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Lista 1 - Fsica Moderna

Questes do Tipler e do Leighton

1. Find m for blackbody radiation at (a) T = 3K, (b) T = 300K, and (c) T = 3000K.
2. The cosmic microwave background radiation fits the Planck equation for a blackbody at

2.7K. (a) What is the wavelength at the maximum intensity of the spectrum of the background
radiation? (b) What is the frequency of the radiation at the maximum? (c) What is the total
power incident on Earth from the background radiation?

3. If the absolute temperature of a blackbody is doubled, by what factor is the total emitted
power increased?
4. Calculate the average energy E per mode of oscillation for (a) a long wavelength =

10hc/kT , (b) a short wavelength = 0.1hc/kT , and compare your results with the classical
prediction kT .
5. A particular radiating cavity has the maximum of its spectral distribution of radiated

power at a wavelength of 27.0m (in the infrared region of the spectrum). The temperature
is then changed so that the total power radiated by the cavity doubles. (a) Compute the new
temperature. (b) At what wavelength does the new spectral distribution have its maximum

6. A certain very bright star has an effective surface temperature of 20, 000K. (a) Assuming

that it radiates as a blackbody, what is the wavelength at which u() is maximum? (b) In what
part of the electromagnetic spectrum does the maximum lie?
7. The energy reaching Earth from the Sun at the top of the atmosphere is 1, 36.103 W/m2 ,

called the solar constant. Assuming that Earth radiates like a blackbody at uniform temperature,
what do you conclude is the equilibrium temperature of Earth?
8. Show from I(, T ) = T 5 f (T ) that the wavelenght m at which I(, T ) is maximum

satisfies the relation m T = const.. Evaluate this constant, using:

2c2 h
I(, T ) = (1)
5 (ehc/kT 1)

9. A closed graphite crucible at 27o C is placed in a furnace whose walls are maintained

at a temperature of 1727o C. (a) Treating the crucible as a black body os surface area 40cm2 ,
compute the initial rate at which the crucible gains heat by radiation from the furnace walls.
(Assume that the crucible is everywhere convex). (b) If the crucible has a mass of 100g and a

mean specific heat of 0.3cal.g 1 .o C 1 , how long will it take the crucible to reach a temperature
of 100o C? Neglect the radiation of heat by the crucible over this temperature range.
10. A small hole of area S is made in the wall of a furnace containing cavity radiation at a

temperature T . A black sphere os radius r is placed in front of the hole at a distance R from it.
Neglecting the radiation from the outside walls of the furnace, show that the power absorbed by
the sphere is P = ST 4 r2 /R2 .

11. A gray body is one whose absorptivity A(, T ) is constant (independent of or T ).

Prove that the net rate of heat transfer between two parallel gray surfaces, whose separation is
small compared to their linear dimensions or their radius of curvature, is given by:

(T14 T24 )
P = (2)
(1 1/A1 1/A2 )

where A1 , T1 and A2 , T2 are the absorptivities and absolute temperatures of the two surfaces.
12. The wavelenght of maximum intensity in the solar spectrum is 0, 500. Assuming that

the sun radiates as a black body, compute its surface temperature.

13. At what temperature does the pressure of cavity radiation equal 1atm?