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Estd : 1995
(An Autonomous Institution Affiliated to Anna University, Chennai)
Regulation - 2015






Duration: 3 Hours Maximum: 100 Marks

PART -- A (10 x 1 = 10 Marks)

(Answer ALL Questions)
(Choose the best answer with 4 choices, two questions from each unit )

The magnitude of rotating magnetic field in an induction motor is

A. 1.35 max
B. 1.5 max
C. 2.35 max
D. 2.5 max
The locked rotor current in a 3-phase, star connected 15kW, 4-pole, 230V, 50Hz induction
motor at rated conditions is 50A. Neglecting losses and magnetizing current, the
approximate locked rotor line current drawn when the motor is connected to a 236V, 57Hz
supply is
A. 58.5A
B. 45.0A
C. 45.7A
D. 55.6A
An induction motor has a short-circuit current 7 times the full load current and a full load
slip of 4 percent. Its line-starting torque is-----------times the full load torque

3. A. 7
B. 1.96
C. 4
D. 5
The starting torque of a three-phase induction motor can be increased by increasing
A. the rotor resistance
4. B. the rotor reactance
C. the stator resistance
D. the stator reactance
A synchronous generator is feeding a zero power factor (lagging) load at rated current. The
armature reaction is

5. A. magnetizing.
B. demagnetizing.
C. cross magnetizing
D. ineffective.
In 8 - pole wave connected motor armature, the number of parallel paths are

6. A. 8
B. 4
C. 2
D. 1
A synchronous motor can be used as a synchronous capacitor when it is

7. A.under-excited
B. under-loaded.
C. over-loaded
D. over-excited.
The damping winding in a synchronous motor is generally used

8. A. to provide starting torque only

B. to reduce noise level
C. to reduce eddy currents
D. to prevent hunting and provide the starting torque.
In a universal motor, normally the ratio of width of brush to the width of commutator
segments is

9. 1:1
In a split phase motor, the ratio of number of turns for starting winding to that for running
winding is

10. A. 2.0
B. more than 1
C. 1.0
D. less than 1
PART -- B (5 x 2 = 10 Marks)

Answer ALL Questions

(Two mark question each from one unit)
Define regulation of Alternator.

Voltage regulation is defined as the percentage rise in voltage when full load at the
specified power-factor is switched off with speed and field current remaining unchanged
Voltage Regulation = ((E- V)/ V)*100%

Here E is voltage across open terminals of stator (at no load) and

V is voltage across terminals at full load.

E is also called internal voltage

List the applications of slip ring induction motor

Slip ring induction motors are used where high starting torque is required for example in
12. hoists, elevators, compressors, printing presses, large ventilating fans, loads requiring
speed control such as for driving lifts and pumps.

Differentiate autotransformer starter and star delta starter

Star Delta Starter

Used 5HP to 20 HP
Decrease the starting current by 1/3 times
It is costly
It connects the motor first in star at the time of starting in delta for running
Auto Transformer Starter
Used above 20 HP
Decrease the starting current as required
It is more costly
It connects the motor according to the taping taken out from the auto transformer
Justify the need for damper winding in a synchronous motor

Damper windings are windings that are wound to the rotor poles of the machine (winding it
similar to that of an induction machine) which help in two ways.
(a) Damper windings helps the synchronous motor to start on its own (self starting
machine) by providing starting torque
(b) By providing damper windings in the rotor of synchronous motor "Hunting of machine"
can be suppressed. When there is change in load, excitation or change in other conditions
of the systems rotor of the synchronous motor will oscillate to and fro about an equilibrium
position. At times these oscillations becomes more violent and resulting in loss of
synchronism of the motor and comes to halt

15. Draw the equivalent circuit of capacitor start capacitor run motor
PART -- C( 5 x 16 = 80 Marks)

Answer ALL Questions

Derive the emf equation of an alternator in terms of coil span factor and distribution

Let Z = No. of conductors per pole (i.e Z/P) here P is no. of poles

N = No. of turns per pole (i.e. Z/2)

e = Instantaneous e.m.f. (Volts)

E = R.M.S. value of e.m.f. induced (neglecting effect of distribution and coil

throw) (Volts)

E = Value of e.m.f. (r.m.s.) induced in an Alternator considering the factors of

distribution and coil throw) (Volts)

Eph = Induced e.m.f. per phase (neglecting those two effects) (Volts).

