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Fawid f Mustalah

al-Hadth (Benefits

in Hadth


Following the Tartb

of Ibn Hajar al-
Asqaln In his
classical work
Nukhbat al-Fikr
Mustalah ) (is a technical term or, nomenclature: it is defined as the agreed upon usage
of specific words by people of a particular knowledge in which they understand when used
amongst themselves.

- An important principle to keep in mind for the student of knowledge in regards to

terminology is ( There is no argumentation over terminology). This
means that scholars may use different terms and sometimes the same terms may mean
different things to different scholars. This is never an issue. What is important for the
student is to understand each scholars definition of those terms and what ruling they take
from it. So a scholar might use the term Hasan to describe a reliable narration, and
another might use the term Daf to describe the same narration, yet he still uses it and
acts upon that narration. One should not argue over which scholars term is best to use, the
important matter it, what is the ruling on that narration.

Ahl al-Athar ) ( also synonymous with Ahl al-Hadth )( , are those people who are
heavily affiliated with and have dedicated their lives to serving, defending, grading, memorizing,
and following the narrations of the Prophet ().

Khabr ) (a narration that is attributed to the Prophet ( )or others such as Sahbah or Tabin.

Turuq ) (is plural of Tarq )(. A path that leads to the person a narration comes from.

This hadth is narrated from the path (Tarq) of Anas

Mutawtir ) (a narration which has reached the highest level of authenticity it necessitates
there is no possibility its a lie. There are 2 types of Mutawtir:

1. Lafdh )(: That which is narrated in the exact same wordings by many narrators
2. Manaw )(: That which is narrated in different wordings yet gives the same
meaning as the other narrations.

There are 4 conditions a narration much contain to reach this level:

1. A large number of people narrate it

2. There is no possibility they conspired together to form a lie
3. The large number of narrators is consistent in every generation of the narration
4. The narrators use phrases which point towards senses (I heard, I saw, I felt)

Mutawtir Lafdh narration:


" :

On authority of Al-Mughrah, he said, the Messenger of Allh, peace and blessings of Allh
upon him, said: Whoever lies upon me intentionally, then let him take his seat in the Fire.1

Mutawtir Manaw narration:

" " :

On authority of Ab Huryrah, the Messenger of Allh, peace and blessings of Allh upon him,
said: (Concerning the Sea Water) 'Its water is a means of purification and its dead meat is

Ilm al-Yaqeen ( ) is the product of a Mutawtir narration. It is the certain knowledge

that one gains from it due to reaching such strict conditions. This means there is no doubt in it
being from the Messenger of Allh (). This is also called Ilm al-Darr.

Sahh al-Bukhr #1291
2 Sunan an-Nasi Hadth # 332 Graded Sahh
Mashr ) (is also synonymous with Mustafd )(. This is a hadth which is narrated
by three or more narrators in every generation.

Mashr / Mustafd narration:

" "

On the authority of Jbir. The Messenger of Allh ( )said: A Muslim is he from whose hand
and tongue the Muslims are safe. 3

RasulAllh ()

Jbir AbdAllh bin Amr al-s Ab Huryra

Ab Zubyr mr Ab Slih

Ibn al-Juryj Zakary al-QaQ ibn al-Hakm

Ab sim Ab Nuim Ibn Ajln

Hasan al-Hulwn Bukhr al-Layth

Muslm Qutyba


Sahh Muslim #41
Azz ) (is a hadth which is narrated by two people in each generation of the narration.

Azz narration:


On authority of Anas: The Messenger of Allh ( )said: 'None of you has believed until I am
dearer to him than his family, his wealth and all the people.4

- Some said that in order for a hadth to even be considered authentic, it must reach us with
at least two chains. At the head of this call was the Mutazil scholar Ab Al al-Jub5

Rasul Allh ()

Anas Ab Huryra

Qatdah Abdal-Azz

Shubah Ismal Abdal-Writh

dam Imrn ibn Mus

Bukhr Nasi

4 Sunan an-Nasi Hadth #5014 Graded Sahih

5 Nuzhat al-Nadhar f Twdh Nukhbat al-Fikr
Gharb )(, also known as Fard ) (is a hadth which is narrated by only one person in any
generation. Depending on what area of the generations it is narrated by one person, will
determine which type of gharbah it is. There are two main types:

1. Gharb Mutlaq ) ( which is when it is narrated by one person from the very
beginning of the chain (i.e., generation of the Tbi)

Gharb Mutlaq narration:



On authority of Umar bin al-Khatb: I heard Allh's Messenger ( )saying, "The reward of deeds
depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has
intended. So whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigration
was for what he emigrated for."6

- Out of all those who heard Umar bin al-Khatb narrate this hadth, only Alqama bin
Waqs al-Lyth narrated it from him, and only Muhammad bin Ibrahm al-Tim
narrated from him, and only Yahy bin Sad al-Ansr narrated from Muhammad; it then
became a widespread narration (as can be seen below).

6 Sahh al-Bukhr #1
Rasul Allh ()

Umar bin al-Khatb

Alqama bin Waqqs al-Layth

Muhammad bin Ibrhm al-Tim

Yahy bin Sad al-Ansr

Sufyn Mlik Sulimn Sufyn Layth Abd al-wahb

Humyd Qanab Ishq Muhammad K Muhammad R Muhammad M

Bukhr Muslim Nas Abu Dwd Yazd Tirmidh

Abu Bakr

Ibn Mjah
2. Gharb Nisb ) ( which is when it is narrated by one person anywhere else except
the very beginning. This comes in various ways:
1. Gharb due to one narrator being the only reliable one amongst weak
2. Gharb due to it being a narration from a specific land )(, or madhab
3. Gharb due to only one narrator narrating it from his sheikh

Gharb Nisb narrations:

It was narrated from Anas bin Malik that the Prophet ( )entered Makkah on the day of the
Conquest, with a helmet on his head.7

- This hadth was narrated through Ibn Shihb al-Zuhr though many narrated from him,
only one person was considered reliable that was Imm Mlik.



Ab Huryrah reported the Messenger of Allh ( )as saying, When one of you prostrates
himself he must not kneel in the manner of camel, but should put down his hands before his

- Ab Bakr bin Ab Dwd mentions, This is a Sunnah that the people of Madnah were
single (Fard) in9
o This was not known except with the people of Madnah because the chain is all
Madan and then it because widespread after them. But even so, this particular
hadth is Mall (Defective)!

