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7.3 Grease Shear Stability
7.3.1 What is Shear Stability?
7.3.2 Motor Matic Grease Worker Test
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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure no. Title of figure Page no.
1 ATMA LOGO 5
2 DIGITAL PENETROMETR 6
3 GREASE COMPOSITION 7
4 GREASE COMPOSITION WITH GREASE CUP 8
5 KINEMATIC VISCOSITY AT 100deg APPARATUS 8
6 GREASE STRUCTURES 8
7 PENETRATION NEEDLE 14
8 FULL GREASE WORKER 22
9 GREASE WORKER CUP SETUP 23
10 HALF GREASE WORKER 25
11 MANNUAL GREASE WORKER 25
12 MECHANICAL ROLLING STABILITY 26
13 DROP POINT APPARATUS 28
14 BEARINGS 32
15 WATER WASHOUT APPARATUS 33
16 GREASE APPLICATIONS 36
17 GREASE SAMPLE 42

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REVTIONS

LSL: ATMA LUBRICANTS & SPECIALITIES LIMITED


I: AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUE
STM: AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING METHODS
N: BASE NEUTRAL
L: BHARATH PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED
: CENTISTROKES
HO: HYDROGENATED CASTROL OIL
I: INSTTIUTE OF PETROLEUM
ISO: INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION
JSO: JAPANESE AUTOMOTIVE STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS
KV: KINEMATIC VISCOSITY
M E: MERCEDES BENZ ENGINES
NLGI: NATIONAL LUBRICATING GREASE INSTITUTE
OEM: ORIGINAL EQUIPMETNT MANUFACTURERS
TFE: POLY TETRA FLURO ETHYLENE
SE: SOCIETY FOR AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
VI: VISCOSITY INDEXVV
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STRT

Over the years grease manufacturing has grown in the form of Petrochemical sciences
through research and development processes in the name Tribology. It is related to product as
well as to services. The various grease manufacturing techniques were discovered and developed
under the category of services.

Grease lubrication is a complex mixture of science and engineering, requires an


interdisciplinary approach, and is applied to the majority of bearings worldwide. Grease can be
more than a lubricant; it is often expected to perform as a seal, corrosion inhibitor, shock
absorber and a noise suppressant.

Grease is formulated from base oil, typically 85%, a thickener system at ~10% plus other
possible ingredients imparting special properties. Base oils are usually paraffinic mineral oils
with some synthetic base oils used. Thickeners are based either on metal soaps, particularly
calcium and lithium, with complex soaps giving particularly good performance at higher
temperatures. Inorganic thickeners include clay, silica gel and molybdenum disulphide.
Polymeric thickeners include the polyolefins, PTFE and Polyurea. Future demand divides into
commodity, low cost, basic grease at one end of the market and increasing demands for higher
performance, longer lasting specialty products at the other. According to the cost preferences the
base oil properties are changed by varying the viscosity Indexes and test the quality parameters
with proper specified testing methods such as ASTM, IP, etc, also compare with the standard
results.

In this project we studied about the processing of Lithium grease with varying Fats and
viscosity indexes, a brief description about the other greases, applications and its testing methods
also.

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Lubricant forms an important component of any machinery, be it a vehicle, an aircraft or
any industrial machine. It is used to minimize the friction and wear between the moving surfaces.
Although lubricating grease constitutes 2 3% of total production, it plays a major role in the
smooth operation of the machines. Lubricating greases are preferred over lubricating oils as
lubricants in many systems because the greases offer following advantages:

1.V Grease stays in place because of semisolid nature whereas oils flow away.
2. Bearing enclosure simplified and maintenance work reduced, as there is no oil pump
Etc.
3. For long time or packed for little applications grease is a preferred Electric motor
wheel bearings of new generation passenger cars, etc.
4. Grease works as a sealant in dusty industry environment. Cement plants, mining
Industries, Etc.
5. Solid lubricants like most and graphite can be blended with greases whereas in oils
they Tend to settle down.
6. Dripping and spattering are avoided by using grease in applications like food
Processing Pharmaceutical industries.
7. Greases are preferred in intermittent operations and they work even in badly worn/ old
Machinery.

In India, the total lubricating grease production, in organized sector is around 70,000MTs/year.
The following are major manufacturers of lubricating greases.

1. Indian Oil Corporation Ltd.


2. Hindustan Petroleum Corporation
3.Ballmer Lawry
4.) B.P.C
5.) Castrol
6.) Tide water
7.) Shell

According to the survey of NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute, USA), the total
production of grease is about >2.45lakh MTs around the world.

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11 RIEF HISTORY:V

Romans used rags dipped in animal fat to lubricate wagon wheels; however the science of
the lubrication (Tribology) really only took off with the industrial revolution in the 19th century.

Before World War II, available grease types were limited to calcium, sodium, and barium
and aluminum soap. They were made in variety of kettle designs, none of which were optimized
or standardizedV
V
A few of the kettles were commercially available from established equipment fabricators.
Back in 1928 Mr.C.W.Stratford a chemical engineer realized that he could vastly improve grease
processing by using a pressure vessel in with the very large heat transfer capacity and high-speed
agitation by means of bottom impeller. This design, known as the Stratco Contactor reactor
undoubtedly one of most significant developments in the history of grease production equipment.
Today there are hundreds of reactors in operation producing greases with unparalleled efficiency

At the same time, there are many more hundreds of non - pressurized (or atmospheric)
grease reactors in use for the production of greases that cannot be made as well as in the pressure
kettles or whose owners prefer atmospheric kettles for other reasons.
V
'EFINITION:

According to the c , grease is a lubricant composed of a


fluid lubricant thickened with a material that contributes a degree of plasticity. Greases are
typically used in areas where a continuous supply of oil cannot be retained a such as open
bearings or chassis components.

v GRESE OMONENTS:

Greases are comprised of the three essential components: a base fluid, a thickening
system and an additive system. A Different types and combinations of the thickeners and base
fluids, along with the supplemental structure modifiers and performance additives, combine to
give the final product its special lubricating properties.

vv SE OIL :

Many different types of base oils may be used in the manufacture of grease including
petroleum (Naphthenic, paraffinic) and synthetic (PAO's, esters, silicones, glycols) Just as
with motor oils and transmission fluids the viscosity of the base oil is the most significant
property Lighter lower viscosity base oil is use formulate low temperature greases or grease
suitable for high rotational.

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Speeds, while heavier, higher viscosity base oils are used formulate greases used in
applications where high loading is the encountered, a high temperature, and or low rotational
speeds are seen The term is used to encompass lubricating base oil derived from crude oil having
no of institute The American Petroleum Institute (API) designates several types of lubricant base
oil identified as:

1. Group I - Saturates <90% and/or sulphur >0.03%, and Society of Automotive
engineers (SAE) viscosity index (VI) of 80 to 120 - Manufactured by solvent extraction,
solvent or catalytic dewaxing, and hydro-finishing processes. Common Group I ba oil
ar v  SN (olv ural), SN, a v  S (brighok)
2. Group II Saturates >90% and sulfur <0.03%, and SAE viscosity index of 80 to 120 -
Manufactured by hydro cracking and solvent or catalytic dewaxing processes. Group II
base oil has superior ant oxidation properties since virtually all hydrocarbon molecules
are saturated. It has water-white color.
3. Group III Saturates > 90%, sulfur <.03%, and SAE viscosity index
>120Manufactured by special processes such as isohydromerization. Can be
manufactured from base oil or slax wax from dew axing process.
4. Group IV Polyalphaolefins (PAO) INTRODUCTION PROCESSING OF GREASE
WITH VARYING VISCOSITY INDEXES 4
5. Group V All others not included above

Such as naphthenic, PAG, esters, and etc.

In Norh
rica, Groups III, IV and V are now described as synthetic lubrica, with
group III frequently described as synthesized hydrocarbons, or SHCs. In Europ, only Groups
IV and V may be classed as synthetics.

The lubricant industry commonly extends this group terminology to include:

1.)Group I + with a Viscosity Index of 103 - 108


2.)Group II + with a Viscosity Index of 113 - 119
3.)Group III + with a Viscosity Index of >= 140

Can also be classified into three categories depending on the prevailing compositions:
- Paraffinic - Naphthenic Aromatic.

While lubricants for use in internal the combustion engines may solely consist of one of
the abovementioned oil groups, it is not a desirable in the practice. Additives to reduce oxidation,
improve lubrication are added to the final product.

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The main constituent of such the lubricant product is called the base oil, base stock.
While it is a advantageous to have high-grade base oil in a lubricant proper selection of the
lubricant additives is equally as important. Thus some poorly selected formulation of PAO
lubricant may not last as long as more expensive formulation of Group III+ lubricant. Thicken it
to a grease structure. The two basic types of thickeners are organic thickeners and inorganic
thickeners. Organic thickeners can be either soap-based or non-soap based, while inorganic
thickeners are non-soap based.

v THIKENER:

Thickener is the term describing an ingredients added to base oil in order to thicken it to a
grease structure. Two basic types of thickeners are organic thickeners and inorganic thickeners.
Organic thickeners can be either soap-based or non-soap based, while an inorganic thickeners are
non-soap based.

Simple soaps are formed with the combination of a fatty acid or ester (of either animal or
vegetable origin) with alkali earth metal reacted with the application of heat pressure or agitation
through a process known as saponification. The vessel most commonly used to cook greases is
referred to as a contractor. Think of a large pressure cooker with rotating blades like that found
in a blender. The fiber structure provided by a metal soap or other thickener system determines
the mechanical stability and physical properties of the finished grease as well as the other factors.

