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TRANSMISSION

SUBSTATION &PRODUCTS
SUBSTATION Section ST
PRODUCTS
INDEX
INDEX
Reference data

ALUMINUM AND BRONZE CONNECTORS...............................................................................ST-1


RECOMMENDED TYPES OF HARDWARE AND INSTALLATION MOUNTING.......................ST-4
AMPACITY RATINGS, BOLTED PAD CONNECTIONS..............................................................ST-5
CATALOG NUMBER SUFFIXES FOR SPECIAL FEATURES....................................................ST-6
ANDERSON CATALOG NUMBER CODES................................................................................ST-7
ANDERSON PAD DESIGNATIONS FOR NEMA STANDARD DRILLING.................................ST-8
NEMA CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS ELECTRIC POWER CONNECTORS..........................ST-9
WELDING PROCEDURES ALUMINUM BUSES AND CONNECTORS...................................ST-11

December 2013 HUBBELL Power Systems


ALUMINUM AND BRONZE CONNECTORS
ALLOYS, CONNECTORS, HARDWARE & INSTALLATION
In over 100 years of serving the electrical industry, Anderson and Fargo have earned a reputation for being creative
leaders in the design and manufacture of electrical connectors, fittings and related accessories. The acceptance of
these responsibilities is best exemplified through our wholly self-sufficient facilities. Design Engineering, Testing and
Metallurgical Laboratories, and all facets of Manufacturing are geared for research, development and production of a
full line of quality bronze, aluminum and ductile iron products.

The following information conveys helpful reference for material composition, installation, standardization and defi-
nitions applying to connectors and fittings as developed during our years of experience.

ALUMINUM CONNECTORS with a torque wrench to the values shown on


Aluminum Alloys: page 6.
5. Excess sealant squeezed out of joint can be left as
Connectors and fittings requiring high mechanical prop- is or can be lightly smoothed along contact line.
erties are cast from aluminum alloy 356. Sand cast 356 6. All excess sealant must be removed from EHV
is heat treated to the T6 temper, and permanent mold Connectors and entirely from cable insulation.
castings are heat treated to the T61 temper. The 356 alloy B. For Aluminum connectors with a copper liner to cop-
is a 7 per cent silicon0.3 per cent magnesium-aluminum per connection.
alloy. The alloy is not susceptible to stress corrosion or 1. For maximum corrosion protection of the joint,
season cracking. Its volume conductivity is approximately the steps given in A-1 to A-5 should be followed.
39 per cent, I.A.C.S. PROCEDURE #2WELDED CONNECTIONS
Cast compression connectors requiring a soft high con- A. For cable connections:
ductivity aluminum are supplied from 99 plus per cent 1. Remove all oil, grease and water in vicinity of sur-
pure aluminum. Other aluminum compression connec- faces to be welded. Vigorously clean the conduc-
tors are made from commercially pure high conductivity tor and connector welding areas with a stainless
wrought aluminum. steel brush.
Installation Recommendations For Aluminum Connec- 2. Slide the conductor into the weldment cavity
tors until it is within 1/8 to 3/16 of the rear of the
welding barrel.
Select type of connector from those listed below and fol- 3. Prior to welding the connection, a test bead
low the indicated procedure. should be made upon an aluminum casting to
test the weld settings. (See our catalog Section
CONNECTOR TYPE INSTALLATION PROCEDURE G - Substation Connectors for detailed welding
Bolted............................................. Procedure #1 procedure).
Welded.......................................... Procedure #2 4. Begin welding by burning into the inner wall of
Compression............................... Procedure #3 the casting and proceeding toward the conductor
center. Wire brush the original weld if more than
Welded and Bolted................... Procedure #2 followed by Procedure #1
one weld pass is required.
Compression and Bolted........ Procedure #3 followed by Procedure #1 B. For tubular connections:
Welded and Compression...... Procedure #2 followed by Procedure #3 1. Remove all oil, grease and water in vicinity of sur-
faces to be welded. Vigorously clean the conduc-
PROCEDURE #1BOLTED CONNECTIONS tor and connector welding areas with a stainless
A. For aluminum to aluminum connections and alumi- steel brush.
num to copper connections without a copper lined 2. Align the tubular bus and connector groove.
contact. Begin welding by burning into the inner wall of
1. Vigorously clean all contact surfaces of the con- the casting and proceeding toward the conductor
nector and conductor with a stiff stainless steel center. Wire brush the original weld if more than
wire brush to remove oxides. A typically bright one weld pass is required.
ST-1
aluminum surface should be obtained. Do Not 3. Prior to welding the connection, a test bead
Wire Brush Plated Contact Surfaces. should be made upon an aluminum casting to
2. Immediately coat these contact areas with a lib- test the weld settings. (See pages 11-14 this sec-
eral amount of contact sealant. tion for detailed welding procedure).
3. Install fitting with bolts finger tight. If a gener- 4. Due to the manufacturing tolerances on alumi-
ous bead of compound does not appear, remove num tubular bus, it is recommended that the
the conductor and add more sealant. tube be positioned in the weldment cavity and
4. Alternately (criss-cross) and evenly tighten bolts tack welded before starting final weld.