7 Sahh al-Bukhr Hadth #4286

8 Sunan Ab Dwd Hadth #840 Daf
Zd al-Mad p. 221



Narrated Jbir, We were digging (the trench) on the day of Al-Khandaq (i.e. Trench) and we
came across a big solid rock. We went to the Prophet ( )and said, "Here is a rock appearing
across the trench." He said, "I am coming down." Then he got up, and a stone was tied to his
belly for we had not eaten anything for three days. So the Prophet ( )took the spade and struck
the big solid rock and it became like sand10

- In this hadth nobody narrated from Ayman except his son Abdulwhid.

- A hadith will be judged as Mashr, Azz, Gharb, etc, based on the smallest number
in its chain. Meaning if a hadith (like below) has 6 narrators in a generation, but then
in one generation it has one it will then be judged as Gharb.

Sahh al-Bukhr Hadth #4101
Al-Ahd ) (is the category of narrations which are non-Mutawtir. This includes
Mashr/Mustafd, Azz, and Gharb.

Can we accept and implement Ahd Narrations?

There were some who made the claim that we cannot implement Ahd narrations into our
religion (specifically matters of Aqdah) and that they must be Mutawtir. However this has no
basis and if one were to look closely into the Qurn and Sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon
him), they would see that it is upon us to accept the hadth of one person so long as they are
trustworthy. This is why Allh has said:

O you who believe! If a rebellious person comes to you with a news, verify it, lest you harm
people in ignorance, and afterwards you become regretful to what you have done.11

This shows us that what is upon us is only to verify what they are telling us and not how many are
telling us. We are after the truth even if one person brings that to us.

And the Prophet ( )said:

"Convey (my teachings) to the people even if it were a single sentence, and tell others the stories
of Bani Isral (which have been taught to you), for it is not sinful to do so. And whoever tells a
lie on me intentionally, will surely take his place in the (Hell) Fire."12

This above hadth explains to us that any Muslim who has some knowledge about the religion
should relate what it is they know for sure and not conceal that knowledge. There is no
requirement that it needs to be conveyed by many people. Therefore, with all of these evidences,
one can see how clear it becomes that there is no doubt in the acceptability of Ahd narrations
and there are many more proofs that one may bring but this is sufficient inshAllh.

Qurn Surah Al-Hujurt (49) Verse 6
Sahih al-Bukhr Hadth #3461
Ilm al-Nathar ) ( is the knowledge you benefit from, or the product of, Ahd
narrations (i.e, Mashr/Mustafd, Azz, and Gharb). These narrations require one to investigate
and research the conditions of the narrators and its authenticity is not to be taken at face value,
unlike Mutawtir which fulfilled such rigorous conditions. There are a few hints/clues which are
called Qarin ) (that one may look towards in order to benefit from these narrations:

1. If the narration is reported in Sahh Bukhr or Sahh Muslim

2. If the narration is Sahh but reported in another book of hadth
3. If there are other narrations though weak which may support it
4. If there are any actions of the Sahba that support it

Sahh li-Dhtih ) ( is the top category of Sahh. It is the narration which can stand alone
in its authenticity without any other narrations to support it. A narration requires meeting 5
conditions in order to be considered in this level

1. Adl ) (is the first condition which stipulates that the person narrating the hadth is
someone trustworthy in character. This means they are someone who is known to stay
away from the major sins and is known for their obedience of Allh and his Messenger.
There are certain criteria that the scholars look at in order to determine a person is
considered trustworthy.
a. Islm (): This condition is only stipulated during the time of narrating and
not during taking (hearing) the hadth. The proof for this is:

O you who believe! if an evil-doer comes to you with news, look carefully into it, lest
you harm a people in ignorance, then be sorry for what you have done.13

13 Qurn 49:6
- al-Hfidh al-Dhahab said It was narrated by Jubir bin Mutim that he heard the
Messenger of Allh recite in Maghrib prayer Surah Tr. He heard that while he was
still a Mushrik but he narrated it after he had embraced Islm.14

b. Bulgh (): That the narrate has reached the age of maturity, otherwise
they have not met the age of accountability and a child will not understand the
importance of hearing and narrating ahdth. This is also restricted to the time
of narrating and not upon hearing. An example of this is:

Narrated Mahmd bin Rab`a: When I was a boy of five, I remember, the Prophet ( )took
water from a bucket (used for getting water out of a well) with his mouth and threw it on my

- Here Mahmd bin Rab`a is narrating later on when he was a little older something he
remembers clearly from when he was younger.

c. Aql (): Sanity is also looked at, which is self explanatory.

d. Adm al-Fisq () : This refers to someone needing to be free from the
major sins and/or being persistent upon the minor sins. No doubt, a Muslim is
not free from any sins and if it was the case that we looked for perfection, then
none would be left for us to take from!
e. Salma min Khawrim al-Mara () : That a person is
safe from having bad manners or going against the norms of their society.
This of course, will change from place to place and time to time. It also does
not necessarily mean that what they do is Harm, but this shows us a persons
lack of concern for their dignity and honor in normal life, then even more care
is needed regarding the narrations of the Prophet (!)

14 Al-Mqida p. 61
15 Sahh al-Bukhr Hadth #77
2. Tm al-Dhabt ) ( is the second condition which stipulates this person has
impeccable memory and can narrate on command without hesitation. This is of two
a. Dhabt al-Sadr () : This persons memorization is from the top of his
head without the help of any notes. He memorizes it and narrates it the same
way he heard it.
b. Dhabt al-Kitb () : This persons memorization is from their book in
which they wrote down their narrations. So they narrate from their books as
they have written down the narrations when they heard them.
3. Mutasil al-Sanad ) ( is the third condition which stipulates that the chain of
the narration is connected from beginning to end. Meaning that each person acquired
the narration from their sheikh in a manner which is permissible to the scholars of
4. Salma min al-Ila ) ( is the fourth condition which stipulates that the
narration is free from any minute hidden defects. At times a hadth may seem like it is
authentic outwardly however may have such a subtle defect which isnt apparent except
to those who specialize in this field.
5. Salma min al-Shudd ) ( is the last condition which stipulates that the
narration is free from any opposition that is stronger than it.
- When a narration meets these 5 conditions, it will be considered Sahh in and of itself
without the assistance of other narrations. An example of this type is:



Narrated Ab Huryra: Allh's Messenger ( )said, "Beware of suspicion, for suspicion is the
worst of false tales. and do not look for the others' faults, and do not do spying on one another,
and do not practice Najsh, and do not be jealous of one another and do not hate one another, and
do not desert (stop talking to) one another. And O, Allah's worshipers! Be brothers!"16

Hasan li-Dhtih ) ( is a reliable narration, but not at the level of Sahh. It is made up the
very same conditions with a change in the level of one of the conditions. When a narration has all
5 conditions yet in regards to the memory a narrator is not at the highest level of precision it will
be dropped down to Hasan li-Dhtih. This type of narrator is known for Khaf al-Dhabt )(
or, decreased precision.