In order to take enhanced performance characteristics, including higher dropping points,


a complex agent is added to the soap thickener to convert it to a soap salt complex thickener. The
greases are then referred to as "complexes" and include the most popular thickener system,
lithium complex, as well as aluminum complex and others. Many factors combine to determine
the performance characteristics of the finished lubricant.

v ''ITIVES:

Chemical and metallic additives are added to grease in order enhance their performance,
much like the additives added to lubricating oils. Performance requirements, a compatibility, and
environmental considerations, color and cost all factors of additive selection.

v OUT THE ROJET:

In this project, we have dealt with the processing of grease with varying viscosity indexes
by adding some additives such as V.I Improver and Heavy Base Neutral. By those, the viscosity
ranges are improved according to the standards and grease is processed or prepares and check for
the variables, also plots the graphs between the viscosity index versus the major properties.


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 OUT THE OMNY

LSL VISION:

TO BE ONE OF THE LEADERS IN LUBRICANTS AND SPECIALITY OILS THE


PROCESSING INDUSTRY IN SMALL SCALE SECTOR IN INDIA"

v ORGNIZTION ROFILE:


!
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  %&is a professionally managed company has
established under the Companies Act (1 of 1956) in the year 1995. The company has started its a
commercial the production and marketing operations in the year 1999 after establishing requiring
infrastructure for processing and marketing of Automotive, a Industrial Lubricants and Specialty
Oils.

The main objects of the Company on its incorporation are, to engage in the Business of
the Processing, Blending, Compounding, Testing, Packing, Repacking, Selling, Marketing,
Exporting and Importing, Transporting of Lubricants and other the related products like Brake
fluids, the Lubricating greases from Indigenous, imported a base stocks and other raw materials,
and to deal in lube base stocks, mineral oils, Synthetic Base Stocks, Additives, and other
Specialty Products.

The company has installed a capacity of 4,500 kl per year (1,500 kl per year in a single
shift) and other testing facilities for processing and Blending of various Lubricant Base Stocks
and process oils with chemicals and additives to produce the Automotive, Industrial Lubricants
and Specialty Oils to meet the National / International / Customer established specifications to
achieve the customer satisfaction and cater the lubricant requirements of Replacement Market
Fleet Owners, Institutions, Road Transport Organizations, OEMs, Corporations and other Small,
Medium and Large Scale Sector / Industries in Maharashtra and Southern States of India. The
company has a started its commercial production and marketing operations in the month of May
1999. Presently, the company is concentrating to meet the requirements of the replacement
market in the State of Andhra Pradesh by direct marketing through Dealer network.

The company is in the process of establishing Sales/Marketing strategies to cater the


requirements in Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa and Maharashtra states to achieve 100%
capacity the utilization through appointing Dealers/ Stockiest/ Distributors/ Agents.

The company has been a established the infrastructure facilities in such a way to double
its capacity i.e., 9000 kl. Per year (3000 kl. per year in a single shift) in the same premises. The
registered office and factory of the company is located at 54-5-41, 5th road, Autonagar,
Vijayawada - 520 007.

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 ROESSING & LEN'ING:

1. ISO 9001 certification by D.N.V on processing & blending activity.


2. Facilities for processing & blending of various Lubricants & Specialty Oils, process
Oils of wide viscosity ranges from a 2cst-1700cst [KV@40C] confirming to SAE/ISO VG
grades.

WI'E VISOSITY GR'ES

1. Auto Engine lubricants ranging from SAE10W SAE60


2. Auto Gear lubricants ranging from SAE75 SAE 250, Industrial lubricants ranging
3. From ISO G 2 ISO VG 1500, Specialty & process Oils as per standard/user viscosity
4. Capacity to blend up to 4500 kl/ p.a.
5. infrastructure availability to enhance capacity up to 9000 kl/ p.a.
6. Good track record in adhering to blending & packing schedule
7. Quantities/volumes are assured @29.5C by taking volume corrections at actual filling
temperature

All inspection, testing, measuring equipment / devices / gauges / reagents are the
calibrated periodically at defined frequency with in-house/National & International traceability.

SE OILS All Automotive & Industrial Lubricants are processed from High Viscosity
Index Group I base stock. Imported Hydro finished base stocks are use for premium quality
engine oils, Hydraulic oils. Regular availability of all Paraffinic, Napathanic, Aromatic base oils.

''ITIVES Performance additive package are blended to improve the quality of the
lubricant to perform well in actual operating conditions to enhance lubricant and equipment life.

 QULITY OLIY:


!
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   %' established to cater Lubricating and
Specialty oils requirements of the Industry through Processing, Blending, Testing, Marketing and
after Sales Service by complying to National, International and User defined Standards.

We, the employees & Business Associates of ALSL shall endeavor to achieve customer
satisfaction by continual improvement in Quality, Productivity, Delivery, and Cost Reduction
and after Sales Service in line with the growing expectations of customers. We shall also strive
to achieve planned objectives and targets of the Organization and improve our Systems, Practices
and Business performance.



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We shall be committed to comply with the requirements of international standard on the


quality management system and continually improve its effectiveness in its true spirits through
total employee involvement

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v) SE' ON THIKENER:

1. Sodium Base
VVVLithium Based
3. Aluminum Based
4. Clay Based
5. Calcium Based

 SE' ON LITION:

1. Industrial Greases
2. Automotive Greases
3. Railroad Greases
4. Marine Greases
5. Aviation Grease

 SE' ON ONSISTENY:

Consistency or degree of firmness is an obvious physical characteristic of the lubricating


grease NLGI, USA has classified the lubricating greases based on consistency of penetration.
The consistency of the grease is determined by the test called as penetration test ASTM D 217.
Peneternaton is according to the ASTM D 217 is a measure of the depth to which steel tipped
cone of standard dimension and weight penetrates into a grease sample contained in a standard
cup at 25degre for 5 seconds. The depth in the one length of millimeter is converted into a figure
on circular scale.

Consistency of grease is measure of the thickening or gelling mechanism. The amount of


thickener in grease often affects the consistency of the grease. This consistency also depends
upon the method of manufacture, type of thickener, viscosity of the oil & also on type & quality
of the additives present in the greases. Therefore, we cannot assume that the same consistency
grease will give equivalent performance.

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The grease consists of three major ingredients
1. Base Oil 60 to 95%
2. Thickener 05 to 25 %
3. Additives 00 to 10%

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FigNo  GRESE OMOSITION
The major thickeners used for formulating lubricating greases are given below:

1.V Alkaline earth soaps


2.V Non soap type such as clay
3.V Polymers poly urea type
SE OILS : There is a wide variety of base oil available for grease manufacture and
depending upon the end use, suitable base oil can be selected for grease manufacturer.
M INERL OIL: A variety of mineral oils such as paraffinic, Naphthenic, low VI, high VI,
XHVI and viscosity grades ranging from VG2 to VG460 can be used for grease manufacture.
But the most popular are paraffinic oils of high VI and VG150 to VG320 grades.
SYNTHETI OILS: Polyalphaolephins, di ester, polyesters, and silicone oils can be used for
grease manufacture. These oils are costly and used only for those greases, which are meant for
special applcationsonly.
VEGET LE OILS : These oils are getting importance in recent times due to their high
biodegradability and environmental friendly characteristics. These are being used in biogradable
greases.
''ITIVES : Various types of additives are used in greases to improve certain properties. The
additives their chemical nature and applications are given in Table 2

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aic Vicoi a v Fig.No.6.Grease structures
v RINILE:

Saponification is the main key principle in the manufacturing of grease.


 STRUTURE;
In order to understand of the grease and the theory involved in the formation of grease
structure. Consideration must be given to the components of grease, method of grease
manufacture and the final product. In addition to the three major components, the grease also
contains unreacted fatty acids, alkali, glycerol, water and certain additives, which may functions
as modifiers.

The soaps used as thickeners in liquid lubricants are dispersed by thermal means, it is
important to control the crystallization of soap to get the desired structure. Hence, temperature
regulation in grease processing attains high importance. The electron microscope structure of
grease indicates that grease consists of fibers of different lengths
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Grease is the preferred form of lubrication in hard-to-reach places in a mechanically
rubbing or dynamic systems. Grease acts as reservoir for lubricant based fluids and additive
molecules. Of a Much of its functional properties are dependent on their ability to flow under
force, having shear stability, resist viscosity changes with the temperature and pressure, and
water stable, and seal out contaminants, decrease dripping and spattering, etc.

The dependability of lubricating grease depends on their physical properties that are
structurally related, which is obtained by the proper selection of ingredients and processing. The
Thus, it is pertinent to understand the grease microstructure as it contributes significantly to the
various functional properties of grease. Grease consistency (or National Lubricating Grease
Institute (NLGI) hardness, ASTM D-217 method, 2000) is largely dependent upon the thickener
fiber structure and its distribution in the grease medium.

The performance properties of grease are primarily dependent on their ability to provide
lubrication to mechanically operating moving parts by supplying base oil a thin film separating
the metallic surfaces and also removing heat and wear debris from the friction zone. The physical
and chemical degradation of grease during use (Care et al., 1983; Araki et al., 1995) and failure
of various mechanical parts due to inadequate lubrication (Can and Lubrecht, 1999) have been
reported. Several mechanisms have been proposed on timed lubricant release and replenishment
of starved lubricant sites during operation. Laboratory simulations range from simple thermal
stability tests to more complex lubrication measurements (Aihara and Dowson, 1978; Zhu and
Neng, 1988; Williamson, 1995).