ANDERSON HUBBELL POWER SYSTEMS FARGO DECEMBER 2013


C. For welded connectors with a copper lined contact: bolts are fabricated 2024-T4 aluminum and are anodized.
1. Firmly bolt the copper lined contact section of After anodizing, the coating is sealed with a dichromate
connector to the mating contact surface or to a solution which imparts a yellow-green finish.
suitable heat sink prior to welding. This prevents Standard nuts furnished on aluminum bolts are 6061 T6
damage to the bonded liner. dry waxed coated.
2. Weld the aluminum connection in accordance
with steps A or B above. If a heat sink is used, Insulator attachment hardware for bus supports is galva-
allow connector to cool before removing. The nized steel.
connector may be cooled by quenching in water.
PROCEDURE #3COMPRESSION CONNECTIONS BRONZE AND COPPER CONNECTORS
1. Vigorously clean the conductor contact area with Copper Casting Alloys
a stainless steel brush. Do not attempt to clean Our modern, all electric furnaces provide copper alloy
connector barrel. It is not necessary to apply castings of the highest quality possible. The alloy used
sealant to the conductor. All connectors will have will vary according to the requirement of the component.
sealant applied at the factory.
2. Fully insert the conductor into the barrel and Connectors requiring high tensile strength and corrosion
crimp. Crimping should begin nearest the center resistance in application are cast from Anderson Alloy
of sleeve type connectors. For closed barrel type 112 (ASTM B-30 Alloy No. C95500). The 112 alloy is a
connectors crimping should begin at the end 10% aluminum, 4.5% nickel copper alloy with a minimum
and work toward the open end. Excess sealant tensile strength of 90,000 PSI.
squeezed out of the joint may be smoothed out Connectors requiring current-carrying abilities and
around the mouth of the barrel. All excess sealant reasonable strength are cast from Anderson Alloy 123
must be removed from EHV Connectors or any (ASTM B-30 Alloy No. C84400). The 123 metal is a 81%
cable insulation. copper3% tin7% lead9% zinc alloy.
For heavy duty copper compression connectors CDA 110
Installation Recommendations for Aluminum to Copper copper is used. This 110 alloy is 99.9% pure copper.
Connections Using Aluminum Connectors
Other copper compression connectors are made from
Connectors with contact sealant Aluminum connectors commercially pure high conductivity wrought copper.
can be used for making aluminum to copper connections
if the proper installation care is observed. This includes Conductivity is purposely omitted in the above descrip-
the use of a sealant in accordance with practices outlined tions because it is often confused with current-carrying
above. Use of a sealant protects the connection from capacity. While connector alloys may vary in conductiv-
oxide formation and electrolytic corrosion for as long as it ity, design parameters are applied in each case to assure
remains present in the connection completely coating the adequate capacity. While connector alloys may vary in
surfaces and sealing out moisture. conductivity, design parameters are applied in each case
to assure adequate capacity to meet the particular ap-
Added protection in addition to sealants is available. plication.
Aluminum distribution connectors can be supplied with
plating or with copper lined contacts. Installation Recommendations for Bronze and Copper
Connectors
Bi-Metallic Transition PlatesAluminum to copper con-
nections between flat NEMA drilled tongues and bars Bronze Bolted ConnectorsContact sealants are not nor-
can be made using transition plates (Type TP). These mally required in copper connections. However, the use
plates are formed from sheets of 80% aluminum 20% of sealant is recommended in severe corrosive environ-
copper which are molecularly bonded together. Best ments and direct burial applications such as ground grids.
results are obtained by using contact sealant. Always po- Vigorously clean the conductor and connector contact
sition the aluminum conductor above the copper conduc- surfaces with a stainless steel wire brush.
tor. Alternately and evenly tighten bolts with a torque
Tin PlatingTin plating can be furnished on certain con- wrench to the values shown in Recommended Torque
ST-2 nectors by adding suffix GP to the catalog number, Values table.
aluminum distribution. HardwareSilicon bronze hardware is normally supplied
HardwareAnodized Aluminum Clamping Bolts are for all conductor clamping bronze components. Stain-
standard with most Aluminum Power Connectors and less steel hardware may be substitued where and when
may be supplied at extra cost with other connectors. The necessary.

