Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 23


Importance of Utilities
Hard and Soft water.
Requisites of Industrial Water and its uses.
Methods of water Treatment such as Chemical Softening and
Resins used for Water Softening and Reverse Osmosis.
Effects of impure Boiler Feed Water.
Plant Utility
Every industrial plant whether it produces chemicals or food, cars or computers depends
for its operation on or more utility systems.
All plants require energy and most also need water compressed air and other gases waste
treatment and ventilation-all supplied through utility networks and their associated equipment.
Utility is neither a reactant nor a product, But Utilities are required for maintaining
adequate conditions of a manufacturing unit.
The utilities help to maintain proper process conditions like pressure,temperature etc.,without which it
will be impossible to carry out the process.
Some Properties of utilities :-
a) They are generally Reusable.
b) Their Composition do not change.
c) They cannot be stocked, So regular supply is must.
Utility systems fall into four basic groups
(i) Energy transfer-fuel, electricity, steam, hot water and other thermal fluids, cooling water
and refrigeration.
(ii) Process water, potable water, waste water and fire water.
(iii) Compressed air and inert gases and hydraulic fluids.
(iv) Ventilation and air conditioning.
All well designed utility systems have five principles:
(a) Engineers need to keep on asking Why?
(c) To install the right number of units of the right sizes and in the right locations.
(d) Possible use modern utility plant and distribution systems, correctly chosen, installed,
controlled and maintained.
(e) Monitor the consumption of utilities and use this information to set performance targets
for the processes on the site.
Chemical Plant Utilities
1. Any Chemical Plant requires raw materials in order to produce final products.
2. It also requires various other services called Utilities for smoothly carrying out the processes.
3. Utility area is an important area of a Chemical Plant.This may house various Boilers, Large
Compressors, Refrigeration systems, Air Conditioning systems, Water Treatment Plants, Cooling
Towers etc.
4. It also include Electric Power, so Power Plants are also considered as a part of Utilities.
5. Utilities are situated outside Battery limits should not give any wrong impression that utilities
are any less important than the main process, because it is the Efficient Management of Utilities
that generate Profits.
6. On the other hand bad management of utilities can make even the most profitable processes
8. Now a days most of the Engineering practices are aimed at reducing the consumption of
utilities, because the production of utilities whether it is compressed air, steam etc., requires
energy and energy is becoming costlier day by day.
9. Efficient Utility Management doesn't end at cost cutting, if utilities supply is not proper the
equipments may not last their full life. For eg :-If Steam at higher temperature than desired
enters heat exchangers, the exchangers may get damaged.
10. Air,Water,Steam etc., are the common utilities used in Chemical Plants.
11. The aim of an Chemical Engineer should be to provide Utilities & other services in required
quantities and of quality as required by the users.

The industries that produce metals, wood and paper products, chemicals, gasoline
and oils, and those invaluable grabber utensils you use to get your ring out of the
garbage disposal are major users of water.
Probably every manufactured product uses water during some part of the
production process.
Industrial water use includes water used for such purposes as fabricating,
processing, washing, diluting, cooling, or transporting a product; incorporating
water into a product; or for sanitation needs within the manufacturing facility.
Some industries that use large amounts of water produce such commodities as food,
paper, chemicals, refined petroleum, or primary metals.
Water for industrial use may be delivered from a public supplier or be self-supplied.
For the most part, industries supply their own water
Water Consumption in Industrial Sector in India
Various national and international agencies have presented estimates regarding water consumption
in industries in the Indian context.
According to Ministry of Water Resources, about 40 billion cubic metre water is used in industrial
areas of the country, which is about 6 per cent of total availability of water.
According to Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) of India, about 500 billion cubic metre
water out of the total available fresh water is used in industries annually.
Out of this, about 10 billion cubic metres water is used by processing industries and 30 billion
cubic metres is used for refrigeration purposes.
Thus, this part of water used for industries comes to about 6 per cent of total available water in the
On the other side, according to World Bank, the demand of water for industrial use and power
generation is increasing at the rate of 42 per cent per annum.
By the year 2025 it would become 228 billion cubic metres. Thus, water used in industries is about
13 per cent of total available fresh water at present.
It is clear from different estimates that demand for water in industries has been continuously
Water consumption depends on the type of industry.
Whereas thermal power, textiles, pulp and paper and iron and steel are highly water intensive
sectors, industrial sectors like chlor-alkali, cement, copper and zinc and plastics require little
Data on actual water consumption in India is absent.
However, the data on wastewater discharge by various industrial sectors in the country is available.
There are many uses of water within any give manufacturing process. Each process is different,
but many diverse manufacturing operations use water for either:
(1) cleaning and rinsing products, parts and vessels,
(2) transporting parts or ingredients,
(3) as a lubricant,
(4) as a solvent or reactant in a chemical reaction,
(5) forming a water seal to block out contact with air,
(6) pollution control, or
(7) inclusion in the product such as in beverage manufacturing
An industrial plant must also have an ample supply of water for fire protection
The power house of any industry is a larger use of water
Need for Rational Use:
The effect of increasing demand for water by industries is caused on balanced
availability of water resources in two ways-