However, a model of this mechanism resulting in stable lubricant film formation in


concentrated metal contact has not been established and requires more experimental findings.
Unpublished data show that the fatty acid chain length and C C unsaturation influence soap
fiber structure and their networking mechanism. Therefore, an understanding of fiber growth and
their network structure in grease matrix is required to relate base oil holding capacity and oil
release by shear degradation of soap thickener during operation to additive compatibility bleed
resistance, viscosity, thermal stability, texture, and appearance.

Critical physiochemical properties are therefore dependent on the consistency of grease and their
behavior in the mechanical system. Controlling the growth and distribution of soap fiber during
grease manufacturing processes can result in products with the desired physical, chemical, and
performance properties

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These are the first greases developed. These were prepared basically by sapanifying the
fat/fatty acids by lime in mineral oil. In conventional calcium grease, water is used as a
stabilizing agent the absorption of water during sapanification. Reaction is critical factor in
achieving the stable structure.

Anhydrous calcium soap greases were also developed later on, wherein water is not
required for having the stable grease structure. The 12hydroxystearic acid used or sapanification
contains a hydroxyl radical, which helps in stabilizing the grease structure.

The major properties of calcium grease are:


1.V Smooth texture
2.V Water resistant
3.V Good low temperature properties
4.V Cheap
5.V Easy to manufacture.

The disadvantages are:


1.V Low drop point around 90 100C.
2.V Operating temperature limited to 60C max. Anhydrous calcium greases can Be used
up to 90 100C.
3.V Not suitable for high speed/high shear applications.

Calcium greases are primarily used for lubrication of water pumps, wire ropes and
machinery components under mild operating conditions. Also used for automotive chassis
lubrication.

v SO'IUM GRESES:

These greases are prepared by the saponifying the fatty acids/fat with sodium hydroxide.

V V   V V VV V6666666 
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These greases are having normally the fibrous structure. These greases were beingV used
extensively before world war - II. They have higher drop point & can be used upV to a
temperature of 100C.Sodium soap being soluble in water, these greases haveV very poor water
resistance. These greases emulsify in presence of water and lose their structure.
However, these greases have following advantages:

1.V Excellent rust and corrosion inhibiting properties.


2.V Good high temperature stability.
3.V Good shear stability.

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The use of this type of greases world over is decreasing. However, these are still bearing
applications, and in same antifriction bearing applications. Sodium grease with very low
consistency was being used as Hard Loco greases for the lubrication in steam locos.

v LITHIUM SE GRESES:

These are the most popular and versatile greases. These are the first multipurpose greases and
can be used for automotive industrial applications. They constitute almost 60% of the total world
grease production.

These greases are prepared by sapanifying lithium hydroxide with 12hydroxystearicacid or


hydrogenated castor oil.

     


 66     
  

 
These greases have smooth shining structure and have the following advantages:

1.V High drop point of around 190C. So these greases can be used up to a temperature of
130 140C with selection of proper base oil, they can be used at as low a temperature
as 30C.

2.V High shear stability. Therefore, these greases can be used in high speed plain &
antifriction bearings.

3.V Very good resistance towards water. However, these are the most popular greases in
ssteel mills where ingress of water is unavoidable.

Good response to additives. These greases can be fortified by additives such as antioxidants,
antiwear and EP agents. So these can be used for long life applications.

This is a lithium base Grease of medium consistency. It is manufactured from superior


base stock mineral oils. It is imbibed with rust and oxidation additives. This Grease has a high
drop point, good thermal & structural stability and has good storage and service stability.

It is recommended for plain & anti friction bearings of Industrial Machinery. This Grease
is suitable for multipurpose application in Automobiles and other Machinery Lubrication under
higher temperatures.


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Tabl SO SE GRESES LSSIFITION  

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Complex greases are generally defined as those greases where the soap (thickener) is
formed by co crystallization of two or more dissimilar acids or salts. The complex soaps have
high melting points and results in complex greases of high drop points. They also have good
mechanical stability and load carrying ability. Calcium complex and aluminum complex greases
are widely popular and used extensively in steel plants cement plants and other industrial
applications.

v LIUM OMLEX GRESES: -

These greases are prepared by saponifying stearicacid/ 12hydroxystearicacid and acetic


acid with lime. The resultant grease has good mechanical stability, excellent and load carrying
ability, good antiwear & EP properties. However, these greases have poor storage stability and
poor low temperature properties.

 LITHIUM OMLEX GRESES: -

These are the most popular greases in U.S.A & Europe. These are formed by
saponification of 12hydroxylstearic acid and azeleic/boric acid. These greases have high drop
points of 260C and more, good water resistance, good mechanical stability and good
pumpability. These are preferred for high temperature applications through centralized
lubrication systems.

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839
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The use of these greases has increased in USA and these are popular in Steel Mill
Greases. These are formed by saponification of long chain fatty acids and benzoic acid. The soap
formed is Aluminum Benzoate Stearate. The properties of these greases can be varied by varying
the stochiometric ratio of Benzoic Acid and Fatty acids and total acids & Aluminum. The main
characteristics of these greases are

1.V High drop point


2.V Good mechanical stability
3.V Good pumpability
4. Temperature reversibility

These greases are used as multipurpose greases for Automotive and industrial
applications. These are also used as Food Grade Greases.

83< 
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In this greases, over based calcium sulfonate is used as thickener. This thickener is
considered as most complex thickener. These greases poses very high drop point in exceed of
325C and high load carrying ability. They have exceptional high rust and corrosion protection.
In India these greases are rapidly getting popular as excellent high temperature greases especially
in Steel plants.
Comparative properties complex greases are given in Table 3.

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89
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The most popular amongst this class of greases are clay based greases and Poly urea
Greases.

891  

  
2 A

In this type of greases organ clay is used as thickener. A special class of clay known as
Bentonite/Smectonite is treated with Quaternary Ammonium Compounds and converted from
hydrophilic to oleophilic (oil attracting). These treated clays known as orgnophilic clay when put
in oil gels the oil. Structure stabilizer such as glycol an isopropyl alcohol is used for getting good
structure. There greases dont have any drop point, as thickeners are clay. However, these are
used for high temperature application like furnace roller table bearings, continuous casting
bearings etc. At high temperature, the oil in the grease tends to evaporate leaving a solid mass of
clay. So their use is decreasing.

893 c5 
  
2 A

These classes of greases are prepared from highly toxic raw materials such as diamines &
isocyanides. The resultant polymer Polyurea thickeners the oil to form grease structure. The
reaction is formed in situ in base oil to form grease.

The resultant grease has excellent properties such as:

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Very high oxidation resistance
 Smooth buttery structure
 Good mechanical stability

These types of greases are most popular in Japan and these are used as fill for life type of
applications:

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FigNo  ENETRTION NEE'LE

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The properties are given in Table 4.


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899 
2

It is waterproofs grease made by combining silicone oil with a thickener. Most
commonly, the silicone oil is polydimethylsiloxane and the thickener is amorphous fumed silica.
Using this formulation, silicone grease is a translucent white viscous paste, with exact properties
dependent on the type and proportion of the components.

8991 5!5 2

Silicone grease is commonly used for lubricating and preserving rubber parts, such as O-
rings. Additionally, silicone grease does not swell or soften the rubber, which can be a problem
with hydrocarbon based greases. It functions well as a corrosion-inhibitor and lubricant for
purposes that require a thicker lubricant, such as the operating mechanism of the M1 Garand
rifle.VV
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It often consists of a silicone grease base, along with added thermally conductive fillers.
It is used for heat transfer abilities, rather than friction reduction. Special versions of silicone
grease are also used widely by the plumbing industry in faucets and seals, as well as dental
equipment. These special versions are formulated using components not known to be an
ingestion hazard. Electrical utilities use silicone grease to lube separable elbows on lines which
must endure high temperatures. Silicone greases generally have a temperature range of -40 to
400 C.

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Silicone grease is widely used as a temporary sealant and lubricant forinterconnecting


ground glass joints, as is typically used in laboratory glassware. Although silicones are normally
assumed to be chemically inert, several historically significant compounds have resulted from
unintended reactions with silicones: for example, the first salts of crown ethers (OSi (CH3)2)n (n
= 6, 7) were produced by reactions resulting from contacting organ lithium and organ potassium
compounds with silicone greases.

89<3 5  52




Silicone-based lubricants are often used by consumers in applications where other


common consumer lubricants, such as petroleum jelly, would damage certain products, such as
latex rubber condoms and gaskets on dry suits. It can be used to lubricate fountain pen
mechanisms, preserve O-rings in flashlights, to seal waterproof watches and for O-rings on air
rifles. Silicone-based lubricants are also commonly used for remote control hobbies. Various
household uses include lubricating light bulb threads to facilitate removal and discourage stuck
bulbs (especially in outdoor lighting), door hinges, shower heads, threads on bolts, garden hose
threads or any thread or mechanism that can be lubricated.

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5
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Grease making is not just a matter of applied chemistry, because physical phenomena,
mainly solubility related, play a dominant role in the formation and performance of the micelles
that keep the base oils inside the grease structure and which give the grease consistency. This
combination can make grease production rather complicated and sometimes mysterious,
although the processes that occur inside cooking kettles are increasingly better understood.