DECEMBER 2013
ANDERSON HUBBELL POWER SYSTEMS FARGO
Copper Compression ConnectionsVigorously clean Connector DesignIn all of our bronze and aluminum
the conductor contact surfaces with a stainless steel wire power connectors, the temperature rise of the connector
brush. Do not attempt to clean connector barrel. In shall not exceed the temperature rise of the conductor
general it is not necessary to apply sealant to the conduc- with which it is intended to be used. The temperature
tor or connectors. Copper connectors requiring sealant rise of an electric power connector which connects con-
have the sealant applied at the factory. The use of sealant ductors of varying sizes shall not exceed the temperature
is recommended in severe corrosive environments and rise of the conductor having the highest temperature rise.
direct burial applications such as ground grids. Sealants All temperatures are based on the conductor being rated
may be designated for a copper connector by adding the at 30 degrees rise over a 40 degrees ambient, indoors, in
appropriate suffix to the basic catalog number. still but unconfined air. Our bronze and aluminum con-
nectors conform to one of the following as applicable:
Installation Recommendations for Copper to Aluminum
Connectors Using Copper Connectors NEMA Standard Publications No. CC-1-1993
CC-3-1973 (ANSI C119.4-1976)
When making copper to aluminum connections, using U.L. 486
bronze or copper connectors, best results will be ob- Contact SealantsVarious sealant formulations have
tained by using the following methods. been developed to provide improved electrical and
mechanical performance as well as environmental protec-
1. Tin plate the copper base connection and use tion to the contact area. Non-petroleum base sealants are
sealant between the aluminum and copper. (Tin provided for underground applications and other applica-
plating may be specified by adding suffix -TP tions where natural or synthetic rubber goods might be
to bronze and copper connectors). adversely affected.
2. Copper pad connectors may be attached directly
to an aluminum pad if sealant is freely used. The use of sealants are recommended for aluminum to
3. The use of an aluminum conductor in a standard aluminum or aluminum to copper connections which are
copper base connector (plated or unplated), is subjected to severe corrosive environments and when
not recommended. used in direct burial applications such as ground grids.
4. An aluminum to copper cable transition may be
made directly using an aluminum connector as Non-gritted sealants are recommended for flat connec-
covered in the preceding section on Aluminum tions and as a groove sealant in bolted connectors.
Connectors.
Our gritted sealants are primarily used in compression
Note With Any Transition Method:
connectors. Aluminum compression connectors have seal-
Do Not Position The Aluminum Member In Such A Way That
Would Allow Water To Drain From The Copper Connector
ant applied at the factory.
Over (Or Into) The Aluminum Connection Point.
Aluminum stud connectors are supplied with factory
General Information on Bronze or Copper Connectors applied sealant in the threaded portion. To obtain fac-
In regard to bolted connectors; components to be in tory applied sealant in other connectors add the desired
contact with cable and tube are supplied with as cast sealant suffix designation to the basic catalog number.
surfaces. Conductor grooves for cables are designed with Example: ACF6CXB
ample radii to prevent conductor damage.
XB for petroleum based sealant

ST-3

ANDERSON HUBBELL POWER SYSTEMS FARGO DECEMBER 2013


RECOMMENDED TYPES OF HARDWARE
AND INSTALLATION MOUNTING
HARDWARE FOR JOINING LIKE OR BRONZE CONNECTORS
UNLIKE METALS
Bronze Connector (Clamping Hardware)

Silicon Bronze Bolt

Silicon Bronze Lockwasher


Silicon Bronze Nut

Bronze To Copper Assemblies (Tongue Mounting Hard-


ware)

KEY: Bronze
Si-BrSilicon Bronze GSGalvanized Steel
SSStainless Steel ALAluminum Silicon Bronze Bolt
(1) denotes preferred hardware usage.
Silicon Bronze Flatwasher
Note: Silicon Bronze Lockwasher
Contact sealant should be used between Aluminum to Silicon Bronze Nut
Aluminum and Aluminum to Copper connections. Copper

ALUMINUM CONNECTORS
RECOMMENDED TORQUE VALUES FOR
Aluminum Connector (Clamping Hardware) BOLTED CONNECTORS

2024-T4 with #205 Alumilite Finish Aluminum-Bolt Tightening Force Applied to Hardware: Following are
ANDERSONS recommended torque values applying to all
7075-T6 Aluminum Lockwasher, Etch Finish clamping hardware used in connectors and fittings.
6061-T6 Plain Aluminum Nut, Wax Finish
Note:
Care should be taken to prevent sealant from being ap-
Aluminum To Aluminum Assemblies plied to hardware since torque values will be affected if
(Tongue Mounting Hardware the hardware becomes lubricated with sealant.
As Assembled At Factory)
RECOMMENDED TORQUE RECOMMENDED TORQUE
BOLT NON-LUBRICATED LUBRICATED HDWE.
2024-T4 with #205 Alumilite Finish Aluminum-Bolt
DIA. STEEL & SILICON BRONZE HDWE. & ALUMINUM HDWE.
LB. INCHES LB. INCHES*
7075-T6 Aluminum Flatwasher
5/16 180 120
7075-T6 Aluminum Lockwasher, Etch Finish 3/8 240 168
6061-T6 Plain Aluminum Nut, Wax Finish 1/2 480 300
5/8 660 480
Aluminum To Copper Assemblies 3/4 840 720
(Tongue Mounting Hardware)
*Reduced torque limits apply when replacing aluminum clamping hard-
ST-4 ware with steel in bolted aluminum connectors.
Aluminum
NOTE: All eyestems have a recommended torque of 200 lb.inches.
Galvanized Steel Bolt
Galvanized Steel Flatwasher