Narrated Ab Bakr bin Ab Msa Al-Ash'ar: "I heard my father saying in the presence of the
enemy: 'The Messenger of Allah ( )said: "Indeed, the gates of Paradise are under the shadows
of the swords.17

- All of the men in this chain are strong and reliable except for one, Jafar bin Sulimn
ad-Dub' who is graded as Sadq which means his narrations are Hasan. As a
result of that, this hadth which would otherwise be Sahh is graded down to Hasan.

Sahh li-Ghayrih ) ( is a Hasan li-Dhtih narration which has been supported with other
narrations that have strengthened it. As a result, it was raised up a level to Sahh, however, due to
supporting evidences and not standing on its own.

: :

Ab Huryrah narrated that : Allh's Messenger ( ) said: "If it were not that it would be
difficult on my nation, then I would have ordered them to use the Siwk for each prayer."18

Sahh al-Bukhr Hadth #96 Graded Sahh
Jmi` at-Tirmidh Hadth #1659 Graded Hasan
Jmi` at-Tirmidh Hadth #22 Graded Sahh
- In the chain of this hadth is Muhammad bin Amr bin alqama who is a Hasan
narrator. In that case, this narration should be Hasan li-Dhtih however, there were
others who narrated similarly also through the Ab Huryrah and because of that, it
was raised up to the level of Sahh li-Ghayrih

Hasan li-Ghayrih ( ( is a weak narration which has been supported with other narrations
that have strengthened it. As a result, it was raised up a level to Hasan due to the support it found
from other narrations and is not considered reliable on its own accord.

Ibn Umar narrated: "I prayed Zuhr with the Prophet ( ) on a journey as two Rak'ah, and two
Rak'ah after it." 19

- This hadth is in and of itself graded weak, however there are other narrations of more
strength which have come with the same meaning. As a result of that, it was bumped
up to Hasan.

Hasan Sahh ) ( is a term which was coined by Imm al-Tirmidh and used very often
in his Jmi. There is much disagreement over what this term means. But in order to understand it
best, we must first look at what Imm al-Tirmidh himself defines Hasan as, which must meet 3

1. There must not be a narrator who is accused of lying

2. The narration cannot be opposed by that which is stronger
3. The narration is also narrated from more than one path20

Jmi` at-Tirmidh Hadth #551 Graded Daf
Ilal al-Saghr p. 758
Therefore, when a hadth meets these conditions, and at the same time meets the 5 conditions
previously mentioned of Sahh it is known as Hasan Sahh.


'Anas bin Mlik narrated that the Messenger of Allh ( ) said: "The son of Adam grows old.
But two things keep him young: Desire for life and desire for wealth."21

- Imm at-Tirmidh said This hadth is Hasan Sahh

What are the levels of Authenticity?

1. Mutafiq Alyh (What Bukhr & Muslim agreed upon and put in their
2. What Bukhr alone narrated in his Sahh
3. What Muslim alone narrated in his Sahh
4. What is upon the condition of both but they did not put in their Sahhs
5. What is upon the conditions of Bukhr but he did not put it in his Sahh
6. What is upon the conditions of Muslim but he did not put it in his Sahh
7. Sahh li-Dhtih, etc

Ziydah ) (is additional wording which is added to a hadth by a narrator. This happens on
purpose in order to further explain a hadth, or at times by accident.

Narration including a Ziydah:

" " :

On the authority of Abdallh bin Amr: The Messenger of Allh ( ) saw some people
performing (ablution) while their heels were dry. He then said : Woe to the heels from the fire
(of Hell). Perform the ablution in full.22

Jmi` at-Tirmidh Hadth #2643 Graded Sahh
Sunan Ab Dawd Hadth #97 Graded Sahh
- The Ziydah of a Sahh or Hasan narrator will be accepted if they are not met by any
conflicting narrations from those who are stronger than them.
- One must also distinguish between the words of the Prophet ( )and the words of
- One must also understand that the addition is here to only further explain what would
otherwise not be understood properly.

Rjih ( )is what is considered superior and predominant when looking at opposing narrations
and as a result will be considered Mahfth ( )which is the established and remaining
narration. Another name for Mahfth is Marf ().

Tarjh ) (is the act of weighing the pros and cons between the opposing narrations in order to
come up with what is considered superior.

Shth ) (is an irregular narration. It is the strong narration which has been opposed by one
which is stronger.

Munkar ( )is the narration which is discarded due to it being not just a weak narration on its
own, but as well as being opposed by a narration which is strong.

Mutbi ( )is a narrator which lends support to another narrator in the generation of the chain
where he became singular (fard) in narrating that hadth. It will also lead to the same wording of
the hadth and the same sahb.

Shhid ( )is similar to the Mutbi in the sense that it lends support. However here it is not a
narrator lending support to another narrator rather it is a different narration that is similar to the
narration which it lends support to. In this case, it is not required that it leads to the same sahb
nor even the same wording of the hadth, rather it may just support the general idea of the narration.

Al-Itibr ( )is a sub-section of the sciences of hadth which has to do with the process of
researching and looking for Mutbt (plural of Mutbi) and Shawhid (plural of Shhid).

Al-Maqbl ( )refers to the narration which is accepted as a result of it being reliable in terms
of its authenticity.
Muhkam ( )is the narration which is not only acceptable due to its authenticity but there are
also no objections (i.e., abrogated, contradicted, etc.) to it therefore allowing us to implement it
into our lives, practice upon it, and derive our religion from it. So not every Maqbl is Muhkam
but every Muhkam is Maqbl.

Mukhtalif al-Hadth () : The harmonizing between two seemingly conflicting

narrations that are at the same level of authenticity however they are not conflicting.

Nsikh (): The proof from Sharah which does the abrogating.

It was narrated from 'Ali bin Abu Talib that: The Messenger of Allh ( )forbade on the Day of
Khaibar, the temporary marriage of women and (he forbade) the flesh of domestic donkeys.23

Manskh (): Something from the religion which is abrogated due to a proof from the

- Temporary marriages and eating the meat of donkeys used to be permissible, but then
came the order of Nuskh (abrogation) as can be seen in the above narration.