In general, the following essential elements are needed to cook greases:

1. formulation (chemistry)
2. process (chemistry + physics)
3. process equipment (some chemistry & physics + mechanical engineering)

The formulations are usually well under control of chemists, whereas the process is less
defined and often includes a trial and error phase with bench, pilot and full-scale tests. The
equipment is even less defined with one exception (explained below). It takes some knowledge
of chemistry and physics, experience as grease maker and a large dose of mechanical
engineering to design an optimized high-performance kettle that can produce any known type of
grease efficiently. Since few grease makers have this capability and equipment fabricators are
not specialized in this area, good equipment has traditionally resulted from close collaboration
between the two disciplines. Even this has not happened very much as witnessed by the
Hundreds of vintage and reconditioned grease kettles in use today. The grease literature is replete
with chemistry, but kettle-oriented articles are few and far between. None provides a clear path
toward a universal atmospheric high-performance design.
There are different processes available for manufacture of greases:

Batch process
 Continuous process
=1
 c 2

Open kettle process


Stratco contactor process

In the open kettle process, the main steps involved are:


1. Saponification
2. Dehydration
3. cut back
4. Homogenization
5. Deacration
6. Filtration
7. Packaging

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In the contactor process, the saponification reaction takes place in Stratco contactor and
the rest of the steps are same. The use of Stratco contactor reduces the reaction time.

=3  55c 2

In this all the raw materials added continuously to a cylindrical reactor where
saponification, dehydration cut back and additive desperation steps are followed continuously.
Then it goes for homogenization and other steps. Here the only advantage is continuous
production of similar type greases. The production rate is very high.

=9
*c 2

Grease is a manufacture of petroleum oil and thickener (soap) dispersed oil. The first
stage of grease manufacture is to prepare the soap by adding the fats and specified quantity of oil
in the saponification kettle (Grease cooking Kettle) with an alkali until the process is complete.
In this process normally temperature of reaction goes up to 200C. This cooking kettle is open
blending kettle with limped coil system for heating through Thermic Fluid Heating System. Over
here the balance amount of oil is added and gently blended in the cooking kettle after soap is
formed gradually till the desired specification is reached.

In grease manufacturing mineral lubricating base oils are used of various viscosity grades
depending upon specification/ quality of grease. Fats are generally Hydrogenated Castor Oil
(HCO) / Rice bran Oil / Vegetable Oils etc depending upon the quality of grease.

Alkali is generally Calcium hydroxide/ Lithium Oxide/ Sodium Hydroxide depending


upon whether final grease is Chassis grease (Calcium grease)/ sodium base grease (Wheel
bearing grease)/ Lithium grease (Wheel bearing / general purpose grease). The next step is to
transfer the prepared soap to finishing kettle (cooling kettle) where the product is cooled. This
cooling kettle is open blending kettle with a jacket for water cooling. Additives are added into
the cooled finished grease and mixed to achieve the required performance characteristics.

In grease manufacturing, during the process at high temperature water vapor and little bit
is passed through a milling machine. The product is at times recalculated back into the finishing
kettle until meets the required test results. Required inspection will be conducted at in coming, in
process and final stages to ensure the desired quality of grease is manufactured.


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A further phenomenon that has undergone investigation in relation to high temperature


wear prevention and lubrication is that of 'glaz formation. This is the generation of a
compacted oxide layer which sinters together to form a crystalline 'glaze' (not the amorphous
layer seen in pottery) generally at high temperatures, from metallic surfaces sliding against each
other (or a metallic surface against a ceramic surface). Due to the elimination of metallic contact
and adhesion by the generation of oxide, friction and wear is reduced. Effectively, such a surface
is self-lubricating.

As the 'glaze' is already an oxide, it can survive to very high temperatures in air or
oxidizing environments. However, it is disadvantaged by it being necessary for the base metal
(or ceramic) having to undergo some wear first to generate sufficient oxide debris

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Greases are used because of their properties. Grease properties are defined and measured
by a number of tests, many of them are unique. Producers and consumers who recognize a gap in
testing often develop new tests. Some of them become widely used others are found in only few
laboratories. Most of these tests have been studied and standardized by ASTM committees and
the Institute of petroleum (IP) and listed in the annual book of ASTM standards and IP standards.

Tests conducted on lubricating greases have two main purposes in mind. The first to
insure uniformly in the product; that is, such tests are control or inspection tests. Next, and most
important, such tests should enable a prediction to be made of the performance of the lubricant
when in service. Allied to both of these purposes are informational tests whish are a necessity in
any development work on lubricants.

Standardized test specifications provide for the determination and verification of


important grease performance characteristics. Users can identify required performance criteria by
means of such specifications a check incoming stocks to assure product compliance with these
criteria.
The tests are conducted in laboratories under well-defined conditions; they are
used primarily as screening tests. Some of the grease tests do give an indication of what grease
might do in services, but direct correlation between laboratory and field performance is rarely
possible, since the tests never exactly duplicate service conditions.

>1 2

Of all greases properties, the first one that comes to mind is consistency, or firmness of
the product. Greases are available in consistencies ranging from almost fluid, or semi fluid, to
firm blocks. Consistency of product must be appropriate for the application. Grease that is too
hard may feed adequately into areas to lubricate. However, if grease is too soft, it may leak away
from the area where it is needed. Consistency also influences pumpability, softer greases
generally being pumped more easily. The plasticity (consistency) of lubricating grease is
designated by the penetration number. The depth to which a measuring cone penetrates at +25 C
is measured in accordance with DIN 51804.

In the USA, the NTIONL LU RITING GRESE INSTITUTE (NLGI)


introduced penetration grades that were adopted by DIN 51818 for the "consistency
classification of lubricating greases".

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5 2

Based on worked penetrations, the NLGI has established consistency numbers ranging
from 000 to 6. These are shown in the following Table - 1. Consistency numbers have sometimes
been referred to as grades.

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The pumpability of grease is influenced not only by its penetration but also, among
others, by its intrinsically viscous properties. Attention must be paid to the pumpability of grease
when it's used in Centralized Lubrication Systems. Pumps, Tubing and Feeders / Distributors
have to be dimensioned accordingly. The pressures required delivering an NLGI grade 2 grease
through Tubing and Feeders / Distributors are much higher than those used in systems for
lubricating oils and grease belonging to lower NLGI grades 00 and 000. Pressures of 200 bars or
More can occur, depending on the size of the system, tubing cross sections and lengths.

Grease consists of a soap skeleton in which the lubricant, oil, is embedded in the same
way as in a sponge. Sometimes the oil and soap skeleton separate in progressive systems
(bleeding). The solid soap skeleton clogs the feeder boreholes and causes the system to fail.

There can be many reasons for such bleeding. The nature of the grease, changes in
pressure and temperature, filtration effects in the case of precisely fitted pistons, etc. all have an
effect. The only remedy is to clean the distributors and change the grease. In this case it is
absolutely necessary to consult the manufacturer of the grease.

If a grease lubrication system is also supposed to work flawlessly at


Temperatures down to -25C, the change (reduction) in the penetration of the grease must be
taken into account.

>3c

 !31>@!1<09 2

Consistency is commonly measured by the ASTM cone penetration (ASTM D 217-Full
scale & ASTM D 1403-Half & Quarter scale). Penetration is the depth, in tenths of millimeters,
to which a standard cone sinks into the grease under prescribed conditions. Different procedures
of measuring conditions .different procedures of measuring consistency are given as under:

>31 5! 5 !c


:

The penetration is measured in the container as received without any disturbance. This
value is significance in determining the extent to which grease may harden or soften in the
container in shipment or storage or both.


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>33 5  !c
2

Sample is transferred from the original container to the cup of the grease worked with
minimum amount of disturbance. This value is frequently reported but is not considered to be
definite. Since the amount of disturbance cannot be accurately controlled. It does have
significance in respect to the transfer of grease from an original container to the application
equipment

>39  !c
 G =0 !5 c
:

Sample is brought to25 0.5C and subjected 60 double strokes in a standard grease
worker and penetration is measured immediately. This value is generally reported as standard.

FigNo FULL GRESE WORKER


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>3< c !  !c
2

Grease is worked for more than 60 double strokes (Generally 10,000 or 100,000) in
standard grease worker in temperature range 15-30C. Then grease is brought to 25 0.5C in
half hour followed by 60 double strokes and penetration is immediately recorded
V
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FigNo GRESE WORKER U SETU
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>91
   
 
 H

Shear or mechanical stability of grease is its ability to withstand repeated working with
minimum change in its structure or consistency

>93   A
  
     2

The Motor-Metric Grease Working machine is used for determining the ASTM standard
cone penetration of grease at 77F. It is used extensively for ASTM Method D-217, and it is a
necessity for carrying out Army-Navy tests of aeronautical greases which require 100,000 double
strokes of working before determining the penetration.

The purpose of the test is to determine the relative increase or decrease in consistency of
grease after being worked for 10,000 or more strokes. This determination is a measure of the
mechanical stability of the lubricant.

The apparatus consists of a precision Motor-Matic Grease Worker machine equipped


with an ASTM grease worker having 1/4-inch holes and also an ASTM grease worker having
1/16-inch holes. The mechanical counter determines the number of strokes.

The procedure for the test is to place the required amount of grease (approximately 1 lb.)
in the worker at 77F. This is followed by assembly of the apparatus using the cover with 1/4-
inch holes in the worker plate. Sixty strokes then prepare the sample for the ASTM standard
cone penetration reading for worked grease.

The apparatus is then reassembled using the cover with 1/16-inch holes in the worker
plate and operated for a designated number of strokes as shown on the mechanical counter. The
sample is cooled to 77F 1, reworked for 60 strokes, and then final penetration is taken.

Ten thousand strokes is a moderate amount of working, and change in penetration


between 60 strokes and 10,000 strokes indicate the degree of mechanical stability for the
lubricant under test.