Stainless Steel Belleville Washer


Galvanized Steel Nut
Copper

DECEMBER 2013
ANDERSON HUBBELL POWER SYSTEMS FARGO
Ampacity Ratings of Anderson & FARGO Heavy Duty (1)
Bolted Pad Connectors
Compression, Welded and Close-Fit Bolted Designs

Bolted Pad Bolts (2) Ampacity (A) (4)


Dimensions (in) Inhibitor Type
Style Width Length Number Size (in) Standard HTJC (3)
B 1.5 3.0 2 0.5 1220 1400
B2 2.0 3.0 2 0.5 1260 1450
C 3.0 3.0 4 0.5 2450 2825
D 4.0 4.0 4 0.5 2580 3000
N 6.0 4.0 6 0.5 3825 4400
NOTES:
(1) Heavy duty connectors are defined as having continuous cross section about the periphery of the conductor and through the pad, equal to or
greater than 125% of the conductor.
(2) Ratings assume use of steel clamping bolts and Belleville spring washers. Higher ampacity ratings can be achieved if conductive bolts, nuts and
washers are used.
(3) HTJC is the Anderson/FARGO conductive grit joint compound, recommended for maximum conductivity in compression and bolted pad joints.
(4) Ratings are based on conductor temperature of 90C in 40C ambient, 2 ft/sec. cross wind.

Suggested method of mounting connectors

ST-5

ANDERSON HUBBELL POWER SYSTEMS FARGO DECEMBER 2013


LETTER SUFFIX DESIGNATIONS TO
STANDARD CATALOG NUMBER
FOR SPECIAL FEATURES
A suffix added to a catalog number denotes that a change or modification is to be made to the standard catalog
item. The suffixes listed below are for the convenience of our customers. The list does not include special modifica-
tions made for one customer only but those having general application.

Catalog Catalog
No. Description of Change No. Description of Change
Suffix or Modification Suffix or Modification
A Aluminum loop will be supplied instead of copper loop. Hexagon head bolt with a flat washer under the head will be
HW
supplied instead of the usual bolts.
AH Advance handle onlyVCF and VCF6 hot stick assemblies. LW A lockwasher will be supplied instead of a flatwasher.
Aluminum hardware will be supplied instead of the usual (or Neither socket nor clevis fittings will be supplied with
AS N
standard) hardware. suspension, or dead end clamps.
Bolt, nut and cotter key will be supplied instead of usual clevis
BNK NSB No spacer bar on straight line dead end clamps.
pin.
Bolt, nut and jam nut will be supplied instead of usual clevis A socket will be supplied with suspension and dead end
BNN S
pin. clamps.
BW Belleville washers will be supplied instead of usual washers. SE A static eliminator spring will be supplied on bus supports.
A clevis fitting will be supplied with strain, suspension and Side formed tongue will be supplied when a center formed
C SF
dead end clamps. tongue is standard.
Center-formed tongue will be supplied on lugs where side The catalog number specified is to be modified for particular
CF SP
formed tongues are standard on bronze and aluminum items. requirements which the item will not otherwise fill. (Special)
CRF Corona free strain clamp. TB Electro-tin plate loop (bail) .0002-.0004.
An eyestem will be supplied instead of the usual hex head bolt. Tin plating will be supplied on bronze items, (Electro-tin
E TP
(This applies generally to stirrup and cable clamps). .0002-.0004 thick).
Everdur (silicon bronze) hardware will be supplied instead of U U-bolts may be supplied on these items.
ED
the usual hardware.
FW A flatwasher will be supplied instead of a lockwasher. UD An undrilled tongue will be supplied on terminals or lugs.
The connector will be supplied with the grooves coated with a
G A guide will be supplied on expansion connectors. XB
petroleum base sealant and enclosed in a polyethylene bag.
Galvanized hardware will be supplied instead of usual XY Contact surface finished on both sides of tongue.
GA
hardware.
GP Tin plating will be supplied on aluminum items.

HP Hexagon clevis pin furnished instead of standard clevis pin.

When more than one suffix is required to designate more than one special feature, they should be arranged in alpha-
betical order except when the suffix is published as part of the catalog number.

