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Passive Voice

1. Formacin de la voz pasiva


La voz pasiva se forma utilizando el verbo to be + el verbo principal en participio (past
participle). Para transformar una oracion activa a pasiva tenemos en cuenta los
siguientes puntos:
El objeto de la oracin activa pasa a ser el sujeto de la pasiva.
El verbo principal se sustituye por el auxiliar to be, en su mismo tiempo,
junto al verbo principal en participio.
El sujeto de la oracin principal pasa a ser complemento agente de la
pasiva.
El sujeto agente ir introducido por la preposicin by.

Tiempo verbal de la
Frase activa Frase pasiva
frase activa
present I write a letter The letter is written
present continuous I'm writing a letter The letter is being written
simple past I wrote a letter The letter was written
past continuous I was writing a letter The letter was being written
present perfect I've written a letter The letter has been written
past perfect I had written a letter The letter had been written
simple future I will write a letter The letter will be written
going to I'm going to write a letter The letter is going to be written
modals I have to write a letter The letter has to be written
modals I should write a letter The letter should be written
modals I must write a letter The letter must be written

2. Usos de la voz pasiva

Usamos la voz pasiva cuando queremos dar importancia a "lo que pas" ms que a
quin hizo la accin.
Ejemplo: Her money was stolen. (su dinero fue robado)

Tambin usamos la voz pasiva para describir procesos cientficos.


Ejemplo: The water is heated to a temperature of from 60 to 80. (El agua es hervida a

una temperatura de entre 60 a 80 grados)

3. Verbos ditransitivos

Cuando un verbo tiene dos complementos se pueden hacer dos estructuras de pasiva:

a) A book was sent to Tom by Mr. Smith, Un libro fue enviado a Tom por Mr. Smith.

b) Tom was sent a book by Mr. Smith (pasiva idiomtica). Esta estructura no es
posible en castellano.

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4. Construcciones impersonales
Las construcciones impersonales (se dice, se comenta, etc.) son muy tpicas de la
pasiva. Este tipo de construccin pasiva se forma con la estructura sujeto + to be +
participle: It is reported (Se informa); It is said (Se dice); It is known (Se sabe); It is
supposed (Se supone); It is considered (Se considera); It is expected (Se espera).

ACTIVE: Everybody thinks Cathy works very hard.


PASSIVE 1: Cathy is thought to work very hard. (Se piensa que Cathy...)
PASSIVE 2: It is thought that Cathy works very hard. (Se piensa que Cathy...)
ACTIVE: They believe Tom is wearing a white pullover.
PASSIVE 1: Tom is believed to be wearing a white pullover. (Se cree que...)
PASSIVE 2: It is believed that Tom is wearing a white pullover. (Se cree que...)