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Bio Sci E139

Animal Sensation & Motion


Matt McHenry & Emanuel Azizi
Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology
U.C. Irvine

COURSE
INTRODUCTION
Locomotion is fundamental
to the biology of animals
Lascaux Caves, France
(c. 15,000 - 13,000 BC)
Introduction to Movement of Animals

. . . we must now inquire generally into the


common cause of animal movement
of whatever kind - for some animals move
by flight, some by swimming, some by
walking, and others by other such methods.

Aristotle
(384-322 B.C.)
Leonardo
Da vinci
(1452-1519)
Principia Mathematica (1687)

Sir Issac Newton (1642-1726)


Eadweard Muybridge
(1830-1904)

tienne-Jules Marey
(1830-1904)

Biomechanics governs locomotion


Biomechanics inspires design
Scientific method ?

Subject
Scientific method
Knowledge obtained through the senses
An observation + a question

Subject
Scientific method
An observation + a question

?
Subject
Scientific method
An observation + a question

Subject Theory

A logically-consistent set of ideas


that explain something.

Provides the basis of hypotheses


Scientific method
An observation + a question

Subject Theory

A testable educated guess

Hypothesis

Prediction
Scientific method
An observation + a question

Subject Theory

Revision

Experiment Hypothesis

Measurement Prediction
(observation)
Scientific method
An observation + a question

Subject Theory
BASIC RESEARCH
Aims to improve theory
Revision

Experiment Hypothesis

Measurement Prediction
(observation)
Scientific method
Operates
An by hypothesis
observation testing
+ a question
Cannot prove anything

Well-tested theory is the ultimate product


Subject Theory
Not all scientific theories are equal

Revision

Experiment Hypothesis

Measurement Prediction
(observation)
Scientific method
An observation + a question
Newtonian
mechanics
Instrumentation,
engineering
Subject Theory

Revision

Controlled
& Statistics
Natural Mathematical
modeling
Experiment Hypothesis

Measurement Prediction
(observation)
Scientific method
An observation + a question
What kind of force?

Subject Theory
What are the implications?
Revision

Is a model predictive?

Experiment Hypothesis

Measurement Prediction
(observation)
THIS COURSE

Aims
1. Become familiar with a field of basic
research (biomechanics, muscle
physiology & neurobiology).

2. Learn to apply quantitative tools to


biological systems.
THIS COURSE
Structure

Quizzes (90%)
1 question from the prior weeks problemset, a few other
questions from the lecture and readings. [will drop lowest grade]
Clickers(10%)
80% for participation, 20% for correct answer
[will drop lowest 3 grades]
CLICKERS

Trial question

My clicker is working
A. True B. False
THIS COURSE

Tips
Dont miss class.
Take notes with pencil
& paper (or tablet).
Attend office hours.
Work with others.
Read the book.
THIS COURSE

Technology
No open laptops or
cell phones in class.
THIS COURSE
Materials
Textbook Lectures
Your notes,
videos,
& pdfs
THIS COURSE

Questions?
Scientific method
An observation + a question
What kind of force?

Subject Theory

Revision

Experiment Hypothesis

Measurement Prediction
(observation)
THEORY
Newtons 1st law Newtons 2nd law

A body maintains a constant


Net force =
velocity if the net force
mass x acceleration
acting on it is zero.
WHAT KIND OF FORCE?

Weight Inertial force


WHAT KIND OF FORCE?
Elastic, Viscous,
spring-like force damping force

Dashpot

Proportional to
WHAT KIND OF FORCE?

Friction force Fluid force


WHAT KIND OF FORCE?
Muscle force
WHAT KIND OF FORCE?
Mechanical systems
Scientific method
An observation + a question

Subject Theory

Revision

Is a model predictive?

Experiment Hypothesis

Measurement Prediction
(observation)
PREDICTIVE MODEL?
PREDICTIVE MODEL?
Newtons 3rd law
To every force there is an
equal and opposite force.

Squirrel on branch: At rest:

Free body diagram: illustrates the forces in a model