ST-6

DECEMBER 2013
ANDERSON HUBBELL POWER SYSTEMS FARGO
KEY SYMBOLS TO ANDERSON ELECTRICAL CONNECTORS
CATALOG NUMBERS
Aluminum Connectors for Cable* Copper or Aluminum Copper or Aluminum
Flat Bar Flat Bar
CONDUCTOR RANGE
CODE WIDTH CODE IPS
CATALOG ALUMINUM
NO. IN INCHES* NO. DIAMETER
NUMBER COPPER ACSR DECIMAL 10 1 02 1/4
CODE AWG-MCM AWG-MCM RANGE INCHES 14 1 1/2 03 3/8
.232.398 20 2 04 1/2
6**
#41/0 250400 #41/04/0 .368.575 24 2 1/2 06 3/4
7
350600 4/0336.4 .563.744 30 3 10 1
9
600900 336.4477 .681.893 34 3 1/2 12 1 1/4
11
9001250 556.5795.5 .8701.108 40 4 14 1 1/2
13
12501600 715.51113 1.0811.293 50 5 20 2
15
15002000 11131272 1.2891.459 60 6 24 2 1/2
16
20002500 12721590 1.3821.632 80 8 30 3
18
25003000 1.6321.824 100 10 34 3 1/2
21
*Decimal Range 1.8242.000 120 12 40 4
22
2.0002.200 *Bar thickness & spacing (if same) 44 4 1/2
are added at end of completed 50 5
**Multi-Range is accomplished by reversing the clamping cap.
catalog number as 14, 12, etc.
*The Decimal Range is to be considered as the final criteria for applica- 60 6
tion. The ACSR and Aluminum Cable Ranges will not necessarily fall
within the Decimal Range for all standings.

Bronze Connectors for Cable Copper or Aluminum Threaded Studs


CABLE RANGE CODE DIAMETER
VERSA- NO. IN INCHES*
SMALL GROOVE LARGE GROOVE 01 1/8
GROOVE DECIMAL
02 1/4
CAP NUMBER MIN. MAX. MIN. MAX. RANGE INCHES
03 3/8
022 #6 #2 #2 2/0 .162.419 04 1/2
025 #4 1/0 2/0 250 MCM .204.575 05 5/8
050 1/0 Sol. 4/0 Str. 250 500 MCM .325.813 06 3/4
080 2/0 Sol. 500 MCM 500 800 MCM .3651.031 07 7/8
100 4/0 Str. 750 MCM 750 1000 MCM .5221.152 10 1
150 250 750 MCM 750 1500 MCM .4741.412 11 11/8
200 500 1500 MCM 1500 2000 MCM .8111.632 12 1 1/4
13 1 3/8
14 1 1/2
15 1 5/8
16 1 3/4
17 1 7/8
20 2
Large Groove Small Groove 21 2 1/8
BRONZE REVERSIBLE CABLE CAPS 22 2 1/4
23 2 3/8
Unless otherwise indicated all bronze cable connectors 24 2 1/2
have cable sections designed to accommodate a range of 26 2 3/4
conductors. Their wide application flexibility offers the 30 3
distinct advantages of reducing stock inventory, and pos- 32 3 1/4 ST-7
sibility of errors of misapplication. There is no sacrifice of 34 3 1/2
either electrical or mechanical efficiency when using re- 36 3 3/4
versible cable caps. This design is field proven by years of 40 4
trouble free service in locations where severe operating 50 5
conditions exist. 60 6
Our four bolt reversible cable cap design is adequate for *Threads per inch are added at the end of completed
catalog number as12, 16, etc. Smooth studs are
high current capacity conductors, yet priced in line with specified by adding 0.
standard duty connectors.

ANDERSON HUBBELL POWER SYSTEMS FARGO DECEMBER 2013


ANDERSON PAD DESIGNATIONS
FOR NEMA STANDARD DRILLING

ST-8

DECEMBER 2013
ANDERSON HUBBELL POWER SYSTEMS FARGO
NEMA CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS
ELECTRIC POWER CONNECTORS
CC 1-4.06 Number and Diameter of Bolts for Connectors

