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ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC
IMPLEMENT SYSTEM

40

ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC IMPLEMENT SYSTEM

Introduce system This portion of this presentation discusses the component locations,
systems operation, and testing and adjusting procedures for the Electro-
Hydraulic Implement System on the 992G Wheel Loader. When
discussing systems operation, both sectional view and graphic symbol
schematics will be used. The systems will be explained by tracing oil
flow from the tank, through the system and back to the tank.
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ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC IMPLEMENT SYSTEM


VARIABLE PUMP PILOT ELECTRONIC PILOT CONTROL
SOLENOID VALVE RELIEF CONTROL LEVER MODULE
VALVE MODULE
IMPLEMENT PILOT MAIN CONTROL TILT
HYDRAULIC PUMP VALVE ASSEMBLY CYLINDER
PUMPS

HYDRAULIC LIFT LINKAGE LIFT TILT LINKAGE


TANK POSITION SENSOR CYLINDER POSITION SENSOR

ELECTRONIC SYSTEM MAIN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


HYDRAULIC PILOT SYSTEM COMMON TO BOTH SYSTEMS

41

Identify components: Shown are the major components of the electro-hydraulic implement
- Pilot electronic system. The electro-hydraulic implement system is pilot operated. The
system
- Pilot hydraulic pilot system controls the functions of the main control valve. The pilot
system
- Main hydraulic system consist of an electronic system and a hydraulic system. The
system electronic system components (orange) are the pilot control lever module
- Common to both
systems (includes the tilt lever, lift lever, tilt sensor, lift sensor, bucket kickout
detent solenoid, lift kickout detent solenoid, lower kickout detent
solenoid and implement lockout switch), the implement electronic control
module (ECM), the tilt linkage position sensor, the lift linkage position
sensor, the pilot control valve solenoids, the pilot on/off valve solenoid
(part of the main control valve assembly) and the torque valve.
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The pilot hydraulic system (brown) consist of the pilot pump, the pilot
relief valve, the pilot on/off valve (part of the main control valve
assembly) and the pilot control valves (part of the main control valve
assembly).

The main hydraulic system (green) consists of the fixed pump, the
variable pump, the fixed pump relief valve (part of the main control valve
assembly), the variable pump relief valve (part of the main control valve
assembly), main control valve assembly, two lift cylinders and the tilt
cylinder.

The hydraulic tank (red) is common to both systems.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The color codes used for hydraulic oil


throughout this presentation are:

Red - System or high pressure

Red and White Stripes - Reduced pressure

Orange - Pilot pressure

Blue - Blocked oil

Green - Tank or return oil


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IMPLEMENT ELECTRONIC
CONTROL MODULE
ELECTRONIC IMPLEMENT (MAC-14)
CONTROL SYSTEM
CAT
DATA LINK
INPUT COMPONENTS OUTPUT COMPONENTS

PILOT ON/OFF
SOLENOID
LIFT LEVER TILT LEVER
SENSOR SENSOR
VARIABLE PUMP
SOLENOID

TILT RACKBACK
SOLENOID NO. 1

IMPLEMENT TILT RACKBACK


LOCKOUT SWITCH SOLENOID NO. 2

TILT DUMP
LIFT/LOWER/TILT SOLENOID NO. 1
KICKOUT SWITCH
TILT DUMP
SOLENOID NO. 2

LIFT LINKAGE
SENSOR LIFT LOWER
SOLENOID NO. 1

TILT LINKAGE LIFT LOWER


SENSOR SOLENOID NO. 2

LIFT RAISE
SOLENOID NO. 1

LIFT RAISE
SOLENOID NO. 2

LIFT LOWER KICKOUT


DETENT SOLENOID

LIFT RAISE KICKOUT


DETENT SOLENOID

BUCKET KICKOUT
DETENT SOLENOID

42

Explain diagram Electronic Implement Control System

Shown is a block diagram of the Electronic Implement Control (EIC)


System.

The ECM receives input signals from the various sensors and switches
(shown in blue). The ECM processes the inputs, makes decisions and
provides a corresponding output to the pilot solenoid valves and kickout
solenoids (shown in yellow). The ECM also communicates with other
electronic control systems through the CAT Data Link.

The Electronic Implement Control System consists of the following


components:
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Lift lever position sensor: Tells the ECM the position of the lift pilot
control lever.