(a) first, to maintain organized supply of its increasing demand and

(b)second, to maintain the quality of water in its natural form, so that balanced
availability is maintained in all sectors.

But due to increasing industrialization, such possibility seems very little because
water used in industries is proving to be a double-edged sword harming both the sides.

(a) On one hand it puts immense pressure on local water resources.

(b)On the other, wastewater discharged from the industry pollutes the local

Thus, it has become a cause for worry to maintain quantity as well as quality of water.
Water is nature's most wonderful, abundant and useful compound.

Of the many essential elements for the existence of human beings, animals and plants
(wiz. air, water, food, shelter, etc.), water is rated to be of the greatest importance.

Without food, human call survives for a number of days, but water is such an essential
thing that without it one cannot survive.

Water is not only essential for the lives of animals and plants, but also occupies a
unique position in industries.

Probably, its most important use as an engineering material is in the 'steam generation '.
Water is also used a coolant in power and chemical plants.

In addition to it, water is widely used in other fields such as production of steel, rayon,
paper, atomic energy, textiles, chemicals, ice, and for air-conditioning, drinking,
bathing, sanitary, washing, irrigation, fire-fighting, etc.
Surface waters:
(i)Rain water: is probably the purest form of natural water, since it is obtained as a result of
evaporation from the surface water. However, during the journey downwards through the
atmosphere, it dissolves a considerable amount of industrial gases (like CO2, SO2, NO2, etc.)
and suspended solid particles, both of organic and inorganic origin.
(ii) River water: Rivers are fed by rain and spring waters. Water from these sources flow
over the surface of land, dissolves the soluble minerals of the soil and finally falls in rivers.
In general, the greater the contact that water has with the soil, or the more soluble
the minerals of the soils with which it has come in contact, the greater is the amount of
dissolved impurities in river water.
River water thus contains dissolved minerals of the soil such as chlorides,
sulphates, bicarbonates of sodium, calcium, magnesium and iron.
River water also contains the organic matter, derived from the decomposition of
plants, and small particles of sand and rock suspension. Thus, river water contains
considerable amounts of dissolved as well as suspended impurities.
(iii) Lake water has a more constant chemical composition. It, usually,
contains much lesser amount of dissolved minerals than well water, but
quantity of organic matter present in it is quite high.
(iv) Sea water is the most impure form of the water. Rivers join sea and throw
in the impurities carried by them. Moreover, continuous evaporation of water
from the surface of sea makes sea water continuously richer in dissolved
impurities. Sea water contains, on an average, about 3.5% of dissolved salts,
out of which about 2.6% is sodium chloride. Other salts present are sulphates
of sodium; bicarbonates of potassium magnesium and calcium; bromides of
potassium and magnesium and a number of other compounds.
Surface water, generally, contains suspended matter, which often contains the
diseaseproducing (or pathogenic) bacterias. Hence, such waters as such are
not considered to be safe for human consumption.