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  ! 191 2

Grease may change consistency in service, primarily because of change in the size and
dispersion of thickener particles as consistence stability, shear stability, or mechanical shearing.
The resistance to such changes is referred to as consistence stability, shear stability, or
mechanical stability. Depending on the particular grease and application, grease may harden,
soften, or go through a more complex sequence of hardening and softening. It is important that
grease have consistency stability adequate for the shear to e imposed on it in service and for the
expected service interval between re lubrication. In general there are two standard laboratory
tests to evaluate the shear stability of greases, change in penetration after prolonged working in
ASTM D 217 grease worker and change in penetration after serve rolling in ASTM D 1831 roll
stability worker. It should be noted that grease tests are at relatively low shear rate. While of
some use in many common applications where shearing is not intense and re lubrication is
reasonably frequent, they are not usually predictive of shear intensive service with very
infrequent re lubrication





V

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FigNov MEHNIL ROLLING ST ILITY

c   
  

       29
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V
In the roll stability test a cylindrical roller weighing 5kg is inserted in a chamber along
with 50g of grease. The chamber revolves at 165 rpm for two hours at room temperature. This
motion causes the roller to mash, knead, and otherwise work the grease in the chamber. Due to
small size of sample working and penetrations are performed on ASTM D 1403 either by half
cone or by quarter cone equipment. Percentage change in worked penetration before and after
rolling by one-fourth or one half scale worker ASTM D 1403 is reported as roll stability
change.

>8 
 
2

Heat affects greases in a number of ways. When heated, grease generally becomes softer
and flow more rapidly. At elevated temperatures, oxidation is more rapid, oil separation
increases, and oil evaporates significantly. All these phenomena are tested to indicate whether a
product is likely to be satisfactory at temperature encountered in service.

>81 ! cc c  


  ! 8== @ ! 33=8 2

The dropping point of the grease is the temperature at which a drop of material falls from
orifice of a test cup under prescribed test conditions. Plastic materials such as conventional soap
thickened greases do not have a true melting point but have a melting range during which the
material becomes progressively softer. Some greases containing thickeners other than
conventional soaps may, without change in state separate oil. In either case, only an arbitrary,
controlled test procedure can provide temperature that can be established as a characteristic of
grease.

ASTM D 566 and ASTM D 2265 procedure are essentially similar expect that ASTM D
566 provides for heating with an oil bath and is limited to maximum dropping points 260C,
while ASTM D 2265 uses an aluminum block with dropping points ranging up to 316C. The
sample is placed in the cup and heated at a uniform rate. When the first drop of material falls
from the lower end on the cup, the temperature is observed and reported as the dropping point.
The dropping point of grease is not considered to have any bearing on service performance other
than that normally grease cannot be expected to resist leakage at temperature for the grease
since performance at high temperatures depends on such other factors as: "
   
c

!  
%c  !

"  c

1. Whether the exposure to high temperature is continuous or intermittent.


2. Whether cycling from high to low temperatures is involved.
3. Evaporation resistance of the grease.
4. Design of the lubricated mechanism.
5. Oxidation stability of greases.
6. Frequency of lubrication.

c   
  

       30
VVVVVVVVVVVV  V
 V   V
V 
V 
V  V
V
Dropping Point, however, is useful in identifying a grease type, and for establishing and
maintaining bench marks for quality control. Dropping point is useful, but it has no direct
bearing in service performance unless such correlation has been established.

FigNov  'RO OINT RTUS

*+*+ ,%-.+,+,*.**+*+*+/*+-'*+

0+.++.,*+*+//+++.,,,++,*+%--.c
*++,+U
V
c   
  

       31
VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  V
 V   V
V 
V 
V  V
T pical 'rop oi Rag

1.V Calcium Base Grease 160 210F


2.V Sodium Base Grease 275 - 350F
3.V Lithium Base Grease 350 400F
4.V Benton Base Grease over 500F
5.V Silicone Base Grease over 500F

>83 
c
   
  ! />3 @
  ! 38/82

Exposure of grease to high temperatures may cause evaporation of some of the liquid
lubricant with resultant hardening or other undesirable changes in the remaining grease. The
problem is most frequently encountered with greases that are designed primarily for low
temperature service and, thus, use low viscosity oils, but may be subjected to high temperatures.
The problem is also of increasing concern with high temperature greases that are designed for the
use at temperatures ranging from 149C to as 316C and, also, in application where vapors from
the grease may cause problems, as in gas cooled reactors.

The ASTM has standardized two methods D 972 & D 2595 for the measure of
evaporation loss. The older one, D 972, holds grease in a chamber which is heated to a controlled
temperature between 99C and 149C. Preheated air, at 2 liters per minutes, is directed so as to
pass over the surface of the grease for 22 hours. Weight loss is then the measure of evaporation.
As service conditions increased in severity, a modification of D 972 was developed. This
method, D 2595, uses the same grease chamber but operates at a wider temperature range of
93C to 316C. Instead of holding the grease at test temperature, but leaving air temperature
uncontrolled, the new method holds exit air at the target temperature. The evaporation loss in the
tests may not be identical.

>89V  c



  
  ! 1><3- c 131 @  1<<-  c2 /
1 c

 !5   

  ! 1><3 G c 1312

The grease when stored at room temperature, some of the oil will separate. The visible separated
oil is known as bleed. The ASTM D 1742 / IP 121 determine the amount of oil likely to bleed
out of grease stored around room temperature in a grease container. The loosely held oil is part
of the lubricating mechanism is grease lubrication, since a bearing lubricated with dry (non
bleeding) grease is to be noisy in service. It is not suitable for grease under softer than NLGI
No.1, and is not intended to predict the blending tendencies of grease under dynamic service
conditions.
a)V STM ' v 

Test Condition: Temperature 25 1C


Duration 24 hours
Air Pressure 1.72 0.07 kPa (0.25 0.01psi)
The oil collected in the beaker is reported as oil separated % of total mass.

c   
  

       32
VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV  V
 V   V
V 
V 
V  V
V
b)V I vv

Test Condition: Temperature 40 1C


Duration 42 or 168 hours
Weight 100g applied
The oil collected in the beaker is reported as oil separated % of total mass.

 Oil Sparaio a v IS v , : 

This is called as a cone bleed test. Grease (10 grams) in a 60 mesh wire screen cone is
suspended in a beaker and kept in an oven for 100 hours at 100C. If bleed is rapid in this test,
life of grease in bearing operating at test temperature will be short. But low bleed does not, in
itself, assure long bearing life. The oil collected in the beaker is reported as oil separated % of
total mass.

>= C!
 
 2
>=1  
 
 7  C!
  
  ! /<32

We need to know whether oxidation will cause grease to deteriorate severely in storage or
in use. Unfortunately, no relationship between storage oxidation has been found. We do have an
ASTM test for testing oxidation stability of grease by ASTM D 942.

The absorption of, and the reaction with, oxygen may lead to deterioration of lubricating
grease. This test, conducted in the Norma-Hoffmann Oxidation apparatus, evaluates resistance of
lubricating greases in a closed container to oxidation under specific conditions of static exposure
and pressure. The validity of test results has been questioned. In this test, five glass dishes, each
holding 4g of grease, are placed in a rack inside a sealed bomb. The grease is exposed to
oxygen at 99C starting at 110psi. As oxidation of the grease progresses, oxygen is absorbed,
and pressure in the bomb drops.

The pressure in the bomb is recorded at prescribed intervals throughout the test. At the
end of the specified test time, usually 100, 200 or 500 hrs, the pressure drop is calculated and
reported. The droop in the pressure is the net change resulting from absorption of oxygen by the
grease and the release of gaseous products from absorption of oxygen by the grease and the
release of gaseous products from the grease. The limit for any one grease is usually expressed as
pressure drop in a given time for example, 5 psi in 100 hours.

Frequently, the results of this test are reported as indicative of the oxidation stability of
grease; however, it is static test. It is not intended for the prediction of the stability of grease
under dynamics, or in bulk quantities in the original container. It may be useful as a quality
control indication of the presence of antioxidants in specific formulations.

c   
  

       33
VVVVVVVVVV  V
 V   V
V 
V 
V  V
V
>=3 C!
 
  7 
  2

Even if ASTM D 942 continues in use, it must be noted that it has no relation to
oxidation in service. Most grease technologists believe that the only practical measure of service
oxidation would be obtained natural in operating bearing. There we find differences in bearings
size, configuration, metallurgy, operating speed, and operating temperatures.

A more recent and quite severe test is D 3336. This appeared for a long time in a
completion of federal test methods but has now been standardized with in ASTM. A small
bearing, size 204 is used, operating at any desired temperatures up to 371C and a speed of
10000 rpm. Thrust loads may vary from none to 22 N to 67 N and added radical load form none
to 22 N. Again, the tester is run cyclically until failure is recognized. For the higher temperature
ranges, bearings of special metallurgy are required. This test method covers the evolution of the
performance of lubricating greases in ball bearings operating under light loads at high speeds and
elevated temperatures.

For automotive service or more broadly, for use in tapered roller bearings, to service
related tests are available. The older one D 1263 runs for 6 hours at 660 rpm and 104C without
load. It measures leakage but is too mild to be employed as an indication of oxidation stability.
The newer method, D 3527 is much more severe. In this method two tapered roller bearings of a
size to fit some passenger cars are installed on a spindle in a hub, such as are in a compact car.
The bearings and hub are lubricated; the bearings, thrust loaded to 111 N (25 lbf), are rotated at
1000 rpm and spindle temperature maintained at 160C. Operation is cyclical until failure is
recognized. Failure in this test comes early if the grease is used not stable to oxidation.
V
>=V  
  
  ! 13=92

This method covers the evolution of the leakage tendencies of wheel bearing greases when
tested under prescribed conditions. The test method provides a screening tool that permits
differentiation among products having distinctly different leakage characteristics. It is not the
equivalent of long time service tests, nor is it intended to distinguish between wheel bearing
greases showing similar or borderline leakage.