Mardd (): A rejected narration. This is weak and is not acceptable to be used due to some
prevention such as a break in the chain or criticism of a narrator.

Saqt ( )refers to a break in the chain of narrators, as a result, the narration will become weak.
At times this break will be apparent - Wdih ( )and one must be familiar with history and
timelines (birth and death or narrators, their teachers and students, where they traveled to, etc.) in
order to know this. At times this break will be hidden Khafi ( )which can be extremely
difficult to spot. The Saqt can take place in various ways:

1. Muallaq(): A complete break in the chain of narrators. Most of, if not the entire chain
is missing starting from the author of a book leaving a large time period in between the two
ends of the chains.

Sunan Ibn Mjah Hadth #2037 Graded Sahh
Imm Bukhr says: The Messenger of Allh ( )said

- Imm Bukhr died in 256 Hijr so it is not possible for him to directly narrate from the
Prophet ( )so there is obviously an entire chain of narrators missing in between the two

2. Mursal (): A break between the Tbi and the Prophet (). This is what a Tbi
attributes to the prophet directly narrating from him saying The Prophet ( )said such
and such... or The Prophet ( )did such and such etc.

Al-Hasan al-Basr says: The Messenger of Allh ( )said

- Al-Hasan al-Basr was a Tbi meaning he never met the Prophet ( )yet he is
directly narrating from him which shows there is a clear break of at least one person
(a Sahab).

3. Mudal (): A break that happens with two consecutive people missing in the chain.

Imam Malik says: It has reached me from Abu Huryrah ...

- Normally in Muwatta when we look the narrations he narrates of Abu Huryrah,

Malik narrates from Muhammad ibn Ajlan from his father [Ajlan] who reports from
Abu Hurayrah so there are at least 2 people between Imm Mlik and Abu
Huryrah. Or in other cases, when we look at the narrations, Malik narrates from
Nafi from Ibn Umar. So if Malik were to narrate directly from the Prophet ( )then
we know there are at least two consecutive people missing in the chain.

4. Munqati (): A break that happens anywhere in the chain other than the area of the
Sahbi, and it is possible that this break can have multiple people in the chain missing so
long as it is not back to back.

Abd al-Razzq from Thawr from Ab Ishq from Zayd ibn Yuthy from Huthyfah...
- Ibn al said that this chain is interrupted [disconnected, munqai] in two places:
Firstly, Abd al-Razzq did not hear from Thawr and actually narrates from Numn
ibn Ab Shybah al-Janad who then narrates from Thawr. Secondly, Thawr did not
hear from Ab Ishq; he actually narrates from Shuryk who then narrates from Ab

Mudals (): A narrator who uses words which give rise to the possibility of having met - Liq
( )the person they are narrating from. They will use phrases such as on the authority of, or so
and so said, or its been said. All of which do not necessarily guarantee us that this person
actually heard that narration from the one he is claiming told him. This is usually done on purpose
but for different reasons. There are 3 types of Tadls ( )- which is the act of hiding:

1. Tadls al-Shuyk ( ) :Which refers to hiding the shykh you are narrating from
by referring to them in a way which they are not known by, or is ambiguous. At times this
is done because the shykh is weak in hadth and so the narrator hides the true identity by
referring to a different name which makes you think they are narrating from someone else
who is strong. This is not acceptable in the science of hadth as we need to know who all
the narrators are.
2. Tadls al-Isnd () : This type refers to actually getting rid of people from the
chain all together instead of just hiding their true identity. So, a person will narrate from a
shykh but completely remove them, not mention them, and will instead narrate from
their shykhs shykh. At times this is also done in order to hide a weak narrator. This is
not acceptable in the science of hadth as we need to know who all the narrators are.
3. Tadls al-Taswyah () : This is the worst form of Tadls no doubt where you are
editing the chain of narration even more. A person will narrate a hadth from their shykh,
and them from theirs, and them from theirs. So the Mudalis will come and drop the shykh
in between their teacher, and the third shykh and make it so the two explicitly heard
from each other in order to have a shorter chain when in reality they didnt!
- It is important to keep in mind that Tadls is not always done out of evil intent. It could
be that the narrator knows the one they are hiding in the chain is strong and reliable and

Muqadimah Ibn Salh p.57
they are only doing it in order to make narrating the hadith easier by shortening the
chain. Still, it is not permissible!

Mursal al-Khaf () : Is when a narrator narrates from someone who is his

contemporary who he did not meet even though there is a high chance they heard from each
other (they entered the same land, lived in the same time period, etc.) yet they did not hear
from each other. Or, they did narrate from each other certain narrations, but not others. So, if
they narrate from each other in those instances, then that means there is a break between them
and someone is missing.

- At times, there are some narrations of Hasan al-Basr in which he directly and clearly narrates
from Ab Huryrah. This is definetly possible as one is a Tbi and the other a Sahb and it
is proven that they were alive at the same time and Ab Huryrah travelled to Basr, Irq which
is where Hasan al-Basr resided. However with this, the scholars such as Ab Htim al-Rz
have stated that Hasan al-Basr never heard from Ab Huryrah at all!25

25 Al-Marsl p. 34 Hadth # 99
Taan (): This is the criticism of a narrator. This has to do with a sub-section within the
sciences of hadth called praising and criticizing. There are many aspects of a narrator that may be

1. Kathib (): When a narrator is proven to have lied in his narration even if just in one
narration. This narrator will never be accepted and his narrations can never be reliable even
with the support of other narrations which come from reliable narrators.
2. Tuhmat al-Kathib () : When a narrator has been accused of lying but there is no
solid proof of it. Still, this narrator will not be considered trustworthy to us because we are
taking precautions in regards to the ahdth of the Prophet ().
3. Fuhsh Ghalat () : Is when a narrator makes many mistakes in his narrations and
they are severe mistakes. This is known when their mistakes outweigh their correct
4. Ghaflah (): This has to do with extreme carelessness in narrating ahdth. This
judgement is made upon a person who is found to be lacking cautiousness.
5. Fisq (): This has to do with the person who is an open sinner. Either they have been
guilty of a major sin or they are persistent upon the minor sins.
6. Wahm (): This is an unintentional mistake in narrating due to a constant state of
confusion. The way this is discovered is to look for signs Qarin by a process called
Jam al-Turuq ( ) which is gathering all of the narrations of this particular
narrator and to compare between them until you see if they are constantly making these
unintentional mistakes (I think he said.., I think it was like this), if so, then their
ahdth will become known as Muallal ( )which are defective narrations.
7. Mukhlafah (): Has to do with a narrator who is guilty of constantly going against,
and contradicting the narrations of those strong and reliable narrators. This happens in
several ways:
a. Mudraj al-Isnd () : This type of conflict in hadth has to do with the
sequence of the narrators in the chain being changed or mixed up.