Underground waters: A part of the rain water, which reaches the surface of the
earth, percolates into the earth. As this water journeys downwards, it comes in
contact with a number of mineral salts present in the soil and dissolves some of
them. Water continues its downwards journey, till it meet a hard rock, when it
retreads upwards and it may even come out in the form of spring.
Spring and well water (or underground water), in general, is clearer in
appearance due to the filtering action of the soil, but contain more of dissolved
salts. Thus, water from these sources contains more hardness. Usually,
underground water is of high organic purity.
Characteristics Imparted By Impurities In Water
The natural water is, usually, contaminated by different types of impurities. The
characteristic and consequent effects of impurities on the quality of water are discussed
under the following three heads:
Physical impurities:
(a) Color in water is caused by metallic substances like salts of iron, manganese, humus
materials, tannins, peat, algae, weeds, protozoa, industrial effluents (from paper and pulp,
textile, tanneries, etc).
Actually, color in water is due to dissolved substances and substances present as
fine colloids. The change in color of water is not harmful, unless it is associated with any
chemical of toxic nature.
Variations in color of water from the same source (say a river) with time often
serves as indices of quality of water. Usually, yellowish tinge indicates the presence of
chromium and appreciable amount of organic matter. Yellowish-red color indicates the
presence of iron; while red-brown color indicates the presence of peaty matter.
(b) Turbidity is due to the colloidal, extremely fine suspension such as clay, slit, finely divided
matters (organic and inorganic) micro-organisms like plankton, etc.
Turbidity expresses the optical properties of water containing insoluble substances, which
scatter light rather than to transmit in straight lines.
The turbidity depends not only on the quantity of insoluble substances, but also on their size,
shape and refractive index. Turbidity in water can be eliminated by sedimentation, followed by
coagulation, filtration, etc.
(c) Taste is, usually, interlinked directly with odor. However, in some waste water, taste is not
accompanied by odor. Thus, presence of dissolved mineral in water produces taste, but not odor.
For example;
(i) Bitter taste can be due to the presence of iron, aluminum, manganese, sulphate or excess of lime.
(ii) Soapy taste can be due to the presence of large amount of sodium bicarbonate.
(iii) Brackish taste is due to the presence of unusual amount of salts.
(iv) Palatable taste is due to the presence of dissolved gases (CO2) and minerals (like nitrates) in
(d) Odor in water is undesirable for domestic as well as industrial purposes.

Disagreeable odor in water may be caused by the presence of living organisms,

decaying vegetation including algae, bacteria, fungi and weeds.

The receiving water may be offensive where heavy pollution is caused by

sewage/industrial effluents. The most common disagreeable odor in water bodies is due to

presence of small quantity of sulphides.

The causes of odor in polluted rivers are;

(i) Presence of inorganic and organic compounds of N, S and P and the putrefaction of

proteins and other organic materials present in sewage;

(ii) Industrial effluents containing organic substances such as alcohols, aldehydes, phenols,

esters, ketones, etc. flowing into the water bodies.