In this method the test grease is distributed in a modified front-wheel hub and spindle
assembly. The hub is rotated a speed of 660 30 rpm for 6 h 5 min, at a spindle temperature
which is raised to and then maintained at 105 1.2C. Leakage of grease or oil, or both, is
measured, and the condition of the bearings surface is noted at the end of the test






c   
  

       34
   V
 V   V
V 
V 
V  V
V

V
FigNov  ERINGS

V    
 :

There are many applications in the field where grease inevitably comes in contact with
water/moisture. Water may affect lubricating grease, and thus grease lubrication, in several
distinct ways. The grease may change in consistency, becoming, for example, less stringy and
less adhesive. The water and grease may form emulsion, which will usually have less lubrication
capability than the original grease. Or the grease may form a soft emulsion and wash away.
Various combinations of these behaviors have been experienced.

More usual is the addition of water to grease in a worker cup or in the roll stability test
chamber. Using the grease worker, the worker plate is sometimes modified; proportions greases
and water and number of strokes vary from laboratory to laboratory. If the roll stability tester is
used, proportions of water and greases, temperature, and time of rolling vary. In the best case,
the grease is essentially unchanged, and water is rejected.

c   
  

      35

     V
 V   V
V 
V 
V  V

>1
 
 5 2
The ability of grease to resist washout under conditions where water may splash or
impinge directly on bearing is an important property in the maintenance of a satisfactory
lubricating film. ASTM D1264 test for water washout characteristics of lubricating greases
evaluates the resistance of lubricating grease to washout by water from bearing at 39c or 79c.
T pci
: Bearing Type ASTM test bearing size 6204 equipped with front and rear shield
that have a specified clearance.
T co iio: Test Grease 4.00
0.05g
Speed 0600
30rpm
Water impingement on bearing housing 005
0.5ml
Temperature 39C or 79 1.7C
After the test the bearing is dried and the percent loss by weight of grease is determined. The test
servers only as a measure of the resistance of grease to water washout. It should not be
considered the equivalent of a service evaluation unless such correlation has been established.
Even comparative results between different greases may not predict the relative performance of
the two greases in actual field use. Test results are affected by differences in grease texture and
consistency. Firm, stringy grease will be pulled out of the bearings, the loss being reported as
washout. Thus the test, although widely used, can give Test precession, particularly with soft
greases, is poor.
V
Grease Packed Bearings

c   
  

       36
VVVVVVVVV  
V


 ! 
cc


Greases can be applied by various methods depending upon the type of bearings and
operating conditions. A brief description is given below:

MV Ha pplicaio:-
This is the simplest method where in a given amount of grease is hand packed in bearings. This
is not the most suitable method because; hand packing is wasteful and allows dirt or dust to enter
into the bearings

MV o
prio Gra up
This device widely used screws he grease directly into the bearings the cup is filled with the
grease and loaded the grease is fed into the bearings by continuously turning the cup.

MV rur pplicaio
This is most widely used. The grease may be applied by means of hand operated grease gun and
by power operated units

MV raliz lubricaio  

This is the most reliable and economical lubrication system for large plants. It enables to
lubricate large number of bearings at a time placed at long distances .The grease is filled in the
reservoir and pumped through the pipe lines to various points of lubrication.

1
cc
 5! c2

V Automotive

`V Engine oils
V Petrol (Gasoline) engine oils
V Diesel engine oils
`V Automatic transmission fluid
`V Gearbox fluids
`V Brake fluids
`V Hydraulic fluids

V Tractor (one lubricant for all systems)


V Universal Tractor Transmission Oil - UTTO
V Super Tractor Oil Universal - STOU - includes engine

V Other motors
V 2-stroke engine oils

c   
  

       37
VVVVVVVVV  
V
V
V
V Y V
V
`VHydraulic oils
`VAir compressor oils
`VGas Compressor oils
`VGear oils
`VBearing and circulating system oils
`VRefrigerator compressor oils
`VSteam and gas turbine oils

V Aviation
`VGas turbine engine oils
`VPiston engine oils

V Marine
`VCrosshead cylinder oils
`VCrosshead Crankcase oils
`VTrunk piston engine oils
`VStern tube lubricants

3 5   5 


 :

There are a variety of lubricants available for automotive, home, marine and shop usage,
but none quite as good or versatile as white lithium grease. When it creaks, sticks, jams or rubs
chances are white lithium grease can solve the problem. It's easy to use, safe on any kind of
metal and long lasting; it doesn't splatter, melt, run, wash off or freeze. To reduce friction and
protect against rust, use lithium grease.

Instructions:
1. Choose lithium grease when there's metal on metal contact. Purchase lithium grease from a
hardware store. There are numerous brands, most available in aerosol cans that are easy to use.
2. Move the part(s) so you have easy access. Remove mechanical parts to get good contact as
you apply the lithium grease.
3. Spray the lithium grease where needed (anywhere metal might come contact with other
metal). Watch it infiltrate small crevices and fill small spots.
4. Let the grease dry. Once dry it provides excellent lubrication and protection.
5. Replace the parts and enjoy the long lasting nature of lithium grease. Wash your hands with a
degreasing product after using.

c   
  

       38V
V
VVVVVVVVV  
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V

V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
c   
  

       39V
VVVVVV 
V
V

 

The global lubricant market is generally competitive with numerous manufacturers and
marketers. Overall the western market may be considered mature with a flat to declining overall
volumes while there is strong growth in the emerging economies. The lubricant marketers
generally--- pursue one or more of the following strategies when pursuing business.

/1c 
2

The lubricant is said to meet a certain specification. In the consumer market, this is often
supported by a logo, symbol or words that inform the consumer that the lubricant marketer has
obtained independent verification of conformance to the specification. Examples of these include
the APIs donut logo or the NSF tick mark. The most widely perceived is SAE viscosity
specification, like SAE 10W-40. Lubricity specifications are institute and manufacturer based. In
the U.S. institute: API S for petrol engines, API C for diesel engines. For 2007 the current specs
are API SM and API CJ. Higher second letter marks better oil properties, like lower engine
wear supported by tests. In EU the ACEA specifications are used. There are classes A, B, C, and
E with number following the letter. Japan introduced the JASO specification for motorbike
engines. In the industrial market place the specification may take the form of a legal contract to
supply a conforming fluid or purchasers may choose to buy on the basis of a manufacturers own
published specification.

/3 
?5c 
5
 5   
cc 
2

Specifications often denote a minimum acceptable performance levels. Thus many


equipment manufacturers add on their own particular requirements or tighten the tolerance on a
general specification to meet their particular needs (or doing a different set of tests or using
different/own tested engine). This gives the lubricant marketer an avenue to differentiate their
product by designing it to meet an OEM specification. Often, the OEM carries out extensive
testing and maintains an active list of approved products. This is a powerful marketing tool in the
lubricant marketplace. Text on the back of the motor oil label usually has a list of conformity to
some OEM specifications, such as MB, MAN, Volvo, Cummins, VW, BMW or others.
Manufactures may have vastly different specifications for the range of engines they make; one
may not be completely suitable for some other.

/9c  
 2

The lubricant marketer claims benefits for the customer based on the superior
performance of the lubricant. Such marketing is supported by glamorous advertising,
sponsorships of typically sporting events and endorsements. Unfortunately broad performance


c   
  

       40VVVVVV
V
VVVVVV 
V
claims are common in the consumer marketplace, which are difficult or impossible for a
typical consumer to verify. In the B2B market place the marketer is normally expected to show
data that supports the claims, hence reducing the use of broad claims. Increasing performance,
reducing wear and fuel consumption is also aim of the later API, ACEA and car manufacturer oil
specifications, so lubricant marketers can back their claims by doing extensive (and expensive)
testing.

/< 2

The marketer claims that their lubricant maintains its performance over a longer period of
time. For example in the consumer market, a typical motor oil change interval is around the
3000-6000 miles (7500-15000 km). The lubricant marketer may offer a lubricant that lasts for
12000 (30000km) miles or more to convince a user to pay a premium. Typically, the consumer
would need to check or balance the longer life and any warranties offered by the lubricant
manufacturer with the possible loss of equipment manufacturer warranties by not following its
schedule. Many car and engine manufacturers support extended drain intervals, but request
extended drain interval certified oil used in that case; and sometimes a special oil filter. Example:
In older Mercedes-Benz engines and in truck engines one can use engine oil MB 228.1 for basic
drain interval. Engine oils conforming to higher specification MB 228.3 may be used twice as
long, oil of MB 228.5 specification 3 xs longer. Note that the oil drain interval is valid for new
engine with fuel conforming car manufacturer specification. When using lower grade fuel or
worn engine the oil change interval has to shorten accordingly. In general oils approv for
extended use are of higher specification and reduce wear. In the industrial market place the
longevity is generally measured in time units and the lubricant marketer can suffer large financial
penalties if their claims are not substantiated.

/8  2

The lubricant marketer claims improved equipment efficiency when compared to rival
products or technologies, the claim is usually valid when comparing lubricant of higher
specification with previous grade. Typically the efficiency is proved by showing a reduction in
energy costs to operate the system. Guaranteeing improved efficiency is the goal of some oil test
specifications such as API CI-4 plu for diesel engines. Some car/engine manufacturers also
specifically request certain higher efficiency level for lubricants for extended drain intervals.

