,

Cla ssica l Dic tio na ry and Plut a rch s Lives (part of


this S eries o f Handy Books ) may be cons ulted with


advantage for ful ler information and it is hoped that
the popularity o f t hose t wo books wi ll be at l e as t
equall ed by the Dic tiona ry of M yth o logy .
A H A N DY

DI CTI ONARY OF MYTHOLOGY .

A BAS a s o n

, Meg a nira was turned i nt o a newt
of , ,

o r water lizard for deriding th e ce rem o nies of th e


-
,

S acrice .

A BS Y RTUS brothe r o f M e dea



.
,


ACH ELO US was a s o n o f Oceanus and Terra He .

had the power o f assuming all shapes and in a ,

c on i c t with Hercules he t urned himself into a


serpent and then into a bull but he was nally
, ,

defeated and he then turned himself into a river,


,

which has since been cal led Achelous .

'
ACH ERO N On e of the rivers o f the infernal regions
.

to which the spirits Of the dead reso rted and ,

waited th e re till Charon the ferryman took them


ov er .

I nfernal rivers that disgorge


I nt o the burning lake their baleful s treams .


S ad A cheron o f sorrow black and deep
, .

M IL T O N .

'
ACH IL LES was the most valiant o f the Greek her o es
in th e Troj an W ar He was the son o f Peleus
.
,

B
2 A H A ND Y DICTI ONA R Y

King o f Thessaly His mother Thetis p l unged .


, ,

him when an infant i nto t he S tygian pool whi ch


, , ,

made him invulnerable wherever t he waters h a d


washed him but the heel by which he was held
was not wetted and that part remained vulner ,

able He was shot with an arrow in the heel


.

by Paris at the siege of Troy and di e d of his


, ,

wound .


AC IDA LIA a nam e given t o Venus fr om a fo untai n
,

in B oeotia .


A C IS A S icilian shepherd l oved by the nym ph
.
,

Gal atea On e of the Cyclops who was j ealous o f


.

h im crushed h im by hurling a rock o n him


Gala t ea turned h i s blood into a ri verth e A cis at
.

the foot o f Mount E t na .

'

ACTIE ON was the son o f Arist aeus a famous hunts ,

man He i ntruded himself on D iana while sh e


.

was bat h i ng and was changed by her into a deer , ,

in wh i ch form he was hunted by his o wn dogs and


torn in pieces .


A DES s ee Hades,
.

ADO NIS the beautiful attendant o f Venus who he l d


, ,

her trai n He was k illed by a boar and turn e d


.
,

by Venus in to an anemone .

E ven as the sun with purpl e col oured fa c e -

Had t a en his last leave o f t he weeping morn


R ose cheeked Adonis hied h i m to t he chase


-


Hunting he loved but love he laughed to scorn , .

S H AKE S PE ARE .

ADR A STIE A another name o f Ne mesis o n e of the


'

, ,

goddesses o f justi ce .

ADS CR I PTI TI I DI I w e r e the g o ds o f the s ec o nd


'

grade .
0F M Y TH OL OG Y . 3

ADV E RS I TY, E chidna see .


IE A CUS one of the j udges of hell with Minos an d
, ,

R hadamanthus S ee E a c us . .

'
IECA S TOR an oath used only by wo m e n r e ferring t o
, ,

th e Temple of Castor .


ZED E POL an oath used by both men an d women
, ,

referri n g to the Temple o f Pollux .


IEGE ON a g i ant wi t h fty heads and one h u n dr ed
,

hands who was impri soned by J upit e r under


,

Moun t E tna S ee B ri areus . .

IE GI S the shi eld o f J upit er s o call e d be c a us e it was



'

, ,

m ade o f goat skin .


Where was thine ZEg is Pallas that a pp a ll d

B Y RON .

Tremendous Gorgon frown ed upon i ts eld , ,



An d cir cling terrors lled the expressive shield .


Ful l on the crest the Gorgon s head they place ,

W it h eyes that roll in death and wi t h d i s t orted ,



face . P OPE .


E GLE The fairest of the N aiads
. .

AE L LO the name o f one o f the Harpies



.
,
'
.ZEN E A S was t h e s o n of A nchises and Venus He .

was one of t he few grea t captains who escaped


the destruc ti on of Troy He behaved with great .

valour duri n g t he s i ege encoun t ering Dio me d , ,

and even A chilles h imself When the Grecians .

had set t he c i t y on re E neas took his aged father ,

Anchises o n his shoulders whilst h is son Ascanius


, , , ,

and his w i fe Creusa clung t o h i s garments He , , .

saved them all from the ames Aft er wandering .

about during several years encountering numerous ,

d i fcult i es he a t len gth arrived in I taly where he


, ,

was hosp itably rece i ved by L atinus king o f the ,


4 A H A ND Y DIC TIONA R Y

L atins After the death of L atinus IEn ea s b ec am e


.

k ing .

His back or rather burth en showe d


, ,

As if it stoop ed with it s load


'

F or as IEn e a s bore his sire


Upon his shoulders through the re ,

Our knight did bear no less a pack



Of his o w n buttocks o n h is back .

B U T LER .


IEO LUS wa s the god o f the winds Jupiter was his .

reputed father and hi s mother is said to have b e en


,

a daughter o f Hipp o t us E olus i s represented .

a s having the power o f holding t he winds conned


in a cavern and occasion ally giving them liberty
,

to blo w over the world S o much command was .

he supposed to have over them t hat when U lysses


visited him o n his return from Troy he gave him ,

tied up in a bag all the winds tha t could prevent


,

his voyage from being prosperous The compau .

ions Of U lysses fancying that the bag contained


,

t reasure cut it open j us t as they came in sight o f


,

I thaca the port they were making for and the


, ,

c ontrary winds rus hing o ut drove back the ship


many leagu es The residence o f IEo lus was at
.

S tron gyle now called St ro mb o l o


, .

E olus from his airy thr one


'Vith power imper i al curbs t he struggling winds ,

An d soundin g tempests in dark prisons b inds .

DR YDEN .

'
I ESCULA PI US the god o f ph ys io was a so n o f Apollo
, , .

He was phys i cian to the Argonauts in their famous


exped i tion to Colchis He became s o noted fo r .

his cures tha t Pluto became j ealous o f h im and ,

h e requested Jup i ter to kill him with a thunder


b olt T o r e venge his son s death Apollo sle w the
.

OF M YTH OL OG Y . 5

Cyc l ops who had forged the thunderb olt By his .

marriage w i th E pione he had t wo sons Machaon ,

and Po d a lirus both famous physicians and four , ,

daughters o f whom Hygeia the goddess o f health


, , ,

is the most renowned Many temples were .

erected in honour o f IEs c ula pius and votive ,

tablets were hung therein by people who had been


healed by him ; but his most famous shrine was
at E pidaurus where every ve y ears games , , ,

were held in his honour This god is variously .

represented but the most famous statue shows,

h i m seated on a throne o f gold and ivory His .

head is crowned with rays and he wears a long ,

beard A knotty stick is in one hand and a staff


.
,

entwined with a serpent is in the o ther while a ,

d og lies at his feet .

Thou that dost IEsc ula pius deride ,



A nd o er his gall i pots in triumph ride .

FE N T O N .

I BS ON

was father O f Jason an d was restored t o ,

youth by Medea .

IE TA a king o f Colchis wa s father o f Medea


, , .

AGAM E M

NON was the s o n o f Plisthenes and brother
o f Menelaus He was king o f t he Argi ves H i s
. .

brother s w i fe was the famous Helen daughter o f



,

Tyn d a rus king of S parta ; and when s h e eloped


,

w i th Paris Agamemnon was appo i n t ed leader o f


,

the Greeks in their expe di tion against Troy .


AGAN I P PI DE S , ame of the Muses de riv e d fr o m
a n ,

the fountain o f Aganippe .

AC I N E Us s e e A poll o

.
,


A G LA IA was o n e of the Three Graces .

'
AG NI The Hindoo god o f lightning
. .
6 A H A ND Y DI OTI ON A R Y
'
A J AX was one o f the bravest of the Greek warriors
in t he Trojan war H i s fat her was Telamon and .
,

his mother E rib oea S ome writers say t hat he was .

killed by U lysses ; others aver that he was slai n


by Paris wh i le o t hers again asser t t hat he went
m ad aft er being defeated by U lysses and killed ,

himself A no t her Aj ax son o f Oi leus also took


.
, ,

a prominent part in the Troj an War .

ALCE s TI s wife o f A dmetus who to save her hus



, , ,

band s life died in his stead and was restor e d to



, ,

l ife by Hercules .

'
AL C I DES o n e o f the names o f Hercules
, .

'
AL CM E NA the mother o f Hercules was dau ght e r o f
, ,

E le c trion a king o f Argos , .

A LE C T O was o n e o f the F uries



S he is depicted as .

having serpents instead of hair o n her head and ,

was supposed to breed pesti lence wherever sh e


went .


ALE C T R Y O N a servant o f Mars who was chan ged
, ,

by him into a cock because he d i d not warn his


master of the rising of the s un .


AL F A DUR in S candinavian Mytholog y th e S upre m e
BeingFather of all
,

AL M A MA M M O S A a name o f Ceres
'
, .

A LPH E US a river god S ee Arethusa


'
.
, .

AL TAR A structure o n which a sacrice was offer e d


. .

The earliest altars were merely heaps o f earth or


turf o r rough unhewn s t one ; bu t as the mode
o f sacricing became more ceremonious grander
altars were bu i lt S ome were o f marble and .

brass ornamented wi t h carvi ngs and ba s reliefs


,
-
,

and the corners w i th models of the heads o f ani


mals They varied in hei gh t from two feet to
.

four and some were buil t sol i d others were made


,
OF M YTH OL OG Y 7

holl o w to retain the blood o f the victims S om e .

were provided with a k i nd o f dish i n t o whi ch ,

frankincense was thrown to overpower the smell


o f burn ing fat This probably was the origin O f
.

the custom o f burning i ncense at the altar .


AM AL T HAE A th e goat which nourished J upiter
'
, .

'
AM AZ ONS were a nat i on o f women soldiers who -

lived in S cythia Hercules totally d efeat ed them


.
,

and gave H ippolyte their queen to Theseus for a , ,

wife The race seems to have been exterminated


.

after this battle .

'
AM BA RV A LI A were festival s in honour o f Ceres in ,

stituted by R oman husbandmen to purge thei r


elds A t the spring fes t ival t he head o f each
.

family led an animal usually a p ig o r ra m decked , ,

wi th o a k boughs roun d his g rounds and o ffered


, ,

milk and n e w w i ne A fter harvest t here was .

another festival at which Ceres was presented


,

with the rs t fruits of the season S ee Ceres


-
. .

A MBE R s e e Heliades
, .

'
AM BRO SIA were B acch analian fes t ival s .

'
AM I C A a name o f Venus
,
.

'
AMPH I ON was the son o f Jupiter and A ntiope He .

was gr eatly skilled in mus i c and it is sa i d that ,

at the sound o f his lute the ston es arranged ,

themselves s o regularly as to make the walls o f


the city o f Thebes .

Amphion t oo as story goes could cal l


, , ,

Obedient stones to make the Theban wall .

H ORA C E .


N ew wall s to Thebes A mphion thus began , .

W ILLIA M KIN G '

S uch strains I sing as on c e A mphi on played ,



Wh e n lis t n in g o c ks the powerful call obeyed

.

ELPH I N STON .
8 A HA ND Y DI CTIONA R Y
'
AMPH I T RI T E (or Sa la t ia ) the w ife o f N eptune was , ,

a daughter o f Ocean us and Terra S he was the .

mother o f Triton a s ea god , .

His weary chari ot sought the bowers



O f Amph i trite a n d her tending nymphs .

TH O MS O N .

AMY CUS was king o f Ba bryc ia



H e was a so n of .

N ept une and was killed by Pollux


, .


AN CIE US A son o f N eptune who left a cup o f wine
.
,

to hunt a wild boar wh i ch killed him and t h e ,

win e was untasted This was the ori gin o f the



.


proverb Th ere s many a slip twixt cup and


lip .


AN C IL IA th e t we l ve sacred shields
, Th e rst A n c ile .

was supposed to have fallen from heaven in answer


to the prayer of N uma Pomp i lius I t was kept .

with the greatest care as it was prophesied that ,

the fate o f the R oman people wo uld depend upon


its preservation An order o f pr i es t hood was
.

established to take care o f the Anc ilia and o n l s t ,

March each B yea r the shi elds were carried in pro


cession and in the eve ning there wa s a great feast
,

call ed Coen a Sa lia ris .

'
ANDR OM EDA the daughter o f Cepheus king o f the
, ,

E thiop i ans was wife of Perseus by whom sh e


, ,

was rescued when she was c h a med to a rock and


was about to be devoured by a sea monster -
.

'
ANE M ONE Ven u s changed A donis into this ower
. .

'
AN G ERO NIA otherwise V o l up ia was the g oddess who
, ,

had the power o f d i spelling an guish o f mind .

'
ANNA P EREN NA o n e o f th e rural divinities
, .

'
AN TIE US a giant who was vanquished by Her c ules
,
.

E ach time that Hercules thre w him the giant


10 A H A ND Y DI C TI ONA R Y

Greeks called him Agin eus b ecause the streets were


under his guardiansh i p and he was called Pythius ,

from having k ill ed the serpent Python Apollo is .

usually represen t ed as a handsome youn g man


wi thout beard crowned wi t h laurel and having in
, ,

o n e hand a b o w and in the other a lyre ,


Th e .

favourite res i dence o f A pollo was o n Mount Par


n a ss us a mountain o f Phocis i n Greece where he
, , ,

presided over the Muses Apollo was the ac e r e .

dited father O f several children but t he tw o mo st ,

ren o wned were IEs c ul a p ius and Ph aeton .

A pollo there w i th a im s o clever ,



S tretches his leaden bow for ever .

L LO YD 1750 , .

Wil t thou have music Hark Apollo p l ays ,



A nd twenty cag ed nightingales do s ing .

S H A K ES PEARE .

'

APOTH E OS I s The cons ec ration o f a god


. Th e .

ceremony o f d e i c a t ion .

APP LE s e e A tal a nta


,
.

'
A RA CH NE a Lybia n Princess who challenged Min
, ,

erva to a sp inn i ng con t es t but Minerva s t ruck her ,

o n the head with a spindle and turned her int o a ,

spider .

S o her disembowelled web ,

Arachne in a hall o r k i tchen spreads


, ,

Obvious to vagrant i es .

J O H N P H ILLI P S .

'
AR C A D IA a delightful country in the centre of Pe l o
,

p o nn es sus a favourite place o f the gods


, Apollo .

was reputed to have been King o f Arcadi a .

AR C AS a s o n o f Calis t r o was turn ed into a h e bea r


-
, ,

and afterwards into the constellation c alled Ursa


Minor .
OF M YTH OL OG Y . 11

AR CH ER , se e Chiron .

'
ARE OP A GI TIE the judges wh o sat at the A r e opagu s
, .

'
AREO P A G US the hill at A thens where Mars wa s tri e d
,

for murder before twelve of the gods .


A RE S The sam e as Mars the god o f war
.
, .

'
ARE T H U SA was one o f the nymphs o f D iana S he .

ed from Alpheus a river g o d and was enab l ed to


, ,

escape by being t urned by Di ana in t o a rivul et


wh i ch ran underground S he was as v i rtuous as .

s h e was beauti ful .

AR G ONAU T S This nam e was given to the fty h e r o es



.

who sailed t o Colch i s in t he shi p Argo under the


c ommand o f Jason to fetch the Golden Fleece , .


AR G US was a god who h a d a hundred e yes which
slept and wat ched by turns H e was charged by .

Juno to watch I o but be ing slai n by Mer cury , , ,

was changed by Juno into a peacock .


AR I AD NE daughter O f Minos King o f Cre t e
,
After , .

enabling Theseus t o get o ut o f t he L abyrinth by


means of a clew o f thread sh e ed w i t h him to ,

N axos where he ungra t efully deserted her ; but


,

Bacchus wooed her and m arr i ed her and the crown ,

o f seven stars which he gave her was turned in t o


a constell ati on .

ARI ON was a famous lyric poet o f M et h ymn a in th e


'
,

I sland of L esbos where he gained grea t riches by


,

h i s art There i s a pret ty fable which has made


.


t h e name of Arion famous Once when t ravell i ng .

from L esbos h i s compan i ons robbed h i m and pro ,

posed to thro w him into the s ea He en t reated .

the seamen to let h im play upon h i s harp before


they threw him overboard and he played s o sweetly ,

that the dolphins ocked round the vessel He .


12 A H A ND Y DICTIONA R Y

then threw himself into the s ea and one of the ,

dolphins took him up and carried him to Ta en a rus ,

near Corinth F or this act the dolphin was raised .

to heaven as a constellation .

'
AR I S TIE US son o f Apoll o and Cyr ene was the god
, ,

o f tr ees ; he also taught mankind the use o f


honey and how to get o il from olives H e was
, .

a celebrated hun t er His m ost famous s on wa s .

Ac taeon .

'
AR M A T A o n e o f the names o f Ven u s gi ven t o h e r
, ,

by S partan women .

'
AR T E M IS This was the Grec ian name o f D iana and
.
,

the festivals at D elphi were c a ll ed Art emesia .

AR T S and S C IEN C ES s e e Mus e s , .

'
ARUS P I C ES sacrici a l p riests , .

'
AS C AL A PH US was changed into an o wl the harb inger ,

o f misfortun e by Ceres because he informed Pluto , ,

tha t Proserp ine had partaken o f food i n the in


fern a l regi ons and thus pr e v e nted her return to ,

earth .


AS C A NIUS the s o n of IEn ea s , .

'
AS COL I A Bacchanalian feasts from a Greek word
, ,

mean ing a leather bottle The bottl es were used .

in the games to jump o n .

'
ASO P US A son o f Jupiter who was kill ed by o ne o f
.
,

his father s thunderbolts


.

'
AS SA BI N US the E thiopian nam e of J upit e r , .

Ass E s EARS see Midas


-
, .

'
A S TAR T E o n e of the E ast e rn nam e s of Venus
, .

'
AS T E RIA daughter o f Caeus was carried away by
, ,

J up i ter who assumed the shape o f an eagle


, .
OF M YTH OL OG Y . 13


AS T RE A , mother of N emesis was the goddess o f
,

justice ; sh e returned to h e aven when the e arth


becam e corrupt .

Chaste A strea ed ,

And sought protection in her n at i ve sky .

J O H N H U GH ES .


ATALA N T A was daughter o f C aeneus The ora cle .

told her that marri age would be fatal to her but , ,

b eing very beautiful sh e had many sui t ors S he


, .

was a very s wift runner and to ge t rid o f her a d


, ,

mirers sh e promised to marry any o n e o f them


,

who should outstr i p her in a race but that a ll who ,

were defeated sho ul d be slain Hippomenes how .


,

ever wi th the aid o f Venus was successful That


, , .

goddess gave him three golden apples one o f ,

which he dropped whenever A talan t a caught up


to hi m in the race S he stopped to p i ck t hem
.

up and he was victorious and marri ed her They


,
.

wer e both afterwards turned into lions by Cybele ,

for profaning her temple .

'
A TE The goddess of revenge also called the goddess
. ,

of disco rd and all evil S he wa s banished from


.

heaven by her father Jupiter .


With At e by his side come hot from hell .

S HAK ES P EARE .


AT H E NA a name obtained by Minerva as the tut e
,

l ary goddess o f Athens .

AT LAS was King o f Mauritania now Moroc c o in


, , ,

Africa He was also a great astronomer He is


. .

dep i cted w i th the globe on hi s back h i s n ame ,

signi fying great to i l o r labour Fo r h i s inh o s pi


.

t a lity to Perseus that k ing changed hi m i nto the


mountai n wh i ch bears h i s name o f A tlas A chain .

o f mounta i ns in A fr i ca is call ed aft er h i m and s o ,

is the Atlantic Oce an He had seven daughters


.
14 A HA N D Y DIC TIONA R Y

by his wife Pleion e they were call ed by o n e com


,

mon name Ple i ades ; and by his Wife IEt h ra he


,

had seven more who were in the same manner


, , ,

called Hyades B o t h the Pleiades and the Hyades


.

are celes t i al constella ti ons .

AT REUS t he t ype of fraternal hatred His dislike


'
.
,

o f h i s bro t her Thyestes went to the exten t o f


kill in g and roas t i ng h i s n ephews and inv i tin g ,

their fa ther to a feas t whi ch Thyes t es thought


,

was a S i gn o f reconciliat ion bu t he was the victim ,

o f his bro t her s detestable cruelty



.

Medea mus t not draw her murdering kni fe ,



N or Atreus there his horrid feast prepare .

L ORD ROS C O MM ON .

'
AT RO P OS one of the three sisters called Th e F a t es
, ,

who held t he shears ready t o cu t the thread o f life .

A TY S son o f Croesus was born dumb but when in



, , ,

a gh t he saw a soldi er about to ki ll t he king he ,



gai ned speech and cri ed o ut ,
S ave t he king ' ,

a n d the str i ng t ha t held h is tongue was broken .

'
A TY S was a you t h beloved by Aurora and was slain ,

by her fa t her but according to Ovid was after


, , ,

wards turned into a pine tree -


.

'
AU G E AS a king o f E l i s the owner o f the stabl e
, ,

wh i ch Hercules cleansed aft er three thousand oxen


had been kep t in i t for t h irty years I t was cleansed .

by turn ing the r i ver Alpheus through i t Augaea s .

prom i sed t o gi ve Hercules a ten t h par t of his cattle


for his trouble bu t for neglect ing to keep h i s pro
, ,

mise Hercules S ho t h i m
, .

AU G UR Y
'
This was a means adopted by t he R omans
.

o f form i ng a ju d gmen t of fu t ur i t y by t he i ght o f

birds and the o fciating pries t was called an


,

au gur .
OF M YTH OL OG Y . 15

AURO RA, the goddess of the morning,

W hose rosy ngers o p e the gates o f day .