Type of Conductor For Copper Conductors For Aluminum or ACSR Conductors


Single Size Single Size
Aluminum or Standard Duty Heavy Duty Range Taking Range Taking* Single Size
ACSR Cable Bolts Per Bolts Per Bolts Per Bolts Per Bolts Per
Standard Outside Stud Conductor Conductor Conductor Conductor Conductor
Pipe Size, Copper Cable, Diameter, Diameter, Dia. Dia. Dia. Dia. Dia.
Inches kcmil Inches Inches Number Inches Number Inches Number Inches Number Inches Number Inches
3/8 #4 thru 2/0 0.200 thru 0.399 1/2 2 3/8 3 3/8 4 3/8 2 1/2 2 1/2
1/2 3/0 thru 500 ... 5/8 thru 1-1/8 3 3/8 3 3/8 4 3/8 4 1/2 4 1/2
3/4 thru 1 550 thru 800 ... ... 3 3/8 4 3/8 4 3/8 4 1/2 4 1/2
1-1/4 thru 2 900 thru 2000 0.400 thru 1.412 1-1/4 thru 2-1/2 3 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2
2-1/2 900 thru 2000 0.400 thru 1.412 ... 3 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2
3 thru 4 2250 thru 3000 1.413 thru 1.850 2-3/4 thru 5 3 5/8 4 5/8 4 5/8 4 5/8 4 5/8
4-1/2 thru 6 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 6 5/8
* Applies to cable only.
NOTE I Each U bolt is counted as two bolts.
NOTE II For shackle design (single casting wrap-around conductor), each bolt counts as two bolts.
NOTE III When two different sizes of conductors are involved, the bolts specified for the smallest conductor may be used.
NOTE IV When three bolts are specified, the following exceptions apply:
a. Terminal lugs shall have a minimum of four bolts or the equivalent for a single conductor.
b. Stud connectors shall have minimum of four bolts or the equivalent for the stud portion.
NOTE V Bronze alloy bolts shall have a minimum tensile strength of 70,000 pounds per square inch and aluminum alloy bolts shall have a mini-
mum tensile strength of 55,000 pounds per square inch.
NOTE VI Nominal torque values shall be:

Nominal Torque Values


Diameter Of Bolts,
Inches Foot/Pound Inch/Pound
3/8 20 240
1/2 40 480
5/8 55 660
3/8L 15 180
1/2L 25 300
5/8L 40 480
LLubricated

EXAMPLES ILLUSTRATING THE USE OF


THE TABLE IN CC 1-4.06
EXAMPLE NO. 1A straight coupler connector or a 90-degree elbow connector is used to connect a conductor of
1-1/2 inch pipe to another conductor of 1-1/2-inch pipe. After locating the proper line for the 1-1/2-inch pipe in the
first column of the table, the total number of bolts required can be determined from the information given for the
connectors, as follows:

F or standard-duty connectors
Three 1/2-inch-diameter x 2 (number of = a total of six 1/2-inch-diameter
ST-9
bolts per conductor conductors) bolts per fitting

For heavy-duty connectors
Four 1/2-inch-diameter x 2 (number of = a total of eight1/2-inch-diameter
bolts per conductor conductors) bolts per fitting

ANDERSON HUBBELL POWER SYSTEMS FARGO DECEMBER 2013


NEMA CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS
ELECTRIC POWER CONNECTORScontinued

EXAMPLE NO. 2A single-size T connector is used to connect a 3-inch Schedule 40 aluminum main to a 397.5 kcmil
ACSR tap (outside diameter = 0.743 inch).

After locating the proper line for the 3-inch pipe in the first column of the table, it will be seen that the connectors
require four 5/8-inch-diameter bolts per conductor.

After locating the proper line for the 0.743-inch-outside diameter ACSR tap in the third column of the table, it will be
seen that the connectors require four 1/2-inch-diameter bolts per conductor.

In this case and in accordance with Note III following the table, the manufacturer has the choice of using either four
1/2-inch diameter bolts per conductor of four 5/8-inch-diameter bolts per conductor.

EXAMPLE NO.3A copper stud connector having a 1-1/8-12 thread is connected to copper cable ranging from 400
to 800 kcmil in size. Using the fourth column for the stud and the second column for the copper cable, it will be seen
that the connectors require the following bolts:

1. Four 3/8-inch-diameter bolts per conductor for the stud.


2. Four 1/2-inch-diameter bolts per conductor for the cable.

In this case and in accordance with Note III following the table, the manufacturer has the choice of using either four
3/8-inch diameter bolts per conductor or four 1/2-inch-diameter bolts per conductor.