Tilt lever position sensor: Tells the ECM the position of the tilt pilot
control lever.

Lift linkage position sensor: Tells the ECM the position of the lift arm
relative to the machine.

Bucket linkage position sensor: Tells the ECM the position of the bucket
relative to the lift arm.

Implement lockout switch: Tells the ECM that the operator wants the
pilot control levers disabled.

Kickout set switch: Used to set the bucket tilt, lift raise and lift lower
kickout positions.

Pilot on/off solenoid valve: Used to disable and enable the pilot hydraulic
system.

Bucket dump actuator: Directs pilot oil from the main control valve to
tank.

Bucket tilt actuator: Directs pilot oil from the main control valve to tank.

Raise actuator: Directs pilot oil from the main control valve to tank.

Lower actuator: Directs pilot oil from the main control valve to tank.

Raise kickout solenoid: Holds the raise/lower lever in the raise position.
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Lower kickout solenoid: Holds the raise/lower lever in the lower


position.

Bucket kickout solenoid: Holds the tilt /dump lever in the tilt back
position.

CAT Data Link: Communication path to and from other electronic


control modules.
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ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC
IMPLEMENT SYSTEM TILT
RIGHT CYLINDER LEFT
ELECTRONIC SYSTEM COMPONENTS LIFT LIFT
CYLINDER CYLINDER

SHUTTLE
VALVE

IMPLEMENT RAISE/LOW/TILT
LOCKOUT KICKOUT SET
SWITCH SWITCH PRESSURE
REDUCING
VALVE
TILT LINKAGE
POSITION SENSOR
IMPLEMENT IMPLEMENT
CONTROL CONTROL
VALVE VALVE

ELECTRONIC
CAT CONTROL CHECK
DATA MODULE LIFT LINKAGE VALVE
LINK POSITION SENSOR PILOT
ON/OFF
VALVE

BUCKET LIFT LOWER


KICKOUT KICKOUT KICKOUT
DETENT DETENT DETENT RELIEF
SOLENOID SOLENOID SOLENOID PILOT VALVE
RELIEF
TILT RELIEF
LIFT FIXED VALVE
VALVE
LEVER LEVER PUMP
SENSOR SENSOR VARIABLE
PUMP
PILOT SOLENOID VARIABLE
VALVE PUMP
PUMP

43

Identify components: Electronic Implement Control System Components


- Implement lockout
switch The electronic system components (orange) are the implement lockout
- Raise/lower/tilt kickout
set switch switch, the raise/lower/tilt kickout set switch, the electronic control
- Electronic control module, the tilt linkage position sensor, the lift linkage position sensor,
module
- Tilt linkage position the tilt control lever, the bucket kickout detent solenoid, the lift control
sensor
- Lift linkage position lever, the lift kickout detent solenoid, the lower kickout detent solenoid,
sensor the pilot control actuators, the pilot on/off valve solenoid and the
- Tilt control lever
- Bucket kickout detent variable pump torque valve solenoid.
solenoid
- Lift control lever
- Lift kickout detent
solenoid
- Pilot control actuators
- Pilot on/off valve
solenoid
- Variable pump torque
valve solenoid
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7
6
5

8
1

2
3

44

Identify components: The implement hydraulic control levers (1) are attached to the right
1. Implement hydraulic armrest assembly and move forward and rearward with the right armrest.
control levers
2. Tilt lever position
sensor When the operator moves the tilt control lever, the tilt control lever
3. Horn position sensor (2) sends a Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signal to the
4. Right armrest
control lever ECM.
5. Reduced rim pull
switch
6. Throttle lock set Also shown are the horn (3), the right armrest control lever (4), the reduce
switch
rim pull switch (5), the throttle lock set switch (6), the throttle resume
7. Throttle resume
switch switch (7) and the implement hydraulic lock switch (8).
8. Implement hydraulic
lock switch
9. Control lever cover Located beneath the control lever cover (9) are the lift control lever
position sensor, the bucket kickout detent solenoid, the lift kickout detent
solenoid and the lower kickout detent solenoid.
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10 9 8 7