S he was daughter o f S ol the s un and was the , ,

mother of t he stars and winds S he is represented .

as r i ding in a splend i d golden chariot drawn by


whi te horses The goddess loved T i thonus and
.
,

b egged the gods to grant him immort ality but ,

forgot to ask at t he same t ime that he sho ul d not


get o ld and d e crepit S ee Ti thonus . .

S O soon as the all cheering sun -

S hould i n the fa rthest east beg i n t o draw


, ,

Th e shady c urtains o f Aurora s bed
.

S H A K ES PEARE .

'
AUS TER th e south wind a s on o f Jupiter
, , .


AVER NUS a poisonous lake referred to by poet s as
, ,

be i ng at the entrance o f the i n fernal regions but ,

it was really a lake in Campan i a i n I taly .

AV E RR UN CUS D E US a R oman god wh o c oul d d ive r t



, ,

peop l e from evil doing .

AX E, see D aedalus .

BA AL a god o f th e Phoe nicians



, .

'
B A AL P E OR, a Moabitish god, associated with li c eu
-

t io us n es s and obs c enity The modern nam e is .

Belph eg or .

B A BES , see R umina D ea .


B A C CH AN T ES The p riest e ss e s of Ba cc hus
. .

B A C CH US the god o f wine was the son o f Jupiter



, ,

and S emele He is sai d to have marr ied Ari adn e


.
,

daughter o f Min e s King of Crete after s h e wa s


, ,

deser ted by Theseus T he most d is t inguished o f


.

his c hildren is Hymen the god o f marriag e ,


.
16 A H A ND Y DIC TIONA R Y

Bacchus is so metimes referred to under th e nam e s


of D ionysius Bifo rmis Brisoeus I acchus L en aeus
, , , , ,

Lyc eus Li ber and Liber Pater the symbol o f


, , ,

lib erty The god o f wine is usually represented


.

as crowned with vine and ivy leaves I n his left .

hand is a thyrsus a k i nd o f j avelin having a r , ,

cone for the head and being encircled with ivy or ,

vine His chariot is drawn by lions tigers o r


.
, ,
panthers .

Jo lly B ac chus god o f pleasure , ,

Char me d the world with drink and danc e s


.

T P ARNELL 1 700 .
, .

'
BA LI OS A famous horse given by N eptu ne to
.

Peleus as a wedding pr e sent and was afterwards ,

g i ven to Achill es .

B AR K ER see A nubis ,
.

BA S S A R I DE s

The priest e ss e s o f Ba cc hu s w er e s o me
.

tim es s o called .

B ATT LE s ee Valhal la
, .

B EAR s e e Calis t ro
,
.

B EAU T Y s ee Venus ,
.

B EES see Mell o n a


,
.


BE LI S A M A a goddess of th e Gau ls
, T h e nam e m e ans .

the Q ueen o f Heaven .


B ELLER O PH O N a hero who destroyed a monster
,

called the Chim aera .

'
B ELLO NA the goddess of war and wife o f Mars The
, ,
.


24t h March was called B ellona s D ay when her ,

votaries cut themselves with knives and drank


the blood of the sacrice .


I n Dirae s and in D iscord s steps Bel lona tr e ads ,

An d shakes her iron rod above their heads .
18 A H A ND Y DICTIONA R Y

B U BO NA , goddess of herdsm e n , o ne of th e r ural
d ivinities .

'
B UD DA H . A
pagan deity th e Vishnu of the Hindoos , .


B YB LIS A niece of S ol mentioned by Ovid S he shed
.
, .

s o many tears for unrequited l o v e that sh e was


turned into a fountain .

Thus the Ph oeb eia n Byb lis sp e nt in tears , ,

B ecomes a living fountain which yet bears ,



Her name OV ID
. .

CA B I R I
. T he mysterio u s rites conne c t e d with the
worsh i p o f these deities were s o obscene that most
writers refer to them as se c rets which it was nu
l awful to reveal .

'
CA C ODIE M ON Greek name of an evil spirit . .

'
CA C US a thre e headed monster and robb er
,
-
.

CAD M US o n e of the earl i est o f the Greek demigods



.
,

H e was the reputed inventor o f letters and his ,

alphabet consis t ed o f six t een letters I t was Cad .

mus who slew the B oeotian dragon and sowed its ,

teeth in the ground from e ach of which spran g ,

up an armed man .


CADU C EUS The rod c arried by M e r cury I t has
. .

two winged serpents entwined round the top end .

I t was supposed to possess the power o f producing


sleep and Milton refers to it in Pa ra d ise L ost
,

as the opiate rod .

'
CALIS T RO an A rcad i an nym ph who was turned into
, ,

a sh e bear by Jupiter -
I n that form she was .

hunted by her son Area s who would have killed ,

her had not J upiter turned him into a h e bear -


.

Th e nymph and her s o n form the constellations


known as th e Great Bear and L ittl e B e ar .
OF M YTH OL OG Y . 19


CALL I OPE Th e Mus e who pr e sided over epic p o etry
.

and rhetoric S he is gen erally depi c ted using


.

a sty lus an d wax tab l ets the an c i e nt wr iting ,

m at e rials .

'
CAL P E On e o f th e pill ars o f Her cul e s
. .

'

CALYP SO was queen o f the island o f Ogygia on ,

which U lysses was wrecked and where h e was ,

pers uaded to remain seven years .


C A MA Th e I ndian god o f l ove and marriage
. .

'
C A M IL LUS a name o f M e rc u ry fr om h is o fce o f
, ,

mml st er to the gods .


C A N A CH E . The nam e of one of Ac tae o n s ho u nds .

'
CAN O BA . The I ndian A po ll o .


CAN O P US The E gyptian god o f wat e r the c o n
.
,

uero r o f re
q .


C AP IS or CA P ULA A peculiar c up with e ars u sed .
,

in drinking the h e alth o f the deities .

CAPI TOLI N US A name o f Jupiter, from t h e



. Capitoline
hil l, o n the top o f whi c h a templ e wa s built and
de di cated to him .

CAP R I

Pan the Egipa n s the S atyrs an d
'
PE DE S .
, , ,

F auns were s o called from having goats feet
,
.


CAPR OTI NA . A name of J uno .

C ASSANDRA , a daughter Priam and Hecuba who of ,

was g ranted by Apollo the power o f seeing in to


fu tur i ty but having o ffended t hat god he pre
,

vented people from believing her predi ctions .

C ASSI OP E IA The E thiopian queen who s et her



.

beauty in comparison with that o f the N ereides ,

who thereupon chain e d h e r t o a ro c k and left her


20 A H A ND Y DIC TIONA R Y

to be de v oured by a s ea mo n s t er but sh e wa s ,

delivered by Perseus .


CAS T A LIA On e of the fountains in Mount Parnassus
.
,

sacred to the Muses .

'
C AS T A LI DES a name of the Muses fr o m th e fo untain
, ,

Castalia o r Ca st a lius .


CAS T OR s o n o f Jup i ter and L eda twin broth e r o f
, ,

Pollux n oted for his ski ll i n horsemansh i p H e


, .

went with Jason in ques t o f the Golden Flee c e .

'
CAU T E RE in Mohammedan mythology is the lake
, ,

Of parad i se whose wa t ers are as sweet a s honey


, ,

as cold as snow and a s clear as crystal and any


,

b eliever who tastes thereof is sai d to thirst no


more .

CE L E N O was o n e o f the Harpies progenit or o f



,

Z ephyrus the wes t wind ,


.

CEN T AUR

A huntsman who had the for e part l ik e
.
-

a man and the remai nder o f t he body like a horse


, .

The Cen t auri l i ved i n Thessaly .


CE P H ALUS was married t o Procris whom he ac c i ,

dentally slew by shoo t ing her while s h e was ,

secretly watching h i m b e t hi nking S he was a wild ,

beast Cephalus was t he type o f constancy


. .

'
CERAU NIUS A Greek name o f Jupiter meaning The
.
,

Fulminator fro m his thunderbol t s , .


CER BERUS Pluto s famous three headed d og which
.
-
,

guarded the gat e of t he i nfernal regi ons prevent ing ,

t he l i ving fro m enter i ng and the i nhabitants from ,

go i ng o ut .

Three headed Cerberus by fate


-
,

Pos t ed a t Plato s i ron gat e

L ow crouch i ng rolls h i s haggard ey e s ,



E cstatic and foregoes h is pr i ze
,
.
OF M YTH OL OG Y . 21

C ERE MONIES, s ee Themis .


C E RES daughter of S aturn , the godd ess o f agri
,
'

cul ture and of the fru i ts Of ear t h S he taught


, .

T riptolemus how to grow corn and sent hi m to ,

teach the inhab i tants o f the ea rth S he was .

known by the names o f Magna D ea Bona D ea , ,


Alma Ma mmo sa and Th es mo rph o n is Ceres was, .

the mother o f Prosperine S ee A mbarvali e . .

To Ceres bland her annual rites b e paid ,

On the green tu rf beneath the fragrant Sh


L et all the hinds bend low at Ceres shrine

Mix honey swe e t for her wi t h m ilk and m ell o w


wme
.

T hrice lead the v ictim the n e w fruits around ,

On Ceres c all and Choral hymns reso und



, .

Cer e s was sh e who rst o ur furrows ploughed ,



W ho gav e sweet fruits and ev e ry good allowed .

P OP E .

'
C ES T US th e girdl e o f V e n us which e x c ite d irre sistib le
, ,

a ffection .


C HA OS all eg o rically repr e sented the confused m ass
of matter supposed to have existed b efore the
creat i on o f the world and o ut o f which the worl d ,

was fo rm ed .

Behol d the t hro n e


Of Cha o s an d his dark pavilion spread
,

Wide on the wasteful deep wi t h him enthro n e d


S at sable vested N ight eldest o f all thin gs
-
, ,

The c o nsort o f his re i gn


M IL T ON . .

C H AR ON was the s on o f N o x and E rebu s


'
He was .

the fe rryman who conveyed the spirits of the dead ,

in a boat over the rivers Acheron and S tyx to


,

th e E lysian Fields Charon s toll was a c o in
.
22 A H A ND Y DI CTIONA R Y

put into the hands of th e d ea d w ith whi c h t o pay


th e gr im ferryman .

From the dark mansions of the dead ,


Where Charon with his lazy boat

F erries o er L ethe s sedgy moat

.


C H AR YB D IS A dangerous whirlpool o n th e c oast o f
.

S icily Pers o ni ed it was supposed to have been


.
,

a woman who plundered travellers but was at last ,

killed by Hercules S cylla and Cha rybdis are


.

generally spoken o f t o ge t h e r to repre sent al t e r


n ative dangers .


Charybdis barks an d P o lyp hemu s roars ,
.

F RAN C I S .

CH E M OS

The Moabitish g od o f war
. .

CH ILDREN s ee N un din a, .


CH I MIE RA A wild illusion personied in the mo n
.
,

ster slain by B ellerophon I t had the head and .

breast of a lion the body o f a goa t and the tail o f


, ,

a serp e nt I t used to vomit r e


. .


An d on the craggy top

Chimera dwells with lion s face and mane
, ,

A goat s rough b o dy and a s e rpent s train

.

P O PE .


First dire Chimera s conquest was e nj o yn ed
, ,

A m i ngled monster o f no mortal kind .

B ehind a dragon s ery tail was S pread


,

,

A goat s rough body bore a lion s head

,

Her p i tchy nostri ls aky ames expire ,



Her gaping throat em i ts infernal re .

M IL T ON .

'
C H I RO N the c entaur who taught A chilles hunting
, ,

music and the us e o f med i cinal herbs J upit er


,
.

placed h im amo ngst the stars where he appears as ,

S a ggit a rius th e Archer .


OF M YTH OL OG Y . 23


C H LO RIS Th e Greek nam e o f Flo r a th e go d dess
.
,

o f ow e rs .

C H OU A n E gyptian god c orresp o nding t o th e


.

R oman Hercules .

'
C H RO NOS Time the Grec ian nam e o f S aturn
.
, .


CI L LAR OS, Cyll a ro ss ee .

C IR C E ,

daughter o f th e S un
The knowledg e o f .

poisonous herbs enab l ed her to destroy her h us


band the King o f the S armatians for wh i ch act
, ,

s h e was ban i shed When Ulysses landed at IEc ea .


,

where sh e lived she turned all his followers into ,

sw me .

'
CI S SE TA Th e nam e of one of Ac taeon s hounds
. .


CI TH E R I DE S A nam e of th e Muses from Mo unt
.
,

Cit h ero n .

'
C LI O . the Muses daughter o f Jupiter and
On e o f ,

Mnemosyn e S he presided over hist o ry . .

'
CLOACI NA Th e R oman godde ss o f s ewers
. .

'
CLO T H O was o n e o f the Fate s S he was pres e nt at .

births and held the d ist a from which was spun


,

th e thread o f l i fe S ee Atropos and L achesis . .

'
C L OWNS 0 F LY C IA TH E were changed into frogs , ,

by L atona because they refused to allo w h e r t o


,

drink at o n e of their streamlets .

'
CLU A CI N A A name o f Venus given to her at th e tim e

.
,

o f the reconciliati on o f the R omans and the


S abin es which was ratied near a statu e o f the
,

goddess .


C LY T E M NES T RA wife of Agamemnon sl ew her hus , ,

b and and married IEgist h us S he a t temp t ed to .

kill h er s o n Orestes but he was delivered by his ,

sist e r E le c tra who sent him away to S t rophius ,


.
24 A H A ND Y DICTION A R Y

He afterwards returned and Sl ew both Clyt em


n estra and IEg is t h us .


C L Y T IE A nymph who got herse l f changed into a
.

sunower because her love o f Apollo was un re


quited I n t he form o f this ower sh e is stil l
.

supposed t o b e turning towards S ol a name o f ,

Apoll o .

CNE PH I n E gyptian mytho l ogy the c re at or o f t he


.

un iverse .


C OCY T US the river of L amentati o n On e of th e v e
,
.

rivers o f the infern al regi ons .

I nfernal rivers that disg o rge


I nto the burn i ng lake t heir baleful s t reams .

Cocy t us named o f lamentation loud , ,

Heard on the rueful stream


M IL T O N . .


C(E CULUS a violent robber was a s o n of Vulcan
, , .

CCE LUS also called Uranus (or Heaven ) was the most
'
, ,

ancient o f the gods .

C(E NA SA LI A R I S see Ancilia



.
,

'
COLLI NA was o n e o f the rural deities th e g o d de ss of ,

h i lls .

CO M ED Y s ee Thalia ,
.

C O M US was the god o f r e vel ry


'
He preside d over .

en t ertai nments and feasts .


C ON C ORD The symbol o f Con c ord w as two right
.

hands j oined and a pomegranate , .


CON C OR DIA The goddess o f peace On e o f the oldest
. .

R oman goddesses S he is represen t ed as hold ing .

a horn o f plenty in o n e h a n d and in the other a ,

sceptre from which fruit is sprouting forth


, .

C ONS T AN CY see Cephalus , .

CON SU A LI A Games sa c r e d t o N ept un e


'
. .
26 A HA ND Y DIC TI ONA R Y

CU P ID , th e go d o f l ove was the son o f J upit e r an d ,

Venus He is represented as a naked winge d


.
,

boy with a bow and a rrows and a torch When


, ,
.

he gr ew up to be a man he married Psych e .

F o r Venus did but boast o n e only s o n ,

An d rosy Cupid was that boasted o n e



He un c o n t ro ll d t hro heaven e xtends his sw ay
,

, ,

An d gods and goddesses by turns obey .

EUS DE N , 1 713 .

'
C UV E RA Th e I ndian go d o f wealth correspon ding
.
,

to the Greek Plutus .

'
CY BELE The mother of the gods and hence c all ed
.
,

Magn a Mater S he was w i fe o f S aturn S he is . .

sometimes referred to under the names o f Ceres ,

R hea Ops and Vesta ,


S he is represented as
, .

ridi n g i n a chari ot drawn by l i ons I n o n e hand .

s h e holds a sceptre and in the other a key On , .

her head is a c astel l ated crown to notify that Sh e ,

was the rst to protect castles and walls with


towers .

N or Cybe l e with hal f so kind an eye



S urveyed her sons and daughters o f the sky .

DRY DE N .

Might sh e the wise L atona be ,

Or t he towered Cybele ,

Mother of a hundred gods ,



Juno dares not give her odds .

M IL T ON .


C Y C L OP S or C Y C LO PES were the gigantic one eye d ,
-

workmen o f Vulcan who made Jove s thunder ,


bol t s Hesiod gives their names as Arges Brontes


.
, ,

and S teropes .

Meantime the Cyclop raging with his wound, ,

S preads h i s wide arms and searches round and ,



round P O PE
. .
OF M YTH OL OG Y .

C YG NUS th e b o som fri e nd of Ph a t on



,
He died o f .

grief o n the death of his friend and was t ur ned


,

into a swan .

CYLL A R OS one of Castor s horses


,
Th e colo u r is
.

mentioned as being coal black with whit e l egs -


,

and tail S ee Cilla ros . .


CYL LO The name o f o n e o f Ac tae o n s ho unds w hi c h
'
.
,

was lame .


CYLLOP OTE S A name given to o n e o f Ac t ae o n s
.

hounds which limped .


CY N OS URE On e o f the nurses o f Jupiter t urn e d by
.
,

th e god into a consp i cuous constellation .

Towers a n d battlements it sees


B osomed high in tufted trees ,

Where perhaps some beauty lies ,



Th e Cynosure Of neighbouring eyes .

M IL T ON .


C YP ARIS SUS A boy o f whom Apollo was very fond
.

and when he died he was changed at Apollo s in ,


t erc es s io n into a cyp ress tree the bran c hes o f


, ,

which typify mourning .


CY P RESS s ee Cyparissus , .


CY P RIA A name o f Venus be c aus e she was w o r
.
,

shipp e d in the is l and o f Cyp ru s .

'
CY T H ERA A name o f Venus from the isl an d to
.
,

which s h e was wafted in the shell .

DACTY LI were p riests '


of
Cybele They were given .

the name because , ,


like th e ngers they were ,

ten in number .

DIE D A LUS wa s a great archi tect and sculptor He



.

i nvented the wedge the axe the level and the , , ,


28 A H A ND Y DICTIONA R Y

g im l et and was the rst to ,


use sails D ae d a l u s .

also cons t ructed t he famo us l abyrinth for Minos ,

Ki n g o f Crete S ee I carus . .

N ow D aedalus behold by fate assigned , , ,



A task proportioned to thy mighty mind .

P O PE .

'
D A G ON A god of the Philistines half man half
.
,

s h like t he mermaid
,
M i l t on describ e s him as .


Upward man and downward sh .

DA H A K
'
. The Persian devil .

DA I TYA S
'
I n H indoo mytho l ogy th e d e vil s o r evil
.

gods .

D AN IE was a daughter of A crisius and E urydi c e



.

S he had a son by Jupi t er who was drifted o ut to ,

s ea in a boat but was saved by Po l yd e c t es and ,

edu c ated .


D ANA IDES see D anaus , .

DANA US Ki n g of A rgos was the father of fty


'

, ,

daughters who all but o n e at the command o f , , ,

their father slew the i r husbands directly after ,

marriage Fo r this cri me they were condemned .

to the t ask o f for ever trying to draw wa t er with


vessels wi thout any bottoms S ee Hypermn e stra . .

DAN C IN G , s ee Terpsichore .

DAN G ERS see S cylla ,


.

DA PH NE The goddess o f the earth A poll o courted


'
. .

her but sh e ed from h i m and was at her own


, , ,

r e qu est turned into a laurel tree ,


.

As D aphne was

R oot bound that ed A pollo -
, .

M ILT ON .
OF M YTH OL OG Y . 29

'
D AR DANUS a son of J upiter who built the c ity o f
, ,

D ardania and by some writers was accounted the


,

founder Of Troy .

D EAD T OLL,
-
s ee Char on .

D EA T H , see N ox .

D E CE IV E R, TH E , s ee A paturia .

DEIANI RA d aughter of (En eus , was w ife o f H e rc ule s



, .

S ee Her cules .


D E LOS a ame,
n of Apo ll o from th e island in which
,

h e was born .

DEL PH I A town o n Mount Parnassus famous for


'
.
,

it s oracl e and for a temple o f Apollo S ee D elphos


, . .

DE L PH I CUS

. A name of Apollo , from D elphi .

DEL PH OS the place where the templ e was buil t fro m


'
,

which the oracle o f Apollo was g i ven .

DE M ARUS

. The Ph oen i cian name of Jupiter .

DE M OG OR G ON was the ty rant g enius o f the soil o r


earth the l ife and support o f plants He was de


, .

p ic t e d as an o l d ma n covered wit h moss and was ,

sai d to live undergroun d He is sometimes called .

the king o f the elves and fays .

Wh i ch wast begot in Demo g o rg o n s hall


A nd s a w s t the secrets o f the world unmade .

S P EN C ER .

DE UCH A LI ON o n e o f the demigods son o f Pro



, ,

met h eus and Pyrra He and his wife by making .


,

a ship surv ived the deluge which Jupiter sent o n


,

the earth circa 1 503 B C , .

D E VI L, s ee D ahak , Da it ya s, and Oba mb ou .


30 A HA ND Y DI CTIONA R Y

D I ANA, goddess of hunting and o f chas t ity S h e


'
.

was the sis t er o f Apollo an d daughter of Jupite r ,

and L atona S he was known amongst the Greeks


.

as D iana o r Phoebe and was honoured as a triform,

goddess A s a celestia l divinity she was called


.

L una ; as a terrestrial D iana or D i c tynna ; and in


the infernal regions He c ate .

D I C TY N NA a Greek nam e of D iana as a t e rr e strial



,

g o ddess .

DI DO A daught e r o f Be l us King o f Tyr e It



. , .

was this princess who bought a piece o f land in


A frica as large as could be encompassed by a

bullock s hide and when the p urchase was com
,

p l et e d cut
,
the h i de int o stri ps and s o secured ,

a l arge tra c t o f land Here sh e buil t Car .

t h a ge ; and Virg il tel l s that when IEn ea s was


shipwrecked on the n eighbouring coast s h e re ,

c eiv ed him with ev e ry kindness and at l a st fel l ,

in love with him B ut I En ea s did not rec ip ro.

cate her affections and t h i s so g rieved her ,

that sh e stabbed herself A tale is told in F a c etioe .