The flux associated with one coil as the flux per pole (weber)
16. (a)
Effect of Distribution

With a distributed winding, the emf induced in the various coils constituting a group of coils
are not in phase and so the total emf is the vector sum of all such emfs. Hence, its value is less
than that due to a concentrated winding. A factor Kd (which is less than unity) is therefore,
introduced in the expression of emf.

Here Eg = Emf per group

Ec = Emf per coil = 4.44 f Nph F

Kd = Distribution factor or Breadth factor

Eq. (6.4) now becomes

E = Eg = Kd Ec = 4.44 Kd f Nph F (Volts)

Effect of Coil Throw (i.e. Pitch Factor)

To reduce weight of copper, the stator winding is constructed with a coil width less than the
pole-pitch. (For a 3-phase, 2 pole structure if the two conductors forming a coil are physically
(mechanical angle) located at less than 180and for a 3-phase, 4 pole structure if the
mechanical angle is less than 90and so on. Note here that if the electrical radian is less than ,
it is always a short-pitched coil).

Though the emf magnitude reduces and it is undesirable but the advantages of short pitching or
chording overweighs the effect of reduced emf and so it is generally resorted to in Alternators.

Advantages of short-pitched coils :

(a) It reduces harmonics in the voltage waveform.

(b) It gives a saving in the amount of copper in the overhang.

So, a pitch factor, Kp is introduced in the expression for emf; KP<1

here is a angle in electrical degree i.e. = 180coil span is electrical degree.

Final emf expression becomes

E = 4.44 Kd Kp f Nph


A three phase star connected alternator is rated at 1500 KVA, 11 kV. The per phase
value of armature effective resistance and synchronous reactance are 2 and 30
respectively. Calculate the percentage regulation for a load of 1000 kW at power
factors of (ii) 0. 0.8 lagging and (ii) unity.
= 11
Load = 1000/08 = 1250 KVA
Ra = 2 ohms
Xs = 30 ohm
Eph = 11000/3 = 6350.852 V
Load current = 0.8 311000 = 65.60

(i) When power factor is 0.8 lagging

= 0.8 = 0.6

= ( + )2 + ( + )2

= (6350.852 0.8 + 65.60 2)2 + (6350.852 0.6 + 65.60 30)2

= 7781.702
Voltage Regulation = 100 = 22.53%

(ii) When power factor is Unity

= (6350.85 + 65.60 2)2 + (65.60 30)2

= 6774.217
Voltage Regulation = 100 = 6.66%

Illustrate the step by step development of equivalent circuit of induction motor.

a) Transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction.
b) The induction motor also works on the same principle. The energy transfer
from stator to rotor of the induction motor takes place entirely with the help
of a flux mutually linking the two.
c) Thus stator acts as a primary while the rotor acts as a rotating secondary
when induction motor is treated as a tranformer.
If E1 = Induced voltage in stator per phase

E2 = Rotor induced e.m.f. per phase on standstill

17. (a)
k = Rotor turns / Stator turns

then k = E2/ E1

d) Thus if V1 is the supply voltage per phase to stator, it produces the flux
which links with both stator and rotor.
e) Due to self induction E1, is the induced e.m.f. in stator per phase while E2 is
the induced e.m.f. in rotor due to mutual induction, at standstill. In running
condition the induced e.m.f. in rotor becomes E2r which is s E2.
Now E2r = Rotor induced e.m.f. in running condition per phase
R2 = Rotor resistance per phase

X2r = Rotor reactance per phase in running condition

R1 = Stator resistance per phase

X1 = Stator reactance per phase

So induction motor can be represented as a transformer as shown in the Fig. 1.

Fig. 1

When induction motor is on no load, it draws a current from the supply to produce
the flux in air gap and to supply iron losses.

