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At the end of the lesson trainees should be able to confirm the following:

Element 1 Identify and use local resources

1. I can identify installed Internet software applications and start up using the
appropriate procedures
2. I can use the appropriate Internet software offline and online following
the correct procedures
3. I understand how to access the desired site and download files
4. I understand how to scan files for viruses using installed software according
to guidelines
5. I can ensure that guidelines and regulations are adhered to in the retrieval of
information and files

Element 2 Identify and use remote resources

1. I can access files and documents with the use of the Internet search engines using
the correct procedures
2. I can browse the Internet to find related sites via links according to procedures
3. I can send, download, read and respond to e-mails following correct procedures
4. I can retrieve files attached to incoming e-mails and send documents as attached

What is the Internet?
The Internet is a massive network of computers linked together for global
communications. Some computers, typically those provided by companies, provides or
"serves" information on request. Other computers, or those in your home, contain
software to access and view information. There are a variety of ways to access the
Internet. Most online services, such as America Online, offer access to some Internet
services. Households typically use an Internet Service Provider (ISP), such as America
Online, that provides Internet services.

When you log onto the Internet using Microsoft Internet Explorer or some other browser,
you view documents on the World Wide Web. You can view and retrieve documents,
images, animation and video, listen to sound files, speak and hear voice, and view
programs that run on practically any software in the world -- providing your computer
has the hardware and software to do these things.

There are two types of computer networks:

Local Area Network (LAN): A LAN is two or more connected computers sharing
certain resources in a relatively small geographic location (the same building, for

Wide Area Network (WAN): A WAN typically consists of 2 or more LANs. The
computers are farther apart and are linked by telephone lines, dedicated telephone lines,
or radio waves. The Internet is the largest Wide Area Network (WAN) in existence.


All computers on the Internet (a wide area network, or WAN) can be lumped into two
groups: servers and clients. In a network, clients and servers communicate with one
A server is the common source that:
Provides shared services (for example, network security measures) with
other machines
Manages resources (for example, one printer many people use) in a network.
The term server is often used to describe the hardware (computer), but the term also
refers to the software (application) running on the computer. Many servers are
dedicated, meaning they only perform specific tasks.
For example,
An email server is a computer that has software running on it allowing it to "serve"
email-related services.
A web server has software running on it that allows it to "serve" web-related services.

Remember, all computers on the Internet (a wide area network, or WAN) can be
lumped into two groups: servers and clients, which communicate with one another.
Independent computers connected to a server are called clients. Most likely, your
home or office computer does not provide services to other computers. Therefore, it is a
Clients run multiple client software applications that perform specific functions.
For example,
An email application such as Microsoft Outlook is client software.
Your web browser (such as Internet Explorer or Netscape) is client software.

Servers and Clients Communicate

Your computer (client hardware) is running a web browser such as Internet Explorer
(client software).
When you want to surf the web, your browser connects to a remote server and requests a
web page.
The remote server (server hardware) runs web server software (server software).
The web server sends the web page to your computer's web browser.
Your web browser displays the page.

The World Wide Web (WWW)
As you now know, the Internet is the physical computer network (computer, monitor,
modem, cables, phone lines, etc).
So, what is the World Wide Web?
Tim Berners-Lee, a software engineer, invented the World Wide Web in 1991.
The Web is a system of Internet servers that support specially-formatted documents.
These specially formatted documents are text documents created in HTML, a formatting
language. In conjunction with the World Wide Web, your web browser interprets these
text documents so they become web pages.
Web pages contain formatted text, graphics, sound, animation, and video, allowing point
and click navigation.
Before the Web, the Internet was mostly text-based. To use it, you had to know lots of
keyboard command prompts, making it largely unusable to the average person. The
World Wide Web changed all that.