Ca n ta brigienses of Professor Porson who being o n e ,

o f a s et arty the conversation t urned o n the s ub


p ,

j cet o f punning when Person observi ng that he


,

could pun on any subj e c t a person present deed ,

him to do s o on the L atin gerunds di d o d a m , , , ,

which however he immediatel y did in the fo ll ow


, ,

in g adm i rable couplet


When D ido found I En ea s woul d not come ,

S h e mourn ed in silence and was Did o d umb



, .

'
D I ES P A T ER o r Father of the D ay a name o f
, ,

Jupiter .

DI I S E LE C TI composed the second class o f go d s



.

They were Coelus S aturn Geni us Orerrs S ol , , , , ,

Bac chus Terra and Luna , , .


OF M YTH OL OG Y . 31

A


D IN D YM E NE name o f Cybele fr om a mountain
.
,

where sh e was worshipped .

N or D indymene nor her priest p os s est , ,

Can with t heir sounding c ymbals shake t h e breast



Like fu rious anger F RAN C IS . .

D I OM E DES the cruel tyrant o f Thrace who fed his



, ,

mares on the esh o f his g u ests was overcome by ,

Her cules and was giv e n to the sam e horses as food


, .

D I O NE A poetic name o f Venus



. .

'
D ION Y SIA were festivals in hon our o f Bacchus .

DIONY SIUS A name o f Ba c chus either fro m his


'
.
,

father Jupiter (D ios ) o r from his nurses th e , ,

nym phs c alled N ys eae .

DI OS a nam e o f Jupit e r
'
,
.

DIOS C URI '


Castor and Pollux th e sons of Jupit e r
.
, .

DI RIEN A name of the Furies



. .

DI S A nam e of Pl uto god of hell S ignifying rich e s


.
, , .

That fair eld


Of E nna where Proserpine gathering ow e rs
, ,

Herself a fairer ow e r by gl oo my Di s ,

Was gathered
M IL T ON
. .

DIS C ORD see A te , .


D IS C OR DIA sister of N emesis the Furies and D eath
, , , ,

was driven from heaven fo r havin g sown dis c ord


amongst the gods .

DISEASES s ee Pandora , .

D I S TAF F s ee Pall as ,
.

D OD O NA was a cel ebrated ora cle of J upiter



.

0 where D odona is thine aged g r ove, , ,

Prophetic fount a n d oracle divine ,

B Y R ON .
32 A H A ND Y DICTIONA R Y

DODON IE US A name
. of J upiter fr o m th e c ity o f
,

D odona .

DOG s ee L ares
,
.


D OLA BRA Th e knife u s e d by th e p ri e sts t o c ut u p
.

the sacrices .

'
D OL PH IN s ee Arion , .

'
D O OR G A A Hindoo godd e ss
. .

D O RIS was daughter of Oceanus and sist e r o f Ner e u s



, ,

of the marine deities Fro m these two S isters


t wo .

sprang the several tribes of water nymphs .

DO TO '
On e of the N ereids or sea nymphs
. .


D RA C O '
On e o f A ct aeon s hounds
. .

D RA G ON seven headed se e Geryon


,
-
, .

D REA M S s ee Morpheus
,
.


D R Y ADS were rura l deities , the nymphs o f 'the
forests to whom their votaries offered oil milk,
, ,

and honey .

F lushed with resistless charms he red to l ov e



E ach nymph and little D ryad o f the g rove .

TI C KN ELL .

'
D U M B NESS , s ee A tys .

DW E UR '
GA R . S candin avian god of th e Echo a
131n

E ACUS son of Jupiter and



, Egin a , of the j u dges
one
ofthe i nfernal regi ons wh o , was appointed to j udge
the E uropeans S ee IEa c us . .

EAR T H, s ee Ant aeas .


EB LIS , the Mohammedan evil geniu s .
34 A H A ND Y DI CTI ON A R Y
'
EGI P A N S were rural deities who inhabite d the forests
and mountain s t he upper hal f of the body being
,

l i ke that o f a man and t he lower hal f like a goat , .


E G IS was t he shield o f Minerva I t obtained it s .

name because it was covered with the skin o f


the goat Amalthaea which nourished J up i te r , .

S ee E gis .

ELEUSIN IAN MY S T ERIES



R eli gio u s rites in h o n our .

o f Ceres performed at E leusis in A tti c a


, .


EL Y S IU M or the E L Y SIAN F IELDS
, The tem p orary .

abode o f the just in t he infernal regi ons .


EMPY RE AN TH E The fth heav e n the s e at o f th e
, .
,

heathen dei t y .


END YM I ON A shepherd who acquired from J upiter
.
,

the fac ulty o f being al ways young On e o f the .

lovers of D iana .

EN T ER T AIN M EN T S s ee Comus , .

EN VY s ee Fu ri es , .

EN Y O was the Grecian name o f Bellona th e go d dess ,

of war and cruel t y .

E OLUS see H ol us

.
,

E Os

The Grecian name of Aurora
. .

On e o f the four horses which drew th e



E OUS .

chariot of S ol the s un The word is Gre ek and ,


.
,

means red .

EPH IAL TES A giant who lost his r i ght eye in an


'
.

encounter wi t h Hercules and the left eye was ,


'

destroyed by Apollo .

ER A T O On e of t he Muses the patroness o f light



.
,

poe t ry s h e pres i ded over t he tri umphs and com


plaints o f l overs and is generally represented as ,

OF M YTH OL OG Y . 35

c rown ed with roses and myrtle and ho lding a lyre ,

in her hand .


ER E BUS , s on o f
Chaos one o f the gods of Hades , ,

sometimes all u ded t o a s r e present i ng th e infernal


regions .

A
'
ER GA T I S name give n to Minerva I t means th e
. .

work woman and was given to t he goddess b e


-
,

c ause she was credited wi t h having invented


spinn ing and weavi n g .


ERI C TH EUS , fourth Kin g of A thens was th e , son o f
V ulcan .

'
ER I N A Greek name o f th e
N YS . Furies . I t m e an s
D isturber o f the Mind .

'
ER I S I OH TH ON was punished w ith perpetual hunger
because he d e led the groves o f Ceres and cut ,

d o wn one of the sacred oaks .

od

ER S
O . The Greek g of love .


ER OS TRATUS The rascal who burnt the temple o f
.

D iana at E phesus thereby hoping t o make his ,

name immo rt a l .

ERYC name of Venus from Mount E ryx in



INA . A ,

S i c il y .


E RYTH RE OS The . Gr e cian name of one of the hors e s

o f S ol s chariot .

'
ES CULA PI US, see E sc ul a pius .


E TA, see IEt a .

E T H ON o n e o f the horses wh o drew the chariot o f



,

S ol the s un The word is Greek and s ignies .


,

h ot .

ET vol c anic mountain , ben e ath which



NA . A ,
a o
36 A H A ND Y DICTI ONA R Y

c or d ing to Virgil there is bu ried the giant T yph o n


, ,

wh o br e athes forth devouring ames .


EU DR OM OS . The name of o n e of Act aeon s h ounds .

one of the names of Apollo



EU LAL ON , .

EU M EN IDES a name o f the Furies meaning mild



, , ,

and referring to the time when they were approved


by Minerva .


EU PH R O S Y NE , on e o f
the three Graces s ee Gra c es , .

Come thou goddess fair and free ,



I n heaven ycleped E uphrosyn e .

M I L T ON .

E U RUS

. The c a s t wind A s o n o f H ol us . .

EUR Y ALE
'
was o n e o f the Gorgons d aught e r o f ,

Ph orc us and Ceto .

EUR YD I C E wife o f Orpheus who was killed by a



, ,

serpent o n her wedd i ng n ight .

N or yet the golden verge o f d a y begun ,

When Orpheus (her unhappy lord ) ,

E uryd i ce to life restored ,



A t once beheld and lost and was un done , , .

F LE WI S . .


EURYTH I ON A seven headed dragon
. S ee Geryon -
. .


EU T ER P E one o f the Muses the patroness o f in st ru
, ,

mental music The word means agreeable . .


EU V YH E an express i on meaning
, We ll done s o n , .

Jupiter s o frequen tl y a d dressed his s o n B a c chus


by t hose words that the phrase at l ast b ec am e one
o f his names .

EVENIN G S TAR s e e Hesper u s , .

EV IL see Cacodae m on
,
.
0F M YTH OL OGY 37

EVI LS , see Pandora .

EYE , s ee Cy cl ops an d Gl a ukopis .

FA M E was a poetical deity repres e nte d as having ,

wi ngs and blow i ng a t r umpet . A temp le was


dedicated to her by the R om ans .

FA T E , s ee N ereus .

FA TE S , P AR CE were the three daughters o f N ec es


or ,

s it y Their names were Clo t ho who held the


.
,

dis t aff L achesis who turned t he S p i ndle ; and


,

Atropos who cut the thread with t he fatal shears


, .

FAUN . rural divinity half man and half goat


A , .

They were very similar to the S atyrs The Fauns .

attended the god Pan and the S atyrs att e nd e d ,

Ba c chus .


FA V O NIUS The wind favourab le t o v eg e tation , that
is Z ephyrthe west wind
.

.
,

Time w ill run


On smoo ther t ill F avon i us re inspir e
,
-

The frozen earth a n d clo the in fresh attire ,



Th e l ily and the rose that neit her sowed nor spun , .

M IL T ON .

FA Y S .The yellow skirted F ays -

Fly after the night steeds -


,

L eaving their moon l o ved maze -
.

M IL T ON .

FEAS T S s e e Comus, .

'
FE BRIS (fever) , one th e evil dei t i e s wa s wo r
of ,
.

shipped that sh e might not do harm .


FE B RUUS n ame o f Plato from the part of the
. A ,

funeral rites whic h consisted o f puri c a t io n s .


38 A H A NDY DICTIONA R Y
'
FER O NIA , the R oman godd ess o f orchards was ,

patroness o f enfranchised slaves Som e auth o rs .

think Feronia is the same as J u no .

FER T ILI TY s ee Lupercus , .

FES T I V ALS s e e Thalia ,


.

F IDELI T Y s e e I olaus , .

Fr DE s the goddess o f faith an d h o n e st y ha d a



, ,

temple in t he Capi t ol o f R ome .

FINE AR T S see Minerva , .

FIRE s ee S alamander Vesta an d V ul can


, , ,
.

F IRE I NSURAN C E s e e Canopus , .

F IS H ER M AN s ee Glaucus , .

'
'
FLATH IN NI S in Cel t ic mytho l ogy is Paradise
-
, , .

F LEE C E GOLDEN s ee Go l den Fleece A rg o nauts an d


, , , ,

Jason .

FL IE S , s ee Musc a rius .

FL OC K S, s ee Pales .


FLO RA , goddess o f owers and gardens, was w ife of
Z ephyrus S he enj oyed perpetu al youth
. Her .

Grecian name was Chloris .


FLORA LIA were licenti o u s games institut e d in h o n our
o f the goddess Flora .

FL OW ERS , see Flora, Chloris Ho rt e nsis an d Z ephyrus


, ,
.

FLU T E , s ee Marsyas .


FOR TU NA the goddess o f fo rtune had a templ e
, ,

erected to her by S ervius Tullius S he was s up .

posed to be able t o besto w riches or pove rty on


mankind and was esteemed o n e o f the most
,

potent of the ancient goddess e s S he is usually re .


OF '

M YTH OL OG Y . 39

pre sent e d as standing o n a wheel wi th a bandag e ,

over her eyes and holding a c ornu c opia , .

FRAUD o n e of the evil deities was represented as a


, ,

goddess with a human face and a serpen t s body


,

and in the end o f her tail was a scorpion s sting .

S he lived in t h e river Cocytus and nothing but ,

her head was ever seen .


FRE Y R The S candinavian god o f fertility and p e ace
. .

The patron god of S weden and I celand .

FRE Y J A

The S candinavian Venus
. The goddess .

o f lov e .


FR I GA The S axon goddess o f earth l y e rrj o ymen t s
. .

The name Friday is derived from her I n S candi .

navian mythology S he is the goddess o f marriage .

FR O. The S candin avian god o f temp e sts and winds .

FR OGS s ee C lowns o f L ycia


,
.

FRUI T S s ee Ceres and Pomona


, .

F UNERALS see L ibitin a and Man e s


, .

FURIES THE were the three daughters o f A cheron


, ,

and N ox They were the punishers of evildoers


. .

Their nam es were Tisiphon e Megaera and Alecto , , ,

and were supposed to personify rage slaughter , ,

and en vy .

FU T URI TY see Ca ssandra , .

GA B R I E L in Jewish mythol ogy is the prin c e



,
of

re and thunder and the ange l o f death to the ,

favoured people o f Go d .

GALATIE A A sea nymph



Po lyp hemus one of the
. .
,

Cyclops l oved her but she disdained h i s atten


, ,
40 A H A ND Y DICTIONA R Y

tions and became the lover of A cis a S i c il ian


,

S hepherd .

'
GA LLAN madme n from Galli (which s e e)
TE S , , .


GAL L I were priests o f Cyb ele who used to cut their
arms with knives when t hey sacr i ced and acted ,

s o l i ke madmen that demented people got the

name of Ga ll a n t es .


GAN ESA The I ndian Mer c ury
. . The god o f wis do m
and prudence .

G AN G A . On e of the three I ndian river goddesses .

GAN YM EDE , a b eautiful Phrygian youth s o n o f ,

Tros King of Troy He succeeded Hebe in the


,
.

O fce o f cup bearer to Jupi t er He is generally


-
.

represented si t ti ng o n the back Of a ying eagle .

G ARDENS s e e Pomona ,
.

GA T ES see J anus
,
.

'
GAU T A M A The chief deity o f Burmah
. .

GENII were domestic divini t ies E very man was .

supposed to have t wo of t hese gen ii accompany


ing hi m ; o n e brought him happiness th e other ,

m i sery .

A L ycian name of Jupiter



G EN I T OR . .

GEO M E T R Y see Mercury , .


G E R Y ON was a triple bodied monster who l ived at -

Gades where h i s numerous ocks were guarded


,

by Orthos a two headed dog and by Euryt hio n


,
-
, ,

a seven headed dragon These guard i ans were


-
.

destroyed by Hercules and the cat t le taken away , .

G I M LE T s e e D aedalus
, .

GIRDLE see Cestus,


.
A HA ND Y DI CTI ON AR Y

hands j oined and either nude or on l y w e arin g


transp a rent robes th e idea bein g that kind
,

nesses as person i ed by the Graces should be


, ,

done with sincerity and candour and without ,

disguise They were supposed to teach the duties


.

of grat i tude and friendship and they pr o m o t e d ,

love and harmony among mankin d .

G RA C ES (fourth ) s ee Pasi thea , .


GR A D I V US A name given to Mars by the Ro mans
. .

I t meant the warrior who defended the c ity agai nst


all external enemies .


GRA GUS The n ame by which J up ite r wa s w or
'

shipped in Lycia .

G RANARIES s ee Tut elin a ,


.

'
GR AP S I OS A Lycian name o f J upiter
. .

GRASS H OPP ER see Tithonus , .

GRIE F s ee N iobe
,
.

HA D A
. The Babyl onian J uno .

HA DES

The Greek n ame o f Pluto the god o f hell
.
, ,

the word s i gnifying hidden dark and gloomy ; the , ,

infernal regions sometimes wri tten A d es , .

HAILS T OR M S , s ee N uriel .

HAL CY ONE on e o f the Pleiades , w as a d aught e r o f



,

A tl as and Pelio n e .

HAL CY ONS were sea birds , supposed to be th e Gr e ek


'
-

king sh ers They made their nests o n the waves


-
.
,

and during the pe riod of incubation the s ea was


always calm Hence th e modern term Halcyon .

D ays .
OF M YTH OL OG Y . 43

HA M ADR Y ADES w e r e w ood nymphs, wh o p r e sided



-

over trees .

H APP INESS s ee G enii ,


.

HAR OE RI S

The E gyptian god wh o s e e y e s ar e th e
.
,

sun and moon .

HAR P IES were animals with the heads and breasts


of women the bodies o f birds and the claws o f


, ,

l ions Their names were Aello Ocypete a n d


.
, ,

Cel en o They were loathsome creatures living in


.
,

lth and poisoning everything they c ame in c o n


,

ta c t with .

S uch ends to s c ourge mankind so er c e s o fell , , ,

Heaven n ever summoned from the dep th of hell .

A v irgin face wi th wings an d hook ed claws , ,

D eat h in their eyes and famine in their j aws , ,

While proof t ofst e el their hides and plumes remain



We strike the impenetrable ends in vain .

HAR PI KRUTI

. The E gyptian name o f th e god
Harpocrates .

HAR P OC RA T ES son o f I sis was the god of silen c e and



, ,

m editation He i s usually represented a s a youn g


.

man holding a nger of o n e hand to his l i ps


, ,

while in the other hand he ho l ds a c o rnu c o pia .

HAR VES T s ee S egesta , .

HA W K s ee N ysus
, .

HA Z I S

The S yrian war god
.
-
.

HEAL T H see Hygeia and S alus


,
.

HEA VEN Q UEEN OF se e Belisa ma Go d o f see Coelus



.
, , , .

HE BE was the goddess of youth S he was cup bearer


'
.
-

to J upiter and t he gods, unt i l sh e had an a wkward


at a festival and ,
so displeased J upiter that
44 A HA N D Y DI C TIONA R Y

sh e was deprived o f her o ic e and Gany m e d e wa s ,

appointed in her stead .

Wreathed smiles ,

S uch as hung on Hebe s cheek


,

An d love to live in dimples sleek .

MIL T ON .

Bright Heb e waits by Heb e ever young



The whirling wheels are to the chari ot hung .

P OP E .

HE C A T E

There were two goddesses kno wn by this
.

name but the one generally referred to in modern


,

l i terature is Hecate o r Prosper i ne the name by


, ,

wh i ch D ian a was known in t he infernal reg i ons .

I n heav en her name wa s Luna and her terrestrial ,

name was D iana .

HE C U BA
The mother o f Paris was al l otted to
.
,

U lysses aft er the destruct i on o f Troy and was ,

afterwards changed into a hound .


What s Hecuba to him , o r he to He c uba
S H A KES P EARE .

HEI F ER s ee I no
, .

HEL ENA when a Child was so b eautiful that Theseus


and Perit h o us stole her bu t she was restored by ,

Castor and Pollux S he became t he w i fe of Mene


.

laus king o f S parta but eloped with Paris and


, , ,

t hus caused the Troj an War A fter the death o f .

Paris sh e marri ed D e i phobus his brother and then , ,

b etrayed h i m t o Menelaus S he was strangled by .

order o f Polyxo k i ng o f R hodes,


.

HE L I ADE S were the daughters Of S ol and the sist e rs



,

o f Phaeton at whose dea t h they were s o s a d th a t


,

they stood mourn i n g t i ll they became met a mo r


ph o s ed into poplar trees and their tears were ,

t urned into amber .


OF M Y TH OL OG Y . 45

HEL I C ON

A m ountain in B oeotia sacre d to the
.

Muses from which place the fountain Hippo c re n e


,

owe d .

Ye t still the doating rhymer dreams ,



A nd sings of Heli con s bright streams ;
But Hel i con for all h is cla tt er
Yiel d s o nl y un insp iring wat er
.

B RO OM 1720 , .

HE LI CO N I DE S A nam e o f the Muses fro m M ount



.
,

Helicon .

HELIO P OLIS in E lysi um was the c ity o f the sun


'
, , .

HE LI OS

The Grecian sun god who went home
.
-
,

eve ry evening in a golden boat which had wings .

HEL I OT ROP E

Clytie wa s turned into this o w er by
.

A pollo S ee Cly tie. .

HEL LE was drowned in the sea into which sh e fell



,

from o ff the back o f the golden ram o n which sh e ,

and Ph ryxus were escap ing from t he oppression of


their stepmother I n c The ep i sode gave t he name .

o f the Hellespont to the par t o f the s ea where


Helle was drowned an d it is now ca lle d the ,

D ardanelles .

HELLE SPON TI A CUS



A titl e of Priapus . .

HE MPH TA
The E gyptian god Jupit e r
. .

HE PHE S T OS The Greek Vulcan


'
. .

H E RA
'
The Greek name o f Juno
. .

H ER A C LES is the same as Herc ul es



, .

H ER C ULES was the


'
Jupiter and Alcm e na ,
s on of .

The goddess Juno hated h i m from hi s birth and ,

sent two serpents to kill h i m but t hough only ,

e ight m onths old he strangled the snakes As he .


46 A H A ND Y DI C TIONA R Y

got older he was set by his master E ury sth eu s


what were thought t o b e twelve i mpossible tasks ,

wh i ch have long been known as th e T wel v e

L abo ur s o f Hercul es They were .

F irs t To slay the N emean L ion


,
.

S ec ond To dest r oy the Hydra which infe st e d th e


,

marshes of Lern a .

Third To bring to E u rysth e us the Ar c adian S ta g


,

with the golden horns and brazen hoofs .

F ourth To bring to his master the Boa r o f E ry


,

ma n t h us .

Fif th To cleanse the s t a ol e o f King Augeas in


, ,

which 3000 oxen had been kep t for thirty y e ars ,


but had nev er been cleaned o ut .

S ixth To dest roy the S tymphalid e s t e rrib le c ar


, ,

n iv ero us b irds .

S even th To capture th e Bul l whi c h was des o l ati ng


,

Cret e .

E ig h th To capture the mares of D iom e des which


, ,

breathed re from their nostrils and ate human ,

esh .

N int h TO procure the g rrd le o f Hipp olyta q u ee n


, ,

o f the Amazons .

Ten th To bring to E urystheus the esh eatin g


,
-

oxen o f Geryon the monster king of Gades


, .

E leven th To bri ng away some of t he go l den appl e s


,

from the garden o f the Hesper i des .

Twelf th To bri ng up from Hades th e thr e e


,

headed dog Cerberus , .