/=c

 
 2

The lubricant is claimed to cope with specific operational environment needs. Some
common environments include dry, wet, cold, hot, fire risk, high load, high or low speed,
chemical compatibility, atmospheric compatibility, pressure or vacuum and various
combinations. The usual thermal characteristics are outlined with SAE viscosity given for
100C, like SAE 30, SAE 40. For low temperature viscosity the SAE xxW mark is used. Both

c   
  

      41


 
V

markings can be combined together to form a SAE 0W- 60 for example. Viscosity index
(VI) marks viscosity change with temperature, with higher VI numbers being more temperature
stable.

/> 2

The marketer offers a lubricant at a lower cost than rivals either in the same grade or a
similar one that will fill the purpose for lesser price. (Stationary installations with short drain
intervals.) Alternative may be offering a more expensive lubricant and promise return in lower
wear, specific fuel consumption or longer drain intervals. (Expensive machinery, un-affordable
downtimes.)
V

/    !2

The lubricant is said to be environmentally friendly. Typically this is supported by


qualifying statements or conformance to generally accepted approvals. Several organizations,
typically government sponsored, exist globally to qualify and approve such lubricants by
evaluating their potential for environmental harm. Typically, the lubricant manufacturer is
allowed to indicate such approval by showing some special mark. Examples include the German
Blue Angel, European Daisy Eco label, Global Eco-Label GEN mark, Nordic, White
Swan, Japanese Earth friendly mark; USA Green Seal, Canadian Environmental Choice,
Chinese Huan, Singapore Green Label and the French NF Environment mark.

// c 2



The marketer claims novel composition of the lubricant which improves some tangible
performance over its rivals. Typically the technology is protected via form alpatents or other
intellectual property protection mechanism to prevent rivals from copying. Lot of claims in this
area are simple marketing buzzwords, since most of them are related to a manufacturer specific
process naming (which achieves similar results than other ones) but the competition is prohibited
from using a trademark.

/10 ? 5
 2

The marketer claims broad superior quality of its lubricant with no factual evidence. The
quality is proven by references to famous brand, sporting figure, racing team, some
professional endorsement or some similar ubjciv claim. All motor oil labels wear mark
similar to "of outstanding quality" or "quality additives," the actual comparative evidence is
always lacking.
V
V
c   
  

       42V
VVVVVVVVVVVV  V
V


 V  V
V


!c
 
!  
5


It is estimated that 40% of all lubricants are released into the environment. 'ipoal:
Recycling, burning, landfill and discharge into water may achieve disposal of used lubrica.

There are typically strict regulations in most countries regarding disposal in landfill and
discharge into water as even small amount of lubricant can contaminate a large amount of water.
Most regulations permit a threshold level of lubricant that may be present in waste streams and
companies spend hundreds of millions of dollars annually in treating their waste waters to get to
acceptable levels. Burning the lubricant as fuel, typically to generate electricity is also governed
by regulations mainly on account of the relatively high level of additives present.

Burning generates both airborne pollutants and ash rich in toxic materials, mainly heavy
metal compounds. Thus lubricant burning takes place in specialized facilities that have
incorporated special scrubbers to remove airborne pollutants and have access to landfill sites
with permits to handle the toxic ash. Unfortunately, most lubricant that ends up directly in the
environment is due to general public discharging it onto the ground, into drains and directly into
landfills as trash. Other direct contamination sources include runoff from roadways, accidental
spillages, natural or man-made disasters and pipeline leakages.

Improvement in filtration technologies and processes has now made recycling a viable
option (with rising price of base stock and crude oil). Typically various filtration systems remove
particulates, additives and oxidation products and recover the base oil. The oil may get refined
during the process.

This base oil is then treated much the same as virgin base oil however there is
considerable reluctance to use recycled oils as they are generally considered inferior. Base stock
fractionally vacuum distilled from used lubricants has superior properties to all natural oils, but
cost effectiveness depends on many factors. Used lubricant may also be used as refinery
feedstock to become part of crude oil. Again there is considerable reluctance to this use as the
additives, soot and wear metals will seriously poison/deactivate the critical catalysts in the
process.

c   
  

       43V
VVVVVVVVVVVV  V
V


 V  V

Cost prohibits carrying out both filtration (soot, additives removal) and redefining
(distilling, isomerisation, hydrocrack, etc.) however the primary hindrance to recycling still
remains the collection of fluids as refineries need continuous supply in amounts measured in
cisterns, rail tanks. Occasionally, unused lubricant requires disposal. The best course of action in
such situations is to return it to the manufacturer where it can be processed as a part of fresh
batches. 0/+1 Lubricants both fresh and used can cause considerable damage to the
environment mainly due to their high potential of serious water pollution. Further the additives
typically contained in lubricant can be toxic to flora and fauna. In used fluids the oxidation
products can be toxic as well. Lubricant persistence in the environment largely depends upon the
base fluid, however if very toxic additives are used they may negatively affect the persistence.
Lanolin lubricants are non-toxic making them the environmental alternative which is safe for
both users and the environment.

These oils are unlikely to present any significant health or safety hazard when properly
used in the recommended application and good standards of industrial and personal hygiene are
maintained.
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V






c   
  

       44V
VVVVVVVVVVV   VV  

5 @!5

Lubricating greases are semisolid or solid colloidal dispersions owing their consistency to
a gel-type network. A typical composition of grease includes base fluids, thickener, and
additives. The base fluid is contained and stabilized in the matrix by the fiber structure of the
soap molecules. Metals usually used in the soap composition include lithium, calcium, sodium,
aluminum, etc.

The fatty acids include stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic. Although, it is known that
the general structure of the soap phase in grease consists of crystallites, which take the form of
fibers, this does not clearly explain why a small amount of solid (soap) could immobilize a large
volume of the base oil in grease. These fiber structures form a complex network that traps the
base oil molecules in two ways: (i) by direct sorption of the oil by polar ends of soap molecule
and (ii) penetration of base oil in the interlacing structure of soap fiber.

The oil retaining property of grease may be due to the attractive influence of soap fibers
extending through many layers of base oil molecule and not to the swelling of the fibers
(Browning, 1950). Therefore, the physical and chemical behavior of grease is largely controlled
by the consistency or hardness, which is dependent upon the microstructure of soap fibers.
V
V

V V
c   
  

       45V
VVVVVVVVVVVV   VV  
V
111 5 2

As per specifications we deal with major quality parameters which will affect the grease
processing, such as consistency, drop point and water washout Characteristics etc., Here in this
project we change the base oil characteristics by varying fats and improving viscosity ranges.and
check the results as follows:

First of all, we will see what we have made in the various batches then we go for those batch
results.

1111  
    


@
 !C2



V Oil (base oil) : 4 kg


V Fat :
a) R.B.F 700g
b)P.D.F 800g

V Alkali (calcium) :350gV

c  
 

The production of grease is carried out in a single tank which is provided with an impeller
to mix the ingredients. At the starting of process we dump around half of oil into the clean and
specified tank (open top) and fat and oil were introduced. Heating is provided to the tank through
the heater. Heating is done up to assurance of 95deg centigrade was attained.

After assurance was made heating media (heater) is simply turned off. Now alkali is
added to the open top tank. The continuous stirring takes place by the impeller provided.
Decrease in Temperature is observed because of the absence of external heating source. As the
temperature reduces the mixture solidify in the presence of rotating impeller action is required
for uniform mixing of these three main ingredients. Solid thus obtained was semi solid very thick
and blackish color.

c   
  

       46V
VVVVVVVVVVVV
VVVVVVVVV   VV  
V
In the process of solidifying thick layers of slurry is formed on the walls of the tank
which is removed and again mixes with the content. This is done manually with the help of knife
like plates. In industries knife plates are fixed adjacent to the walls and working of these plates
are same like we observe in home grinder. Foam is formed during the process is removed with
the help of a deformer chemical Odor produced during the process is not recognizable and its
like smell from rice dust. The entire process takes place not more than around 6- 8 hours and it is
a batch process. No Byproducts or end products present hence more environmental friendly
production
Glycerin produced May be of different types based on the composition of ingredients and
types of ingredients. It is very environmental friendly production and cost of the equipment and
maintenance are also very economical.
This type of grease it can satisfy the conditions of an pentrometer, dropping point
apparatus, Roll worker, all the conditions the conditions are satisfied this grease very economical
and cost is low but it can be used for only bearings.

c
 



cc
c
cc

  





V Oil (base oil) : 4 kg


V Fat :
a) R.B.F 500g
b)P.D.F 500g
c) H.C.A 500g

V Alkali (calcium) :350g







c   
  

       47V
VVVVVVVVVVVV   VV  
V

c  
 

V
The production of grease is carried out in a single tank which is provided with an impeller
to mix the ingredients. At the starting of process we dump around half of oil into the clean and
specified tank (open top) and fat and oil were introduced. Heating is provided to the tank through
the heater. Heating is done up to assurance of 95deg centigrade was attained.

After assurance was made heating media (heater) is simply turned off. Now alkali is added
to the open top tank. The continuous stirring takes place by the impeller provided. Decrease in
Temperature is observed because of the absence of external heating source. As the temperature
reduces the mixture solidify in the presence of rotating impeller action is required for uniform
mixing of these three main ingredients. Solid thus obtained was semi solid very thick and
blackish color.

