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Effective carrier development in the Nigerian system of education has been

facing several problems contending against the standard of education in the state. A
good example of these is the existence of examination malpractice which often
took place in special examination centers, though several other factors militate
against the low standard of education like inadequate instructional materials,
inadequate building or structure, unqualified teachers among others. Due to the
consistency of this problem a number of measures have been put in place to check
it. Fr example, unified tertiary matriculation examination (UTME) 2011 introduced
finger thumb printing to check the increasing rate of this evil in our society.

In a world govern by science and technology, education is the most powerful

instrument for achieving development and empowering the citizens to contribute
meaningfully to technology and to compete for survival. In common terms, what is
special examination centres? No dictionary definition has categorically defined
these terms specifically, rather special has been defined just as examination and the
term centre has also be defined. Special is something that is not meant for
everybody that is not for the general public, while examination is a formal written,
spoke or practical test, especially at school or college to see how much you know
about a subject, or middle point or part of something or a building or place used for
a particular purpose or activity (Oxford Advanced Learners dictionary 6th Edition),
special examination centres can therefore be deduced as any activity that exists
within the four corners of education that gives preferences to some selected
individuals or group of people to pass their examination.

However, these centres has used many method to assist their students during
the examination in order for them to pass their examination such method include
getting examination question paper before examination date and time,
impersonation, replacing the answer script written in the examination hall with that
written at home texting of objectives through cell-phone to client cell-phone when
question must have been solved bribing the supervisor or invigilator to corporate
with the examination hall and removing security from the students in the
examination hall, are all in the name of making money.

Moreover, special examination centre have affected the standard of education

in Nigeria as it becomes possible for person to obtain certificate when he cannot
defend. It is the same set of non-performing graduates that manage the industries
and government positions. In conclusion, the pertinent question now is; why is our
standard of education low in Nigeria, or what is the state of educational system and
influencing factors for the falling standard? What strategy can be deployed to?


Special Examination centers

Originally, A Special Examination centre is any examination centre other

than the regular or Supplemental Examinations, and it may be offered only with
the permission of the Dean of the Faculty in which the student is registered, in
consultation with the instructor and Department Chair. Permission to write a
Special Examination may be given on the basis of compassionate or medical
grounds with appropriate supporting documents
The modern definition of a SPECIAL EXAMINATIONS centre is that of an
examination miracle centre where everything is possible. Here the students
settle the supervisors, invigilators and any other person so as to carry out their
fraudulent practices

Concept of Examination Malpractice

Olushola, (2006) stated that examination malpractice is an unlawful behaviour

or activity engaged in by students to have personal advantage in an
examination over their colleagues or mates who are taking the same
examination. Malpractice could be committed before, during or after the
examination by either the students taking the examination or by officials
assigned with the administration of the examination. Dike (1996) from the
psychological point of view saw examinationSpecial Examination centers

Career development

Career Development is the lifelong process of managing learning, work, leisure,

and transitions in order to move toward a personally determined and evolving
preferred future. In educational development, career development provides a
person, often a student, focus for selecting a career or subject(s) to undertake in the
future. Often educational institutions provide career counsellors to assist students
with their educational development.

Strategies used in special exam centers

Researchers and educationists like Adesina (2006), Awanbor (2006),

Banwo (2006), Solake (1997), Olaniyan (1997), Olasehinde (1993), have
written on a number of behaviors that are exhibited by students during
examinations in order to cheat which hinder carrier development . Some of these
activities are listed by Jekayinfa (2006) with the special names they are referred to
by their perpetrators as follows:

Giraffing: This is an act of sticking out ones neck to see another students answer

Abracadabra: It is a method common in rural schools. It is a magic term

connoting the more you look, the less you see. The students will use
spiritual power so that when they go to examination hall with foreign material,
it will be seen by members of the class excluding only the invigilator. Also,
they may use the same power to make the invigilator a living robot till the end
of the examination.

Lateral Connection: This is a sitting arrangement whereby the bright

student is seated in the center, flanked on both sides by other students.

Nothing-nothing: This involves the use of empty biro to trace information on a

blank white piece of paper. Seeing this on the table, one would think there is
nothing on the paper, but on closer observation, one would realize that the paper is
well loaded with facts related to the examination.

Livewire: This is when students have access to live question paper before
the examination.

Dubbing: This is when students copy in the examination hall either from
their partners paper or the material they brought into the examination venue.

Contract: This is when a students grade is influenced with the assistance

of a friendly teacher.
Tattoo: This is when a female/male student writes information on the tender part
of his/her thigh where they can easily adjust to reveal the materials and can be
cleared within a second when there is a problem (Samuel, 1995).

Rank Xeroxing: This is when a student collects and writes a colleagues

answer word for word.