Some Important Web Terms:

Also called the Web or World Wide Web. See previous page for full definition.
Web Browser
A piece of software used to navigate the Web. Internet Explorer and Netscape are web
browsers. Learn more about web browsers in Unit 2.
GUI (Graphical User Interface)
A GUI (pronounced GOO-ee) takes advantage of your computer's graphics (picture)
capabilities to increase ease of use. For example, the buttons you point and click to surf
the web is part of your web browser's GUI . Most operating systems include a GUI, such
as Windows and Mac OS. In the past, there was no pointing and clicking; rather, the user
had to know a command language to operate the computer.

More Important Web Terms:

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
The formatting language used to create web documents.

The system of electronically linking words or pictures to other words or pictures.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator)

Each web page has its own address on the Internet, which is called a URL. To recognize
one another over the Internet, computers convert human-friendly addresses like
www.gcflearnfree.org to numerical IP addresses. You may type in either
(GCFLearnFree.org's IP address) or www.gcflearnfree.org (our human-friendly domain
name) to get to our homepage.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)

You may have noticed the http:// preceding URLs. For example:
http://www.gcflearnfree.org. The first part of the URL, usually HTTP, indicates the file

type. HTTP, the system for transferring web documents, defines how messages are
formatted and transmitted over the Internet.

Today, many people use the terms Internet and World Wide Web interchangeably. For
example, "I need to get on the Web." Or, "I need to get on the Internet."

Modems and Web Browsers

To connect to the Internet, your computer requires a modem and a web browser.
What is a modem?
A modem is a device that converts a computer's outgoing data to a format that can be
transferred via telephone lines. Modems can also convert incoming data so the computer
can read it.

A modem can be located inside or outside your computer. Some of the different types of
modems are internal, external, voice/data, and fax modems.

What is a web browser?

Remember, along with a computer equipped with a modem, you need a piece of software
called a web browser to navigate the Web.
Internet Explorer and Netscape are examples of web browsers.

Internet Service Providers

To access the Internet, you need a computer equipped with a modem and web
browser, but you'll also need an ISP.

Internet Service Providers (ISPs) are companies that provide access to the Internet.
For a monthly fee (and an initial activation fee), you can purchase a software package
from your ISP. These packages feature different levels of Internet access. Flat-rate service
will buy you unlimited hours, whereas a less-expensive hourly package buys limited
Internet access. In either case, the speed with which you access the Internet factors into
how much you pay per month.

The ISP software package usually includes:

Username. A unique name used to gain access to a computer system.
Password. A combination of keyboard characters. Used in combination with a username,
passwords allow access to restricted computer information. It is important to keep
passwords secret.
Access phone number. For example, (919) 555-5555.
If you connect to the Internet at work, you may be part of a LAN (local area network)
that shares network resources. To gain Internet access, your employer contracted with an

The Need for Speed

If you surf the Web frequently, you are probably used to waiting, and waiting, and
waiting some more.

Slow Internet access means some users are unable to access certain web pages, especially
those loaded with graphics, sound, and video. So, to access the latest web technologies,
users need more speed.
In response to the need for speed, modems (a device used to access the Internet) were
built that were capable of faster data transmission rates.
Faster data transmission means:
Faster web pages
Faster email services
Music, animation, and video plays smoothly

Data Transmission Rates

At higher speeds, modems are measured in terms of bits per second (bps). A bit is a unit
of measurement that measures the transfer of data, or information. For example, if you
have a 56K modem, your modem may be capable of transferring 56,000 bits per second.
Did You Know? Eight bits of data is roughly the amount that you enter each time you tap
a key on your keyboard.
Data Transmission Rates:
Early 90's
19.2K bits per second
28.8K bits per second
33.6K bits per second
56K bits per second
Almost 10 Million bits per second (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line, (ADSL), Cable