1. Ic = Active component which supplies no load losses

2. Im = Magnetizing component which sets up flux in core and air gap

These two currents give us the elements of an exciting branch as,

Ro = Representing no load losses = V1 /Ic

and Xo = Representing flux set up = V1/Im

Thus, o = c + m

The equivalent circuit of induction motor thus can be represented as shown in

the Fig. 2.

Fig. 2

The stator and rotor sides are shown separated by an air gap.
I2r = Rotor current in running condition
= E2r /Z2r = (s E2)/(R22 +(s X2)2)

It is important to note that as load on the motor changes, the motor speed
changes. Thus slip changes. As slip changes the reactance X2r changes. Hence X2r =
sX2 is shown variable.

Representing of rotor impedance :

It is shown that, I2r = (sE2)/(R22 +(s X2)2) = E2 /((R2/s)2 + X22)

So it can be assumed that equivalent rotor circuit in the running condition has
fixed reactance X2, fixed voltage E2 but a variable resistance R2/s, as indicated in the
above equation.

Now R2/s = R2 + (R2/s) - R2

R2/s = R2 + R2 (1/s -1) = R2 + R2 (1-s)/s)

So the variable rotor resistance R2/s has two parts.

1. Rotor resistance R2 itself which represents copper loss.

2. R2(1 - s)/s which represents load resistance RL. So it is electrical equivalent of

mechanical load on the motor.

So rotor equivalent circuit can be shown as,

Now let us obtain equivalent circuit referred to stator side.

Equivalent circuit referred to stator :

Transfer all the rotor parameters to stator,

k = E2/E1 = Transformation ratio

E2' = E2/ k

The rotor current has its reflected component on the stator side which is I2r'.

I2r' = k I2r = (k s E2 )/(R22 +(s X2)2)

X2' = X2/K2 = Reflected rotor reactance

R2' = R2/K2 = Reflected rotor resistance

RL' = RL/K2 = (R2/K2)(1-s / s)

= R2' (1-s / s)

Thus RL' is reflected mechanical load on stator.

So equivalent circuit referred to stator can be shown as in the Fig. 4

The resistance R2' (1 -s)/ s = RL' is fictitious resistance representing the mechanical
load on the motor.

Approximate Equivalent Circuit:

Similar to the transformer the equivalent circuit can be modified by shifting the
exciting current (Ro and Xo) purely across the supply, to the left of R1 and X1. Due to
this, we are neglecting the drop across R1 and X1 due to Io, which is very small.
Hence the circuit is called approximate equivalent circuit. The circuit is shown in the
Fig. below

Now the resistance R1 and R2' while reactance X1 and X2' can be combined. So we
R1e = Equivalent resistance referred to stator = R1 + R2'

X1e = Equivalent reactance referred to stator = X1 + X2'

R1e = R1 + (R2/K2)

and X1e = X1 + (X2/K2)

While 1 = o + 2r'

and o = c + m

Thus the equivalent circuit can be shown in the Fig below


A 400, 11 kW, 3 phase, 50 Hz, 4 pole delta connected induction motor gave the
following test data
No load test : 400 V, 8 A, 1000 W
Blocked rotor test: 100 V, 25 A, 1750 W
Construct the circle diagram and determine (i) full load current and power factor (ii)
full load efficiency.

Explain the principle of working of a star delta starter and auto transformer starter
a) This is the cheapest starter of all and hence used very commonly for the induction
b) It uses triple pole double throw (TPDT) switch. The switch connects the stator
winding in star at start. Hence per phase voltage gets reduced by the factor 1/3.
Due to this reduced voltage, the starting current is limited.
c) When the switch is thrown on other side, the winding gets connected in delta,
across the supply. So it gets normal rated voltage. The windings are connected in
delta when motor gathers sufficient speed.
d) The arrangement of star-delta starter is shown in the Fig. 1
18. (a) e) The operation of the switch can be automatic by using relays which ensures that
motor will not start with the switch in Run position.
f) The cheapest of all and maintenance free operation are the two important
advantages of this starter.
g) While its limitations are, it is suitable for normal delta connected motors and the
factor by which voltage changes is 1/3 which can not be changed.