Chemical Impurities in water

(1) inorganic and organic chemicals (some are toxic immature) released from
dyes, paints, and vanishes, drugs, insecticides, pesticides, detergent, pulp and
textiles, industries, canneries, etc. All these pollute water bodies,
(2) acids discharged in water by DDT, high explosives, battery, industries, etc.
The use of this type of contaminated water causes harmful effects on health of
(3) Biological impurities are algae, pathogenic bacteria, fungi, viruses,
pathogens, parasite worms, etc. The source of this contamination is discharge of
domestic and sewage wastes, excreta (from man, animals and birds) etc.
Hard Water
Water is the most important resource. Without water life is not possible.
From a chemical point of view, water, H2O, is a pure compound, but in reality, you
seldom drink, see, touch or use pure water.
Water from various sources contains dissolved gases, minerals, organic and inorganic
Fresh water may not be directly used in every category of industry.
Natural waters contain dissolved minerals and metal ions Waters containing Ca2+ and
Mg2+ ions are usually called hard water.
Minerals usually dissolve in natural water bodies such as lakes, rivers, springs, and
underground waterways (ground waters).
Hard waters need to be treated for the following applications.
i. Heat transfer carrier in boilers and in cooling systems
ii. Solvents and reagents in industrial chemical applications
iii. Domestic water for washing and cleaning
Temporary and Permanent hardness
Due to the reversibility of the reaction,
CaCO3(s) + H2CO3 Ca2+ + 2 HCO3-
Water containing Ca2+, Mg2+ and CO32- ions is called temporary hard water, because the
hardness can be removed by boiling.
Boiling drives the reverse reaction, causing deposit in pipes and scales in boilers.
The deposits lower the efficiency of heat transfer in boilers, and diminish flow rates of water in
Thus, temporary hard water has to be softened before it enters the boiler, hot-water tank, or a
cooling system.
The amount of metal ions that can be removed by boiling is called temporary hardness
After boiling, metal ions remain due to presence of chloride ions, sulfate ions, nitrate ions, and a
rather high solubility of MgCO3.
Amount of metal ions that can not be removed by boiling is called permanent hardness.
Total hardness is the sum of temporary hardness and permanent hardness.
Hardness is often expressed as equivalence of amount of calcium ions in the solution.
In domestic use:
(i) Washing: Hard water, when used for washing purposes, does not lather freely with soap.
On the other hand, it produces sticky precipitates of calcium and magnesium soaps. The
formation of such insoluble, sticky precipitated continues, till all calcium and magnesium
salts present in water are precipitated. After that, the soap (e.g., sodium stearate) gives lather
with water. Thus;

This causes wastage of soap being used. Moreover, the sticky precipitate (of
calcium and magnesium soaps) adheres on the fabric/cloth giving spots and streaks. Also
presence of iron salts may cause staining of cloth.
(ii) Bathing: Hard water does not lather freely with soap solution, but produces sticky scum
on the bath-tub and body. Thus, the cleansing quality of soap is depressed and a lot of it is
(iii) Cooking: Due to the presence of dissolved hardness-producing salts, the boiling point
of water is elevated. Consequently, more fuel and time are required for cooking certain
foods such as pulses, beans and peas do not cook soft in hard water. Also tea or coffee,
prepared in hard water, has an unpleasant taste and muddy-looking extract. Moreover, the
dissolved salts are deposited as carbonates on the inner walls of the water heating utensils.
(iv)Drinking: Hard water causes bad effect on our digestive system. Moreover, the
possibility of forming calcium oxalate crystals in urinary tracks is increased.
Industrial use:
(i) Textile industry: Hard water causes much of the soap (used in washing yarn, fabric etc.)
to go as waste, because hard water cannot produce good quality of lather. Moreover,
precipitated of calcium and magnesium soaps adhere to the fabrics. These fabrics, when
dyed latter on, do not produce exact shades of color. Iron and manganese salts-containing
water may cause colored spots on fabrics, thereby spoiling their beauty.
(ii) Sugar industry: Water containing sulphates, nitrates, alkali carbonated, etc., if used in
sugar refining, causes difficulties in the crystallization of sugar. Moreover, the sugar so-
produced may be deliquescent.
(iii) Dyeing industry: The dissolved calcium, magnesium and iron salts in hard water may react with
costly dyes, forming undesirable precipitated, which yields impure shades and give spots on the fabrics
being dyed.
(iv) Paper industry: Calcium and magnesium salts tend to react with chemicals and other materials
employed to provide a smooth and glossy (i.e., shining) finish to paper. Moreover, iron salts may even
affect the color of the paper being produced.
(v) Laundry: Hard water, if used in laundry, causes much of the soap used in washing to go as waste.
Iron salts may even cause coloration of the clothes.
(vi) Concrete making: Water containing chlorides and sulphates, if used for concrete making, affects
the hydration of cement and the final strength of the hardened concrete.
(vii) Pharmaceutical industry: Hard water, if used for preparing pharmaceutical products (like drugs,
injections, ointments, etc.) may produce certain undesirable products in them.
In steam generation in boilers:
For steam generation, boilers are almost invariably employed. If the hard water is fed
directly to the boilers, there arise many troubles such as:
(i) scale and sludge formation, (ii) corrosion,(iii) priming and foaming and (iv) caustic embrittlement.