All About Bandwidth

A fast modem doesn't ensure fast transmission rates. Fast data transmission often depends
on bandwidth.
Bandwidth is the amount of data actually being sent through a network circuit.
Example: Think of bandwidth in terms of the road system.
Let's say you want to estimate the time it takes for you to commute from home to work.
You have to travel through a physical network of roadways to travel from home to work.
To estimate your commute, consider:
What is the speed limit?
Where are you located (big city or rural setting?)
How big (wide) is the road? (2-lane roads, 4-lane roads, or a 6-lane interstate?)
How much traffic will be on the road at any given time?
Is there any construction?
The Internet is similar to the roadway example. Remember, the Internet is a physical
network (phone lines, etc). Data has to travel through that physical network. Too much
traffic on the network means you may be unable to connect at a fast rate, or at all. The
more open and wider your network is, the faster you can connect and surf.
The next time the Internet is creeping, the quality of bandwidth may be to blame.

What Type of Access is Available to You?
Many ISPs offer different levels of Internet access.
56K Dial-up
Uses existing phone lines.
Lower cost-usually around $22.00 per month.
Dial-up connection uses existing phone line, making it impossible to receive phone calls
unless another line is installed. Uses existing phone lines.
Slow -- Can be limited to speeds of 28.8K to 33.6K. Upload speeds can be limited to as
low as 28.8, with download speed approaching 56K under only perfect conditions.
Service can be somewhat unreliable (busy signals, spontaneously terminated sessions,

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)

Faster than 56K dial-up, but every ISP does not support ISDN.
Can provide 2-4 times the speed of a 56K modem.
Uses digital rather than analog signals to transmit data.
Requires special equipment that can drive up your cost.
Data is not compressed so transmission rates can be comparable to 56k-at more cost.
May be replaced by other technologies

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)

Newer technologies such as DSL use an ISP to connect to the Internet and allow faster
Can fall back to slower speeds if the line cannot handle the modem's fastest speed.
Uses the existing phone line in most cases.
Does not tie up existing phone line, leading to "always on" access.
More bandwidth results in improved streaming audio/video, online games, application
programs, telephone calling, video conferencing and other high-bandwidth services.
Can connect multiple computers on a single line.
Faster than a 56K dial-up modem.
Availability-limited to homes/businesses with a dedicated copper wire running between it
and the phone company's nearest central office.
Cost-includes installation fees and monthly charges (around $50.00 per month).
Need a firewall to ensure home network security. (additional cost)
Service is not infallible.

Cable Modem
Cable modems, another newer technology that uses an ISP to connect to the Internet,
allows faster connections.

Uses coaxial and/or fiber-optic cable rather than phone lines for data transmission, so
performance doesn't depend on your distance from a central cable office.
Can fall back to slower speeds if the line cannot handle the modem's fastest speed.
Convenient for homes already wired with cable access.
Does not tie up existing phone line, leading to "always on" access.
More bandwidth results in improved streaming audio/video, online games, application
programs, telephone calling, video conferencing and other high-bandwidth services.
Can connect multiple computers on a single line.
Faster than a 56K dial-up modem.
Availability-limited to homes/businesses with cable access.
Cost-includes installation fees and monthly charges (around $40.00 per month).
Often requires commitment to a cable TV package.
A firewall is necessary to ensure home network security (additional cost).
Service is not infallible.

Browser Basics
If you found our web site, you're already familiar with your web browser's basic tools
such as the Back button, Forward button and Address bar.
Here is a quick review of web browser basics:
To return to the last page you viewed, click your Back button.
To return to the page you visited before you clicked the Back button, click the Forward
Click the drop down menu to the right of the back and forward buttons to view and
select from a list of recently visited sites.
To visit a web page, type the URL in the address bar and click the Go button or simply
hit the Enter (Return) key on your keyboard.

Have you ever started typing your favorite website's address, and the entire address

Or, have you tried clicking the address bar's drop down menu to display a list of sites
you've recently visited?

What about the Back and Forward button's drop down lists of recently visited sites?

If you've used any of the methods listed above to surf the Web, you are using your web
browser's cache.
Your web browser stores recently visited sites (as temporary Internet files) on your
computer's hard disk. When you revisit your favorite sites, the browser displays the
pages from the cache instead of requesting them from the web server.
This makes surfing the web faster and easier.