Ratio of Tst to TF.L.

In case of autotransformer that if x is the factor by which the voltage is reduced then,
Fig .1

= 2[ ]
.. ..

Now the factor x in this type of starter is 1/3.

1 2
= [ ]
.. 3 ..

( 2 )2
= 23
2 + 22

where Isc = Starting phase current when delta connection with rated voltage

IF.L. = Full load phase current when delta connection

Auto Transformer Starter:

a) A three phase star connected autotransformer can be used to reduce the voltage
applied to the stator. Such a starter is called an autotransformer starter.
b) The schematic diagram of autotransformer starter. The schematic diagram of
autotransformer starter is shown in the Fig.2

It consists of a suitable change over switch.

i) When the switch is in the start position, the stator winding is supplied with reduced
voltage. This can be controlled by tappings provided with autotransformer.

ii) The reduction in applied voltage by the fractional percentage tappings x, used for an
autotransformer is shown in the Fig. 3.

Fig. 3.

iii) When motor gathers 80% of the normal speed, the change over switch is thrown into
run position.

iv) Due to this, rated voltage gets applied to stator winding.

v) The motor starts rotating with normal speed. Changing of switch is done automatically
by using relays.

vi) The power loss is much less in this type of starting. It can be used for both star and delta
connected motors. But it is expensive than stator resistance starter.

Relation between Tst and TF.L.

Let x be the fractional percentage tappings used for an autotransformer to apply

reduced voltage to the stator.

So if, Isc = Starting motor current at rated voltage

and Ist = Starting motor current with starter

then Ist = x Isc .....Motor side ............(1)

But there is exists a fixed ratio between starting current drawn from supply Ist (supply)
and starting moor current Ist (motor) due to autotransformer, as shown in the Fig.3

Autotransformer ratio x = Ist (supply)/ Ist (motor)

Ist (supply) = x Ist (motor) .............(2)

Substituting Ist (motor) from equation (1),

... Ist (supply) = x . x Isc = x2 Isc ............(3)

Now Tst Ist2 (motor) x2 Isc2

and TF.L. (IF.L.)2/sf

= 2[ ]
.. ..


Discuss the two methods of slip power recovery scheme used in induction motor

Injecting Slip-Frequency E.M.F. into Rotor Circuit

a) In this method, a voltage is injected in the rotor circuit.

b) The frequency of rotor circuit is a slip frequency and hence the voltage to be injected
must be at a slip frequency.

c) It is possible that the injected voltage may oppose the rotor induced e.m.f. or may assist
the rotor induced e.m.f. If it is in the phase opposition, effective rotor resistance increases.
d) If it is in the phase of rotor induced e.m.f., effective rotor resistance decreases. Thus by
controlling the magnitude of the injected e.m.f., rotor resistance and effectively speed can
be controlled.

Practically two methods are available which use this principle. These methods are,

1. Kramer system 2. Scherbius system

1. Kramer System

The Fig.1 shows the scheme of a kramer system.

a) It consists of main induction motor M, the speed of which is to be controlled. The

two additional equipments are, d.c. motor and rotary converter.
b) The d.c. side of rotary converter feeds a d.c. shunt motor commutator, which is
directly connected to the shaft of the main motor.
c) A separate d.c. supply is required to excite the field winding of d.c. motor and
exciting winding of a rotary converter.
d) The variable resistance is introduced in the field circuit of a d.c. motor which acts
as s field regulator.
e) The speed of the set is controlled by varying the field of the d.c. motor with the
rheostat R.
f) When the field resistance is changed, the back e.m.f. of motor changes. Thus the
d.c. voltage at the commutator changes
g) This changes the d.c. voltage on the d.c. side of a rotary converter. Now rotary
converter has a fixed ratio between its a.c. side and d.c. side voltages.
h) Thus voltage on its a.c. side also changes. This a.c. voltage is given to the slip rings
of the main motor.
i) So the voltage injected in the rotor of main motor changes which produces the
required speed control.
j) Very large motors above 4000 kW such as steel rolling mills use such type of speed
k) Advantage of this method
a. smooth speed control is possible.
b. wide range of speed control is possible.
c. the design of a rotary converter is practically independent of the speed
control required.
d. Similarly if rotary converter is overexcited, it draws leading current and
thus power factor improvement is also possible alongwith the necessary
speed control.
2 Scherbius System

