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PEMP

RMD510

Turbine and Compressor Matching

Session delivered by:


Prof Q.
Prof. Q H.
H Nagpurwala

15 M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 1


PEMP
RMD510

Session Objectives
To discuss the operating
characteristics of compressors
and turbines
To understand the basic
conditions for compressor and
turbine matching
To discuss component matching
in a single shaft gas turbine
To discuss the matching of gas
generator with free power
turbine and nozzle

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PEMP

Introduction RMD510

The main components of a gas turbine engine are: inlet diffuser,


compressor, combustion chamber, turbine, and exhaust nozzle.
The individual components are designed based on established
procedures and their performances are obtained from actual tests.
When
Wh these
th components
t are integrated
i t t d in
i an engine,
i theth range off
possible operating conditions is considerably reduced.
Thee problem
p ob e iss to
o find
d co
corresponding
espo d g operating
ope g points
po s ono thee
characteristics of each component when the engine is running at a
steady speed or in equilibrium.
The
h equilibrium running
i points
i forf a series
i off speeds
d may be
b plotted
l d
to on the compressor characteristics and joined up to form an
equilibrium running line or equilibrium running diagram.

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PEMP

Introduction RMD510

The equilibrium running


diagram also shows the proximity
of the operating
p g line to the
compressor surge line.
If it intersects the surge line, the
gas turbine
t bi will
ill nott be
b capable
bl off
being brought up to full speed
without some remedial action.
It also shows whether the engine
is operating in a region of
adequate compressor efficiency.
Ideally the operating line should
lie near the locus of the points of
maximum compressor efficiency.

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PEMP

Test Cases RMD510

Three cases are discussed here:


A single
g shaft gas
g turbine deliveringg shaft power
p
A freeturbine engine where the gas generator turbine drives
the compressor and the power turbine drives the load
A simple jet engine with a propelling nozzle
The gas generator performs exactly the same function for both the
f tturbine
free bi engine
i andd the
th jet
j t engine.
i
The flow characteristics of a free turbine and a nozzle are similar.
Hence, the
h free
f turbine
bi engine i andd the
h jet
j engine
i are
thermodynamically similar and differ only in the manner in which
the output is utilised.

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PEMP

Test Cases RMD510

Brayton cycle for case (b) and (c)


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PEMP

Component Characteristics RMD510

Compressor characteristics Turbine characteristics

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PEMP

Assumptions RMD510

Turbine characteristic is represented by a single line,


bbecause it is
i found
f d in
i practice
ti that
th t turbines
t bi do
d nott exhibit
hibit
any significant variation in non-dimensional flow with non-
dimensional speed.
Inlet and exhaust losses are considered negligible.
Combustion chamber pressure loss is a fixed percentage
of the compressor delivery pressure.

15 M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 8


PEMP

Single Shaft Gas Turbine RMD510

Pressure ratio across the turbine is determined by the compressor pressure


ratio and combustor pressure loss.
Mass flow through turbine = Mass flow through compressor Bleed air +
Fuel flow.
Procedure for obtainingg an equilibrium
q runningg point
p is as follows:

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PEMP

Single Shaft Gas Turbine RMD510

Compressor and turbine are directly coupled, hence


Speed compatibility (1)

Flow compatibility

From combustor pressure loss:

Assuming m1 = m3 = m (2)

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PEMP

Single Shaft Gas Turbine RMD510

If T01 is specified, then obtain T03 from eqn (2) and from eqn (1).
Obtain turbine efficiency from turbine characteristics using the known
values of and p03/p04.

Turbine temperature drop (3)

(4)

(5)

15 M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 11


PEMP

Single Shaft Gas Turbine RMD510

If the engine is coupled to a dynamometer on the test bed, then the load could be
set independently of the speed and it would be possible to operate at any point on
the compressor characteristic
characteristic.
If a propeller is the load, then Power N3.
The pproblem is to find the single
g ppoint on each constant speed
p line of compressor
p
characteristic which will give the required net power output at that speed.
This can only be done by trial and error, taking several operating points on the

in the figure in next slide.


slide

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PEMP

Single Shaft Gas Turbine RMD510

Generator runs at constant speed


with load varied electrically.
Each point on this line represents a
diff
different value
l off turbine
bi inlet
i l
temperature and power output.

Load
L d characteristic
h t i ti Equilibrium
E ilib i running
i lines
li
of a propeller
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PEMP

Equilibrium Running of a Gas Generator RMD510

A gas generator performs the same function for the free turbine engine and the jet
engine. It generates high pressure, high temperature gas for expansion through the
turbine or the nozzle.
Eqns. 1 and 2 are applicable for speed and mass flow compatibility.
The turbine pressure ratio is not known and can be determined by

(6)

Eqns.
Eqns 1,
1 2 and 6 are all linked by the temperature ratio T03/T01 and it is necessary
to determine (by trial and error) the turbine inlet temperature required for operation
at any arbitrary point on the compressor performance map.
Assuming
A that
h the
h turbine
b non-dimensional
d l flow
fl is independent
d d off the
h non-
dimensional speed, the procedure is as follows:
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PEMP

Equilibrium Running of a Gas Generator RMD510

(4)

(2)

(1)

(3) (6)

(2)

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PEMP

Equilibrium Running of a Gas Generator RMD510

(2) (6)

Calculations can be carried out for a large number of points and the
results can be presented on the compressor characteristics by the locus of
constant T03/T01 (see figure in slide 18).
However, the flow compatibility with the component downstream
((power
e turbine
t bi e or nozzle)
le) will
ill restrict
e t i t the operating
e ti zonee on the
compressor characteristic.