Computo: This involves the use of calculators, which have facilities for
multiple entries. The invigilator may not know that it has such facilities and may
think it is an ordinary calculator.

Missile Catch: represents answers written on pieces of papers, squeezed and

thrown to a colleague in the hall while the examination is going on.

Swapping: Exchanging answer booklets so that the bright student can write
answers out for his/her colleague.

Tokens: Jotting points on the mathematical set, razor blades, rulers, hankies
and others of the likes for referencing during examinations.

Sign Language: Using fingers and sounds as coded, for responses on

objective tests.

Body Aids: Jotting points on the underwear, under dress or thighs for
referencing during examination.

Mercenary Service: Employing the services of another student to write the

Table Top: Writing anticipated answers on top of a desk before the
commencement of examination.

CNN: Sharing questions and answers between a group for eventual

connection in the examination hall.

Time Out: Going out to the toilet to read up answers.

Direct Access: Examiner providing HINTS to help out during examination.

Stroke: Pretending to be sick during examination to attract examiners

sympathy while marking.

Examination malpractice has long been ion existence in our society and have been
taken by different investigation on the subject and in-spite of these. Examination
malpractice still thrives in our educational system. Despite the disastrous effect it
has students, parents, educational system but the society at large, like

a. Cancellation of results

b. Lowering of standard when under serving students are allowed in

posses requiring high standard of performance.

c. Lack of motivation or incentive to read hard in order to be successful

in examination.

d. Promote laziness and laxity in schools where by students do not read

their books with what have been taught.

It is the purpose of this research to inquire deeply into the causes of examination
malpractice and find possible solution in order to eradicate this act from the
educational system and the nation in general. All these put together affect carrier



The impact of special examination centres on effective carrier development of

students are multi faceted but for the purpose of this work, well only list the

1. Students being sometimes left without any direction or are pushed too
hard and too far by parents to achieve the desires of such parents. This problem
often makes the candidates to do courses that they either cannot cope with, are not
interested in, or may not be beneficial to them.

2. Truancy and absenteeism; where students were ill prepared for examination
because they do not know what others have been taught. It is natural that
when a student does not attend lecture(s), there is no miracle that will make him or
her to pass, except he or she indulges in examination malpractice.

3. Lack of proper teaching of students before examination can also encourage

examination malpractice. Some school teachers are either lazy or indulged in their
private practices when they were supposed to be teaching their students and thus,
put in grossly inadequate time in teaching/coaching their students. When the time
for examination reaches, in order for them to preserve their jobs and also
uphold the name of their schools, such teachers tend to resort to examination
4. Poor state of infrastructure in schools is another cause of examination
malpractice. Where a school lacks such basic facilities such as classrooms,
laboratories, libraries and other vital equipment and facilities, teaching and
learning cannot be carried out effectively.

5. Long closure of schools due to strikes by teachers could also result in

examination malpractice. When schools are closed, student are compelled to go
back to their various homes and either roam the street, stay idle or engage in
nefarious activities. During examination, such students may not be able to recall
what they had learnt and the best bet for them is to participate in
examination malpractices.

6. Poor admission and promotion policy by schools can also enhance

examination malpractice. When admissions are not given to candidates based on
merit but based on sentiment, the said students may not be able to
withstand the academic stress; the last option for such students will be to
embark on examination malpractice. In the same vein, when students are
promoted from one class to another without recourse to whether they have
passed or not, they tend to be ill equipped at the end of their study and thus depend
on examination malpractice.

7. Inadequate staffing of schools is another major reason why students cheat in

examination. For a student to learn and understand any subject matter, he or she
ought to be taught adequately. In a situation where students are not taught
adequately due to lack of sufficient teachers, such students or school tend to
indulge in examination malpractice to pass any examination.
8. Poor attitude of students towards their studies resulting in non-preparation for
examination can also cause examination malpractice. A student, who failed to
study hard when he or she has examination to write, will always get involved in
examination malpractice in order to pass such examination(s) (Olushola


special examination centres discourages candidates from studying hard,

denies innocent students the opportunity for admission, delays the
processing of examination results, dissatisfies candidates, decreases job
efficiency and stunts national growth; it must therefore not be allowed to flourish
in Nigeria. Fighting the examination malpractice scourge in Nigeria should be a
collective responsibility of all Nigerians. There is therefore need to strategize
innovative ways for curbing the menace of examination malpractice in our



Career Development: A Policy Statement of the National Career Development

Association Board of Directors (Adopted March 16, 1993; revised 2003) PDF
HTML Archived June 16, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
Herr, E.L., & Cramer, S. H. (1996). Career guidance and counseling
through the lifespan: Systematic approaches. New York: HarperCollins) (Niles, S.
G. & Harris-Bowlsbey, J (2002) Career Development Interventions in the 21st
Century. Columbus, OH: Merrill Prentice Hall., p7

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