The Fig. 2 shows the scheme of a Scherbius system.

a) This method requires an auxiliary 3 phase or 6 phase a.c. commutator machine

which is called Scherbius machine.
b) The difference between Kramer system and this system is that the Scherbius
machine is not directly connected to the main motor, whose speed is to be
c) The Scherbius machine is is excited at a slip frequency from the rotor of a main
motor through a regulation transformer.
d) The taps on the regulating transformer can be varied, this changes the voltage
developed in the rotor Scherbius machine, which is injected into the rotor of main
motor. This control the speed of the main motor.
e) The scherbius machine is connected directly to the induction motor supplied from
main line so that its speed deviates from a fixed value only to the extent of the slip
of the auxiliary induction motor.
f) For any given setting of regulating transformer, the speed of the main motor
remains substantially constant irrespective of the load variations.
g) Similar to the Kramer system, this method is also used to control speed of large
induction motors.
h) The only disadvantage is that these methods can be used only for slip ring
induction motors.

Analyze the Effect of Excitation on armature current and power factor of a synchronous

1) When load changes, for constant excitation, current drawn by the motor increases.
2) But if excitation i.e. field current is changed keeping load constant, the
synchronous motor reacts by by changing its power factor of operation.
Consider a synchronous motor operating at a certain load. The corresponding load angle is

a) At start, consider normal behaviour of the synchronous motor, where

excitation is adjusted to get Eb = V i.e. induced e.m.f. is equal to applied
voltage. Such an excitation is called Normal Excitation of the motor.
b) Motor is drawing certain current from the supply and power input to the
motor is say Pin. The power factor of the motor is lagging in nature as
shown in the Fig. 1(a).
19. (a) c) Now when excitation is changed, changes but there is hardly any change in
the losses of the motor. So the power input also remains same for constant
load demanding same power output.

Pin = 3 VL IL cos = 3 (Vph Iph cos )

d) Most of the times, the voltage applied to the motor is constant. Hence for
constant power input as Vph is constant, 'Iph cos ' remains constant.

a. Under Excitation

a) When the excitation is adjusted in such a way that the magnitude of induced e.m.f. is
less than the applied voltage (Eb < V) the excitation is called Under Excitation.

b) Due to this, ER increases in magnitude. This means for constant Zs, current drawn by the
motor increases.

c) But ER phase shifts in such a way that, phasor Ia also shifts (as ER ^ Ia = ) to keep Ia cos
component constant. This is shown in the Fig. 1(b).

d) So in under excited condition, current drawn by the motor increases. The p.f. cos
decreases and becomes more and more lagging in nature.

b.Over Excitation

a) The excitation to the field winding for which the induced e.m.f. becomes greater than
applied voltage (Eb < V), is called over excitation.

b) Due to increased magnitude of Eb, ER also increases in magnitude. But the phase of ER
also changes. Now = ER ^ Ia = is constant, hence Ia also changes its phase. So

c) The Ia increases to keep Ia cos constant as shown in Fig.1(c). The phase of ER changes so
that Ia becomes leading with respect to Vph in over excited condition. So power factor
of the motor becomes leading in nature.

d) So overexcited synchronous motor works on leading power factor. So power factor

decreases as over excitation increases but it becomes more and more leading in

1.Critical Excitation

a) When the excitation is changed, the power factor changes. The excitation for which the
power factor of the motor is unity (cos = 1) is called critical excitation.

b) Then Iaph is in phase with Vph. Now Ia cos must be constant, cos = 1 is at its
maximum hence motor has to draw minimum current from supply for unity power
factor condition.