ST-10

DECEMBER 2013
ANDERSON HUBBELL POWER SYSTEMS FARGO
WELDING ALUMINUM BUSES AND CONNECTORS

Recommended welding procedures to ensure a sound the arc the tungsten electrode is placed in contact with
weld are as follows: the component and then withdrawn to establish an arc
length of approximately 3/16. The arc is given a circular
Pure aluminum melts at 1220 F while aluminum alloys motion until the base metal liquifies and the weld puddle
melt in the range of 1020 F depending on the alloy is established. Filler metal is added by hand as required.
content of the particular metal involved. When aluminum In this process, if more than one pass is required for a
alloys are heated there is no color change. This makes it sufficient weld, the weld should be wire brushed be-
difficult, if not impossible, to tell if the metal is near the tween passes to remove any surface dirt or oxides which
welding temperature. have accumulated from the previous pass. Since no flux is
used the finished weld does not require cleaning. In this
The ever present surface oxide films on aluminum have a process the heat of the tungsten arc is concentrated in
melting point of 3600 F. The parent aluminum or alumi- a smaller area and is much faster than the conventional
num alloy can therefore be melted without fusing the type of welding and distortion of the weld is negligible
surface oxides. Unless the film is removed, cleanliness of since the heat is concentrated in a small area. In this pro-
the molten filler metal and the parent metal cannot be cess, if thicknesses greater than 1/2 are to be welded,
complete and both strength and conductivity may be preheating of the parts before welding will increase the
sacrificed. Therefore, it is of prime importance that the welding speed.
aluminum oxides be removed from the aluminum alloys
before welding is started. In the shielded arc welding 2. METALLIC-ARC INERT-GAS SHIELDED WELDING. The
method the shielding gas has a tendency to clean the ma- consumable electrode inert-gas shielded metal arc (MIG)
terial as welding progresses. welding process combines the advantages of tungsten-
arc welding with increased welding speed. Welding can
CLEANING OF BUSES AND FITTINGS be done from any position and the process can be either
manual or automatic. Manual welding techniques are
It is very important to remove all greases and oxides from somewhat different from other methods. However, a
the surfaces to be welded. This can be accomplished by welder can be trained to use the MIG process with only
using a mild alkaline solution or standard degreasing a few days concentrated training. In the MIG process the
solution. The preferred method is to use a stainless steel bare filler rod is supplied as a coil of bare wire. In the
wire brush and vigorously scrub the surfaces to be weld- commercially available equipment this wire is added to
ed. The stainless steel brushes are specified because the the weld at a predetermined rate by a motor-driven feed
stainless steel has less of a tendency to pick up particles that can be adjusted to the magnitude of the welding
of aluminum and aluminum oxides. current. In this process, as well as the tungsten-arc pro-
cess, gas forms a shield around the arch to prevent oxida-
WELDING METHODS tion during welding. Either helium, argon or a mixture of
helium and argon are suitable shielding gases. Pure argon
Anderson recommends the following two types of weld- is most widely used on sections less than 3/4 thick. On
ing methods for welding aluminum fittings and buses: sections over 3/4 thick the gases are usually mixed to
combine the hotter arc characteristics of helium with the
1. TUNGSTEN-ARC WELDING (TIG). The inert gas shielded stabilizing effect of argon. If exceptionally hot arc char-
tungsten-arc process is widely used for welding aluminum acteristics are required, pure helium can be substituted
bus fittings. In this process the arc is established between for the gas mixture. Precaution should be exercised if
a non-consumable tungsten electrode and the section to this substitution is made in that it is very easy to burn
be welded. Inert gas envelops the arc to prevent oxida- through the items that are to be welded with a pure
tion during welding. Hence, no flux is required. A bare helium atmosphere.
filler rod supplies filler metal to the weld area. To initiate ST-11

ANDERSON HUBBELL POWER SYSTEMS FARGO DECEMBER 2013


The reasons that Anderson has selected the metallic-arc metal welding should be selected for training in weld-
inert- gas shielded welding method is that in this process ing aluminum for a period of training of not less than
the filler metal can be automatically fed through the one week after which time the man can be considered
welding mechanism and eliminates holding the electrode proficient in the use of the equipment and in the weld-
holder in one hand and the filler metal in the other as ing of aluminum joints. After this period, there should be
in the tungsten arc method. Figure 1 of the attached no difficulty experienced in welding aluminum alloys. It
drawing shows the basic components for a metallic-arc is suggested, if practical, that welders should practice on
inert-gas shielding process (MIG) and Figure 2 shows the actual fittings or buses before proceeding with the weld-
basic components for the tungsten-arc process (TIG). As ing of the required job.
it is readily apparent, the basic difference between the
two types of welding apparatus is the automatic feeding The following is Andersons recommended specifica-
mechanism for the filler wire. tion for current fittings, wire feeds, gas flows, etc. These
specifications are of a general nature to the extent that
In both types of apparatuses the electrode holder and many factors have to be considered such as:
the welding gun can or cannot be cooled by water. If
welding currents of more than 125 amps are required, l.Type of equipment used, whether water cooled or not,
both methods will have to have water cooling aparatuses etc.
to the electrode holder and the welding gun. 2.The size and mass of the piece to be welded.
3.The position of the weld.
WELDERS QUALIFICATIONS 4.And most important of all, the operators skill.
5.AII persons in the welding area should wear the proper
No welding should be done until the operator has had shields. The arc is approximately twice as strong as the
experience with welding aluminum alloys by the meth- standard AC welding arc. Extreme caution should be exer-
ods described above. Men with previous experience in cised for the protection of eyes.