Al l these tasks he successfully accomplished a n d , ,

besides he assis t ed the gods i n the i r wars wi t h the


,

g i ants . S everal other wonderful feats are m e n


t io n ed under o ther headings as A nt aeus Cacus , , ,

et c
. H i s dea t h was brough t about through h is
endeavours to preserve D e i anira from the attacks
o f N ess u s the centaur whom he killed
,
Th e ,
.
OF M Y TH OL OG Y . 47

centaur before he expired gave his mystic t unic


, ,

to D eianira who in turn gave it to Herc ules and


, ,

he put i t on but his doing s o brought on an illness


,

o f which he could not be cured I n a t o f despera .

t i on he cast himself into a fun eral p i le o n M ount


IEt a ; but Jupiter had him taken to heaven in a
four horse chariot and only the mortal part o f
-
,

Hercules was c onsumed .

L et Hercules him self do wha t he may ,



The cat will m e w and dog will have his day , .

S H A K ES PEARE .

H ERDS M EN s ee Bubona , .

HER M IE were statu es o f Hermes (Mercury ) whi c h



,

were s e t up in Athens for boundaries and as ,

dir ection marks fo r tr avel lers .

HE R M AN U BI S s e e An ubis

, .

HE RM ATH E N AE were statues o f Mer c ury and Min e rva


pla c e d tog e ther .

HER M ES A Greek n ame o f t h e g o d Mercury



. .

Hermes obeys With golden pinions binds .


His ying feet and mounts the western winds ,
.

V IR G IL .

HER M I ONE daughter o f Mars and Venus wh o was



, ,

t ur ned i nto a serpen t and allowed to l i ve in the ,

E lysian elds There was another Hermione .


,

daughter of M e nelaus ; sh e was betrothed to


Orestes but was carried away by Pyrrhus th e s o n
, ,

o f Ac h ill es .

HE R O A priestess of Venus with whom L eander was



.
,

so enamoured that he swam across the He ll espont


every n i ght to visit her but a t last was drowned ,

when Hero threw herself into th e sea and was


drowned also .

HEROES s ee Valhall a
, .
48 A H A ND Y DIC TI ONA R Y

HES P ER IDES Three daughters o f Hesperus King o f



.
,

I taly They kept i n their garden the golde n


.

apples which Juno gave J upiter o n their wedding


day S ee Herc ul es
. .

HES P ERUS brother o f Atlas was c hanged int o th e


'
, ,

evening star .

To the ocean now I y ,

A nd those happy cl i mes that lie


Where day never shuts h i s ey e ,

U pon the broad elds o f the sky


There I suck the l i qu i d air ,

All am i dst the gardens fai r


Of Hesper us and his daughters thr e e ,

That S i ng about the golden tr ee .

M I LT ON .

HES T IA
'
The Greek n ame o f Ve sta
. .

H IERO G L Y PH I C S s ee Mercury

.
,

H I GHWA Y S s e e Janus , .

H I L DUR
'
. The S c a n d a n a via n Mars .

H I P P IA

. A
name o f M i nerva .

H I P PI US A name o f N eptune

. .

H I PP O C A M P US

The name o f N eptun e s fav ourite
.

horse .

HI PPOCRE N I DE S a name of the Muses from the



, ,

foun t ai n of H i ppocrene (t he horse fountai n) whi ch ,

was forme d by a k i ck o f the winged horse


Pegasus .

HI PP OL Y T E queen o f the Amazons daughter of Mars



.
, ,

Her father gav e her a famous gi rdle which Her ,

cules wa s requ i red t o procure (s ee Hercules ) S he .

was con quered by Herc ul es, and given by him in


marriage to Theseus .
50 A H AND Y DIC TI ONA R Y

HYGE IA , the goddess of h e al th , was a daught e r o f


and E pione S he was represented as


IEs c ul a pius .

a young woman feeding a s e rpent whi c h is twined ,

round her arm .

HY LAS

A beautiful boy beloved by Hercul e s The
. .

nymphs were j ealous o f him and sprited him aw ay ,

while he wa s drawing water fo r Hercul e s .

HY M EN, the Grecian god o f marriage , was e ith e r th e


s on of
B acchus and Venus o r as some s a y o f , , ,

Apollo and one of the Muses He was represent e d .

as a handsome youth holding in h is hand a burn ,

ing torch .

S ome few there are of sordid mould


Who barter you t h and bloom for gold
Bu t Hymen g en ro us just and kind ,

, , ,

Abhors the mercenary m i nd


S uch rebels groan beneat h h i s rod ,

Fo r Hy men s a vindictive god



.

D r CO TT ON 1736 .
, .

HYM N see Paean , .

HYP E RION S on of Coel us and Terra The m ode l



. .

of manly beauty synonymous with A poll o The , .

personicat i on o f the sun .

S o excellent a k i ng that was to this



H yperion to a satyr S H A K ES P EARE . .

HYP ER M NES T RA
On e o f the fty daughte rs o f
.

D anaus who were collec t ively called the D anaides


,
.

S h e was t he one who refused t o k i l l her husband


o n the wed d ing n i ght S ee D anaus . .

I A C CH US

. A
nam e o f Bacchus .

'
I A P E TOS . The father o f Atl as S e e J a p et us . .
OF M YTH OL OG Y . 51

I B LEE S The Arabian S atan
. .


I C ARUS son of D aedalus who with his father mad e
, ,

t hemselves wings w i t h which t o y from Crete .

They were xed to the shoulders by wax I carus .

ew t o o near the s un and the h eat melting the ,

wax caused the win gs to drop o ff and he fe ll


, ,

into the s ea and was drowned .


I CH N OBA TE On e Of Ac t aeon s hounds ; it m e ans
.

tracker .


I DIE A A nam e of Cybele from Mount I da wh e r e
.
, ,

s h e was worshipped .

I DIE A N M OT H ER

Cybele was sometimes s o c a ll ed
. .


I DA LIA A name o f Venus from Mount I d a lus
.
, .


I MP ER A T OR was a nam e o f J upiter given to him at ,

Praene ste .

I NA CH US was o n e o f the ear liest o f the d e migo d s o r


heroes .

I N C ENDIAR Y see Ero st ra t us , .

I N C ENSE s ee Venus , .

'
I N C U BUS A R oman name o f Pan m eaning T he
.
,

Ni ghtmare S ee I nnus . .

I N DI G E TE S were deied mortals gods o f th e fo u rth



,

order They were pecul i ar to some district


. .

I N DRA The Hindoo Jupi t er his wife was I n dra n t



.
,

who presides over the winds and thunder .

I N F AN T S , s ee N atio .


IN NUS . A name of Pan the same as I n c ubus
, .


I N O, second A thamas King o f Thebes father
wife of , ,

of Ph ryx us and Helle I no had t wo children who .


,

coul d not as c end the throne wh ile Ph ryxus and


52 A H A ND Y DIC TI ONA R Y

Hel le were al ive I n o therefor e p e rse c ute d th e m


.

to such a degree that they dete rm i ned to escape .

They d i d s o on a ra m whose hide became the ,

Golden Fleece (see Ph ryxus and Hell e ) I no de .

stroyed herself and was c hanged by N eptun e into


,

a s ea goddess
-
.


I N O A were festival s in m e m ory o f I no .

I NS T RU M EN T AL M USI C s ee E uterpe , .

I O was a daughter of I nachus a n d a p rie stess of J uno


'
,

at Argu s Jupiter courted her and was detected


.
,

by Juno when the god turned I o into a beautiful


,

heifer Jun o demanded the beast of Jupiter and


.
,

s et the hundred eyed Argus to watch her


-
Jupiter .

persuaded Mercury to destroy Argus and l o was ,

s et at liberty and restored to human shape


, Juno .

continued her persecutions and I O had to wander ,

from pl a ce to place t i ll s h e came to E gypt where ,

s h e became wi fe of King Osiris and won such ,

good op i nions from the Egy p t i ans t hat after h e r


death she was worshipped as t he goddess I sis .


I OLA US s o n o f I phicles assisted Hercules in c on
, ,

quering t he Hydra by burning with hot iro ns the


,

place where the heads were cut o ff ; and for his


assistance he was restored to you t h by Hebe .

L overs used to go to h is monument at Phosis and


ratify their vows o f de lity .


I O TH UN Celtic mythological monsters or giants
.
,
.

I PH I CLUS was twin b r oth e r o f Her c ule s and father



,

o f I olaus .

'
I PH I G ENI A was a daughter o f A gamemnon He .

made a v o w to D iana which i nvolved the sac ri ,

c e of I ph i gen i a but j ust at the crit i cal moment


,

s h e was carri ed to heaven and a beautiful goat ,

was found o n the al ter in her place .


OF M Y TH OL OG Y . 53

'
I RIS daughter of Thaumas and E le c tra was the a t
, ,

t a n d a n t of Juno and o n e of the messengers o f the


,

gods Her duty was to cut the thread which


.

detained expiring so uls S h e is the p ers oni c a .

tion o f the rainb o w .

I R ON, s ee Vulc an .

of se e I o
'
I s rs , wife Osiris, .

I TY S was k ill ed by his moth e r Progne when six years


o ld and given to h i s father Tereus as food


,
The .

gods were so enraged at this that they turned I ty s


i nto a pheasant Progne in to a swallow and Tereus
, ,

into an o wl .

'
l xr ON was s o n of Phlegyas King o f the L apithae Fo r , .

att empting t o prod uce thunder Jup i t er cast him


.
,

into hell and had hi m bound to a wheel s ur


, ,

rounded with serpents which is for ever turn ing ,

over a river o f re .

The powers of vengeance whil e they h e ar , ,

Touched with compassion drop a tear



,

I xion s rap i d whee l is bound ,



F ixed in attention to the sound .

F LE W I S . .


Or,as I xion x d the wretch shall fee l ,

The giddy motion o f the whirling wheel .

P OP E .

J ANI was a place in R om e wh er e there were thr e e


statues o f Janus and it was a meeting p l a c e for


,
-

usurers and creditors .

JA N I TOR A title of Janus o m the gat es befor e the


'
.
,

doors o f private houses being called J a n uae .


54 A HA NDY DICTI ONA R Y

J A NUS

. A king of I taly said to have been the son of
,

Ooelus others s a y o f Apollo he sheltered S aturn


,

when he was driven from heaven by Jupiter .

Janus presided over highways gates and locks , , ,

and i s usually represen t ed w i th two faces A .

brazen temple was erected to him in R ome which ,

was al ways open in time o f war and cl osed durin g ,

pea ce .

Old J anus if you pl ease


, ,

Grave two faced father -
.

I n tw o faced J anus we this moral n d


-
,

While we l ook forward we should glance b ehind, .

COL M AN .

J A P E T US son o f Ooelus and Terra husband o f Cly


'
, ,

mene He was looked upon by the Greeks as the


.

father o f mankind S ee I a p et o s
. .

J A SON was s o n o f E son k ing o f I olc o s he was



,

brought up by the centaur Chiron H i s uncle E t a .

sent h i m t o fetch the Golden Fleece from Colchis


(s ee Argonau t s ) He went i n the shi p Argo with
.

forty nine companions the ower o f Greek youth


-
, .

With the help o f Juno they got safe to Colchis ,

but the King E tes promised to restore the Golden


Fleece only on cond i t ion that the A rgonauts per
formed certain services Jason was to t ame the wild
.

ery bulls and to make them plough the eld o f


,

Mars to sow in the ground the teeth o f a serpent ,

from which would sprin g armed men who would


ght agai nst h i m who ploughed the eld o f Mars
to kill the ery dragon wh i ch gu arded the tree o n
which the Golden Fleece was hung The fate of .

Jason and the rest o f the Argonauts seemed cert ain ;


but Medea the king s daugh t er fell in love with
,

Jason and with the help of charms which she gave


,

him h e o vercame all th e dii c ul t ies which the


OF M YTH OL OG Y 55

king had put in his way He took away the .

Golden Fleece and Medea also The k ing sent .

h is s o n Absyr tus to overt ake t he fug i t ives but ,

Medea killed h im and strewed his li mbs in h i s


,

father s path so t hat he m i gh t be delayed in co l
,

l eetin g them and this enabled Jason and Medea


,

to escape After a t ime Jason got t ired o f Medea


.
,

and married Gla n c e wh i ch cruel ty Medea reven ged


,

by kill ing her ch ildren before their fa t her s eyes


.

J ason was accidentally killed by a beam o f the ship


Argo falling on him .

J OCAS TA (otherwise Epic a st a ) wife o f L aius King of


'
, ,

Thebes who i n aft er li fe married her o wn s o n


, ,

(Edip us n ot knowi n g who he was and o n dis


, , ,

coverin g the fatal m i s t ake h anged herself , .

J OV E A very general name o f Jupiter


. .

From the great father o f t he gods above



My muse begins for all is full of Jove ,
.

V IR G IL .

J UD G ES I N H ELL THE wer e R hadamanthus for


, ,

A siatics ; E a c us for E uropeans ; Minos was the


presiding judge S ee Trip t olemus. .

'
JUGATI N US was o n e o f the nuptial deities .

'
J U NO was the daughter of S aturn and Op s a lia s Cybe le , .

S he was marr i ed to Jup i t er and became queen o f ,

all the gods and goddesses an d m i s t ress o f heaven ,

and ear th Juno was t he mo ther of Mars Vulcan


.
, ,

Hebe and L ucina


, S he prompted t he gods to
.

c onspire against Jupiter but the attempt was ,

frustrated and Apollo and N eptune were banished


,

from heaven by Jupi t er Juno is the goddess o f .

marriage and the protectress of marr i ed women ;


,

and she had special regard for virt uous women .

I n the c ompe t ition for the celebrated Golden


56 A HA ND Y DI CTI ON A R Y

A pp l e which Juno Venus and Minerva e ach


, , ,

cla i me d as the fairest amongst the goddess e s J uno ,

was mu c h displeased when Paris gave the apple


to Venus The goddess is generally r epresente d
.

riding in a chariot drawn by pea c o cks with a ,

diadem on he r head and a sceptre in her h a nd , .

'
J U P I T ER , S aturn and Cybele (or Ops ) wa s
s on of

born o n Mount I da in Crete and nouri shed by , ,

the goat Amal thaea When qu i t e young Jupiter .

rescued hi s fa ther from the Ti t ans and afterwards ,

w i th t he help o f Hercules defeat ed the gi ants the , ,

sons o f earth when t hey made war aga i nst h e a,

ven Jup i ter was worshipped with grea t solemnity


.

under various names by most o f the heathen


nations The A fri cans called him Ammon ; the
.

Ba bylonians Belus and the E gyptians Osiris , ,

(s e e Jove ) He was represented as a maj esti c p e r


.

s o n a g e seated o n a throne holding in h i s hands a ,

scep tre and a thunderbol t at his feet stood a Spre ad


eagle .

B y J upiter, this shall not be revoked .

S H A K ES PEA RE .

J US T I C E s ee A stre a N emes rs
, , .

KALI A Hind oo g o dd e ss after whom Calc utta is


.
,

nam e d .

KA LOC On e o f the chief o f the Mexi c an go ds



. .


KAM A The Hindoo god o f love
. .

K E B LA The point of t h e compass whi c h wo r



.

shippers look to during t heir invocations Thus .

the S ol o r S un worshippers turn to t he east ,

where the s un rises and t he Mohammedans turn ,

towards Mecca .
58 A H A ND Y DICTIONA R Y


LA K S M I Hindoo goddess of weal th
. and p le asure .

On e o f the husbands o f Vish nu .

LA M EN T A T ION, s ee Cocytus .


L A M IA A n evi l deity amongst the Greeks and
.

R omans an d t he g reat dread o f their children


, ,

whom sh e had the credit of c onstantly enti c ing


away and destroying .

L A MP ,
s ee L ares and Penates .

'
Aurora

LA M POS . On e of s chariot hors e s the o th e r ,

being Ph aeton .

L A OC O ON On e
the priests of A pollo who was of

.
, ,

with his two sons crushed to deat h by serpents , ,

because he opposed the admission o f t he woode n


ho rse to Troy .


L A OM ED ON a Trojan king
,
s on of I lus , . He was
famous for having with the assis t ance , o f Apollo
and N eptune bu i l t the wall s o f Troy ,
.

L AP IS '
The oath stone
. . The R omans us ed to
swear by Jupiter L ap i s .

'
LAP I TH US , His n umerous chil dren
s on of Apollo .

were called L api th ae and they a n otorious for ,

their ght with the centaurs at the n uptial feast


o f Peri t h o us and Hippodami a .

'
L A RES and P EN A T ES were sons o f Mercury and L ara ,
or as o ther my thologists say o f Jupiter a n d
, ,

L amida They belonged to t h e lower order Of


.

R oman gods and pres i ded over homes and fami


,

l i es The i r s t atues were generally xed within


.

the doors of houses or near t he hearths L amps , .

were sacred to t hem as symbols o f vigilance and , ,

the dog was their sacrice .


OF IlI YTH OL OG Y . 59

L AR K , see S cylla and N ys us .

L A T O NA daughter of C oeus
'
,
Phoebus mother o f a nd ,

A pollo and Di ana B e ing adm i red s o much by .

J upiter Juno was j ealous and L atona was the


, ,

obj ect o f the goddess s constant persecution .

LAU GH T ER ,
s ee Momus and Venus .


L AU REL, s ee D aphne .

L A V ER NA of thi e ves

. The goddess .

LAW , see Menu .

L AWG I VE R, see N o mius .

LA W S , see Themis .

'
LEAN DER see Hero ,
.

L EA T H ER B O TT LE , see As c olia .

LE DA was the mother o f Castor and Po llux their



,

fat her be i ng Jup i ter in t he S hape o f a swan , .

After her deat h s h e received t he name o f N emes i s .


LE M N I US . On e of the names of Vulcan .


L E M URES The spectres of departed souls M il t o n
. .
,

in h i s Od e to t he N a t i v i ty says ,

L emures moan w i t h mi dn i gh t plaint


.

They are sometimes referred to as t he Manes o f


the dead .

'
LE N IE US . On e of the names of Bacchus .


LER NA The lake near Argos where Her c ul es c on
.

quere d the Hydra .

'
LE THE On e
the rivers of the infernal regions
. of ,

o f which the souls of t he depar t ed are obliged


t o d rink to produce oblivion o r forgetfulness of
60 A HA ND Y DIC TI ONA R Y

everythi ng th e y did or kn ew whil e al iv e o n th e


earth .


A Slow and silent stream ,

L ethe the river o f obl i vion rolls


, ,

Her watery labyrinth whereof who drink s ,

Forthwith his former state and being forgets ,



Forge t s both j oy and grief pleas ure and pain , .

M IL T ON .


L EU C OT H EA The nam e of I no aft e r she was trans
.

formed into a s ea nymph -


.


LE VA NA The deity who presided over n e w bo rn
.
: -

infants .

LE VEL TH E s e e D aedal us
, , .


LI A K UR A . Mount Parnassus .

LI BERAL AR T S , s ee Minerva .

'
LI B ER P A T ER . A nam e of Ba cchus .

L I BER T Y, see Ba c chus .


LI B I S S A .
Q ueen o f fays and fairies .


LI BI T I NA . The Chief o f the fun eral deities .

LI C EN T IOUSNESS, s ee Belph eg or .

'
LI GE A . A Greek syren or s ea -
nymph .

LI GH T NIN G , A gni s ee .


LI LI T H A Je wish myth who is a gr eat enemy t o
.

n ew born children S he was sai d t o have been


-
.

Adam s rs t wife but refus i ng to subm i t to him


, , ,

was turned from Paradi se and made a spectre .


L I NA . The goddess of the art of weaving .


LIN D OR A l over in the shape
. of a shepherd lik e ,

Corydon ; a love sick swa i n -


.
OF M YTH OLOG Y . 61

L I ON , A tal anta Chim aera


se e ,
.

LI V ER s ee Tit yus and Pr om e th e us


,
.

L OC K S , s ee J anus .

L O BEN T he Sc andinavian god who g u ards frien d ship



. .


L OB UA T he S c andinavian g o ddess who r ec o n c il e s
.

l o vers .

L OK E The S candinavian S atan th e g o d


.
, of strife ,

the Spirit o f evil .


L O T IS A daughter o f N eptu n e who e d from
.
,

Priapus and only escape d from h im by being


,

t r ansformed i nto a l otus plant -


.

Lo TUs P LAN T , see L otis



-
.

L OVE , see Cupid E ros, Ven us , .

LU C IAN The imp e rsonation o f fo lly c hange d into


'
.
,

an ass .


L U C I F ER The morning star . .


L U C I NA The goddess who presides at the birth of
.

children S he wa s a daughter o f J upiter and


.

J un e .

L ucina hail S o named from thine o wn grove


, ,

Or from the light thou giv s t us from above .

OVID .

LUD .I n ancient B ritis h mytho l ogy the king o f th e


Britons .


LU NA Th e name of D iana as a cel estial divinity
. .

S e e D iana and He c ate .


L U P ER C US or Pan The R oman g o d of fertility ;
, .

his fest i val day was 15t h Feb ru ary and the festi ,

va l s were c alled L uperc a lia .


62 A HA ND Y DICTION A R Y
'
LYCA ON I ANE xecrable viands such as were
F OOD .
,

supplied to Jup i ter by Lycaon To tes t the d ivi ne .

knowledge of the god he served up human esh ,

wh i ch Jove discovered and punished Lycaon by ,

turnin g him into a wolf .

LYC IAN C LO W NS were tur ned into frogs by L at o na o r


Ceres .

LYM N I
'
ADE S . Nymphs wh o r esided in m arsh e s .

T h e p erso nic a

LYN C EUS On e o f the Argonauts
. .

t i on o f sh a rp s ig h t ed n ess .

LY RE This musical instrument is c onstantly a ss o


.

c ia t e d with t he do i ngs o f t he ancient deities .

A mphion buil t t he walls o f Thebes by the musi c


o f h i s lyre Ar i on charmed t he dolphins in a
.