In the process of solidifying thick layers of slurry is formed on the walls of the tank
which is removed and again mixes with the content. This is done manually with the help of knife
like plates. In industries knife plates are fixed adjacent to the walls and working of these plates
are same like we observe in home grinder. Foam is formed during the process is removed with
the help of a deformer chemical Odor produced during the process is not recognizable and its
like smell from rice dust. The entire process takes place not more than around 6- 8 hours and it is
a batch process. No Byproducts or end products present hence more environmental friendly
production
Glycerin produced May be of different types based on the composition of ingredients
and types of ingredients. It is very environmental friendly production and cost of the equipment
and maintenance are also very economical.





c   
  

       48V
VVVVVVVVVVVV   VV  
V

This type of grease it can satisfy the conditions of an pentrometer, dropping point
apparatus, Roll worker, all the conditions the conditions are satisfied this grease very economical
and cost is low but it can be used for only bearings

c
 



cc
c
cc

  




V Oil (base oil) : 4 kg


V Fat :
a) 12 H.S.A 500g
b) P.D.F 1000g

V Alkali (calcium) :350gV

c  
 

The production of grease is carried out in a single tank which is provided with an impeller
to mix the ingredients. At the starting of process we dump around half of oil into the clean and
specified tank (open top) and fat and oil were introduced. Heating is provided to the tank through
the heater. Heating is done up to assurance of 95deg centigrade was attained.

After assurance was made heating media (heater) is simply turned off. Now alkali is
added to the open top tank. The continuous stirring takes place by the impeller provided.
Decrease in Temperature is observed because of the absence of external heating source. As the
temperature reduces the mixture solidify in the presence of rotating impeller action is required
for uniform mixing of these three main ingredients. Solid thus obtained was semi solid very thick
and blackish color.

c   
  

       49V
VVVVVVVVVVV
V
VVVVVVVVV   VV  
V
V
V
In the process of solidifying thick layers of slurry is formed on the walls of the tank
which is removed and again mixes with the content. This is done manually with the help of knife
like plates. In industries knife plates are fixed adjacent to the walls and working of these plates
are same like we observe in home grinder. Foam is formed during the process is removed with
the help of a deformer chemical Odor produced during the process is not recognizable and its
like smell from rice dust. The entire process takes place not more than around 6- 8 hours and it is
a batch process. No Byproducts or end products present hence more environmental friendly
production

Glycerin produced May be of different types based on the composition of ingredients and
types of ingredients. It is very environmental friendly production and cost of the equipment and
maintenance are also very economical.

This type of grease it can satisfy the conditions of an pentrometer, dropping point
apparatus, Roll worker, all the conditions the conditions are satisfied this grease very economical
and cost is low but it can be used for only bearings.

c
 



cc
c
cc

  





c   
  

       50V
V
VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
  
V
V
V
5

By this Project we can observe that there is large scope of development in the
characteristics of the grease by improving the viscosity ranges and varying fats or its
characteristics. So, the viscosity is directly proportional to the other relevant properties and
thus by improving its range we get the improved characteristics of the grease material and by
cost, Final applications and market preferences we can change the characteristics of the grease
corresponding to improving the properties of base oil.

In our project, in those two classifications we opt for any one because it purely depends
upon the final applications and water washout characteristics and other major quality parameters,
etc
































c   
  

       51V
##
c 

c 


1.V IUPAC. "IUPAC Gold Book - soap" /-+/*+/ +/.2, 2nd ed. (the
"Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific
Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected
version:http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates
compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8.doi:10.1351/goldbook. Accessed 2010-08-
09  $ Cavitch, Susan Miller. The Natural Soap Book. Storey Publishing, 1994.
2.V Thorsten Bartels et al. "Lubricants and Lubrication" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of
Industrial Chemistry, 2005, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a15_423
3.V Willcox, Michael (2000). "Soap". In Hilda Butler. c*+3,c+/+,',/+,
-, (10th edition ed.). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 453. "The earliest
recorded evidence of the production of soap-like materials dates back to around 2800
BCE in ancient Babylon."
4.V Noted in Martin Levey, "Gypsum, salt and soda in ancient Mesopotamian chemical
technology" ,, .3 (September 1958:336-342) p. 341.
5.VPliny the Elder,  ,2, XXVIII.191.
6.VAretaeus, *+4 ,
++,'*+--, ed. and tr. Francis Adams
(London) 1856:494 note 6, noted in Michael W. Dols, "Leprosy in medieval Arabic
medicine" 5*+ ,2!++ 1979:316 note 9; the Gauls with whom the
Cappadocian will have been familiar are those of AnatolianGalatia.
7.V Etymonline.com
8.VPartington, James Riddick; Bert S Hall (1999).
 ,2++ +c6+.
JHU Press. p. 307.ISBN 0801859549.
9.Vfootnote 48, p. 104, "+,.*+!+
.+,1*+,/+,
+,*+!++06, Harald Kleinschmidt, illustrated, revised, reprint edition,
Boydell & Brewer, 2000, ISBN 0-85115-770-X.

c   
  

       52V
V
V V
V V
VVVVVVVVVVVV   VV
  
V

vV
V
V a oil (SN ) + Vicoi I  I
provr

In this again there are three classifications such as by improving viscosity range from 11.5 to
14.5 and are as shown:

V vv v , i VISOSITY IN'EX IS 


V v v  , i VISOSITY IN'EX IS 
V v  v  , i VISOSITY IN'EX IS vv

V
V a Oil (SN ) + Hav a Nural ( N)
In this again there are three classifications such as by improving viscosity range from 11.5 to
14.5 and are as shown:

V vv v , i VISOSITY IN'EX IS 


V v v  , i VISOSITY IN'EX IS 
V v  v  , i VISOSITY IN'EX IS 
V
Here we know the Percentage change in Consistency is calculated as Follows:
% hag = Fial Ra ig Iiial Ra ig X v
Iiial Ra ig

For this the Results are Compared as if its < % Ecll


v % Goo , v  % Fair a Fiall > % ovr oor
So, these are the two types of Combinations and their results with varying the viscosity indexes
are as follows:
V

V



c   
  

       51V
VVVVVVVVVVVV   VV
  
V
V
V

 the Corresponding Graphs FOR VISCOSITY INDEX IMPROVER (V.I


Improver) is as shown below:

V
V
V
V
V
c   
  

       52V
VVVVVVVVVVVV   VV
  
V
V
V

V
V
V
V
V
c   
  

       53V
VVVVVVVVVVVV   VV
  
V
,VV V
V
V
V  V

V
V

c   
  

      54V
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure no. Title of figure Page no.
1 ATMA LOGO 5
2 DIGITAL PENETROMETR 6
3 GREASE COMPOSITION 7
4 GREASE COMPOSITION WITH GREASE CUP 8
5 KINEMATIC VISCOSITY AT 100deg APPARATUS 8
6 GREASE STRUCTURES 8
7 PENETRATION NEEDLE 14
8 FULL GREASE WORKER 22
9 GREASE WORKER CUP SETUP 23
10 HALF GREASE WORKER 25
11 MANNUAL GREASE WORKER 25
12 MECHANICAL ROLLING STABILITY 26
13 DROP POINT APPARATUS 28
14 BEARINGS 32
15 WATER WASHOUT APPARATUS 33
16 GREASE APPLICATIONS 36
17 GREASE SAMPLE 42

V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
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V V V V V V V V V V V V VVVVVVV(V

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VVVVV>V ,,V V -V)- -V2? (3(2 *(,V VVVVVV#>V
V
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V
V
V
V
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V V V V V V V V V V V V ((V
V
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REVTIONS

LSL: ATMA LUBRICANTS & SPECIALITIES LIMITED


I: AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUE
STM: AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING METHODS
N: BASE NEUTRAL
L: BHARATH PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED
: CENTISTROKES
HO: HYDROGENATED CASTROL OIL
I: INSTTIUTE OF PETROLEUM
ISO: INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION
JSO: JAPANESE AUTOMOTIVE STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS
KV: KINEMATIC VISCOSITY
M E: MERCEDES BENZ ENGINES
NLGI: NATIONAL LUBRICATING GREASE INSTITUTE
OEM: ORIGINAL EQUIPMETNT MANUFACTURERS
TFE: POLY TETRA FLURO ETHYLENE
SE: SOCIETY FOR AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
VI: VISCOSITY INDEXVV
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V V V V V V V V V V V (((V
V V
V V
V V
V
V V
V V
V
V V
V
V V
V
V V
V
V V
V V
V
V V
V
V V
V
V V
V
Composition
Oil (base oil) 80%
Fat 12-15%
Alcohol (calcium) 5%

Process
The production of glycerin is carried out in a single tank which is provided with an
impeller to mix the ingredients. At the starting of process we dump around half of oil into the
clean and specified tank (open top) and fat and oil were introduced. Heating is provided to the
tank through the heater. Heating is done up to assurance of 95deg centigrade was attained.
After assurance was made heating media (heater) is simply turned off. Now the continuous
stirring takes place by the impeller provided. Decrease in Temperature is observed because of the
absence of external heating source. As the temperature reduces the mixture solidify in the
presence of rotating impeller action is required for uniform mixing of these three main
ingredients. Solid thus obtained was semi solid very thick and black in color.
In the process of solidifying thick layers of slurry is formed on the walls of the tank which
is removed and again mix with the content. This is done manually with the help of knife like
plates. In industries knife plates are fixed adjacent to the walls and working of these plates are
same like we observe in home grinder. Foam formed during the process is removed with the help
of cradles for better product. Odour produced during the process is not recognizable and its like
smell from rice dust. The entire process takes place not more than around 6- 8 hours and it is a
batch process. No Byproducts or end products present hence more environmental friendly
production
Glycerin produced May be of different types based on the composition of ingredients and
types of ingredients. It is very environmental friendly production and cost of the equipment and
maintenance are also very economical. Any impurities present are removed by removing the
foam formed and these are floatable impurities and in this is a batch process loading and
unloading and cleaning may kill time
V V
V
V V
V
V V
V
V V
V
V V
V
V V
V
V V
V
V V
V