Shfi from Nfi from Mlik from Ibn Umar from RasulAllh ().

It should be: Shfi from Mlik from Nfi from Ibn Umar from RasulAllh ().
b. Mudraj al-Matn () : Or the conflict will be due to the words of a Sahb
being added in with the words of the Prophet.

Alqama from Ibn Masd who said that the Messenger of Allah ( )taught him the
tashahhud during prayer. He then narrated the (well known) tradition (of tashahhud).
Then added: When you say this, then you have completed your prayer. If you want to
stand up, then stand, and if you want to remain sitting, then remain sitting.26

-The underlined is from the words of Ibn Masd which got mixed in with the rest of
the narration and was mistaken as part of the hadth.

c. Maqlb (): This conflict has to do with something being delayed or advanced
whether in the chain or the actual text of the narration.

The hadth of Ab Huryrah about seven kinds of people who are granted the Shade of
the Throne on Judgement day. The sixth of which is: The man who gives in charity
secretly, such that his right hand does not know what his left has given. This is narrated
by one of the narrators accidentally; the correct wording of the hadth in Bukhr is:
...such that his left hand does not know what his right hand has given27

d. Mazd f Mutasil al-Asnd () : An addition of a narrator into an

already fully connected chain.

Ibrahm from Muhammad from Ayb from Idrs from Al

It should be: Ibrahm from Muhammad from Idrs from Al (w/out mentioning Ayb)

Muqadimah ibn Salh p. 96
27 Sahh al-Bukhr Hadth #1423
e. Mutarib (): This has to do with a change in the chain of narrators or text of
the narration itself which makes it in opposition to something which is of similar
strength and as a result it is difficult to give preference to one over the other.


Fatimah bint Qais narrated that: the Prophet ( )said: "Indeed there is a duty on wealth aside
from Zakat."28

" "-

Fatima bint Qais narrated that: she heard him, meaning the Prophet ( )say: There is nothing
due on wealth other then Zakat.29

- Here, the Sahbiya Fatima bint Qais narrates herself opposite of what she said in the
other hadth!

f. Imtihnan (): This is when the change in hadth is done on purpose for the
reasoning of testing someone.

Ahmad ibn Mansr narrates:I set out (travelling) with Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Yahy ibn
Man. Yahya said to Ahmad ibn Hanbal, "I want to test Ab Nuims memory (in hadth).
Ahmad told him "Don't. The man is trustworthy!" Yahya said, Dont try to change (my
mind). So he took a paper and wrote 30 ahdth he heard from Ab Nuim and included
after every 10 narrations a hadth that was not from Ab Nuim. After arriving, Ab Nuim
took Ahmad and placed him on his right side and took Yahy and placed him on his left.
Then Yahy took out his piece of paper and began to read the narrations to him. Ab Nuim
remained quietly listening to the first 10 narrations and then upon the 11th he said, This is
not my narration, cross it out. The same happened for the next ten and the last ten.
(Realizing he was being tested) He looked at Yahy and said, As for this one (pointing to
Ahmad ibn Hanbal) he is too pious to do something like this. And as for this one (Ahmad

28 Jmi` at-Tirmidh Hadth #66 Graded Daf

29 Sunan Ibn Mjah Hadth #1789 Graded Daf

ibn Mansr), he is not at the level of doing such a thing. But as for you (Yahy), then this
was your handiwork!He then got up and kicked Yahy out of his chair!30

g. Musahaf (): This is when the conflict is due to a change in the Hurf (Letter)
while the flow or meaning of the narration is still intact.
h. Muharaf (): This is when the conflict is due to a change in the Nukud
(Vowels) while the flow or meaning of the narration is still intact.

-It is not permissible for anyone to purposely change the wording of ahdth by
subtracting, adding, or substituting words with similar meanings except for the one
who is fully aware and knowledgeable with what they are doing and for what reason
they are doing so. This is due to the possible change in context. If one cannot
understanding the context of a narration then they will be in need of either:

8. Sharh al-Gharb () : Defining the words that are used

infrequently in hadth.
9. Bayn al Mushkil () : To explain those words which are often
used in hadth however their significance or meaning does not make sense,
or does not fit the context

8. Jahla (): Has to do with the obscure and unknown narrator. One who we do not
known their condition (credibility or identity). This happens in many ways:

1. The first type of unknown reporter is the one who has many references like their name, lineage,
ccupation, and title, but they are only well known by one of them. So when they are referred
to by the other references, they are unknown to people. The scholars have written books on
this topic (to clear up the identity of those who are not known due to being called by a name
they are not known by) called al-Muwadih ()

Manqib al-Imm Ahmad p. 101
a) Abdallh ibn Uthmn also known as Abdallh ibn Ab Quhfa but he is famously known
as the great Sahab Ab Bakr as-Siddq

2. The second reason a reporter is unknown is because they rarely narrated hadth and as a result
they were not too well known. The scholars have also written on this topic to clear up their
identities which are called al-Wuhdn ()

3. The third reason is when a reporter is not named but referred to in a summarized or ambiguous
fashion such as The Shykh informed me or The Imm told me As a result, the
scholars have written on this as well to clarify the true identity of that person in books known
as al-Mubhamt ()
- The ambiguous person mentioned in this third category is never to be accepted even if
they are referred to with a title or word of praise. This is due to us needing to known
their credibility. How many people of falsehood have praised their own Imms when
those praises are not due to them, and this is the strongest opinion.
- If a person is named (and we know nothing else about them) and only one person has
narrated from them, they will be known as Majhl al-An ()
- If two or more narrate from this unknown person (and we dont know about their
credibility) they will be known as Majhl al-Hl ) ( which is synonymous
with Mastr ()
9. Bidh (): A narrator can also be accused of being a person of Innovation. This is broken
down into two categories:
1. Mukafir (): This innovation is one of disbelief and takes a person outside of the
fold of Islm such as Shirk in Allh, or cursing the Sahba.
2. Mufasiq (): This innovation is one of deviance and does not take a person outside
of the fold of Islm such as Mwlid or group dhikr.
Are we allowed to narrate from Ahl al- Bidh?