S i milar way Hercules broke the head o f L inus ,


.

h i s music master, w i t h t he lyre he was learning to


us e and Orpheus charmed t he most savage beasts,
and eve n t he Harp i es and go d s o f the infernal
regions , wi t h the enchanting music o f th e lyre .

S ee Mercury .

ME N A D E S
. Priestesses of Ba c ch u s .

MA G I C IANS , see Telchines .

MA G NA DE A , a name o f Ceres
'
.

M A GP IES , s ee Pierides .

MA H A S OOR
'
. The Hindoo god of evil .

MA IA
. The mother of the Grecian Mer c ury .


MA M M ON . The money god -
.
OF M Y TH OLOG Y . 63


M A NES . Th e
souls o f the departed . Th e go d of
funeral s and tombs .

Allhave their Manes and their Manes b ear , .


The few who re cleansed t o t hose abodes repair ,

A nd breathe in ample elds the soft Elysia n air .

MA NURIN G LAND, s ee Picumnus .


M AR CH 24, Bellona s D ay . S ee Bellona .

'
M ARI NA . A name
of Venus meaning s ea foam from ,
-
,

her having bee n formed from the fro t h o f the sea .

S ee Ap h rodit e .

MARRIA GE , s ee Cama Hymen Juno


, , , J ug a t inus .

MARS the god


,
war was the son of Jupite r and
of ,

Juno Venus was h i s favouri t e goddess and


.
,

amongst their ch i ldren were Cup i d A n t eros and , ,

Harmonia I n t he Trojan War Mars t ook the


.

par t o f the Troj ans but was defeated by D io ,

mede .

MARS H ES , s ee Lymn ia d es .

MAR S YAS

The name o f the piper who challe nged
.

A pol lo to a mus i cal contes t and being defea t ed , , ,

was ayed to death by the god He wa s the sup .

posed inventor o f t he ut e .

MA RU T
'
. The Hindoo god of tempestuou s win d s .

MA T U RA '
of
the rural deities wh o pr o t ec t e d
. On e
the growing c orn at time of ri pening .

MAX I M US On e of the appellations of J upit e r, b e in g



.

the gr eatest o f the gods .

M EASURES an d WEI GH T S , s ee Mercury .


64 A HA ND Y DI CTIONA R Y
'
M EDE A . Wife of J as on c hi e f o f th e A rgonau ts
, . S ee
J ason .

N o w t o Me daea
s dr ag o n s x m y reins .

F LE W IS
. .

L et not Medea draw h e r mu rd e rin g knife ,



An d spill her childr e n s blood upon the stage

.

L ORD ROS C OMM ON .

M EDI C INE , s ee Apollo .

M EDI T A T I ON see Harp o c rat e s


, .

M EDU SA
On e
of the Gorgons Minerva changed
. .

her beautiful hair into serpents S he was con .

quered by Perseus who cut Off her head and , ,



placed it o n Minerva s shield E very o n e who .

looked at the head was turned into stone .

Ulysses in the Odyssey says he wished to s e e


, ,

m ore of the inhabitants o f Hade s but was afraid , ,

as he says
L est Gorgo n rising from the infernal lakes
, ,

Wi t h horrors arme d and curls o f h i ssing snak e s , ,

Should x me s t i ffened at the monstrous sight


, ,

A stony image in eternal n i ght P OP E . .


Medusa w i th Go rgonian t e rr o r g uards
M IL T ON

The ford . .

R emove t hat horrid m o nster and tak e h e n c e ,



Medu sa s petr i fying countenan c e

.

ADDIS ON .

'
M E C IERA On e of th e thre e Furies
. .


M E G ALE . A Greek name of Juno m e anin g gr eat
,
.

MELI C ER T A see Pal aemon


'
, .

ME LLO N A
. On e of the rural divinities th e godde ss ,

o f bees .
66 A H A ND Y DICTIONA R Y
'
M E RU . The abode of the Hindoo god Vish nu I t .
.

is at the top o f a mou ntain l eag ues high .

T he Olympus o f the I ndians .


M I DAS A king of Phrygia who begged of Ba cc hus
.
,

the special g i ft that everything t hat he touched


migh t be turned i nto gold The request was .

granted and as soon as h e touched his food it als o


,

was turned to gol d a nd for fear o f be ing s t arved


,

h e wa s compelled t o ask the god to wi thdraw t h e


power he had bestowed upon him He was told .

to bathe in the river Pac t olus He did s o and .


,

the sands which he s t ood o n were golde n for ever


aft er I t wa s t hi s same king who being appointed
.
,

to be judge in a mus i cal con t est be tween Apollo


and Pan gave t he S atyr t he palm ; whereupon
,

Apollo t o sho w his con t emp t bes t owed on h im a


, ,

pair o f asses ears Thi s gave rise to the term



.


Midas eared as a synonym for ill judg e d o r
-
,
-
,

indisc ri minate .

He dug a hole and in it whispering said , ,

What monstrous ears S prout fro m King Midas


head . OV ID .

M I LO a celebrated Cretan athlete who is said to


'
, ,

have felled an e x with his st and to have eaten ,

t he beast in o n e day His s t atue is often se e n .

w i th one hand in the rift of a tree trunk out o f ,

which he i s vainly trying to withdraw it The .

fable i s that when he got an old man he attempted


,

t o spl i t an oak tree b ut having lost his youthf ul


,

v i gour the tree closed on h i s hand and he was


,

held a prisoner till the wolves came and devoured


him .

M I M ALLO NE S The wild women who a cc ompanied


'
.

Bacchus s o c al l ed be c ause they mimi ck e d his


,

a c ti o ns .
OF M YTH OL OG Y 67

MI M IR
'
. I n S can d inavian mytho l ogy th e g od o f
wisdom .

M IND , s ee Erin n ys .

M INER VA , the goddess



wisdom war and th e of , ,

liberal arts is said to have s prung from the head


,

o f Jupiter fully armed for bat tle S h e was a great .

benefactress of mankind and patroness of t he ne ,

arts .S he was the tutelar de i ty o f the city of


A thens S he is also known by t he names o f
.

Pallas Parthenos Triton i a and Glaucop i s S he


, , , .

was very generally worsh i pped by t he ancients ,

and her temple a t A thens t he Parthenon still , ,

remain s S he is represen t ed in statues and p ie


.

t ures as wearing a golden helme t enc ircled wi t h


an olive branch and a breastplate I n her right
,
.

hand she carries a lance and by her side is t he ,

famous E gi s o r sh i eld covered w i t h the skin o f


,

A malth aea t he goat which nourished Jupiter and


,

for the boss Of the S hield is the head o f Medusa .

An owl the emblem o f med i tation is on t he left


, ,

and a cock the emblem o f courage o n the right


, ,
.

The E lgin Marbles in the B ri t ish Museum were


brought fro m th e Parthenon her templ e at ,

Athens .

'
M I NOS .The principal o f the thre e judges o f hell ,

be fore whom the spirits of th e depart e d appeare d


and heard their doom .

M I NO TAUR

Th e mo nst e r, hal f man hal f bull which
.
, ,

Theseus S lew .

M IRT H , s ee Mom u s .

M I SE RY, se e Genii .
68 A H A ND Y DICTI ONAR Y

M I T H RA
'
A Persian divin ity th e rul er o f th e uni
.
,

verse c o rr e sponding wit h the R oman S ol


, .

MNE M OS Y NE
Mother o f the Mus e s an d goddess o f
.

memory Jupi t er c ourted the goddess in the


.

guise of a shepherd .

MOAK I BAT
. The re c ordin g ange l of th e M oham .

me d a n s .

MO L OC H
'
A
god of the Phoenicians to who m human
.

victims pr i ncipally children were sacri ced


, , .

Moloch is g u ra t i ve o f the inuen c e which i mpels


us to sacrice that whi c h we ought to cherish most
dearly .

First Mol och horrid king b e sm e ar e d with


, ,

blood

Of human sacri ce and parents tears , ,

Though fo r t he noise o f drums and timbrel s


loud ,

Their ch ildren s cries unh e ard that poured


t hrough re
M IL T ON

To this gr i m idol . .

MO M US

The god of sarcasm The god who blamed
. .


Jove for n o t having made a windo w in man s
breast s o that hi s thoughts could be seen His
,
.

bitter j ests occasioned h i s being driven from heaven


in disgrace He is represen t ed a s holding an
.

image of F olly i n one hand and rais ing a mas k ,

from his face w i th the other He is also described .

as the god o f mirth o r laughter .

MONE T A
A
name given to Juno by those writers
.

who considered her t he goddess o f money .

M ONE Y see Moneta


, .
OF M YTH OL OG Y . 69

M ONE Y GOD se e Mam m on


-
, .

MOON The moon was by the ancients c all e d


.
, ,
H ec a t e before and aft er se t ting ; A s t a rte when in
crescent form Dia na when in full S ee Luna . .

S oon as the eveni ng shades prevail


The moon takes up her wondro us tal e ,
A nd nightly to the lis t n in g earth


R epeats the story o f her birth ADD IS ON . .

MOR PH EUS

The god o f sleep and dre ams the min
.
,

ister of S omnus .

Morpheus the humble god that dwells


,

I n cottages and smoky cells


Hates gilded roofs a n d beds of down ,
An d t hough he fears no pri nce s frow n
,

Fl i es from the c ircle o f a crown .

S ir J O H N D EN M AN .

MORS . D eath a daughter ,


of Nox .

MOUN T AIN, s ee Atl as N ymph


, .

M UL C I BER

A name o f Vulcan som e tim es sp ell ed
.
,

Mul c ife r S ee Vulcan . .

MUN IN The S candin a v ian god o f memo ry repre



.
,

sented by the raven that was p erched o n Odin s
S houlder .

MUSCA R I US A name given to Jupiter b ec aus e he


'
.

kept off t he ies from t he sacrices .

MU SES TH E were ni ne daughters


, ,
Jupiter and of

Mnemosyne They presided over the arts and


.

sci ences music and poe t ry Their names were


,
.
,

Calliope Clio E rato Thalia Mel p omene Terp


, , , , ,

s ic h o re E u t erpe Polyhymnia and U ran i a


,
They
, , .
70 A H A ND Y DICTI ONA R Y

prin c ipally resided in Mount Pa rnass u s at Heli ,

c on .

Be thou the tenth Mu se ten times more in wo rth , ,



Than those o ld nin e whi c h rhymers advoca t e .

S HA K ES P EARE .

M USI C s ee A poll o Muses


, ,
.

MY TH R AS

The E gyptian nam e of Ap oll o
. .

NA I A D S
were b e autiful nym phs of human
, THE ,
form who presided over spr i ngs fountai ns and , ,

wells They resided in t he meadows by the sides


.

o f r i vers Virgil menti o ns E gle as being th e


.

fairest o f them .

N AN D I
'
The Hindoo goddess of j oy
. .


N AR AE The nam e of the infernal regron s amon gst
.

the Hindoos .

N A RA Y AN Th e mover o f th e wat e rs
'
. Th e Hindo o .

god o f tides .

N ARCI S S US s o n o f Ceph is us and the N aiad L iriope


'
, ,

was a beautiful you th who wa s s o pleased w i t h ,

the reection o f himself which he s a w in the


placid water of a fountain that he co uld not help
loving it imagining that it must be some beau t i
,

ful nymph His fruitless endeavours to po ssess


.

himself o f the supposed nymph drove h i m to


despair and h e killed himself There sprang from
, .

h i s blood a ower which was named after him , ,

N arcissus .

N arciss us s o himsel f forsook ,



And died to kiss his S hadow in the brook .

Hadst thou N arcissus in thy face to me ,



Th e n would st appear most ugly .

S H A K ES P EARE .
OF M YTH OL OG Y . 71

NAS TR OND The S candinavian place of eternal



.

punishm e nt c orresponding w i t h Ha d es
, .

N A T IO of

. A R oman goddess who took c ar e y o ung
infants .

N E MIE AN L ION ,

s e e Hercules .

NE M ESIS the goddess o f ve n geanc e or justic e w as


'
, ,

one o f the infernal deities Her mother was N ox . .

S he wa s supposed to be cons t an t ly travell i n g


about the ear t h in search o f wickedness which ,

she punished with the greatest severi ty S he is .

referred to by some wr i t ers under t he name o f


Ad ra st aea The R omans always sac ri ced t o this
.

godd ess before they went to war because they ,

wished to s i gnify that t hey never took up arms


but in the cause o f jus t ice .

Forbear, said N emesis , my l oss to me a n ,



T he faintin g trembling hand was mine al on e .

D r J WH AR T ON
. . .

N EPHA L I A
'
. Grecian fest i vals in hon o ur of Mn e
mosyn e ,
the mother o f the Muses .

N E P TUNE ,

god of the s ea was a s on o f S aturn a n d ,

Cybele and brother o f Jupi t er and Pluto


,
He .

quarrelled wi t h Jupiter because he d i d not co n s i der


that the dom i n i on o f the s e a was equal to Jupiter s

empire o f heaven and e arth and he was banished


from the celest i al regio n s aft er having conspired ,

with Pluto to dethron e Jupiter N eptune wa s .

m arried to Amph i tri t e d aughter of Oceanus and ,

Te t hys by whom he had a s o n named Triton


, .

He was al so fa ther o f Polyphemus (on e o f the


Cyclopes ) Ph o rc us and Pro t eus N ep tun e is re
, , .

p resented as being seated in a shell chari ot drawn ,

by dolphi ns o r s ea horses and surrounded by -


,
72 A H AND Y DICTIONA R Y

Tritons and s ea mymph s He holds in his hand a .

trident wi th which he rules the waves Though


, .

a marine dei t y he was reputed to have presided


,

over horse training and horse races but he is


- -

principally know n a s the god o f the o cean ; and


t he t wo functions of the god are portrayed in the
s ea horses wi t h whic h h i s chariot is drawn t he
-
,

fore half o f the animal be i ng a horse and the


-
,

h i nd half a dolph i n
-
S hips were also under his
.

protection and whenever he appeare d on th e


,

ocean there was a de a d calm .


NERE IDES , THE , were aquatic nymphs Th e y w e r e .

daugh t ers o f N ere us and D oris, and fty in num


ber They are generally represen t ed a s beautiful
.

girls riding on dolphins and carrying t ridents in ,

the right hand .


N ERE US .deity husband o f D oris He had
A s ea ,
.

t he gift o f prophecy and foretold fat es ; but he ,

had also the power of assum i ng var i ous shapes ,

wh i ch enabled h im to escape fro m t he imp o rt u


n it ies of those who were anxious t o consul t him .

N ES SUS
'
The name of the Centaur which was
.

destroyed by Hercules for insulting D ej anira .

N ES T OR A grandson of N eptune ,

. his father being
N el eus , and his mother Chlor i s Homer makes .

h i m one of the greatest of t he Greek heroes He .

was present at t he famous ba ttle between the


L apith ae an d the Centaurs and took a l eading ,

part i n the Troj an war .

Here s N esto r
I nst ru cted by the an t iquary t i mes ,

He must he is h e cannot but be wise
, ,
.

S HAK ES PEARE
74 A H A ND Y DIC TIONA R Y

when they were nine days o l dth e d ay o n which


the R omans n amed their children .

N UPTI A LI S

A ti tle o f Juno When the g o ddess
. .

was invoked under this name t he gall o f the ,

victim wa s taken out and thrown behind the altar ,

s i gn ifying that t here should be no ga ll (bitterness)


o r anger between married people .

NU RIEL
'
. I n Hebrew mytho l ogy th e go d of hail
storms .

N YCTE
'
A name given to B acchus b ec aus e his
LI US . ,

festivals were celebra t ed by torchlight .


N YM PH S This was a general name for a cl ass o f
. .

inferior female dei t ies who were a t tendants o f the


gods S ome o f t hem presided over springs foun
.
,

tains w ells woods and the sea They are spoke n


, , ,

o f as land nymp h s or N aiads and s ea nymphs o r


-
,
-

N ereides though the former are associated als o


,

wi t h fountains and rivers The D ryades were .

forest nymphs and t he Hama dryades were


- -

nymphs who lived amongst the o a k trees the


,
-

oa k being al ways specially venera t ed by the


ancients The mountain nymphs wer e c alle d
.
-

Or e ades .

With o wer inwoven tresses torn -


,

The nymphs in twilight shade


Of tangled th i cke t s mourn

.

M IL T ON .

N Y S IE

The names o f the n ymphs by who m Bac chus
.

was nursed S ee D ionys i us . .

NY S IEUS

A name o f Ba c chus b ec ause h e was w o r
.
,

shipped at Nysa .

N Y S US

A king o f Megara who was invisibl e by
.

virt u e o f a part icular lock of hair T h is l ock his .


OF M YTH OL OG Y . 75

daughter S cylla cut o ff and s o betrayed h er father ,

to h is enem i es S he was ch anged i n t o a lark and .


,

the k i n g i n t o a hawk and h e st il l pursues hi s ,

daught e r intending to punish her for her treachery


, .

OAN N E S

A n E astern god represented as a me n
.
,

ster half man half s h He was sai d to have


, , .

taught men t he us e o f letters i n the d a y time -


,

and at n i ght to have retired t o the dep t h o f t he


ocean .

OA T H s ee L apis
, .

'
OBAM BOU A devi l o f A fri c an mytho l ogy
. .

OC EAN s ee N eptune
, .

OC EAN IDES

S ea n ymphs daughters o f Oc e anus
.
-
,

and Te thys Thei r numbers are variously esti.

mated by di eren t poe t s some say i ng there were


'

as many as 3000 while others s a y t hey were as ,

fe w as sixteen The principal o f t hem are men .

t io n e d under their respect i ve names a s Amphi ,

trite D oris M etis etc


, , , .

OC E ANUS s o n o f Coel us an d Terra and husband of



, ,

T ethys S everal my t hologi cal rivers were called


.

his sons as Alpheus Peneus etc a n d his d a ugh


, , , .
,

ters were called the Ocean i des S om e o f t he .

ancients worshipped him as the god of t h e seas ,

and invariably i nvoked h i s aid when they were


a bout to start on a voyage He was also t hought .

to personify the immense stream which it was


supposed surroun d ed t he earth and into which ,

the s un and moon an d other heav e nly bodies sank


every day .


OCR I D I ON A king o f R hodes who was d eied after
.
,

his death .
76 A HA ND Y DICTIONA R Y

'
O CY P E TE On e o f the Harpies who infected eve ry
.
,

t hing sh e touched The word m eans swift of .

ig h t .

'
O CY R OE A daughter o f Chiron who had the gift o f
.
,

prophecy S he was metamorphosed into a mare


. .


O DIN I n S candinavian mythology the god o f the
.

universe and reputed fa ther of all the S candi


,

navian k i ngs H i s w i fe s name was Frig a and his
.
,

t wo sons were Thor and B alder .

'
(E A GR US . F ather of Orphe u s .

'
(E DI PUS . A
of L ai us King of Thebes best
s on , ,

known as the solver of the famous enigma pro


pounded by the S phinx .

(E NO
'
NE Wife of Paris a nymph
.
, of M o unt I da , who
had the gift o f prophecy .


OGYG IA An island the abode of Calypso in the
.
, ,

Medi terranean S ea I t w a s s o beau t i ful in s yl va rr


.

scenery that even Mercury (who dwelt on Olym


pus ) wa s charmed w i t h the spot .

OIN T M EN T, see Phaon .

OLE

NUS A daugh ter of Vulcan wife of Le t h aea
.
, ,

a woman who t hought herself more beautiful t han


t he goddesses and as a punishmen t s h e and her
,

husband were turned into stone statues .

OLI V ES , see Aristaeus .

OLYM

PI US Jupiter from Olympia where
. A name of , ,

the god had a splendid temple wh i ch was con ,

s id e re d to be o n e o f t he seven wonders o f the

world .

OL YM P US was the magnicent mountain on the coast


'

of Thessaly 6 000 feet h i gh where the gods were


, ,
OF M YTH OL OG Y . 77

supp o se d to reside The re were severa l o ther .

smaller mountai ns o f the same name .

High h ea v en with trembling the dr e ad signal


t o ok

A nd all Ol ympus to the ce ntre sh o ok .

P OP E .


OLY R A S . A
river near The rmopyl ae which it is , ,

said attemp t ed to extinguish t he funeral pile o n


,

which Hercules was consumed .


OM OPH A G IA A Bacchanalian festival at which s o me
.

uncooked meats were served .


OM PH ALE The Q ueen o f Lydia to whom Her c ule s
.
,

was sold as a bondsman for three years for the


murder o f I phi tus Hercules fell i n love wi t h .

her and led an effeminat e life i n her societ y


, ,

wearing female apparel whi le Omphale wor e the ,



lion s skin .


ONA R US A p ri est o f Bacchus, said to have married
.

Ariadne aft er Sh e had been abandoned by Theseus .

'
ON U V A . Th e Venus of the ancient Gauls .

OPA LI A

R oman festivals i n honour
. of Op s , hel d on
1 4t h o f the calends o f January .

OP IA T E -
ROD , s ee Caduceus .

E yes more wakeful than to drowse


Charmed w i t h Arcad i an p i pe the pas t oral r ee d
,

M IL T ON

Of Hermes o r h i s opiate rod -
. .

OPS .Mother o f the gods a daughter of Ooelus ,

and Terra S he was known by t he several names


.

o f B ona D ea R hea Cybele Magna Mater Pros , , , ,

erpine Tellus and Th ya and occasionally s h e i s


, ,

spoken o f as Juno and M i nerva Sh e pers o nied .


78 A H A ND Y DICTIONA R Y

l abour and is represented as a comely matron


, ,

distributing gi ft s wi t h her ri gh t hand and hold ,

ing in her left hand a loaf o f bread Her festival .

was the 1 4t h day of the January calends .

ORA C LES , Themis s ee .

ORIE A Certain sacri ces o ffered t o the goddesses of


'
.

the seasons to i nvoke fai r weather for the ripening


o f the fru i ts of the earth .

OR BO N A The goddess o f orphans



. .

OR CH ARDS see F eronia ,


.

O READS w ere mountain nymphs atten d ants o n


'
,

D i ana .

OR G IES D runken revels


. The riotous feasts o f .

Bacchus were so designated .