Refreshing and Stopping Web Pages

While using your browser's cache may increase ease of use, you may not be getting the
most up-to-date information a site has to offer. To do so, you need to refresh, or reload,
a web page. Refreshing requests fresh pages from the web server rather than from the
cache stored on your machine's disk.
Most browsers include a Refresh button on the toolbar. (F5)
Refresh a web page when:
You want to view the latest version of the page. For example, when viewing a discussion
forum, or a news-driven website.
You get a message that a web page cannot be displayed. For example, "Error 404, File
Not Found."
Most browsers include a Stop button on the toolbar. (Esc)
Stop a web page when:
You want to stop a web page from loading.
A page is taking too long to load.
You mistyped a URL.

Search Engines
Instead of trying to guess where certain information may be located on the Web, search
engines allow you to search both the Web and newsgroups.
A search engine searches for keywords and returns a list of documents where the
keywords can be found. Most search engines allow you to search using plain language
relevant to the topic of interest, meaning you don't have to know any special
programming tricks to effectively search the Web.
You're probably already familiar with search engines such as Yahoo, Google, Excite, or
AltaVista. You may have even used a search engine to find our site.

There is tons of information available on the Web; you just have to know how to find
it fast.

Tips for Effective Searching

Beware of using slang or partial words. If you use slang or parts of words, you may
have some luck, but your results may be too broad. For example, flick instead of movie,
or Macs instead of Macintoshes may yield different results.
Correct Spelling, Pluralization and Capitalization. Be aware of pluralizing your
words, and spell them correctly. For example, good will, goodwill, Goodwill, Goodwills,
and Good Will may yield different results.
AND. Use AND (all caps) to search for multiple words that must appear in a web page.
Some search engines support a plus sign (+) in place of AND. For example, free AND
coupon, or free + coupon.
NOT. Use NOT (all caps) to exclude certain words or phrases. For example, casserole
NOT chicken NOT beef.
OR. Use OR (all caps) to include any of the search words (rather than most.) For
example, George Washington OR Bush.
Wildcards. The percentage symbol (%) can be used to replace only one character. The
asterisk (*) can be used to replace multiple characters. For example, post* could produce
postwar, postgame, or postmarital.
Phrases. Put quotes around a phrase so each word in the phrase isn't searched for
separately. For example, if you put quotes around "free online computer training," the
search engine searches for that entire phrase in a web page. However, if you simply
type, free online computer training, the search engine searches for each of the words
individually in a web page.
Get Help. Go to your search engine's Help page for more specific information on a
particular engine.
Try Something New. There are many different search engines on the Web. If you can't
find what you are looking for using your favorite engine, go somewhere else.
Bookmark it. Add your favorite search engines to your Favorites to increase ease of
use. If you're not sure how to do this, you'll learn how later in this unit.

Internet Explorer features customizable toolbars to help you navigate the Web. Below
are the toolbars featured in IE 5.
The Standard buttons bar displays commonly used buttons such as the Back,
Forward, Stop, Refresh, Home, Search, Favorites, History, and Print buttons.

The Address bar displays the address, or URL, of the web page you are currently
visiting. Type new URLs or search terms into the Address bar.

The Links bar is a convenient place to add frequently used links.

The Radio bar, available when Windows Media Player is installed, includes a radio
station guide and control button such as "play" and "volume."

Show and Hide Toolbars, Status bar and Explorer bar

In newer versions of Internet Explorer, you can show and hide the toolbars, Status bar
and Explorer bar.
To show or hide the toolbars:
Choose View Toolbars from the IE menu bar.
Click the clear or show the checkmark for each item.

Right-click the toolbar and click to clear or show the checkmark for each item.

To show or hide the Status bar:

Choose View and click to clear or show the checkmark.
To show or hide the Explorer bar:
Choose View Explorer bar.

Choose from Search, Favorites, History, or Folders.
Click on the Standard button toolbar.
Click button again to hide the Explorer bar or click the X in the upper right corner or the
Explorer bar.