This is a very detailed issue which the scholars spoke about. In regards to the person who fell into
the Bidh which took them out of the fold of Islm, then there is Ijma on the prohibition of
narrating from them and this was stated by Imm al-Nawaw. 31 However, when it comes to
narrating from the one who fell into the Bidh which is just a sin, then one can break it down into
three different opinions:

1. Those who prohibit narrating from them completely

a. This is the madhab of Imm Mlik

2. Those who allow narrating from them without restriction so long as they do not make lying
hall (like the extreme Rfidah)

a. This is the madhab of Imm al-Shfi

3. Those who allow narrating from them with conditions

a. This is the madhab of Imm Ahmad and majority of the people of knowledge. This was
also the view of Ibn Hajr al-Asqaln

Conditions for narrating from Ahl al-Bidh

1. They must not be a d (caller) to their innovation

2. The narration must not lend support, strengthen, or give legitimacy to their innovation.

- If a person of innovation comes to us with these two conditions fulfilled, then we may accept and
this is the peak of justice from Ahl al-Sunnah, whereas Ahl al-Bidh would not accept from us at
all due to mere partisanship as they are not looking for the truth!

- Imm Ab Ishq Ibrhm al-Jowzajn, the teacher of Imm al-Nas was a strong proponent of
this view.

Sharh Sahh Muslim V. 1 P. 117
10. S al-Hifdh () : The last type of criticism a narrator can be accused of is to have
weak memory. This means that what they narrate tends to be more incorrect than their
correct narrations. Weakness of Memory is two types also:
1. Lzim (): A permanent weakness which then this narrators narrations will be known
as Shth (irregular).
2. Tr (): A temporary weakness which then this narrators narrations will be known
as Mukhtalit (). This may happen due to someone not having their book which
they usually narrate from available, or due to old age, or going blind, etc. In any case,
if it is possible to reconcile between what was the authentic which they would narrate
before they experienced this weakness, then those narrations may be accepted but not
what is narrated after they began to experience their weakness.

Ibn Salh in his book Muqadimah brings the example of the narrator Slih bin Nahbn. He says,
Ibn Ab Dhib and others narrated from him (Slih). Htim bin Hibn said he (Slih) became
senile in the year 125 and his past and present narrations were confused together so it became a
must to leave them!32

- If a Mutabir ( )- a reliable and high ranking narrator, confirms or corroborates the

narration of someone who is suffering from weak memory (both permanent and
temporary), then their narration will be bumped up to Hasan li-Ghayrih. The same
goes for the narration of a Mastr (Majhl al-Hl), Mursal, or Mudals.

Isnd (): Is the actual chain of narrators that leads to the text of the narration. The Isnd will
lead and stop at different people.

- The chain of narrators is what distinguishes this nation from others such as the
Christians and Jews. They have mere claims without evidences, yet Muslims can back
up their claims by tracing back the Qurn and the authentic Ahdth to Allh and his

32 Muqadimah Ibn Slah p. 394

Abdullah ibn al-Mubrak said, The Isnd is from the religion; were it not for the Isnd anyone
could say anything they wanted! 33

Sufyn al-Thwr said, al- Isnd is the weapon of the believer, if they do not possess Isnd,
then what will they fight with?!34

Marf (): Is what is attributed to the prophet ( )whether it be his:

1. Qowl (): His words

2. Fil (): His actions
3. Taqrr (): His silent/tacit approvals

Each one of these three types will be either:

a. Tasrh (): His explicit and clear words, actions, or

b. Hukm (): His implicit and unclear words, actions, or

Sahab (): One who has met the prophet (), believed in him, and died upon Islm even if
there was a time where they became an apostate but then came back.

- al-Hkim al-Nysbur categorized the Sahb into 12 levels35:

1. The earliest of them who became muslim during the earliest of years
before hijrah like the Khulaf al-Arba (Ab Bakr, Umar,
Uthmn, Al)
2. Those who became muslim during dr al-Nadwa
3. Those who made hijrah to al-Habasha
4. Those who gave the first allegiance at al-aqaba al-awal
5. Those who gave the second allegiance at al-aqaba al-thn (mostly

33 Sharaf as-hbul hadth p. 41

34 Sharaf as-hbul hadth p. 42
Marifatu Ulm al-Hadth p. 22
6. Those who made hijrah to al-Madna but stopped at qub before
entering Madna (hijrah was done in stages)
7. Ahl al-Badr
8. Those who made hijrah between the time of Badr and Hudabiy
9. Those who gave the allegiance under ar-Ridwn
10. Those who made hijrah to al-Madna between Hudabiy and Fath
al-Makkah (Like Khlid ibn Wald and Amr ibn al-As)
11. Those who became muslim at Fath al-Makkah (which was then
recommended to do but no longer obligatory)
12. Those who were children and saw the Prophet ( )on the day of Fath
al-Makkah or after that day such as on the last sermon

Mawqf (): Is what is attributed to a Sahab whether words, actions, or silent approvals.

Does the silence of a Sahab imply approval?

The answer is no. A Sahab is not in the same situation as the Prophet ( ;)for him, there was
revelation which would address him and it was his duty to correct people when something incorrect
was done or said in front of him. However with the Sahb, it is possible they remained quiet for
multiple reasons such as fear of putting the people to trial when those who were not from the
people of knowledge were in front of them, or due to fear of a tyrant ruler, or due to a lack of
knowledge on a particular issue. The Sahb were human and did not have all the knowledge in
the world, nor every hadth memorized as is seen in the story of Ab Msa al-Ashar and Umar
ibn al-Khattb:

. .


Ab Sad reported that Ab Msa al-Ashar came to the door of 'Umar and sought his
permission (to get into his house). Umar said: That is once. He again sought permission for the
second time and 'Umar said: It is twice. He again sought permission for the third time and Umar
said: It is thrice. He (Ab Msa) then went back. He ('Umar) (sent someone) to pursue him so
that he should be brought back. Thereupon he (Umar) said: If this act (of yours is in accordance
with the command of Allh's Messenger ( )you have preserved in your mind, then it is all right,
otherwise (I shall give you such a severe punishment) that it will serve as an example to

Tbi (): One who has met the Sahb, was a muslim, and died upon Islm even if there was
a time where they became an apostate but then came back.

Maqt (): What is attributed to a Tbi whether words, actions, or silent approvals.

Athar (): What is attributed to the Tbin (Maqt) and Sahb (Mawqf). However, some use
this as a more general term include the Prophet (( )Marf) and all other narrations including
Sahb, Tbin, and those after them.