ORI O N A famous handsome giant who was blinded


'
.
,

by (En o p io n for a g ri evous wrong done to Merope ,

and he was expelled from Ch i os The sound of t he .

Cyclopes hammers led h im t o the abode of Vulcan


who gave h i m a gu i de He then consulted an .

oracle and had h is s ight restored as L ongfellow


, ,

says by xing ,


H i s blank eyes upo n the sun .

H e was afterwards slain by D ian a and p l aced


a mo n gst t he s t ars where his cons t ellat i on is o n e
,

o f t he most splendid .

'
ORI T HY IA A daughter of E rechtheus whose lover
.
, ,

B oreas carried her o ff while she was wandering by


,

the ri ver I l i ssus Her children were Z etes and


.

Calai s two w i nged warriors who a ccompanied th e


,

Argonauts .

'
OR M U Z D I n Persian mytho l ogy the c reat o r o f all
.

things .
OF M YTH OL OG Y . 79

O R OS . The E gyptian Apollo .

OR PH ANS , see Orb o n a .

OR PH EUS
'
was s o n o f Apollo and the Mus e Call iope .

He was married to E urydice but s h e was stung


by a serpen t and died Orpheus went down to
, .

Hades to cla i m her and played so swee t ly w i th his


,

l ute that Plu t o all owed E uryd i ce to re t urn to the


earth with Orpheus b ut o n cond i tion t hat he d i d ,

n o t look beh i nd him unt i l he had reached the


terrestrial regio n s Orpheus however in his .
, ,

anxie ty to see i f sh e were followi ng him looked ,

round and E uryd i ce disappeared from his sight


, ,

instantly and for ever .


Orpheu s lute was s t rung with poets sinews

.

S HA K ES P EARE .


OSI RIS The E gyptian god o f the sun
. he was w or
shipped under the form o f an o x .

5
A ft er these appeared
o

A c r e w who under names of o ld reno wn


, ,

O siris I sis Orus and their train


, , , ,

With monst rous shapes and sorceries abus e d


F anatic E gypt and her pri ests to seek
The i r wand ering gods di sg uised in brutish fo rm s ,

R ather than human


M IL T ON . .

'
OS SA . On e of
the m o untains which the giants piled
o n the top o f Olympus t o e n able th e m to as ce nd
to heaven and attack the gods .

Ox, s e e A pis .

OW L, s ee E s c ul a p ius an d I t y s
80 A H A ND Y DICTIONA R Y

PA CT O L US
The ri ver in Lydia where Midas
.

washed himself by order o f Bac c hus and the ,

sands were turned to gold .

PIE AN

A
name given to Apol l o fro m p ec a n the
.
, ,

hymn which was sung in his hono ur after he had


killed the serpent Python .

With hymns divine the j oyo u s banquet ends ,



Th e Paeans lengthened til l the s un des c ends .

P O PE .

PA LIE M ON, '


or Me li c erta a s e a god
,
-
, s on o f A thamas
and I no .

'
P A LES The goddess of Shepherds and prot e ctress o f
.

ocks her fes t ivals were called Pali lia .

Pomona loves the orchard ,

An d L iber loves the w i ne ,

A nd Pales loves the s tra wbuilt she d -


,

Wa rm with the breath o f kine .

M A C AULA Y .

Great Pales help the pastoral rites I sing , ,



With hum o le duty mentioning each thing .

P O PE .


P ALLA D IU M A famous statue of the goddess Pallas
.

(Minerva) S he i s s i tting wi th a spear in her


.

r i ght hand and in h er left a d is t a and sp indle


'

.
,

Var i ous accounts are given o f the orig i n o f it .

S ome wri t ers s a y it fell from the skies I t was .

supposed t ha t t he preservat i on o f the statue would


be t he p reserva t i on of Troy ; and duri ng t he
Troj an War t he Greeks were great ly encouraged
when they became the possessors of i t .


PAL LAS or Minerva , . The name was given t o Min
82 A H A ND Y DIC TIONA R Y

from it numb erless diseases and evil s which w e r e


soon spread all over the world an d fro m that ,

momen t they have af i cted the human ra ce I t .

is said that Hope alone remained in the b ox .

More lovely than Pandora wh o m th e gods ,



E ndowed with a l l their gifts M IL T ON . .

PAN T H E ON
The t emple o f al l the gods buil t by
.
,

Agrippa at Ro me in the reign o f Augustus I t


, .

was 1 44 feet in diameter and 1 44 feet high ; and ,

was built in the Corinthian style of architecture ,

mostly o f marble ; while i ts walls were covered


wi t h engraved brass a n d S ilver I ts magnicen c e .

induced Pl i ny to giv e it rank amongst the w o nde rs


o f the wor l d .

PA PH I A, a nam e o f Venus

.

PAP R E M I S
'
. The E gyptian Mars .

PAR CIE TH E were goddesses who presid e d ov e r the


'
, ,

des tiny o f human be ings They were also called .

t he Fates and were t hree in number Atrop o s


, , ,

Cloth e and L achesis S ee Fates


, . .

PAR IS was

of Priam king of T roy an d h is
s on , ,

mo t h er was Hecuba I t had been predicted that .

he would be t he cause of the destruc t ion of Troy ,

and his fa t her t herefore ordered him to be


strangled as soon as he was born ; but the slave
who had been entrusted wit h this miss i on t ook
the ch ild t o Mount I da and left it t here S o me , .

shepherds ho w ever found the infant and took


, ,

care of h i m He lived amongs t them till he had


.

grown to man s es t at e and he then married


(E none a nymph o f I d a
, At the famous nuptial .

feast o f Peleus and Thetis D iscordia who had , ,


OF M YTH OL OG Y . 83

n o t been invited attended secretly ; an d when,

a ll were assembled sh e threw amo ngst the ,


,

goddess e s a golden apple o n which wa s inscribed ,



L et the fai res t take i t This occasioned a great .

c onten t io n for each though t herself the fa i rest


, .

U ltimately the con t estan t s were reduced to three


, ,

J uno Pallas (Minerva) and Venus ; but J ove


, ,

himself could n o t make these three agree and it ,

was decided that Paris should be the umpire He .

was sent for and each of the goddesses courted


,

his fa vo ur by o ffering all sorts o f bribes Jun e .

Offere d him power Pallas w i sdom and Venus , ,

promised him the most beau ti ful woman in t he


world Pa ris gave the golden apple to Venus
. .

S o o n after this episode Pria m owned Paris as h i s


s o n and sent him t o Greece t o fe t ch Helen who
, ,

was renowned as being the most beaut iful woman


in the world S he was the wife of Menelaus k ing
.
,

o f S parta ; but dur i ng h i s a bsence Paris carri ed


Helen away t o Tro y and t hi s gave r i se t o the cele,

b ra t e d war be tween the Greeks a n d t he Troj ans ,

which ended in the destruc t i on o f Troy Paris .

wa s amongst the Troj ans who fell during


o r after the siege .

PA RN AS S I DE S a name common to the Muses from



, ,

Mount Parnassus .


PARNAS SUS Th e mountain o f the Muses in Phocis
.
,

and sacred to Apollo and B acchus An y o n e who .

slept o n t h i s moun t ai n became a poet I t was .

n amed after o n e of the s o n s of B acchus .


PAR T H EN ON The temple of Minerva (or Pallas ) at
.
,

Athens I t was destroyed by the Persians and


.
,

rebuilt by Pericles .

P AR T H ENOS was a nam e o f Jun e and als o o f



,

Mrn erva S e e Pallas


. .
84 A H A ND Y DICTIONA R Y


P ASI PH AE was the rep u ted m o ther o f the Minotaur
killed by Theseus S he was said to be t he .

daughter o f S 0 1 and Pers eis and h e r h u sband was ,

Min e s king o f Crete


, .

'
P ASI T H EA S ometimes ther e are f our Gra c es s p oken
.

of when this is s o the nam e of th e fourth is ,

Pasithea .


P A VAN, the Hindoo go d of th e win d s .

P EA C E se e Con c ordia
,
.

P EA C O C K , s ee Argu s .


P E G ASUS The famous winged hors e which was said
.

t o have sprung from the blood o f Medusa when


her head was cut o ff by Perseus His a b o d e was .

o n Moun t Helicon where by strik ing the ground , ,

with h i s hoof he caused water to spring fo rt h


, ,

which formed the fountain afterwards called Hip


p o c ren e .


Thy stumblin g fo un d er d j ade c an t ro t as high

A s any oth er Pegasus c an y .

EARL o r DORSE T .

To turn and wind a ery Pegasus ,



A n d witch the world with noble horsemanship .

S H A K ES P EARE .

PE LEUS wh o
'
. ki ng o f Th e ssal y
A , married Thetis ,

o ne o f the N ereids .


P E LIAS . N eptune and Tyre He usurped
A s on o f .

the throne o f Cretheus which Jason was per ,

s ua d ed t o relinquish an d take the command o f


the Argonautic expedition On the return o f .

Jason Medea the sorceress undertook t o restore


, , ,

Pelias to youth but required that the b o dy should


,
'

rs t b e cut u p and put in a c al dr on o f b o iling


OF M YTH OL OG Y . 85

water When this had been d o n e Medea re fused


.
,

to ful l her promise Pel i as had fo ur daughters .


,

who were called the Pelia d es .

PE LIAS was the name o f the spear of A chill es whi c h



,

w as so large that n o n e c ou l d wield it but th e her o


himse l f .


PE L I ON A well wooded mountain famo u s for the
.
-
,

wars between t he giants and the gods and as the ,

a b o d e o f th e Centaurs who were expelled by th e ,

L apith ae .

The gods they ch allenge and affect the ski e s , ,

Heaved on Olympus t o t t erin g Ossa stood



On Ossa Pelion n o d s wi t h a l l h is wood
, .

P OP E .

P E L OP S ,

Tantalus kin g of Phrygia
son of His , .

father k illed him and served him up t o be eaten ,

at a feast given to the gods who when they found , ,

o ut what t he father o f Pelops had done restored ,

the son to l i fe and he afterwards became the h us


,

band o f Hippodamia .

P ENA T ES Ro ma n

. domesti c go d s . S ee L ares .

PER P E T UAL P UNIS HM EN T S isyphus ,


s ee .

PERSE PH ONE
The Greek name o f Proserpin e
. .

P ER SEUS was a s o n of Jupiter and D an ae the daughter


'
,

o f A crisius His rst famous exploi t was against


.

the Gorgon Medusa He was ass i s t ed in th i s e u


,
.

t erpris e by Plut o who lent him a helmet which ,

would make h im invisible Pallas lent him her .

shield and Mercury supplied him w i th wings


,
.

He made a speedy conquest o f the Gorgons and ,

cut o ff Medusa s head w i t h wh i ch he ew through

the air and from the b l o o d sprang the winged


,
86 A HA ND Y DICTIONA R Y

horse Pegasus A s he ew al ong he saw A ndre


.

meda chai ned t o the rock and a s ea monster ready ,


-

to devour her He k i lled the monster and marri ed


.
,

Andromeda When he got back he showed the


.
,

Gorgon s head to King Po l yd e c t es and the monar c h



,

was immediately turn ed into stone .

N ew
on D aedalian waxen pinions stray ,

Or those which waft ed Perseus on his way .

F LE W IS .

P ERSUASIO N goddess o f s ee Pitho


, ,

P HA E T ON A
S ol or according t o most

. son of , ,

mythologists o f Ph oebus and Clymene Anxious


, .

to display his skill in horsemanship he was ,

allowed t o drive the chariot of the sun for o n e


day The horses soon found o ut t he incapac i ty
.

of the charioteer became unmanageable and over


, ,

t urned t he chariot There was such great fear of.

injury t o heaven and earth that J e v e to stop t he , ,

destruction ki lled Phaeton wi t h a thunderbolt


, .

New Phaeton by lofty hopes possessed


, ,

The burning seat wit h youthful vigour press e d .

Th e breathless Ph a eton with amin g hair , ,

S hot from the char i ot l ike a falling s t ar



That in a summer s evening from t he top

Of heaven drops down o r seems at least to d rop , .

ADDISON .

PHA
ON . boatman wh o received from Venus a b ox
A ,

o f o i ntment w i t h wh ich when he anoin t ed himself


, , ,

he grew so beautiful t hat S appho became en


a mo ure d o f h im but when the ointment had all
been used Pha e n returned t o h i s former condition ,

and S appho in despair drowned herself


, ,
.

P H EASAN T see I ty s,
.
OF M YTH OL OG Y . 87


PH I L OC TE T ES was s on o f P oeas and one o f t h e c om,

panions o f Jason o n h is Argonautic expedition .

He was present at the dea t h of Hercules and re ,

c eive d from him the po i soned arrows which had


been dipped in the blood o f t he Hydra These .

arrows an oracle declared were n ecessary t o b e


, ,

used in the destruc t i on o f Troy and Ph i loctetes ,

was persuaded by U lysses to go and ass i st at the


siege He appears to have used the weapons wi t h
.

great dexteri ty and wi th wonderful effect for Paris ,

was amongst the heroes whom he killed .


P H IL OM E LA was a daughter Pandion King o f of ,

Athens who was transformed into a nigh t ingal e


, .

Forth l ike a fury Philomela ew,



An d at his face the head o f I tys thr e w .

P OP E .

An d thou , mel odious Philo mel ,



A gain thy plaintive story tell .

S ir TH O M AS L YTT LE T ON .


PH LE G E T HON A river o f re in the infernal regio n s
. .

I t was the picture o f desolat i on for n othing could ,

g ro w on its parch e d and wi thered banks .

I nfernal rivers
Fi erce Phl egethon ,

Whos e waves of t o rren t re inam e with rage .

M ILT ON .

PH LE G ON (earth l ovi ng) , on e



of the four chariot
horses of S ol .

P H LEGYAS

S on of Mars and father o f I xion and
.

Coronis Fo r his imp i e t y in d esecrat i ng and


.

plundering the temple of Apollo at D elphi he was ,

sent to Hades and there was made t o s i t with a


,
88 A H A ND Y DICTI ONA R Y

huge stone suspended over his head re a dy t o b e ,

dropped o n him at any moment .

PH CE BUS

A n ame of A pollo S ignifying l ight an d l ife
.
, .

Gallop apace you e ry foo t ed steeds ,


-
,

Towards Phoebus lodging .

S H AK ES P EARE .

PHOR CUS A son of N eptune father of th e G o rg o ns


'
.
, .

PH RYx Us ,
'
s ee Gol den Fleece .


P I C U M NUS rural divinity wh o presided ov e r the
. A ,

manurin g of l ands called a l so S t erent ius , .

P I C US A
'
. of S aturn fath er o f Fau nus was
so n , ,

turned into a woodpe cker by Circe whose l ov e he ,

had not requited .

'
P IER IDES A name of the Muses derived from Pi e ria
.
, ,

a fountain near Mount Olympus where they were ,

supposed t o have bee n born Also t he daughters .


,

o f Pierus a k ing of Macedon i a who settled in


, ,

B oeotia They challenged the Muses t o s ing and


.
,

were changed into magpies .

P ILLAR , see Calpe


'
P ILU M NUS A rural divinity which p r e si d e d o ve r
.
,

the corn while it was being g ro un d .

P INE TREE s e e Atys


-
, .

'
P IRI T H OUS A s o n of I xion and great fri e n d o f
.

Theseus K i ng o f Athens The marr i ag e o f Pirit h


, .

o us and Hip podamia became famous for the


quarrel between the drunken Cen t aurs and the
L api th ae wh o w i th t he help of Theseus Pirithous
, , , ,

and Hercules a t tacked and overcame the Centaurs


, ,

many o f who m were killed and th e r e st to o k t o ,

ight .
90 A H AND Y DICTIONA R Y

P LU V I US A name of Jupiter b ec ause h e ha d th e


'
.
,

r ain in his con t rol .

P ODALIR IUS A famous surgeon a son o f E s c ul a pius



.
, ,

who was very servi c eable amongst th e soldiers in


the Troj an war .

P OE T see Parnassus
, .

P OE T R Y , see Ap o ll o Calliope , T h e M u s e s , .

P OIS ON OUS HER BS s ee Circe , .

P OIS ONOUS L A K E s e e A vernus , .

POLL E AR
'
S on o f S iva the Hin d o o go d o f wis dom
.
, .

Po L LUx

Twin brother of Castor Their father was
. .

Jup i ter and t he i r mo t her L eda He and h is .

brother form t he constellat i on G e mini His Greek .

n ame was Polydeuces S ee E d ep ol . .

Po LYBo TE S On e of the giants wh o m ad e wa r against



.

Jup i ter .

POLYDE C TE S was turned into stone when P e rs eu s


s h o we d h im Medusa s head

S ee Perseus . .

'
P OL Y DEU C ES . The Greek name of Pollux .

P OL YHYM NIA D aughter o f Jupiter and Mnemosyn e


'
. .

On e of the Muses wh o presided over sin ging and


rhetoric .


P OL YPH E M US o ne o f the most celebrated o f the
,

Cyclopes a son of N ep tun e He captured U lysses


, .

and twelve of his c ompanions a n d it is said that ,

s ix of t hem were eaten The rest escaped by the .


ingenui ty of U lysses who destroyed the C yclop s ,

one eye wi t h a reb ra n d .


Charybdis barks and Polyph em us roars .

FRAN C IS .
OF M YTH OL OG Y . 91

P OL YX ENA D aughter of Priam king of Troy I t
.
, .

a s b
y he r treachery that Achilles was shot in the
X ccl
'
P OM O NA The R oman goddess o f fru i ts an d gard e ns
. .

S o to the sylvan lodge


They cam e that l i ke Pomona s arbour smile d ,


W ith o weret s decked and fra grant smells .

MIL T ON .

P OP L AR TREE s e e Helra d es
O

-
, .


P OR T U NUS (Pal aemon) I no was g o d of harbours , s on o f , .

'
P OSEI D ON A name o f N eptune
. .

'
P RA C RI T I The Hindoo goddess o f natur e
. .

P REDI C T IONS s ee Cassandra ,


.

'
P RI A M The last k i ng o f Tro y S ee Paris
. . .


P RIA P US the guard i an o f gardens and god of natural
,

reproduction was s on o f Ve n us and Bacchus , .

Priapus could not half d escr ibe the grace



(Though g o d o f gardens ) o f this charmin g place .

P O PE .


P RIS C A Another name o f Vesta
. .

P RO C RIS
'
D aughter o f the king o f A thens
. S ee .

Cephalus .

'
P R O G NE wife o f Tereus
,
S ee I tys and Tereus . .

Compl aining o ft gives respi t e to o ur gr i ef ,



From hence the wretched Progne sough t relief .

F L E W IS . .

P RO M E T H EUS was s o n o f J a p et es and fa ther o f


'

D eucalion He presumed to make clay men and


.
,

animate them wi t h re whi ch he had s t olen from


heave n This s o di spleased Jup i t er that h e sent
.

him a box full o f ev i ls which Prometheus refused ; ,

b u t his br o ther E pime theus not s o cau t ious opened , ,


92 A H A ND Y DICTI ONA R Y

it and the evils spread over all the earth J upit e r


, .

then punished Prome theus by commanding Mer


cury t o bind him t o Mount Ca ucasus where a vul ,

ture daily preyed u pon his liver which grew in ,

t he night as much as it had been reduced in the


day s o that the punishment was a prolonged
,

torture Hercules at l ast ki lled the vu ltur e and


.

s e t Prometheus free .

P R OPH E CY, see Ne r e u s .

A d a ugh t e r of J upiter and Ceres Pl ut o



PR OSER P INE . .

carried her o ff to t he infernal reg i ons and made


her his wife S he was kno wn by the names o f
.


the Q ueen of Hell , Hecate, J u no I nferna, a n d
L ibitina .

He sung and he ll consented


,

To hear the p o et s prayer ,

S tern Proserpine relented ,



An d gave him back the fair .

F L E W IS
. .

P R O T EUS deity wh o c ould foretell events


A marine
'
.
,

and convert himself at will in t o all sorts o f shap e s .

Th e changeful Proteus wh ose p ro ph et ic mind


, ,

The s ec ret cau se o f Ba cc hus rage d i vined
.

Th e Lns ia d .


What c hain c an h old this vary ing Proteus fast l
BUDGE LL
mi
.

'
P S Y CH E The wife of Cupid The na e
. . s Gr eek,
signifying the soul o r sp irit .

PYGM A LI ON
famous sculptor wh o ha d reso l ved
. A
t o remain unmarr i ed but he made such a beautiful
,

stat ue o f a g o d d es s that he begged Venus t o give


94 A H A ND Y DICTI ONA R Y

RA C E ,
s ee A talanta .

'
RADAM AN TH US , s e e Rhadamanthus .

RA G E ,
see Furies .

RAIN BO W I ris ,
s ee .

RA M A
'
A Hindoo god who w as th e t e rr e strial
. , re
pres e ntative o f V i shnu .

RA M

S HIDE , s ee Go l den Fleec e .

REEDS , see Pa n and S yrinx .

BE M RH A
'
The Hindoo g o dd e ss o f pleasure
. .

RE P RODU C T ION, s ee Priapus .

RES T , se e Q uies .

RE VEN G E s e e A t e ,
.

RH ADA M AN T H US a s o n o f J upiter an d E ur o pa was



, ,

the j udge o f the Asiatics in the infernal regions .

These are the realms of unrelenting fate


A nd aw ful Rhada man t hus rules the state .

He hears and j udges each commi t ted crime ,

I nquires into t he manner place and tim e , ,

The conscious wretch must all his acts rev e al ,

L oth to confess unable t o conceal ,

F rom t he rs t moment of h i s vi t al breath ,



To t he l ast hour o f unrepen t i ng dea th .

DRY DEN .


RHA M N U S I A A name of N emesis from R hamnus a
.
, ,

to wn in A ttica where sh e had a temple in which ,

was her statue made of o n e s t o n e ten c ubits high


, .


RH E A . The Greek name of Cybele .

RH E T OR I C , s ee Calliope Polyhymnia , .
OF I I YTH OL OG Y . 95

RI CH ES, Pl utu s see .

RIDDLE s ee S phinx
, .