Customizing Toolbars
In newer versions of Internet Explorer, you can move and resize the toolbars.
To move a toolbar:
Look for the resize/move toolbar handle.
Hover your mouse pointer over the resize/move toolbar handle.
The mouse pointer becomes a double-headed arrow.
Click and drag a toolbar up, down, left, or right.
When moved, toolbars "snap" to the outer edge of the IE window.
To resize a toolbar:
Look for the resize/move toolbar handle.
Hover your mouse pointer over the resize/move toolbar handle.
The mouse pointer becomes a double-headed arrow.
Click and drag until toolbar is desired size.

Customizing the Standard Button Bar:

You can further customize the Standard button toolbar by adding or removing
Standard buttons. You can even change the appearance of your buttons.
Add or remove a button from the Standard button bar:
Choose View Toolbars Customize from the IE menu bar.
Right-click the toolbar and click Customize.
The Customize Toolbar dialog box opens.
In the left-hand scroll box, there is a list of Available toolbar buttons.
In the right-hand scroll box, there is a list of Current toolbar buttons.
In either scroll box, click to select a button you would like to add or remove.
Click the Add or Remove button.
The button is now added or removed from the toolbar.
Click Close to display new options.

To change the text options featured on your buttons:
With the Customize Toolbar dialog box open, click the Text Options drop down box to
select No text labels, Show text labels, and Selective text on right.
Click Close to display new options.
To change the size of your button icons:
With the Customize Toolbar dialog box open, click the Icon Options drop down box to
select Small icons or Large icons.
Click Close to display new options.

Setting a Home page

Your home page is the first page you see when you start Internet Explorer (IE). Change
your home page to make surfing the Web easier and more convenient.
For example, if you want to start each Internet session with GCFLearnFree.org,
http://www.gcflearnfree.org should be your home page. If you like to check the weather
every time you log on, you might prefer http://www.weather.com as your home page.
To change the Home Page:
Choose Tools Internet Options from the IE menu bar. The Internet Options dialog
box opens.

If not already selected, click the General tab.

Type a new URL in the home page section of the General tab.
Click OK.

If you like the current page and want to set it as your new home page, click the Use
Current button.
The Use Default button sets www.microsoft.com as your home page.
The Use Blank button sets a blank page as your home page. This option is beneficial to
those who don't want to begin each Internet session waiting for a home page to load.
Click OK.

You can also look for web pages using the Search function.
For ease of use, IE offers a couple of ways to search.
Searching with the Explorer bar:
Choose View Explorer bar Search click the Search button on the toolbar.

The Explorer bar's Search function displays. (Ctrl + E)

Choose a category for your search. (Find a web page, Find a person's address, Find a
Business, Previous Searches, or Find a Map radio buttons)
Plug in any key words you think the page contained in the Find a web page containing
text box.
Click Search.
Results display in the bar. Click links that interest you.

Click the History button. The History list opens. Access the Search function by clicking
Search (located at the top of the History list).
To hide the Explorer's bar's Search function:
Click the Search button again.

Click the X in the upper right of the Search function.

You can also perform a web search by typing search terms directly into the Address
Searching from the Address bar:
Type in any key words you think the page may contain.
Click the Go button or press Enter on the keyboard.
MSN Search results display in a web page.
Choose a link that interests you.

Match the correct term with its definition.
A. Consists of 2 or more LANs. The
___1. LAN computers are farther apart and are linked by
(Local Area telephone lines, dedicated telephone lines, or
Network) radio waves.

B. Common source that provides shared

___2. WAN
services to other machines and manages
(Wide Area
resources in a network.
C. A project that allowed researchers and
military personnel to communicate with each
___3. Server other in an emergency. The foundation of the

D. Two or more connected computers sharing

certain resources in a relatively small
___4. Clients
geographic location.