11 12 13 14 1 2 3 4 5 6

45

Identify components: The raise, lower and tilt kickout switch (1) is located in the right side
1. Raise, lower and tilt panel. Depress the top of the switch to set the TILT kickout. Depress the
kickout switch bottom of the switch to set the RAISE and LOWER kickouts.
2. Dash lights switch
3. Work lights switch
4. Key pad When setting the bucket TILT kickout, move the bucket to the desired
5. Electronic diagnostic
connector position. Return the tilt lever to the HOLD position. Depress the top of
6. +12V connector
7. Rim pull selector the kickout set switch for about 1 second and release.
8. Stairway switch
9. Quick shift switch
When setting the RAISE kickout, raise the lift arm to the desired position.
10. Heater and a/c fan
switch Return the lift lever to the HOLD position. Depress the bottom of the
11. Heater and a/c
control kickout switch for about 1 second and release.
12. Start aid switch
13. Throttle lock switch
14. Ride control switch When setting the LOWER kickout, lower the lift arm to the desired
position. Return the lift lever to the HOLD position. Depress the bottom
of the kickout switch for about 1 second and release.
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Also shown are the dash lights switch (2), the work lights switch (3), the
key pad (4), the electronic diagnostic connector (5), the +12V connector
(6), the rim pull selector (7), the stairway switch (8), the quick shift
switch (9), the heater and a/c fan switch (10), the heater and a/c control
(11), the start aid switch (12) and the throttle lock switch (13) and the ride
control switch (14). (The ride control switch is no longer in that position.
The ride control is currently located at the third position from the right.)
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2
1

46

Identify components: The lift linkage position sensor (1) is bolted to the left side of the front

1. Lift linkage position frame near the left side lift cylinder attachment pin. The lift linkage
sensor position sensor constantly monitors the position of the lift linkage and
2. Tilt linkage position
sensor sends lift linkage position information to the ECM Module.

The tilt linkage position sensor (2) is bolted to the right side of the lift arm
near the tilt linkage attachment pin. The tilt linkage position sensor
constantly monitors the position of the tilt linkage and sends tilt linkage
position information to the ECM Module.

When the operator moves the lift lever or the tilt lever, the ECM analyze
the signal from the lift linkage position sensor and the signal from the tilt
linkage position sensor. The ECM then sends a proportional signal to the
respective control valve solenoid.
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5
7
4

47

Identify components: The Electronic Control Module (1) is located beneath the platform on the
1. Electronic Control right side of the cab.
Module
2. Fuse panel
3. Key start relay Also shown are the fuse panel (2), the key start relay (3), the main relay
4. Main relay (4), the VIDS/VIMS interlock module No 1 (5), the VIDS/VIMS main
5. VIDS/VIMS interlock
module No 1 module (6) and the Transmission ECM (7).
6. VIDS/VIMS main
module
7. Transmission ECM
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48

Identify components: The on/off solenoid valve (1) is located in the front bottom section of the
1. On/off solenoid main control valve center manifold.
2. Pilot control
actuators
3. Float valve When the on/off solenoid is DE-ENERGIZED, pilot oil is blocked at the
4. Fixed pump relief on/off solenoid valve.
valve

When the on/off solenoid is ENERGIZED, pilot oil flows to the pilot
control actuators.

Also shown are the float valve (3) and the fixed pump relief valve (4).
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1
2

49

Identify components: The pilot control solenoids (1) control the movement of the pilot control
1. Pilot control actuators.
solenoid
2. Lift cylinder rod end
line relief valve When the operator moves a control lever, the control lever position sensor
3. Tilt cylinder rod end sends a pulse width modulation (PWM) signal to the ECM. The ECM
line relief valve
analyze the signals from the control lever position sensor, the lift linkage
position sensor and the tilt linkage position sensor. the ECM then sends a
proportional signal to ENERGIZE the respective pilot control actuator
solenoid.

Also shown are the lift cylinder rod end line relief valve (2) and the tilt
cylinder rod end line relief valve(3).
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4 2
1
3

50

Identify components: The variable pump solenoid valve (1) is located on the inside left frame
1. Variable pump and to the rear of the implement pilot relief valve (3). The variable pump
torque valve solenoid valve controls pilot pressure to the load limiting control valve on
2. Pump torque valve
solenoid the variable pump control. The ECM energizes the variable pump valve
3. Implement pilot
relief valve solenoid (2) whenever the key start switch is ON. The ECM signal to the
4. Implement pilot oil variable pump solenoid valve controls the pressure in the load limit
pressure tap
control valve. When the variable pump pressure increases to 80% of
maximum pressure, the load limit control valve moves and sends oil
pressure to the large actuator to destroke the pump.