Fig. 1 Metallic-arch inert-gas shielded welding (MIG) Fig. 2 Inert-gas shielded tungsten-arch welding (TIG)

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DECEMBER 2013
ANDERSON HUBBELL POWER SYSTEMS FARGO
GENERAL WELDING SPECIFICATIONS
FOR CONSUMABLE ELECTRODE WELDING METHOD
SCOPE: This specification applies primarily to welded alu- with reverse polarity is capable of handling the majority
minum connectors for substation construction. of aluminum welding jobs.
MATERIAL: PROCEDURES:
CASTINGSAs furnished by Anderson are molded from It is of the utmost importance to remove oil, grease, wa-
356 aluminum alloy and heat treated to T6 condition, or ter and oxide from the surfaces to be welded. All surfaces
#99 pure aluminum depending on the application. to be welded should be wire brushed with a stainless
steel brush prior to welding. If more than one weld pass
FILLER ROD043 aluminum alloy 1/16 diameter for all
is required, the original weld should be wire brushed
joints as shown in the Anderson catalog.
before applying additional weld.
SHIELDING GASArgon.
Pre-heating of surfaces to 400 E is optional, but by pre-
WELDING APPARATUSTungsten-arc (TIG) or metallic-arc heating the surfaces before welding it is possible for the
inert-gas shielding (MIG). A 400 amp welding machine operator to weld easily and faster.

Metallic-Arc Inert-Gas Consumable Electrode


APPROX.
4043 FILLER ARGON FLOW WIRE SPEED
IPS SIZE WALL THICKNESS AMPERES ROD SIZE CFH PREHEAT F INCHES PER MIN. NO. PASSES
1/2 .108 125-150 1/16 20 None 170 1
3/4 .113 125-150 1/16 20 None 180 1
1 .133 125-150 1/16 30 None 180 1
1-1/4 .140 160-170 1/16 30 None 180 1
1-1/2 .144 160-170 1/16 30 None 180 1
2 .154 170-190 1/16 30 None 180 1
2-1/2 .203 170-190 1/16 40 None 180 1
3 .216 170-190 1/16 40 Optional to 400 F 180 1
3-1/2 .226 170-190 1/16 40 Optional to 400 F 200 1
4 .237 180-200 1/16 50 Optional to 400 F 200 1
4-1/2 .247 180-200 1/16 50 Optional to 400 F 200 1
5 .258 180-200 1/16 50 Optional to 400 F 200 1 or 2
6 .280 180-200 1/16 50 Optional to 400 F 200 1 or 2

Flat Bar
APPROX.
4043 FILLER ARGON FLOW WIRE SPEED
FLAT BAR THICKNESS AMPERES ROD SIZE CFH PREHEAT F INCHES PER MIN.
1/8 125-150 1/16 30 None 180 ST-13
1/4 180-200 1/16 50 Optional to 400 F 180
3/8 300 1/16 50 Optional to 400 F 200
1/2 340 1/16 60 400 F 200
3/4 375 1/16 60 400 F 200

ANDERSON HUBBELL POWER SYSTEMS FARGO DECEMBER 2013


Tungsten - Arc
GAS CUP DIA. TUNGSTEN DIA. ARGON FLOW 4043 FILLER
IPS SIZE WALL THICKNESS AMPERES INCHES INCHES CFH PREHEAT F NO. PASSES ROD SIZE
1/2 .108 125-150 3/8 1/8 20 None 1 1/8
3/4 .113 125-150 3/8 1/8 20 None 1 1/8
1 .133 125-150 3/8 1/8 30 None 1 1/8
1-1/4 .140 160-170 3/8 1/8 30 None 1 1/8
1-1/2 .144 160-170 3/8 1/8 30 None 1 1/8
2 .154 170-190 1/8 1/8 30 None 1 3/16
2-1/2 .203 170-190 1/2 3/16 40 None 1 3/16
3 .216 170-190 1/2 3/16 40 Optional to 400 F 1 3/16
3-1/2 .226 170-190 1/2 3/16 40 Optional to 400 F 1 3/16
4 .237 180-200 1/2 3/16 50 Optional to 400 F 1 3/16
4-1/2 .247 180-200 1/2 3/16 50 Optional to 400 F 1 3/16
5 .258 180-200 1/2 3/16 50 Optional to 400 F 1 or 2 3/16
6 .280 180-200 1/2 3/16 50 Optional to 400 F 1 or 2 3/16

Flat Bar
4043
FLAT BAR GAS CUP TUNGSTEN ARGON FLOW NO. FILLER
THICKNESS AMPERES DIA. INCHES DIA. CFH PREHEAT F PASSES ROD SIZE
1/8 125 3/8 1/8 30 None 1 1/8
1/4 150 1/2 3/16 30 None 1 3/16
3/8 300 1/2 3/16 50 Optional to 400 F 1 1/4
1/2 400 5/8 1/4 50 400 F 1 or 2 1/4
3/4 450 5/8 1/4 50 400 F 2 5/16
1 500 5/8 5/16 50 400 F 2 5/16

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DECEMBER 2013
ANDERSON HUBBELL POWER SYSTEMS FARGO