E. Computers connected to a server and do

___5. ARPAnet not provide services to other computers.

Answers: 1.D 2. A 3. B 4. E 5. C

Match the correct term with its definition.

___1. Web A. The system of electronically linking words

Browser or pictures to other words or pictures

B. The system for transferring web

documents over the Internet.
C. Also called a Web address.
___3. HTTP
D. The formatting language used to create
___4. URL web documents.

E. Software used to surf the web, such as

___5. HTML Internet Explorer or Netscape.

Answers: 1. E - 2. A - 3. B - 4. C - 5. D

Whether you are at home, work, or are using a public computer, find out:
What type of (speed) modem you use
Who your ISP is
Determine what ISP offers the best range of services for the least amount of


Go to Yahoo.com.
Using the search box, type in the words bandwidth test."
Several web sites matches should appear.
Click on one of the sites that provides an online tool that can help you
determine the speed of your Internet connection performance.
Perform the test.
How fast is your connection


Choose a level of Internet access that corresponds to your needs and budget. Do
some research on the Internet to determine the following:
What type of high-speed Internet access is available in your living area?

Common Web Browsers
Today, Internet Explorer is the most popular web browser. Other browsers include
Firefox, Chrome, Safari, and Opera. Each one has its own look and feel, but they have
the same goal: to display web pages correctly. For most web pages, any well-known
browser will work.

Internet Explorer



Like most modern programs, browsers use a Graphical User Interface (GUI), which
means you can navigate by pointing and clicking with a mouse instead of just typing.
Some devices such as mobile phones use different types of GUIs, such as touchscreens.
However, many of the principles remain the same.

Navigating to a Web Site
Address Bar
Browsers have an address bar that shows the web address (also called a URL) of the
page you are on. To go to a different page, you can type an address in the address bar and
then press Enter (or Return).

The Address Bar

Most of the time, you will get to a different page by clicking on a link. A link can be text
or an image, and it's usually formatted to stand out so you know to click on it. Many text
links are blue, and they may also be underlined.
A link may lead to another web page, or it could lead to a document, video, or any other
type of file. If you're not sure if something's a link, hover the mouse over it. The pointer
should change to a hand symbol.

Hovering over a link

Navigation Buttons
Sometimes, after you click on a link, you might want to go back to the previous page.
You can do this using your browser's Back button. Once you've pressed the Back button,
you can press the Forward button to follow the link again.

The Back and Forward Buttons

When you use the Back and Forward buttons, your browser may use its web cache to
display the page. The web cache stores recently-viewed web pages so that they don't need
to be downloaded again. That's usually good because it speeds up your web browsing, but
sometimes you want to see the most up-to-date information on the page. You can use the
Refresh button (sometimes called Reload) to tell the browser to load the page again.
If a page is taking too long to load, or if you've typed in the wrong URL, you use the
Stop button to stop the page from loading.

The Refresh and Stop buttons
There are some instances where you don't want to use the navigation buttons. For
example, in some online stores, you shouldn't refresh the page after purchasing an item,
as it could cause you to purchase the item twice.

Search Bar
Most browsers have a built-in search bar for performing web searches. We'll talk more
about those in the next lesson.

The Search Bar

If you've found a page you'd like to go back to later, you can add it to your Bookmarks
(sometimes called Favorites). Bookmarks make it easier to find a page later on. Instead
of having to remember the exact web address, you can just scroll through your
bookmarks until you see the name of the page.
In Internet Explorer, you can add a bookmark by clicking Favorites and then Add to
Favorites. Other browsers are similar, but they may use different wording.

Adding a Bookmark
Browsing History
Suppose you visited a page a
few days ago but forgot to
bookmark it. You can find the
page again by using your
history, which is a list of web
sites you've visited. Usually,
pages will stay in the history
for a certain number of days.
To maintain privacy, you can
delete your history at any

Viewing Your History

To view your history in Internet Explorer, click

Favorites and then click the history tab.
Browsing history

Deleting Your History

In Internet Explorer, click Tools and then
Internet Options. From there, you'll be able to
delete your History or manage your history

Internet Options
If you're using a browser other than Internet
Explorer, the process of viewing and deleting
history will be a little bit different.