A Phrygian g o d o f wh om Mil ton s ays



RI M M ON .

R immon whose delightfu l seat ,

Was fair D amascus on the ferti le banks ,



Of Abana and Pharpar l u c id str eams , .

RI OT, se e S aturnalia .

RI V ER OF FIRE , see Phl egethon .

ROADS, s ee V ia lis .

ROBBER, Cacus Coc cul us


s ee , .


ROM ULUS The traditional founder o f R om e He
. .

was a s o n of Mars and I lia and twin brother of ,

R emus The i nfants were thrown into the T i ber


.
,

but wer e miraculously saved and suckled by a


s h e wolf -
til l they were found by Faustulus a
, ,

shepherd who brought them up , Remus was .

killed i n a quarrel wi t h his brother and R omu lus ,

became the famous emperor .

RU M I A DE A
'
. The R o man goddes s o f babes in arms .

'
RUN CI A . Th e goddess of weedin g or c l eansing th e
ground .

SA C R I FI C E S were cer e monious offerings made to


the g o ds To every deity a dis t inct v ictim was
.

allott ed and the grea t est care was always taken


,

in the selection o f t hem Anyth ing in any way .

blemished was cons i dered as an insul t t o t he god .

A t the time of the sacri ce t he people were called


toge ther by heralds led by a pro c es s io n of music i ans .

The pri es t clo thed in wh i te was crowned wi t h a


, ,

wreath made o f the leaves o f the tree which was


96 A HA ND Y DICTI ONA R Y

sa c red to the particular god to whom th e sacri ce


wa s o ffered The vic t i m had its h o rn s gil t and
.
,

wa s adorned with a Chaplet similar to that o f the


p riest and was deco ra ted with b ri gh t coloured
,
-


ribbons The pries t th en said Who is here ?
.
,

to which t he spectators replied Many g o o d ,

people Begone all ye who are profane said
.
,

the priest and he then began a prayer addressed


to all the gods The sacrice was begun by put .

ting corn frankincense our salt cakes and fruit


, , , , ,

o n t he head of t he vic t im Th i s was called the .

I mmolation The priest then t o ok a cup o f win e


.
,

tasted it and handed it to the bystanders t o taste


,

a l s o ; some o f i t was then poured between t h e

h o rn s o f t he v i ct i m and a few o f the saturated ,

hairs were pulled off and put in the re which


was burning o n t h e altar Then turning to the .
,

east t h e pri est drew wi th his knife a crooked lin e


,

a l o n g the back of the beast from t he head to the


tai l and told the assistan t s t o kill the animal
, .

This was d o n e directly and the entrails o f the ,

vict i m taken o ut and carefully examined by t he


Aruspices to nd o ut what was prognosticated .

The carcase was then divided and the thighs , ,

covered wit h fa t were put in the re a n d the rest


/ , ,

o f the animal was cut up cooked a n d eaten , , .

This feast was celebrated w i t h dancing music and , ,

hymns in prai se of the g o d in whose hon o ur th e


,

sacrice was made On great occas i ons as many .

as a hundred bullocks were offered at o n e t ime ;


an d i t i s said tha t Py thagoras made th i s o ffering
when he found out the demons tra tion o f t h e
forty s e venth proposition o f the book o f E uclid
-
.

of

S A GA . Th e S candinavian goddess history .


S A GGI TA R I US , s ee Chiron .
98 A H A N D Y DI CTI ON A R Y

SA TYA V RA TA . Th e H i n doo god of l aw . Th e sam e
as M en u .


SAT Y R S w er e t h e att e n dan ts of S ile n us , a n d wer e
s i m il ar in most re sp e c ts to t h e fau n s who
att en d e d Pa n S ee S il en us . .

F i v e satyrs of t he woodl an d sort ,

T h ei r e ars pric k d up th ei r n ose s short


, ,


Wi th ass e s hoofs , gre at go ggl e e y e s,

An d doub l e c h i n s o f mo n strous s i' e .

YA LDE N .


S CYL LA A b e aut i fu l n ymph wh o ex ci te d t h e j e al ousy
.

o f N e ptu n e s wi fe, A mph i t r i t e , a n d was c han g e d


by t h e go dde ss i n t o a fr ightful s ea mo n st er, wh ic h -

had s i x fe arfu ll y ugl y h ea ds a n d n e c ks, a nd wh o ,


r i s in g u n exp e c te dl y fro m t h e d eep, us e d t o tak e
off as m a n y as s i x s a il o r s from a v e ss el , a n d c a rry
th e m t o t h e bott o m of t h e s ea An al t ern at i v e .

dan ge r w i th Cha rybd i s .

Th er e o n t h e r ight h er dogs fou l S c yll a h id es ,



Charybd i s roar i n g o n t h e l e ft pr e s i d e s .

VI RGIL .

S CYL

LA daught e r of N ys us who was c han ge d
. A ,

i n t o a l a rk fo r c utt in g off a c harm e d l o c k o f h er


fath er s ha i r S e e N ys us

. .

SEA , s ee N eptu n e .

S E ASON S , s ee V ertum n us .

SE A -
WE E D ,
s ee G l au c us .

S E GE S TA rura l d iv in ity who prot ec t e d c orn



. A
dur i n g harvest t im e -
.
0F M YTH OL OG Y . 99

SE M . Th e E gypt i an H e r c u l e s .

S E M E LE , t h e

mo th er o f B a cchus was born in a m i ra ,

o u l o us m a n n e r a ft er J up i t e r had v i s i t e d h er at ,

h er sp e ci al r e qu e st in a ll h i s t e r r ib l e sp l en dour
, .

Sh e was d ei e d aft er h e r d eath a n d n am e d ,

Thy o n e .

S E M I DE I w e r e t h e d em i g o ds
- -
.

SEM O N E S Ro man gods o f a cl a ss b etw e en t h e im



.


m o rt a l a nd t he m o rtal , su c h as t h e S atyrs
a n d F au n s .


S EPTE R I ON . A
fe st iva l h el d in ho n our o f Ap o ll o at ,

wh ic h t h e v ic t o r y o f tha t g o d over t h e P yth o n was


grandl y r epr es en t ed .


S E R A PI S . Th e E gy pt i a n Jup it er a n d gen er a ll y c o n
,

s id e re d to b e t h e s a m e as Os i r i s S ee Ap i s
. .

S E R PE N T Gr e eks a n d Ro man s c on s i d er e d t h e
. Th e
s erp en t as symb o lic a l o f gua r d ia n sp irits a n d a s ,

su c h w er e o ft en e n gra v e d o n th ei r a l t a r s S ee .

E s c ul a p ius, A poll o , Ch im era, E u rydic e a nd ,

M e dusa .

P l e a s i n g was hi s shap e,
An d l o v el y n e v er s in c e o f s e rp en t k in d ,

Lo v e li er n o t th o s e th a t in I llyri a c han g ed
H ermi o n e a n d Ca dmu s o r t h e g o d ,

I n E p i d a u r us n o r t o wh ic h tran sform e d
,

Ammo n ia n J ov e, or Ca p i to li n e, was s e en

.

M IL T ON .

'
SES H AN A G A Th e E g ypt i an P l uto
. .

S E WE R S , se e Cl o a c in a .

S HARP -
S IGH TE DN E SS , s ee Lyn c eus .

S H E PH E R DS , s ee Pa n .
1 00 A H A N D Y DICTIONA R Y

S H I E L DS, s ee An cili a .

S H I PS s ee N e ptu n e
,
.

S IL E N CE s e e H arpo c ra t e s a n d Ta ci ta
, .

S ILE N U S

A B a cc ha na li a n d e mi g o d t h e c h i e f of th e
.
-
,

S atyrs He i s g e n e r a ll y r e p r e s en te d as a fa t
.
,

dru nken o l d ma n ri d i n g o n a n ass a nd c rown ed


, ,

wi th owers .

An d th er e two S a tyrs o n t h e gro un d ,



S tret c h e d at h i s e as e th e i r s ir e S ilen us foun d
, .

S I N GI N G s ee Po lyhym n i a Tha n yris


, , .

'
S I R EN S TH E , S ea n ymphs who b y th ei r mus ic
.
,

a ll ure d mari n ers t o d e s tru c t i o n To av o i d t h e .

s n are wh en n earin g th eir a bod e Ul yss e s had t h e ,

e a rs of h is c o mpan i o n s s t o pp e d w i th wax a n d had ,

h ims e l f t i e d to t h e mast of h i s shi p Th ey thus .

sail e d past in safety but t h e S ir en s th i nk i n g that ,

th e i r c harms had l ost thei r pow ers dro wn e d them ,

s elves .

S I S Y PH U S s o n o f E o l us a n d En a ret t a

, H e wa s c o n .

d emn e d to r o ll a st o n e t o t h e t o p o f a h ill in th e
in fern a l r egi o n s a n d a s i t r o lle d d o wn aga in wh en
,

h e r e a c h e d t h e summ i t hi s pu ni shm en t was ,


p e rp etual .

I turn e d my eye a n d as I tu rn e d surv eye d , ,

A m o ur n ful v is i o n Th e S i syph i an shad e ,

W i th m a n y a w e ary st e p a n d ma n y a g r o a n ,

Up t h e h igh h ill h e h ea v e s a hug e r o u n d sto n e ,

Th e h ug e r oun d st o n e r e su l t i n g wi th a b o u n d
, ,

T hu n d er s i mp etuous down a n d smo ke s alo n g ,



t h e gr o u n d . P OPE .

Thy st o n e 0 S i syp hus sta n ds still


, , ,

I xi o n r e st s up o n his w h e el ,

An d t h e pal e sp e c tre s dan c e .

F LE W I S
. .
102 A H A ND Y DICTI ONA R Y

r i ddl e thus Ma n i s t h e an i mal ; for wh en a n ,

i nfa n t h e c ra wl s o n h i s han ds a n d fee t in th e ,

n oo n ti d e o f li fe h e w a l ks er e c t a n d as t h e ev e n i n g ,

o f h i s e x i st en c e s e ts in h e supports h i ms el f w i th ,

a stick Wh en t h e sph in x foun d h er ri dd l e


.

so l ve d sh e d estroy e d h e rs el f .

S PIDE R s ee A ra chn e
, .

S PI N DLE s ee Pa l l as
, .

S PI N N I N G s ee A ra c h n e Erg o t is
, , .

S PR I N G s e e V ertumn us
, .

S T ABL E , s ee Aug aea s .

S T AR S, s ee A ur o ra .

Th e Roman g o d who in v en t e d
'
S TE R E N TI US . th e art
O f ma n uri n g l a n ds S ee al so P ic um n us . .


S TE R OPE S . On e of t h e Cy cl op e s .

S T ON E , s ee M e dus a a nd P hl e gyas .

S T ON E (r o lli ng) s ee S i syphus , .

S TR E E T S , s e e A po ll o .

' '
S T YM PH ALI DES Th e c ar n i v orous b irds d estroy e d in
.

t h e s i xth l abour o f H er c u l es .

STYx . A n ote d r i v er o f h ell wh ic h was h el d in su c h ,

h igh e st ee m by t h e g o ds th a t th e y a l wa ys swo r e

B y t h e S tyx, a n d su c h a n o a th was n e v er
v i o l at e d S e e A c hi ll e s a n d Th et i s
. .

To s e a l h i s sa c re d vow by S tyx h e swore


Th e l ak e wi th li qu i d p i t c h t h e dr e ary shore

, .

DRY DE N .

I n fer n al r i v ers that d i sgo rge


I n to t h e b urn in g l ak e th e ir b a l e ful st re ams ,

Abhorr ed S tyx, t h e o od o f d e ad ly hat e .

M ILT ON .
OF M YTH OL OG Y . 103

'
S UA DA, th e godd e ss of P ersuas i o n . Se e Pi tho .

S UCCESS , s ee B o n us E v en tus .

S UN, s ee Aurora , B el us, S o l, a nd S urya .

S UN F L OW E R , see Cl yt i e .

' '
S URA DE VI . Th e H i n doo g o dd ess of w in e .


S UR GE ON, s e e P o da li r i us .

Th e Hi ndoo
'
SU RY A . god c orr e spon d ing to t he
Roman S o l , t h e s un .

S WALL O W, s ee I tys .

S WA N , s ee Cygn us a nd Leda .

S W I F T N ES S , s ee A tal an ta .

S W IN E, s ee Ci r ce .

S YL PH S . Gen ii w ho, a cc ord i n g to P l ato li v e d , in th e


a i r.

Th e light c oqu ett e s as S yl phs al oft r epai r ,



An d sport a n d u t ter in t h e el ds of a ir .

P OPE .


S YL V E STE R Th e n a m e o f M a r s w h en
. h e w as i n v o k e d
to prot e c t c u l t ivat e d l an d from t h e rav a ge s o f war .

SYRI N x Th e n am e of t h e n ymph who , t o e s c a p e fr o m


.

t h e i mportun i t i e s of Pa n , was by Di a n a c h a n ge d
in t o r e eds , o ut o f w h ic h h e mad e h i s c elebrat e d

p i p es , a n d n am e d th em Th e S yr in x .

TA C I T A
. Th e godd e ss of S il en ce . S ee Harpo c rat e s

T AN TALU S F a th er o f N i ob e a n d P el o ps who as a
'
.
, ,

pun i shm en t fo r s erv in g up h i s s o n Pe l o ps a s m e at


at a fe ast g iv e n to t h e gods w as p l a c e d in a p o o l ,
104 A H A ND Y DICTIONA R Y

of wat e r in t h e i n fern al r e gi o n s ; b ut th e wat ers


r e c e d e d fr o m h i m wh en e v er h e a tt empt e d to qu en c h
h i s burn i n g th i rst H en ce t h e word tan tali s in g . .

S p e a k i n g of th i s g o d H o m er s U l yss es says

, ,

I saw t h e s e v er e pu n i sh men t o f T a n t a l us In .

a l a k e whos e wat ers appr o a c h e d t o h i s li ps h e


, ,

sto o d burn in g w i th th irst Wi thout t h e p o w er t o ,

drin k W h en ev er h e in cli n e d h i s h e ad to t h e
.

str eam som e d ei ty c omman d e d i t to b e dry a n d


, ,

t h e d a rk e arth app e ar e d at h i s fe et Aro u n d h im .

l o fty tr ee s spr e ad th ei r fru i ts to v i ew ; t h e p e ar ,

t h e p o me gra n at e a n d t h e app l e t h e gr een o l i v e


, , ,

a n d t h e l us ci ous g qu i v e r e d b efo r e h im wh ich , ,

wh en ev er h e e xt en d e d h i s han d to s ei' e th em ,

w e r e sn at c h e d by th e Win ds i nto cl ouds a n d



obs c uri ty .


Th er e Tan tal us a l o n g t h e S tygi an b oun d
, , ,

P o urs o ut d ee p groan s hi s g roan s through h ell ,


-

r es o u n d .

E e n in t h e cir cli n g o o d r e fr e shm en t c rav e s



An d p in e s w i th th i rst am i dst a s ea of wav e s .

An d of i ts el f t h e wat er i es
Al l tast e of li v in g Wi ght as o n ce i t e d ,

Th e li p of Tan tal us M ILT ON . .

T A R T A R US

. An i n n e r r egi o n of h ell , to wh ic h the
gods s en t t h e exc ept i o n a ll y d eprav e d .

TE L CH I N E S
'
. P r ie sts of Cyb ele, who w er e famous
magi ci a n s .


TE L LUs . A n am e of Cyb el e w i fe of S aturn
,
.

T E M PE ST S ,
s ee F ro .

TE M PLE . d i c e er e c t e d to t h e hon our of a god


An e

o r godd e ss in wh ic h t h e sa c r i ce s w er e o ffe r e d .
1 06 A HA ND Y DICTIONA R Y

T H E M I S a daught er of Coel us a n d T erra a n d w i fe


'
, ,

of J up i t er w as t h e Ro man godd ess of l aws c er e


, ,

mo n i es a n d ora cl e s ,
.

THE SE U S On e of t h e most famous o f t h e Greek



.

h ero es H e was a s o n of IEg eus Ki ng of A th ens


.
, .

B r ea sts th at wi th sympath i s i n g ard o ur gl o w e d ,



An d ho l y fr i en dsh ip su c h as Th e s eus v o w e d .

BUDGE LL .


THE SM ON PH O M US A n am e of Cer e s . .

T HE T I S A s ea godd e ss daught er of N er eus a n d



.
,

Do r i s H er husba n d wa s P el eus Ki ng of Th e s
.
,

sal y a n d sh e w as t h e m o th er o f t h e fa mous
,

A c hill es w h o m sh e r en d er e d a ll but i n vu l n e r a b l e
,

by d ipp i ng h im i n t o t h e Riv er S tyx S ee A chill es . .

T H I EF s ee Lav ern a M er c ury


, , .

T H OR Th e S ca n d in av ia n wa r god (s o n o f Odin ) who


.
,

h a d ru l e o v e r t h e a e r i a l r eg i o n s a n d l ik e J up i t er , , ,

hurl e d thu n de r a gain st h i s fo e s .

T H OR S B E L T i s a g i r dl e wh ic h d o ub l es h i s str ength

,

wh e nev er t h e w ar g o d puts i t o n -
.

T H OTH Th e M er c ury of t h e E gypt i a n s


. .

T H R E AD OF LI F E s ee F a t e s ,
.

T H U N DE RBOL T S s ee Cy cl o ps ,
.

TH UN DE RE R , TH E , J up it er . S ee To n it rua l is .

0 k i n g o f go ds a n d men wh o s e aw ful han d ,

Di sp ers e s thu n d er o n t h e s eas a n d l an d ,

Di spos in g all w i th a bs o l ut e c o mman d .


VI R GIL .


Th e e t er n al thu n d ere r sat en thro n e d in go l d .

H OM E R .
OF M YTH OLOG Y . 1 07

So wh en th ic k cl ouds enwrap t h e mou n ta i n s

h ea d ,

O er h ea v en s e xpan s e lik e o n e b l a ck c eili n g

spre ad
S udd e n t h e thu n d er e r w i th a a sh i n g ra y , ,

Burs s thr o ugh t h e dark n ess a n d l e ts d o w n th e


ti ya .

P OPE .


TH Y A , a n am e of Op s .

'
TH YA DE S . P ri e ste ss es o f B a cchus , wh o ra n wil d
in t h e h ill s , w e a r i n g t ig er ski ns a n d c arry ing
-

tor che s .


T H YR S U S a ki n d of jav eli n
, . S e e B a cc hus .

T I DE S s e e N a rya n a n
,
.

T I M E (or S aturn ) . Th e husban d of Virtu e a nd fath er


of Truth .

T I S I PH ONE
. On e of t h e F uri e s .

T I TA N E l d er broth er o f S atur n who mad e wa r


'
.
,

aga i n st h im a n d Wa s ul t imat ely van qu i sh e d by


,

J up i t er .

T I T AN S w er e t h e supp o rters of T itan in hi s war


again st S aturn a n d J up it e r .

T I TH O N U S
' '
. Th e husban d o f Aur o ra
A t t h e r equ est .

o f h is w i fe t h e g o ds gr a n t e d him i mm o rta li ty but ,

s h e fo rgot at t h e s a me t i me to a s k that h e s h o ul d
b e gr a n t e d p e rp etual y o uth Th e c o n s e q ue n c e .

wa s that T i th o n us gr e w o l d a n d d e c r e p i t wh il e ,

A urora r ema in e d as fresh a s t h e m o r n i n g Th e .

go ds h o w e v e r c han g e d h im i n t o a gra ssh o pp e r


, , ,

wh ic h i s supp o s e d t o moul t as i t gets o ld, a n d


r ws you n g a ga i n
g o .
1 08 A H A ND Y DI C TIONA R Y

T I T YU S A s on o f J up it e r A gi a n t who was thro w n



. .

in t o t h e i n n e r m o st h ell fo r in su l t in g Di a n a He .
,

li k e P r o m eth e us h a s a vu l t ure c on stan tl y fe e din g


,

o n h i s e v er grow i n g li v er -
.

T O IL s ee A tl as
,
.

T OM BS Se e M a n es
, .

T ON GUE , s ee T er eus .


TON I TRUA LI S . Th e Thu n d er e r a n am e of J up i t er .

T OWE RS ,
s ee Cyb el e .

T RAGE DY , s ee M el p o m en e .

TRE ES ,
s ee A r i st aeus .

T R I BULAT I ON ,
s ee E chi dn a .


TR I F OR M I S , s ee T ergem in a .

T R I PT OL E M U S
O c e an us a n d Te rra
. A sonHe of .


was a g r e a t fa v o u r i t e o f t h e go dd e ss Ce r e s, wh o
c u r e d h i m o f a d a n g er o us illn e ss wh en h e was
y o u n g, a n d a ft e r wa rds taught him agr ic u l ture .

S h e g a v e h i m h er c har i o t, wh ic h was d r awn by


dra go n s , in w h ic h h e c a r r i e d s ee d c o rn t o a ll t h e -

i n ha b i ta n ts o f t h e e a rth , a n d c ommu n ic at e d t h e
k n owl edg e gi v en t o h i m by Cer e s Cic ero men .

t i o n s a T r ipt o l emu s a s t h e fo urth Judge in h ell .

T r i pt o l e mus wh o s e us efu l c ar es in t en d
,

Th e c omm o n good P OPE . .


TR I TE R I CA B a cc han a li a n fe st ival s
. .