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PEMP

Equilibrium Running of a Gas Generator RMD510

Note:

(1) (2)

(3) (6)

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PEMP

Equilibrium Running of a Gas Generator RMD510

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PEMP

Matching of Gas Generator with Free Turbine RMD510

The mass flow leaving the gas generator is equal to that entering the power
turbine.
Pressure ratio across the power turbine is fixed by the pressure ratios across the
compressor and gas generator turbine.
The characteristic of the power turbine will have the same form as of the gas
generator turbine
turbine, but it is represented by the parameters

The mass flow parameter of the power turbine


(7)

where (8)

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PEMP

Matching of Gas Generator with Free Turbine RMD510

The corresponding pressure ratio across the power turbine can be given as

For stationary gas turbines (ignoring the inlet and exit duct losses), po1 = pa and
the power turbine outlet pressure is also pa.

(7)

in slide 21.

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PEMP
RMD510

Matching of Gas
Generator with Free
Turbine

(a) Iteration for gas generator


(b) Overall iteration procedure
for free power turbine

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Matching of Gas Generator with Free Turbine RMD510

in Slide 18.

in Slide 13.

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PEMP

Matching of Gas Generator with Nozzle RMD510

Propelling Nozzle Characteristics


The propelling nozzle area for a jet engine is fixed from design point calculations.
Once the nozzle size is fixed, it has major influence on off-design operation.
The mass flow parameter is given by
(12)

A5 is the effective
nozzle area

(13)

(14)

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PEMP

Matching of Gas Generator with Nozzle RMD510

Propelling Nozzle Characteristics

(13)
(14)
(15)
(15)

in Slide 25

(14)

(16)

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PEMP

Matching of Gas Generator with Nozzle RMD510

Propelling Nozzle Characteristics


Likewise, with the nozzle unchoked,
is given by eqn.13; whereas when it is choked,
C5 is the sonic velocity and M5 is unity.
Recallingg that

we have the g
general relation

(17)

and when the nozzle is choked, we have

(18)

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PEMP

Matching of Gas Generator with Nozzle RMD510

The flow characteristics of nozzle and free turbine are similar.


For operation of a jet engine under static conditions, the behaviour of nozzle is
same as that of a free turbine.
Hence, the equilibrium running line can be determined according to the flow chart
of slide 21, with the nozzle characteristic replacing the power turbine characteristic.
In flight conditions, the effect of forward speed needs to be considered.
Forward speed produces a ram pressure ratio, which is a function of both flight
Mach number and intake efficiency.
The compressor delivery pressure and nozzle inlet pressure increase,
increase leading to
increase in nozzle pressure ratio.
If the nozzle chokes, then the mass flow rate becomes maximum and is independent
off nozzle
l pressure ratio
ti andd forward
f d speed.
d
Hence, the turbine operating point will also remain unchanged.
Therefore, under choked nozzle condition, the equilibrium running line will be
uniquely determined by the fixed turbine operating point and will be independent of
the flight speed.
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PEMP

Matching of Gas Generator with Nozzle RMD510

Usually the nozzle is choked during take-off, climb and cruise, and may remain
unchoked while preparing to land or taxiing, when the thrust is significantly reduced.
Hence, the running line is affected at low forward speeds when the engine
rotational speed is also low and the running line is close to the surge line.
The nozzle pressure ratio p04/pa is linked to the ram pressure ratio
(19)

The ram ppressure ratio is given


g byy

(20)

Now the procedure of flow chart (slide 21) can be followed with eqn. 19 substituted
for eqn. 8, but for each compressor speed line the calculation is repeated for several
values of Ma covering g the desired range
g of flight
g speed.
p

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PEMP

Matching of Gas Generator with Nozzle RMD510

The result is a fan of


equilibrium running lines of
constant Ma, merging into a
single running line at higher
compressor speeds when the
nozzle is choked.
Increasing the Mach number
pushes the equilibrium running
line away from the surge line at
low compressor speeds,
because the ram pressure rise
allows the compressor to utilise
a lower
l pressure ratio
ti for
f
pushing the required flow
through the nozzle.
Jet engine running lines

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PEMP

Session Summary RMD510

Gas turbine component characteristics have been explained.


The procedure for matching of turbine and compressor in a
simple single shaft gas turbine is discussed.
Equilibrium running of a basic gas generator is discussed.
The procedures of matching the gas generator to a power turbine
and a propelling nozzle are explained.

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PEMP
RMD510

Th k you
Thank

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