Tabbed Browsing
Many browsers allow you to open a link in a new tab. This allows you to keep the
current page open instead of going directly to the new page. For example, if you're
reading an article that has a link in it, you can open the link in a new tab so that you can
finish reading the article. Then, you can go to the new tab to view the link.

Tabs are designed to make browsing more convenient. You can open as many links as
you want, and they'll stay in the same browser window instead of cluttering up your
desktop with multiple windows.

To open a link in a new tab, right-click the link and click Open in New Tab (the
wording may vary from browser to browser). To close a tab, click the "X" on the tab.
Opening a link in a new tab

Downloading Files
Your browser can display many different types of documents, media, and other files. But
there are times when you'll want to access a file outside your browser. Downloading
enables you to do this by putting the file on your computer in a place where you can
access it.

For example, suppose you needed to complete and print a form that you found online.
You could download it to your desktop, then open it with the appropriate program (such
as Microsoft Word) to edit it.

How to Download a File

If you click on a link to a file, it may download automatically, but sometimes it just
opens within your browser instead of downloading. To prevent it from opening in the
browser, you can right-click the link and select Save Target As... (different browsers
may use slightly different wording). You'll be able to choose the folder where the file is
Since the process of downloading a file varies from site to site, it may require some trial
and error.

Downloading a file
For various reasons, many sites do not allow you to download content. For example,
YouTube does not offer a way to download its videos.

Saving Images
Sometimes you might want to save an image to your computer. To do this, right-click the
image and select Save Picture As....

Saving a picture
Some sites do not allow certain images to be saved to your computer.

Plug-ins are programs that are installed in your browser that enable it to play various
types of media, such as video. Examples of plug-ins include Quicktime Player and
Flash Player. If you don't have the correct plug-in, the site will usually provide a link to
download the plug-in.
Once you have the necessary plug-ins, you'll be able to enjoy streaming video from sites
such as Hulu, and play games on sites such as Newgrounds.

Plug-ins allows you to play games in your browser.

Your browser may have come with some plug-ins already installed.


Virus a set of executable destructive programs or instructions designed to infect

other programs and databases.

Data stored on computers can be damaged, destroyed or altered by vandals (also called
hackers, crackers, or cyberpunks), who create viruses, which can create havoc on a
computer system. A virus is usually loaded onto your computer without your knowledge
or wishes.
When it attaches itself to a host program; its purpose is to replicate itself via files that are
transferred from one computer to another. A virus can propagate via shared floppy discs
or other media, and needs a host in order to do so.

Note: A simple virus is dangerous because it will quickly use all available memory
and bring the system to a halt.

Far more dangerous, is a type of virus that is capable of transmitting itself across
networks and bypassing security systems.
Some people distinguish between general viruses, worms and Trojan horses.

Symptoms of an infected file

Since every computer is vulnerable to attack, you must familiarize yourself with the
symptoms of a virus attack. Once your file or data is behaving abnormally such as loss of
words, letters, and the document refuses to open or pop up messages, your data may be
infected with a virus.

Antivirus software
Since 1987, when a virus infected ARPANET, a large network used by the United States
Defence Department and many universities, many antivirus programs have become
available. These programs periodically check your computer system for the best-known
types of viruses.