T R I T ON S w e r e s o n s o f Tr i to n a s o n of N eptun e a n d
'
,

Amph it r i t e Th e y w e r e t h e t rump e t e rs o f t h e
.

s ea g o d s a n d w e r e d e p i c t e d a s a s o r t o f m e rmen
-
,

t h e upp e r h a l f o f t h e b o dy b ein g li ke a ma n a n d ,

t h e l o w e r h a l f lik e do l ph i n s .
1 10 A H A ND Y DICTIONA R Y

Ho mer s Odyss e y H i s w i fe s n am e w as P en el op e

.
,

a n d h e w as s o mu c h e n d e a r e d t o h er th a t h e

feig n e d m a dn ess t o g et h i ms el f e x cus ed fr o m go in g


t o t h e T r oj a n wa r but h i s a rt i c e w as d i s c o v er ed ,

a n d h e w as c o mp ell e d t o
go H e w as o f gre a t
.

h el p to t h e Gr e cia n s a n d fo r c e d A c hill e s from h i s


,

r etr e at a n d Obta in e d t h e c h a r me d a rr o ws Of H er
,

c ul e s fr o m Phil o c t et es , a n d us e d th e m aga in st t h e
Troj a n s H e e n a bl e d P a r i s t o sh o ot o n e o f th em
.

at t h e h eel o f A c h ill es , a n d s o kill that c harm ed


warri o r Dur i n g h i s w a n d er i ngs o n h is h o m ewa rd
.

voya ge h e wa s ta k en p r i s o n er by t h e Cy cl op es a n d ,

e s ca p e d a ft e r b li n d i n g P o l yph e mus , th e i r c h i ef
, .

A t ZEo lia h e o bt a i n e d a ll t h e win ds o f h e av en ,


a n d p ut th e m in a bag ; b ut h i s c o mpan i o n s ,
th i n kin g th a t t h e b a gs c o n t a in e d tr ea sur e wh ic h
th ey c o ul d ro b him o f w h en th ey g o t t o I tha c a,
c ut t h e b a gs a n d l et o ut t h e wi n ds , a n d t h e shi ps
,

w er e i mmed ia t el y b l own ba ck t o ZEo lia . Aft er


.

Ci r c e h a d t u rn e d h i s c o mp a n i o n s i n to s wi n e o n
a n i s l a n d w h e r e h e a n d th e y w e r e shi p w r e c k ed , h e

c omp elle d t h e go dd ess t o r est o r e th em t o th eir


huma n s h a p e a ga i n A s h e p a ss e d t h e i sl a n ds o f
.

t h e S ir en s h e e s c a p ed th ei r all ur em e n ts by st o p
p in g t h e e a r s o f hi s c ompan i o n s wi th wax , a n d
fast en i n g h i ms el f t o t h e m a st o f h i s shi p His .

wi fe P e n el o p e was a p a tt ern o f c o n stan c y ; fo r ,

th o ugh U lys s e s was r eport ed t o b e d e a d , sh e w o ul d


n o t ma r r y a n y o n e e l s e, a n d h a d t h e s a t i s fa c ti o n o f
n d i n g h er husb a n d r eturn aft er a n abs en c e of
ab o ut tw en ty years .


To sh o w wh at p i o us Wi sdom s pow e r ca n do ,

Th e p o e t s ets U lyss es in o ur n ew .

FR AN CI S .


U N DI N E . A wat er n ymph or syl ph
, .
OF M YTH OL OG Y . 1 11

UN KN OW N GOD, AN W i th r e fer en c e t o th i s GOD


.
,

n oth i n g c a n b e mor e appropr i ate tha n S t P aul s



.

addr ess to t h e Ath en i an s as r e c o rd e d in t h e 17th


,

c hapt er o f t h e A c ts of t h e Apostl e s
Ye men Ath en s , I p er c eiv e th a t in a ll thing s
of

y e a re t o o sup e r s tit i o us Fo r a s I pass ed by a n d


.
,

b eh eld yo ur d e v o t io n s I fo un d a n a l ta r with thi s


,

ins c riptio n TO THE U N KN OWN GOD Wh o m th er efo r e


, .

ye ign o r a n t l y w o r s h ip h im d ec l a r e I un t o yo u
, Go d .

tha t ma d e t h e w o rl d a n d a l l th in gs th er e in s eeing ,

th a t h e is Lo r d o f h ea ven a n d e a rth d well eth n o t in ,

t empl e s ma d e with ha n d s ; neith e r is w o rsh ipp ed


with m en s th o ugh thing

h a n d s, a s he n e ed ed a n y ,

s e ein gh e g iv eth t o a ll life ,b r e a th a n d a ll thi ng s


a nd ,

a n d h a th ma d e o f o n e b l o o d a ll n a tio n s o f men for t o

dwell o n a ll t h e fa c e o f t h e ea r th a n d h a th d ete r ,

min ed t h e tim e s b efo r e a pp o in t e d a n d t h e b o un d s of


,

th eir h a bit a ti on th a t th ey s h o ul d s eek t h e Lo r d if ,

hap ly th ey migh t feel a fte r h im a n d n d h im th o ugh , ,

h e b e n ot fa r fr o m ev e r y o n e o f us fo r in h im we l iv e ,

a n d mo v e a n d h a v e o ur b e in g
,
a s c e rt a in a l s o o f yo u r

o wn p o e t s h a v e s a id Fo r we a re a l s o h is o ffs p r ing
,
.

F o r a s muc h th en a s w e a re t h e o ffs prin g o f G o d w e ,

o ugh t n o t t o th in k th a t t h e G o d h ea d is l ik e un t o

g o ld o r s il v e r o r s t o n e gr a v en by a rt a n d ma n s d e

, , ,

vic e An d t h e t im es o f t h is ig n o r an c e Go d win k e d
.

a t ; b ut n o w c o mma n d e th a l l men e v e r y wh e r e t o

rep ent b e c a use h e h a th a pp o in t e d a d a y in t h e ,

wh ic h h e will j ud g e t h e wo rl d in righ t eo us n ess by


tha t ma n wh o m h e h a th o r d a in ed wh ereof h e h a th
g i v en a s s ur a n c e un t o a l l m en in th a t h
,
e h a t h r a is e d
h im fr o m t h e d e ad

.
11 2 A H A ND Y DICTI ONA R Y

UN X am e of J un o r el at in g to h er prot ect i on

IA . A n ,

of n ew l y marri e d p e o p l e -
.

UR A N IA
'
A daught e r of J up i t er a n d M n emosyn e
.

o n e of t h e M us e s who pr e s i d e d o v e r astro n omy .

UR A N U S
'
Th e G r ee k n am e o f Coel us ; h i s d e s c en d
.

an ts a re som e t im e s c a ll e d Ura n id s .

UR GUS A n am e of P l uto s ig n ify i ng th e I mp elle r



.
.
,


UR S A M A J OR s ee Ca li stro

, .

Area s
'
UR S A M I N OR, s ee .

Us uR E R s
, s ee J a ni .

UT G ORD Lo x I I n S c an din av i an mytho l ogy th e


' '
.

k in g of th e g i an ts .

V A L HAL LA
Th e S c an d i n avi an t emp le of immo r
.

t a li ty , i n hab i t e d by t h e so ul s of h ero e s s l ain in


b att l e .


VA LI Th e S c an d in av i a n god of ar c h ery
. .

VALL E YS s ee V a ll o n i a, .

VALL O N IA
. Th e godd ess of vall eys .

Th e H i n doo N e ptun e
'
VA RU N A . g en erall y repre
s en t ed as a wh i t e ma n r id i n g o n a s ea hors e c ar ry -
,

in g a cl ub in o n e han d a n d a rop e in th e oth er .


V E DI US Th e sam e as V ej ov i s
. .


VEJ O V I S . Li tt l e J up it er a n am e gi ven to J up i
t er wh en h e app e ar e d Wi thout h i s thun d er .


V EJ U PI TE R , s ee V ej o v i s .

VE N GE A N CE , s ee N e m es i s .

'
VE N U S . Th e
godd ess of b eauty a n d moth e r of l ov e , .

Sh e i s sai d to hav e sprun g from t h e fo am of t h e


11 4 A H A N D Y DIC TIONA R Y
'
VE S T AL VI R GIN S w e r e t h e p r i e st e ss e s o f Ve sta wh o s e ,

ch ie f d uty wa s t o s ee tha t t h e s a c r e d re in t h e
t empl e o f Ve sta wa s n o t e xti ngu i sh e d Th e y w e r e .

alw ays s el e c t e d fr o m t h e b est fa milie s a n d w e r e ,

u n der a s o l e m n v o w o f c hast i ty, a n d c o mp ell ed t o


li ve p erfe c tl y pure li v e s .


V I A LI S . A nam e of M e r c u r y b e c aus e ,
he pr es i d ed
ov er t he makin g o f ro a ds .

'
VI C T OR Y A g o dd ess t h e daught e r o f S tyx a n d
.
,

A c h er o n , ge n erally r ep r e s en t e d a s y i n g in t h e a ir
ho ld in g out a wr e a th of l a urel S ee N ic eph o rus . .

'
VI DOR .A S c an di n av i a n g o d wh o c oul d w a lk o n ,

t h e w a t e r a n d in t h e a i r Th e g o d of s il en c e (c or
.

respo n d in g w i th t h e cl ass ic H a rp o c rat es) .

VI RT UE A g o dd e ss w o rsh i pp e d by most of t h e
.

a n cien ts u n d e r v a r i o us n a m e s Th e way t o t h e .

t empl e of h o n o ur wa s thr o ugh th e t emp l e o f


v irtu e .

VI RT U OU S WOM E N, s ee Jun o .

VI S H N U '
. Th e Pr es erv er , th e pri n ci pa l H i n do o
go dd ess .

V OLU PI A ,

s ee An g ero ni a .

VUL CAN , t h e god of re , was t h e s o n o f J up i ter a nd


Jun o He o ffen d e d J up i t e r a n d wa s by h im
.
,

th r o wn o ut o f h e a v en h e w a s n i n e d a ys fa lli n g ,

a n d a t l as t dr o pp e d i n t o Le m n o s wi th su c h v io
l e n c e th a t h e br o k e h i s l eg a n d wa s l a m e fo r e v e r,

aft e r V u lc an w as mar r i e d t o Ve n u s
. He i s .

supp o s e d t o h a v e fo rm e d Pa n dora o ut of cla y .

H i s s erva n ts w e r e t h e Cy cl o ps H e was t h e .

patron d ei ty of b l a cksm i ths .


OF M YTH OL OG Y . 11 5

Men c all h i m Mulcib er a n d how h e fell


Fr o m h e av en th e y fa b l e d th r o wn by an gry J ov e
, , ,

S h e e r o er t h e c rystal batt l e m en ts

.

M IL T ON .

VUL CA N IA w er e Ro m a n fe st ival s in h o n our of B a cchus



,

at w h ich t h e v ict ims w er e thro wn i nto t h e re


a nd burn e d to d eath .

WAR , s ee B ell on a, Ch emos, M ars .

WA TE R , s ee Can opus .

WA TE R N YM PH S ,
-
s ee Dor i s
WAX T ABLE TS , s ee Calli o p e .

WE AL T H, s ee Cuv e ra .

WE AV I N G, s ee Erg a t o s .

W E E DI N G, s ee Run c in a .

WE IGH TS a nd M E AS U R ES ,
s ee M er c ury .

WE LL , s ee T r uth .

WE S T W I N D, s ee F avo n i us .

W I N DS , s ee Aur o r a Aust er, B or ea s, Z eph yr


, .

WINE, see B a cchus, S ura d evi .

W I SDOM , s ee Po llea r, M in erva .

W O DE N , t h e A n gl o S a x o n form o f
' -
th e S c an di n av ia n
g o d Odi n ; W e d n e sday i s c all e d aft er h im .


W OME N S S AF E GUA RD, s ee S osp i ta .

W OODPE CKE R, see Pious .

W OODS , se e Dryads .

W OR LD, se e Chaos .
1 16 DICTION AR Y OF M YTH OL OG Y .

X
AN T HU S, th e n am e of th e wo n derfu l hors e of
A ch il l e s .

YA MA
. Th e H i n doo
d ev il g enerally r epres en t e d
,

as a t e rrib l e m o n st er of a gr een c o l our with a m ,

ing e ye s .

YG DR A S IL Th e fa mous ash tre e o f S c an d in avian


' '
.
-

myth o l o gy u n d er wh ic h t h e gods h eld da il y


,

c ou n cil .

Y M IR

. The S c an d i n av i an god c orr e spon di ng to
,

Chao s of t h e cl ass ic s .

YOU TH (p erp etual) , s ee T i thonus .

Z E PH YR
. Th e g o d
of ow ers a s o n o f 25101115 , a nd
A ur o ra t h e w e st w i n d S ee F avo n ius
, . .

W an to n Z ephyr c om e away , .

M i ra s charm i ng ey e s,

Th e sun , a nd

A t thy r e tur n mo r e c h a rm in g grow .

Wi th do ub le gl o ry th ey app e ar,

To warm a n d g r a c e t h e in fa n t ye ar .

J OH N H UG H E S , 1700 .

Z E TE S ,
'
wi th h i s b roth e r Cal ai s drov e t h e H arp i es ,

fr o m Thra c e .

Z E T H U S t wi n broth er o f A mph i o n

,
S ee A mph i o n . .

Z EU S Th e Gre ek n a m e of J up i t er
'
. .

TH E E N D .
J us t Publis hed , Pri ce I s Clo th ; 13 6d ha lf bound . . .
-

i n lea ther, red ed ges,

A DI CTI ONARYof DAI LYBLUNDERS


Co n ta ining a Co ll ec tio n m a de in of Mis ta k es t
o f en

S p ea k ing a nd W rit ing fr o m t h e b es t . Co rr ec te d


Auth o rities a n d a rr a ng ed in Alph a b etic a l Or d er by
, ,

t h e A uth o r o f A H a n d y Bo o k of Syn o nyms ,

A Dicti o n a r y o f Engl ish Pr o v e rbs



et c , .

E x tr a c ts f r o m O p in io n s o f t h e Pr e s s .


Us e ful kn owl e d g e I t s va lue a n d n ec es s ity a re un ques
.

M orn in g Pos t


t io n a b l e .
-
.

Th e E d it o r is t o b e th a nk e d fo r hi s us eful b o ok Da ily

.

Telegra p h .

S o fa r a s we c a n d is c o v er , fr o ma b rief p erus a l o f t h e h a n d y
l ittl e v o l ume , t h e a uth o r s wo rk h a s b e en v ery well d o ne

.

A then ce um .

A wel l mea n t a tt emp t t o k e ep p eo p l e c l ea r o f s ome c om



-

mo n e rro rs
S a t urda y Review
Th e l e g io n o f s el f e d uc a t e d men s h o uld n o t b e with o ut th is
. .

us eful c o mp a n io n , fo r, by it s a id , bl un d e rs o f s p e ec h wo ul d b e
a d v a n t a g e o u s l y a v o id e d

Citi' en .
.

Be a utifull y p rin t ed M a y b e c o n d en tl y r ec o mmen d ed t o



.

th o s e fo r wh o s e us e it is d e s ign ed M a n ches t er Gua rd ia n


'


. .

A u s e ful a id t o c o rre c t s p e e c h Li t era ry World . .


E v e ry wo r d in it h a s it s v a l ue Th e c o mmo n mis ta k es in .

s p e a kin g a n d wr it in g a re n ea rl y a l wa y s p ut rig h t in t h e b es t

wa y Boo ks eller

-
.

Dublin Freem
.

O f v a l ue , a n d wo rth kn owi ng a n s J ow n a l

. .

U s e ful a nd a mus in g S o me o f t h e c o mments on p o p ul a r



.

mis ta k e s a re v ery we ll d on e
Reco rd . .


Will b e o f us e t o ev e ry o n e wh o h a s eith er t o sp ea k o r

t o wr t e
i . S co tsma n .

Th e re is n o d o ub t a s t o t h e g en era l a c c ura c y a n d useful


n e ss o f t h e c o rr e c t io n s

Li verp oo l A lbion
.
.

Th e s tud en t c a n t ur n r ea d il y t o t h e r e ma rks ma d e o n a n y
p a rtic ul a r mis ta k e

.

Dn blin E ven i n g M a i l .

A n e xc e ll e n t l i ttl e b o o k , wh ic h c a nn o t b e t o o wel l lmo wn



.

Ch ris t ia n Wo r ld .

On e mus t b e a fa ul tl e s s s p e a k e r a n d writ er wh o d o es n o t
f t s fro m it

t u s e u l h in A berd een J ou rn a l
g
-
e . .

A ma nu a l wh ic h wil l n o t b e o ut o f p l a c e a t t h e r ig h t ha n d
o f a ll wh o d es ire n o t t o b 1un d e r

Dun d ee A d ver tiser .
.

LO N DO N : W H ITTA KE R Co .
JUS T P U BLI S H E D,
N ea t ly Round in Clo th, p ric e H a lf bound -
, R ed

/
edg es , 18 6 d . .

HIM LIA}? ENGLISH QUOTATIONS .

Th e o bj ec t of th is l ittl e v o l ume is t o tra c e t h e Fa milia r


Q uo ta t i on s s o c o n s ta n tl y in us e t o th eir p ro p e r a uth o rs h ip ,
a nd t o o rre c t t h e e rro rs s o freque ntl y ma d e by p ub li c s ea kers
c p
a n d w ri t e rs. Th e o rig in o f s uc h e ve ryd a y sa ymg s a s
H e th a t g h t s a n d runs a w a y ,
M a y turn a nd g h t a n o th e r d a y ,

(e rron eous l y s up p o s ed t o b e in Butl er s a nd a


numb e r o f o th e r p h ra s es o f a l ike c h a ra c t e r is g iv e n a n d t h e , ,

exa c t p la ce o f t h e m in t h e d iffe ren t a ut h o rs wo rks is re c o rd e d


Th e e rro rs c o ns ta ntl y ma d e in quo tin g a re r e ma rka b l e Th e .

a uth o r o f a n in te r e s t in g vo l ume c o mp ris in g ma n y well kn o wn


,
-

p a s s a g es n a mes
,
H udibra s a s c o n ta inin g t h e lin es
Th e y th a t in qua rr el s in t e rp o s e ,

Will o ft en wip e a b lo o d y n o s e .

I n a n e s sa y o n Mis quo ta tio n s whic h re c en tl y a p p ea re d



,

in a v e ry a bl y c o n d uc t e d n ews p a p e r t h e o bj e c t o f t h e writ e r
,

bein g t o c orrec t t h e bl un d ers c o n s ta ntly ma d e h e fa lls in to t h e ,

us ua l mis t a ke o f quo tin g N a t Lee a s writing


.

Wh en Greek me ets Gre e k th en c o mes t h e t ug o f wa r


,

,

a n d a l e a rn e d a nd emin en t d ivin e a c e rt a in Dr B
,
s o me y ea rs . .
,

a g o in t h e p re s en c e Of a la rg e p a rty o b s t in a t e l y in s is t ed th a t
, ,

A ma n c o n vin c ed a g a in s t his will


wa s a c o rre c t p a ss a g e fro m Hudib ra s a n d w a s o nl y s a tis e d

,

a s t o h is b l un d e r by t h e p ro d uc t io n o f Butl e r s immo rta l wo rk


E v en s o a c c o mp l is h e d a s c h o la r a s M r Gl a d s t o n e
.

q ua nd o que
bon us d o rmit a t Home ruse rrs ; in a r e c en tl y p ub l is h ed numbe r
.

o f t h e N ine t een t h Cen t ur y quo t in g Byro n s wo rd s


, ,

Th e bubbl in g c ry ,

0 1 s o me s t r o ng swimmer in h is a g o n y

,

h e n a me s th em a s o c c urrin g in Ch il d e Ha r o l d ins t e a d o f in

,

Do n J ua n .

LO N DO N : WHITTA KE R Co .
R e c en tl y Publis h ed ,
Pri c e 3s , t o o l e d a n d c o l o ur e d
. ed g es .

A HANDBOOK FOR W RI TE RS AND RE ADE RS,


CO M PR I S IN G

A Dic t io n a ry bf Da ily Blun ders ,


Co nta inin g a C o ll ec tio n o f Mis ta k es o ft en ma d e in Sp ea king
a n d Writing c o rrec t e d n o m t h e b es t A uth o rities ;
,

A Ha n dy Ba c h of Sy n o ny ms ,
C o nt a in in g a b o ut Wo rd s in Gen e ra l Us e ; a nd

A Ha h dy Cl a Dict io n a ry ,
ss ic a l
C o n ta inin g Ill us tra tive E xtra c t s .

S a me S i' e a nd Price .

A REFE RE NCE HANDB OOK OF QUOTATI ONS:


EN GLIS HL ATI N FR EN C H .

S a me S i' e a nd Pric e .

La mb s Ta les f r o m S h a hsp ea

re ,

Dr f o hme n s Ra s s ela s ;
.

a nd M a d a me Co ll in t

E li' a bet h , or t he E xiles o f S iberia .

I N ONE V O L UME .

S a me S i' e a nd Price .

A REFERE NCE HANDB OOK FOR BIBLE AND


GE NERAL READE RS,
COMPR I S I N G

Th e S t o ry of t h e N e w Tes ia mem
,
T ol d in c o nn ec t io n with R e vis e d V e rs io n , g ivin g a n A c c oun t
o f t h e Co d ic e s a n d o th e r Ba s es wh ic h e s ta bl i s h t h e Tr uth
o f t h e N e w Tes t a men t By R ev ANDR E W CAR TER , M A
. . . .

Rea s o ns w hy w e believ e t he Bible ,


Deriv ed fr o m t h e H is t o ric a l a n d o th e r E vid enc es .

B y R ev . J A M E S COPL AN D, M A . . a nd

Bible Trut h s w it h S h a hsp e a ria n Pa ra ll els ,


Sh o wing Sha ks p ea re s in d eb t e dn es s t o
'
H ol y Writ .

By J B S E LKI R K . . .

LO NDO N : WHI TTAKE R Co .


A PPR O V E D

EDUCATIO ALWORKS
PU B L I S H E D BY

PH I L A DE L PHI A .

I P P I N c T s
L o T

PO PULAR S ERI ES O F READERS .

By M A R C I U S W ILLS O N .

E mb r a c in g S ix Bo o k s . B e a ut ifu l l y I ll u s tra t e d .

C U T T E R
S

NEW S ERI ES O F PHYS I O LO G I ES


H u ma n a nd C o mp a r a t iv e .

F I R S T , S E C O N D, A N D C O M PL E T E BO O K .

S A N F O R D
S

SERI ES OFANALYTI CALARI THMETI CS .

F ir s t L e s s o n s . I n t e r me d ia te . C o mmo n S c h o o l .

H ig h e r . E l e me n t a ry A l g e br a .