Musnad (): A chain of narration which is visibly connected and reached to the prophet ().

Ulw Mutlaq () : A chain that leads to the prophet ( )with a small amount of people in
the chain. This is known as a high isnd because the less people are in the chain, the higher or
closer, a person is to the prophet ().

- The average people between Bukhr & the prophet ( )in his Sahh is about 5. But
he also has 22 ahdth where there are only 3 people in between. Therefore that was
considered Aalee (ulw mutlaq). These 3 people narrations are called Thulthiyt
- Imm Ahmad in his Musnad has 332 thulthiyt
- Imm al Drim in his Sunan has 15 thulthiyt
- Imm Mlik has narrations in his Muwatta where there are only two people in
between him and the prophet (). This is called Thunee and he has many

Ulw Nisb () : A chain that leads to an imm of high caliber such as Shub ibn al-Hajjj
with a small amount of people in the chain. This is known as a high isnd because the less people
are in the chain, the higher or closer, a person is to that particular imam. This happens in several

36 Sahh Muslim Hadth #2153

1. Muwfaqah (): This chain leads to the shykh of a compiler of hadth. So for
example, the goal is to reach the teacher of Imm al-Bukhr with the least amount of people in a
chain as possible.

Bukhr from Qutybah bin Sa d from Mlik from Az-Zuhr from Ibn al-Musyib from Ab
Huryrah from the Prophet ().

- If anyone from the scholars of hadth for example, Imm al-Bayhaq came after Bukhr wanted
to narrate the same narration through this route of Bukhr maybe he will find that between him
and the shykh of Bukhr (Qutybah bin Sa d) there are 4 people. But if he finds a different
route which he can narrate from then it is possible that he can narrate with a chain that has only 3
people between him and the shykh of Bukhr and in this case, his chain becomes higher in
regards to an imm of high caliber

2. Badl ) (: This is similar to Muwfaqah except that now you will reach the shykh of
the shykh with a short amount of people in the chain between you two.

- So instead of narrating through the route of Bukhr in order to reach Mlik with 5 people in
between, Imm al-Bayhaq can narrate the same narration from a different route with less people
in order to make it that there is only 4 people in between him and Imm Mlik

3. Muswh )(: This is when one has an equal amount of narrators in their chain as
compared to the chain of a compiler of hadth

- If Imm al-Nas narrates a hadth with 11 people between him and the Prophet ( )then
someone who came after al-Nas such as Ibn Hajar comes and narrates the same hadth with the
same amount of people in his chain as al-Nas

4. Musfaha )(: This is when one has an equal amount of narrators in their chain as
compared to the chain of the student of a compiler of hadth

-So instead of Ibn Hajar narrating with a chain that has the same amount of people in it as Imm
al-Nas, he will narrate with one that has the same amount of people in it as the chain of Imm
al-Nass student. Say for example, Imm at-Tahw.
Nuzl (): Is the opposite of Ulw. Each of the previous mentioned categories have this
opposite. As they begin to get longer due to more people being in the chains, the more Nzil they

- Although having an Ulw isnd is better, it is not always given precedence. A Nzil
isnd which is authentic, will always be better than an Ulw isnd which is found to
be weak.
- Seeking a Ulw isnd was extremely important and favorable to the Salaf since it
meant you were closer to the Prophet ()

Ibn Salh narrates that Yahy bin Man was asked on his death bed, What do you desire
(in this time nearing your death)? He replied, An empty house, and an Aal isnd! 37

Aqrn (): When two narrators (the one who narrates, and the one he narrates from) are the
same in age then they will be known as Aqrn or Riwyat al- Aqrn

- This is important to note because usually the shykh is much older than the student.

Mudbaj (): When two narrators (the one who narrates, and the one he narrates from) both
narrate from each other. So Mudbaj is Aqrn but not the opposite.

Akbir an al-Asghir () : The narration of a senior from a junior. Both in age or

standing in hadth. This happens in different ways:

1. Ab an al-Abn ( ) : When the father narrates from the son. However the
opposite is more common and this type is infrequent because the norm was that children
would learn from their fathers and not the other way around.
2. An abh an Jadih () : When one narrates from their father and their father
narrates from the grandfather.
- Another type of Akbir an al-Asghir, though rare, is a narration of a Sahb from a
Tbi. Meaning Sahb Tbi Sahb RasulAllh ()

37 Muqadimah Ibn Salh p. 256

- Another type, and this is extremely rare, is where the Prophet ( )narrates from a
Sahb. This happened in the hadth of Ftima bint Qays, the Prophet ( )narrates from
Tamm al-Dr regarding his encounter with ad-Dajjl



Ftima bint Qays, narrated that Allh's Prophet ( )ascended the Minbar, he laughed, and said:
"Verily, Tamm al-Dr narrated a story to me, and it made me happy, so I wanted to narrate it to
you [what he narrated to me]. 38

As-Sbiq wa al-Lhiq () : When two narrators share the same shykh and one
narrators death precedes the other. The first to pass is called Sbiq and the last to pass away is
called Lhiq.

- Ab Al al-Burdni heard a hadith from al-Hfidh al-Silaf; who was one of his
shykhs. He narrated from him and died in 500 A.H. Then the last from the students
of al-Hfidh al-Silaf to hear from him was his grandson Ab al-Qsim Abd al-
Rahmn ibn Makk, who died in 650. So both Ab Al al-Burdni and Ab al-Qsim
Abd al- Rahmn ibn Makk are students of the same shykh and between their deaths
is 150 years!39

Ab Al al-Burdni is As-Sbiq while Ab al-Qsim Abd al- Rahmn ibn Makk is al-Lhiq.

Muhmal (): This refers to when a narrator narrates from two different shykhs with the
same name and those two shykhs cannot be made apart. In this case, the Muhmal refers to a
shykh whos name is given yet their name is not enough to establish their identity or reliability.

Jmi` at-Tirmidh Hadth #2253

Nuzhat al-Nadhar f Tawdh Nukhbat al-Fikr p. 152
- An example is that which occurrs with al-Bukhr, in his narration from Ahmad
who is not described further from Ibn Wahb. This is either Ahmad ibn Slih or
Ahmad ibn Is. Or Muhammad who is not described further of the people of
Irq. This is either Muhammad ibn Slim or Muhammad ibn Yahy al-Duhal. Or the
case when Bukhr narrates from Ishq is it Ishq ibn Nasr or Ishq ibn Rhawy
or others he narrates from?