Your antivirus software should contain a virus scanner that has a memory-resident option
that runs in the background, checking every new file that enters your computer no matter
where it comes from (whether a floppy drive, CD-ROM drive, an Internet download, or

Web Pages must be scanned by antivirus software that is configured to check all
downloaded web pages, because it is possible to visit a web page that contains a
malicious program that will be automatically executed upon download.
Examples of anti-virus software are:
Data Fellows F-PROT antivirus toolkit
Norton 2004
McAfee anti-virus software

Set the software to scan all program files on your computer whenever you turn it on,
make sure it is always running in the background
Update your antivirus software regularly, at least once per month or use version- less
antivirus software instead, which is updated for you automatically over the Internet
Keep floppy diskettes out of your floppy drive unless you are actively working with the
on a floppy disk. Boot sector virus hides on floppies and is triggered when your machine
routinely checks to see whether it should run up sequence from the floppy drive. If the
floppys boot sector is infected, the virus will kick into action.
Encrypt all files that contain sensitive information or store them off line on floppies or
other removable
Do not leave your computer connected to the Internet any longer than necessary

What to do when you receive an E-mail Attachment:

If you receive an unsolicited e-mail attachment from an unknown person, delete it
without opening it first
If you receive an e-mail attachment accompanied by an empty message body, delete it.
Even if you recognize the return address the absence of a message is cause for suspicion
If you receive an unexpected e-mail attachment from someone you know and the
message body looks generic, contact the sender to make sure that the sender has sent the
message to you
If you do decide to open a mail attachment, make sure that you scan it with antivirus
software first, even if you have confirmed the sender and you trust the source
To be 100% safe, disable all macros before opening any Microsoft Office document


In addition to scanning files for viruses, there are other guidelines for you to follow. The
nature of the Internet is such that your conduct will be visible to others as well as
monitored by various network administrators (and others who will be invisible to you).
Not only do you have rights, but you also have responsibilities.

When you log on to the Internet, you need to understand and follow behavioural codes
that are specific to the Net, and also to minimize your personal risk. A set of rules called
Netiquette has been developed to enable all users of the Internet to communicate with one
another in a civilized manner. Since no one individual or organization owns or controls
the Internet, Netiquette is an informal code of practice that is not covered by government
legislation. Some countries do however legislate to stop information of a pornographic or
violent nature from being stored or downloaded.

Acceptable Use Policies
All computer accounts and some public Internet servers are subject to an Acceptable Use
Policy (AUP), a policy that outlines appropriate use of the Internet and is enforced by
system administrators. Your Internet access privileges can be withdrawn if you violate the
rules and restrictions specified by the AUP. AUPs are posted on the Web and should be
easy to locate.

Software piracy willful reproduction or distribution of one or more copies of one or

more copyrighted works that collectively have a total retail value of more
than US$1,000.00

Copyright Laws
Copyright laws exist to protect the creative and economic interests of writers, musicians
and artists. A copyright confers certain rights and privileges to its owner and is granted to
the author of a book or to an artist, musician, or other individual who creates some
intellectual product.

Search engines make finding adult content online easy and all sorts of characters can be
found in chat rooms devoted to pornography.

However, before you are tempted to view or send materials of a pornographic nature, you
should be aware that your employers can monitor your e-mail messages that pass through
the companys computers. If company policy prohibits offensive, materials on office
computers, pursuing these activities could cost you your job



By now you should know that search engines are the tools that provide subject access to
websites. There are many search engines available, but all of them search differently and
of them searches the entire World Wide Web. Four basic types of search engines are:
Directory search engine
Robot search engines
Spider search engines
Meta search engines
Directory Search Engine
These search engines operate like a library card catalogue. Although they allow word or
term searching, the websites included in the directory have been studied and organized
into topics and subtopics. Two of the best search engines to select for a beginning search

Figure 6

Robot/Spider Search Engines

The majority of the existing search engines employ a technology in which a robot or
spider searches through the Web or the search engines own database to capture search
terms. As a result, a large number of responses are provided to the searcher, many of
which are not useful.

The largest of the search engines, and the one that is best for searching with multiple
terms and provides an image search and a foreign language translator, is AltaVista. A
good choice for middle ground search engines that are not directories such as Yahoo and
not as large as AltaVista, are Hotbot and Lycos.

Figure 7

Meta Search Engines

Meta Search engines search a number of search engines at the same time. This simplifies

the work of the searcher and also allows for comparison between search engines on their
work with a particular topic. One of the most powerful meta search engine is Dogpile