Also shown is the implement pilot oil pressure tap (4).


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ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC
IMPLEMENT SYSTEM
TILT
PILOT SYSTEM COMPONENTS RIGHT CYLINDER LEFT
LIFT LIFT
CYLINDER CYLINDER

SHUTTLE
VALVE

IMPLEMENT RAISE/LOW/TILT
LOCKOUT KICKOUT SET
SWITCH SWITCH PRESSURE
REDUCING
VALVE
TILT LINKAGE
POSITION SENSOR
IMPLEMENT IMPLEMENT
CONTROL CONTROL
VALVE VALVE

ELECTRONIC
CAT CONTROL CHECK
DATA MODULE LIFT LINKAGE VALVE
LINK POSITION SENSOR PILOT
ON/OFF
VALVE

CHECK
BUCKET LIFT LOWER VALVE
KICKOUT KICKOUT KICKOUT
DETENT DETENT DETENT RELIEF
SOLENOID SOLENOID SOLENOID VALVE
RELIEF PILOT
FILTER
TILT LIFT VALVE RELIEF
LEVER LEVER VALVE
SENSOR SENSOR VARIABLE
PUMP
PILOT SOLENOID VARIABLE
FIXED
VALVE PUMP
PUMP PUMP

51

Identify components: Hydraulic Pilot System

- Tank
- Pilot pump The hydraulic pilot system components (brown) are the tank, the pilot
- Pilot relief valve
- Pilot on/off valve
pump, the pilot relief valve, the pilot on/off valve, the check valve, the
- Check valve pressure reducing valve and the pilot control actuators.
- Pressure reducing
valve
- Pilot control
actuators
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7 8 9
10
6
1

4 2

52

Identify components: The implement hydraulic tank (1) is below the forward hinged deck plate
1. Hydraulic tank (2) on the right side of the machine. The tank has a fill cap (3) for filling
2. Deck plate and adding oil and a vent valve (4) that protects the tank from excessive
3. Fill cap
4. Vent valve pressure and/or vacuum.
5. Alternator breaker
6. Main circuit breaker
7. Starting/charger The tank also has (not shown) three screen for return oil, an ecology-type
analyzer connector
8. Service tool drain valve for changing the oil and a sight glass for checking the oil
connector level.
9. Running lamp
breaker
10. Key breaker Also shown are the alternator breaker (5), the main circuit breaker (6), the
starting/charger analyzer connector (7), the service tool connector (8), the
running lamps breaker (9) and the key breaker (10).

NOTE: Oil change intervals and procedures are covered in the Operation
and Maintenance section of the Service Manual.
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53

Identify components: The implement pilot pump (1) is a gear-type pump mounted on the front
1. Pilot pump of the implement variable piston pump (2). Tank oil flows through the
2. Implement variable pilot pump inlet hose (3) to the implement pilot pump. Pump supply oil
piston pump
3. Pilot pump inlet flows through the outlet hose (4) to the implement pilot filter.
hose
4. Pilot pump outlet
hose Also shown is the pilot pump pressure tap (5).
5. Pilot pump pressure
tap
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2
3 6

5
4

54

Identify components: The implement pilot oil filter (1) bracket (2) is bolted to the right r ROPS
1. Implement pilot oil mounting plate (3). Pressure oil from the pilot pump flows through the oil
filter filter inlet hose (4), the pilot filter and the oil filter outlet hose (5) to the
2. Oil filter bracket
3. ROPS mounting pilot relief valve (not shown).
plate
4. Oil filter inlet hose
5. Oil filter outlet hose The oil filter bypass switch (6) alerts the VIDS when the filter is
6. Oil filter bypass
switch bypassing.
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5
4 3

1 2

55

Identify components: The pilot relief valve (1) is bolted to the inside left frame forward of the
1. Pilot relief valve torque valve (2). Pilot oil from the pilot filter flows through the inlet hose
2. Torque valve (3) to the pilot relief valve. The pilot relief valve maintains pilot oil
3. Inlet hose
4. Outlet hose pressure at 2520 kPa (365 psi). Pilot pressure oil flows through the outlet
5. Outlet hose
6. Return hose hose (4) to the on/off solenoid valve. Pilot pressure oil also flows through
7. Pilot relief valve the outlet hose (5) to the torque valve. Pilot relief valve return oil flows
pressure sensor
through the return hose (6) to the tank.