c) So for critical excitation, cos = 1 and current drawn by the motor is minimum
compared to current drawn by the motor for various excitation conditions. This is
shown in the Fig. 1(d)

Explain the phenomena of hunting in synchronous motor and the methods adopted to
minimize the effect of hunting.

a) When synchronous motor is on no load, the stator and rotor pole axes almost
coincide with each other.
b) When motor is loaded, the rotor axis falls back with respect to stator. The angle by
which rotor retards is called load angle or angle of retardation .
(b) c) If the load connected to the motor is suddenly changed by a large amount, then
rotor tries to retard to take its new equilibrium position.
d) But due to inertia of the rotor, it can not achieve its final position instantaneously.
e) While achieving its new position due to inertia it passes beyond its final position
corresponding to new load.
f) This will produce more torque than what is demanded. This will try reduce the load
angle and rotor swings in other direction. So there is periodic swinging of the rotor
on both sides of the new equilibrium position, corresponding to the load. Such a
swing is shown in the Fig. 1.
g) Such oscillations of the rotor about its new equilibrium position, due to sudden
application or removal of load is called swinging or hunting in synchronous motor.
h) Due to such hunting, the load angle changes its value about its final value .
i) As changes, for same excitation i.e. Ebph the current drawn by the motor also
j) Hence during hunting there are changes in the current drawn by the motor which
may cause problem to the other appliances connected to the same line.
k) The changes in armature current due to hunting is shown in the Fig. 2.

l) If such oscillations continue for longer period, there are large fluctuations in the

m) If such variations synchronous with the natural period of oscillation of the rotor, the
amplitude of the swing may become so great that motor may come out of
synchronism. At this instant mechanical stresses on the rotor are sever and current
drawn by the motor is also very large. So motor gets subjected to large mechanical
and electrical stresses.

1.1 Use of Damper Winding to Prevent Hunting

a) The slots provided in the pole faces, a short circuited winding is placed. This is called
damper winding.

b) When rotor starts oscillating i.e. when hunting starts a relative motion between damper
winding and the rotating magnetic field is created.

c) Due to this relative motion, e.m.f. gets induced in the damper winding. According to
Lenz's law, the direction of induced e.m.f. is always so as to oppose the cause
producing it.

d) The cause is the hunting. So such induced e.m.f. oppose the hunting. The induced e.m.f.
tries to damp the oscillations as quickly as possible. Thus hunting is minimised due to
damper winding.

e) The time required by the rotor to take its final equilibrium position after hunting is called
as setting time of the rotor.

f) If the load angle is plotted against time, the schematic representation of hunting can be
obtained as shown in the Fig. 3. It is shown in the diagram that due to damper winding
the setting time of the rotor reduces considerably.

Exemplify the construction and working of repulsion motor

Repulsion motor works on the principle of repulsion between two magnetic fields.
These motors give excellent performance characteristics. Before going ti actual discussion
about motor let us consider the principle on which motor works.

Repulsion principle

a) For understand the torque production by motor using repulsion principle

consider a tow pole salient pole motor having magnetic axis horizontal.

b) The armature of the machine consists of a d.c. windings having commutator and
brushes. The brushes are short circuited by a low resistance jumper.

20. (a) c) The stator winding is given excitation in such away as to form the poles as shown
in the Fig.1.

d) The brushes are aligned in the same direction of the field axis. The stator
winding will produce alternating flux which will induce e.m.f. in the armature
conductors by transformer action.

e) The direction of induced e.m.f. can be found using Lenz's law. The direction of
induced current will depend on position of brushes, These currents will lag behind
the induced voltage by almost 90o .

f) Because of the current flowing through the armature, it will produce its own
magnetic field with the poles as shown in the Fig.1.

g) Thus equal force of repulsion exists between like poles which will not produce
any torque.

a) Alternatively it can be also explained as the armature to be divided into four

quadrants producing four torques T1, T2, T3 and T4 which are equal and hence the
net torque is zero
b) If brushes are shifted by 90o , so the conductors undergoing short circuit are also
changed. The induced emf are in the same direction as before. The arrangement is
shown in the Fig.2.

j) Apart from the coils undergoing short circuit, the remaining armature winding
gets divided into two parallel paths. It can be seen that the induced emfs are balanced and
the resultant emf is zero. Thus no current flows through the brushes and the resultant
torque is also zero.

k) If the brushes are in the position shown in the Fig.3. In this case, the brushes axis
is not in the line of main field or at an angle of 90o to main field but it is at an angle of
with the main field.
Again the emf will be induced in the armature conductors and there will be net
voltage across brush terminals which will produce current in the armature.