There are a few ways one can differentiate between the two teachers in order to clear up the

1. What did he study from each one (and what is being narrated?)

2. What are the nicknames of the two shykhs?

3. Lineage/Land of the two shykhs

4. When did he learn/narrate from each one

In the case of one of them being weak and the other reliable & strong, then there really isnt a
necessity in separating the two as long as you know which one is reliable.

Man Hadatha wa Nasiya () : This is in refernce to a narrator who narrated a hadth

and forgot that it was their narration. In this field, al-Draqutn wrote a book called Man
Hadatha wa Nasiya compiling those narrators who narrated and then later on did not recognize
those narrations of theirs. It is possible a narrator at times may forget, or may outright reject
narrations which are attributed to them.

1. Jazm (): When a narrator outright rejects a narration with full certainty which
someone attributes to him. In this case, if they are sure, then we will not attribute it to
him and we will reject it.
2. Ihtiml (): This is when the narrator is in doubt and isnt sure if the narration
belongs to them. In this case we will not get rid of the narration rather we will investigate
it in order to check its authenticity and whether or not it really belongs to that narrator.
Siyg al-Adh () : Are the tenses and style of transmitting a hadth. If these tenses or
styles (whether tense, phrases, or actions) used by the narrators are the same within the chain
then this will be known as Musalsal ()

Imm al-Dhahab says, In general, Musalsalt are weak, and most are worthless due to the
narrators lying. However the strongest kinds are the Musalsalt of the recitation of Surah Saf, the
Musalsalt of the Dimashqiyn, and the Musalsalt of the Misriyn up until Ibn Shihb40

An example of a Musalsal narration:

. " "


It was narrated that Mu'dh bin Jabal said: "The Messenger of Allh ( )took my hand and said:
'I love you, O Mu'dh!' I said: 'And I love you, O Messenger of Allh ().' Then the Messenger
of Allh ( )said: 'Never forget to say in every prayer: Rabb a'nn 'al dhikrika wa shukrika wa
husni ' bdatik (My Lord, help me to remember You, give thanks to You and worship You

- In this hadth, the narrators who narrate it after Mu'dh bin Jabal until this day would
start off by holding the hand of the one they are narrating to and saying to them like the
Prophet ( )said to Mu'dh, 'I love you, O So and So!', etc.

The tenses/style of narrating, or, Siyg al-Adh, are many:

1. Samit (): I heard

2. Hadathan (): He narrated to me
3. Akhbaran (): He informed me
4. Qarat Alayh () : I read to him
5. Quriya Alayh wa Ana Asma () : It was read to him and I listened
6. Anbaan (): He informed me

Al-Mqida p. 44
Sunan an-Nas' Hadth #1303
7. Nwlan (): It was transferred to me
8. Shfahan (): It was shared with me
9. Kataba Ilaya () : He wrote to me
10. An (): On the authority of

The first two: Samit and Hadathan denote that one sat with and directly heard from the shykh
individually. When they are used in the plural tense Samin and Hadathan, then this means more
than one was present when they directly heard from the shykh. The first type is the higher and
more respectable form in regards to al-Iml ( )which is the science of dictation.

Third and fourth: Akhbaran and Qarat Alayh denote that one read directly to the shykh
individually. When they are used in the plural tense Akhbaran and Qaran Alayh, then this
means more than one was present and took part in reading to the shykh. In this case, when they
are in the plural tense, they will been seen as equals to the fifth one - Quriya Alayh wa Ana

As for Anbaan, it will be seen as Akhbaran to the Mutaqadimn (the early scholars of hadth),
whereas to the Mutaakhirn (the later scholars of hadth), it will be seen as An.

Anana ( )/ Muanan (): Is when the chain in a hadth are connected by the tense An.

If it is used by contemporaries then it will be taken as if they actually heard it from one another.
However, due to this tense not necessarily proving that the narrator actually heard it from the one
they are narrating from, it is important to take it with a grain of salt. For this reason the scholars
of hadth laid down conditions in order to accept the Anana of contemporaries

- The narrator must not be a Mudalis

- The narrators met each other at least once in their lifetime

This area of relying on narrations which are relayed with Anana is one in which there is some
detailed discussion between the scholars; between Imm Bukhr and Imm Muslim specifically.
Imm Muslim took the opinion that any narrator who is trusthworthy and narrates with Muanan
from someone who he could have met (contemporary), then it will be accepted from them as if
they heard it. Whereas Imm Bukhr went further than that and added an additional condition
that there be at least one other narration besides the one where Anana is used, which proves that
those two narrators heard from each other. Imm Muslim in his Muqadimah to his Sahh
completely and utterly rejects this position and goes on to call it an invented position which no
scholar of hadth in the past has ever taken!42 In any case, we will affirm the narration of the one
who uses Anana if they are not a Mudalis and they are narrating from someone whom they have
met at least once before and this is the preferable view, however the conditions of Imm Bukhr
are still much stronger which make his Sahh the most authentic book after the book of Allh!

Ijzah () : This refers to an authorization given to the student from the teacher and it is one
of the relied upon methods of transmitting or narrating from ones teacher even if one did not hear
the actual narration from them, this still gives them the authority to narrate it. Of these
authorizations are a few types:

1. Mushfahah ( )which is an oral authorization, also known as Mutalafdh ()

2. Muktabah ( )which is the written form of the authorization, also known as Maktb

3. Munwalah ( )as for this, it is the highest form of authorization which is when the teacher
gives the student the actual text or book. An authorization must accompany it in order for the
student to narrate it.

4. Wijdah ( )is the case where a person find a hadth or book and then through the
handwriting or signature or other means, they determine who it belongs to or was written by. If a
person wishes to narrate it, they still must attain the authorization from the author if they are able

- To put this into perspective, today you can find everything online. So if a student finds
the Isnd of a shykh and they wish to narrate from the shykh using that sanad, then it is upon
them to get permission first.

5. Wasyah ( )is when one inherits a book through the will of a shykh. With this also, one
must have authorization to narrate it.

Sahh Muslim p. 29
- Owning a book is one thing, and being able to narrate and teach it is another issue.

6. Ilm ( )is when a shykh narrates and informs his student I am narrating this from so and
so. However, this does not necessitate that the student has now been given permission to narrate
that from his shykh. So just like Wasyah, one needs authorization (Ijzah) to narrate that from
their shykh.

7. Ijzah al-ma )(

8. Ijzah lil-Majhl ()

9. Ijzah lil-Madm ()