The pilot relief valve pressure sensor (7) supplies pilot oil pressure
information to the VIDS/VIMS.
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5
6
1

3
2
4

56

Identify components: The pilot control solenoid valves (1) controls pilot oil flow from the ends
1. Pilot control of the main control valve spools to the tank.
solenoid valves
2. Pilot on/off valve
solenoid Also shown are the pilot on/off valve solenoid (2), the lift rod end line
3. Lift rod end line relief valve (3), the lift head end line relief valve (4), the tilt rod end line
relief valve
4. Lift head end line relief valve (5), the tilt head end line relief valve (6), the fixed pump relief
relief valve
5. Tilt rod end line valve (7) and the float valve (8).
relief valve
6. Tilt head end line
relief valve
7. Fixed pump relief
valve
8. Float valve
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ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC
IMPLEMENT SYSTEM
TILT
MAIN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM COMPONENTS RIGHT CYLINDER LEFT
LIFT LIFT
CYLINDER CYLINDER

SHUTTLE
VALVE

IMPLEMENT RAISE/LOW/TILT
LOCKOUT KICKOUT SET
SWITCH SWITCH PRESSURE
REDUCING
VALVE
TILT LINKAGE
POSITION SENSOR
IMPLEMENT IMPLEMENT
CONTROL CONTROL
VALVE VALVE

ELECTRONIC
CAT CONTROL CHECK
DATA MODULE LIFT LINKAGE VALVE
LINK POSITION SENSOR PILOT
ON/OFF
VALVE

CHECK
BUCKET LIFT LOWER VALVE
KICKOUT KICKOUT KICKOUT
DETENT DETENT DETENT RELIEF
SOLENOID SOLENOID SOLENOID VALVE
RELIEF PILOT
FILTER
TILT LIFT VALVE RELIEF
LEVER LEVER VALVE
SENSOR SENSOR VARIABLE
PUMP
FIXED PILOT SOLENOID VARIABLE
VALVE PUMP
PUMP PUMP

57

Identify components: Main Hydraulic System

- Tank
- Fixed pump The hydraulic pilot system components (green) are the tank, the fixed
- Fixed pump relief
valve
pump, the fixed pump relief valve, the fixed pump implement control
- Fixed pump implement valve, the variable pump, the variable pump relief valve and the variable
control valve
- Variable pump pump implement control valve, the shuttle valve, the lift cylinders and the
- Variable pump relief
valve
tilt cylinder.
- Variable pump
implement control
valve
- Shuttle valve
- Lift cylinders
- Tilt cylinder
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4 6 7 8

2
1 3

58

Identify components: The main hydraulic system contains a fixed displacement, piston-type
1. Fixed pump pump (1) and a variable displacement piston-type pump (4).
2. Suction hose
3. Supply hose
4. Variable pump Oil flows from the tank through a suction tube (2) to the fixed
5. Suction hose displacement pump. Pump pressure oil flows through a supply hose (3) to
6. Supply hose
7. Case drain the fixed pump implement control valve.
8. Pump drive housing

Oil flows from the tank through a suction tube (5) to the variable
displacement pump. Pump pressure oil flows through a supply hose (6) to
the variable pump implement control valve.

Also shown are the case drain (7) and the pump drive housing (8).
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VARIABLE PUMP
SOLENOID VALVE
TO PILOT
SYSTEM
VARIABLE IMPLEMENT PUMP
LESS THAN 2400kPa (350 psi)

TO TANK
PILOT TO IMPLEMENT
RELIEF CONTROL VALVE
VALVE
PRESSURE
CUTOFF

LOAD
PILOT LIMIT SHUTTLE
FILTER CONTROL VALVE

FLUID
SAMPLING
PORT SMALL
ACTUATOR
PILOT
PUMP PUMP
LARGE
ACTUATOR

59

Explain schematic Variable Pump Control Schematic

This schematic shows the oil flow in the variable pump control when the
variable pump pressure is less than 2400 kPa (350 psi).