Thus the armature will also produce its own magnetic field with the poles as shown
in the Fig.3. The north and south poles of stator and rotor will attract each other and there
will be net torque available which will run the motor in the clockwise direction.

Alternatively we can say that the north pole formed by armature winding will be
repelled by the north pole formed by the main field winding and similarly the south pole
will be repelled by south pole formed by the main field winding and the motor runs in
clockwise direction.

As the forces are of repulsion which contributes in the motion so the name of the
motor is repulsion motor.

If the brush is given shift in the opposite direction to that shown in the Fig.4 then
motor runs in anticlockwise direction which can also be explained on the similar lines.

Hence the position of brushes decides the direction of rotation. he torque

produced by the motor depends on the brush shift angle .

Thus the control of speed and torque can be done with the help of brush shift. The
variation of torque with brush shift is shown in the Fig.4.

Describe with a neat diagram, the principle and working of shaded pole induction
This type of motor consists of a squirrel cage rotor and stator consisting of salient
poles i.e. projected poles.

(b) The poles are shaded i.e. each pole carries a copper band on one of its
unequally divided part called shading ban Fig.1(a) shows 4 pole shaded pole construction
while Fig. 1(b) shows a single pole consisting of copper shading band.

Key point : When single phase a.c. supply is given to the stator winding, due to shading
provided to the poles, a rotating magnetic field is generated.

The production of rotating magnetic field can be explained as below :

(c) The current carried by the stator winding is alternating and produces alternating
flux.The waveform of the flux is shown in the Fig. 2(a).

(d) The distribution of this flux in the pole area is greatly influenced by the role of
copper shading band.

(e) Consider the three instants say t1, t2 and t3 during first half cycle of the flux as
shown, in the Fig 2(a).

(f) At instant t = t1, rate of rise of current and hence the flux is very high. Due to the
transformer action, large e.m.f. gets induced in the copper shading band. This circulates
current through shading band as it is short circuited, producing its own flux. According to
lenz's law, the direction of this current is so as to oppose the cause i.e. rise in current.
Hence shading ring flux is opposing to the main flux. Hence there is crowding of flux in
nonshaded part while weakening of flux in shaded part. Overall magnetic axis shifts in
nonshaded part as shown in the Fig. 2(b).

(g) At instant t = t2, rate of rise of current and hence the rate of change of flux is
almost zero as flux almost reaches to its maximum value. So d/dt = 0. Hence there is very
little induced e.m.f. in the shading ring. Hence the shading ring flux is also negligible, hardly
affecting the distribution of the main flux. Hence the main flux distribution is uniform and
magnetic axis lies at the centre of the pole face as shown in the Fig. 2(c).

(h) At the instant t = t3, the current and the flux is decreasing. The rate of decrease
is high which again induces a very large e.m.f. in the shading ring. This circulates current
through the ring which produces its own flux. Now direction of the flux produced by the
shaded ring current is so as to oppose the cause which is decrease in flux. So it oppose the
decrease in flux means its direction is same as that of main flux, strengthening it. So there
is crowding of flux in the shaded part as compared to no shaded part. Due to this the
magnetic axis shifts to the middle of the shaded part of the pole. This is shown in the Fig.

(i) This sequence keeps on repeating for negative half cycle too. Consequently this
produces an effect of rotating magnetic field, the direction of which is from nonshaded
part of the pole to the shaded part of the pole. Due to this, motor produces the starting
torque is low which is about 40 to 50% of the full load torque for this type of motor. The
torque speed characteristics is shown in the Fig. 3