The pilot pump pulls oil from the tank and sends oil flow through the
filter to the pilot system. The pilot relief valve maintains pilot system oil
at 2400 kPa (350 psi). When the key switch is in the ON position, the
variable pump torque valve solenoid is ENERGIZED. Pilot oil flows
through the variable pump torque valve to the load limit control. Pilot oil
also flows to the shuttle valve. When the variable pump oil is not being
used, the variable pump pressure is less than the pilot pressure. Pilot oil
flows through the shuttle valve and into the small actuator spring
chamber. The combined force of the pilot pressure and the small actuator
spring holds the variable pump swash plate at maximum angle.
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VARIABLE PUMP
SOLENOID VALVE
TO PILOT
SYSTEM
VARIABLE IMPLEMENT PUMP
LESS THAN 28,940 kPa (4200 psi)

TO TANK
PILOT TO IMPLEMENT
RELIEF CONTROL VALVE
VALVE
PRESSURE
CUTOFF
LOAD
PILOT LIMIT SHUTTLE
FILTER CONTROL VALVE

FLUID
SAMPLING
PORT SMALL
ACTUATOR
PILOT
PUMP PUMP
LARGE
ACTUATOR

60

Explain schematic When the variable pump oil is being used and the oil pressure is between
2400 kPa (350 psi) and 28,940 kPa (4200 psi), variable pump oil moves
the shuttle valve and blocks the pilot system oil. Variable pump oil flows
through the shuttle valve and into the small actuator spring chamber. The
combined force of the variable pump oil pressure and the small actuator
spring holds the variable pump swash plate at maximum angle.
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VARIABLE PUMP
SOLENOID VALVE
TO PILOT
SYSTEM
VARIABLE IMPLEMENT PUMP
MORE THAN 28,940 kPa (4200 psi)

TO TANK
PILOT TO IMPLEMENT
RELIEF CONTROL VALVE
VALVE
PRESSURE
CUTOFF

LOAD
PILOT LIMIT SHUTTLE
FILTER CONTROL VALVE

FLUID
SAMPLING
PORT SMALL
ACTUATOR
PILOT
PUMP PUMP
LARGE
ACTUATOR

61

Explain schematic When the variable pump oil pressure is more than 28,940 kPa (4200 psi),
oil pressure overcomes the force of the pressure cutoff valve spring and
moves the pressure cutoff valve. The pressure cutoff valve opens a
passage to send variable pump oil to the large actuator. The oil pressure
in the large actuator overcomes the force of the small actuator (oil
pressure and the small actuator spring) and moves the swash plate to the
minimum angle.
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6 2

62

Identify components: The main control valve assembly (1) is located in the front frame below
the boom.
1. Main control valve
assembly
2. Implement control The right side control valve (2) receives oil from the variable implement
valve pump.
3. Tilt cylinder rod end
hose Also shown are the hose (3) to the tilt cylinder rod end, the hose (4) to the
4. Lift cylinders rod
lift cylinders rod end, the hose (5) to the lift cylinders head end and the
end hose
5. Lift cylinders head hose (6) to the tilt cylinder head end.
end hose
6. Tilt cylinder head
end hose
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4
3

63

Identify components: When an implement is activated, oil from the implement control valve is
directed to the lift cylinders (1) and/or tilt cylinder (2).
1. Lift cylinder
2. Tilt cylinder
3. Bucket position Also shown are the bucket position sensor (3), the front right brake
4. Front right brake housing (4) and the front right final drive housing (5).
housing
5. Front right final
drive housing
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ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC TILT
CYLINDER
IMPLEMENT SYSTEM RIGHT
LIFT
LEFT
LIFT
CYLINDER CYLINDER
HOLD
SHUTTLE
VALVE

IMPLEMENT RAISE/LOW/TILT
LOCKOUT KICKOUT SET
SWITCH SWITCH PRESSURE
REDUCING
VALVE
TILT LINKAGE
POSITION SENSOR
IMPLEMENT IMPLEMENT
CONTROL CONTROL
VALVE VALVE

ELECTRONIC
CAT CONTROL CHECK
DATA MODULE LIFT LINKAGE VALVE
LINK POSITION SENSOR PILOT
ON/OFF
VALVE

CHECK
BUCKET LIFT LOWER VALVE
KICKOUT KICKOUT KICKOUT
DETENT DETENT DETENT RELIEF
SOLENOID SOLENOID SOLENOID PILOT VALVE
RELIEF
TILT RELIEF FILTER
LIFT FIXED VALVE
VALVE
LEVER LEVER PUMP
SENSOR SENSOR VARIABLE
PUMP
PILOT SOLENOID VARIABLE
VALVE PUMP
PUMP

64

Explain schematic Electro-Hydraulic Schematics

When the implement lockout switch is in the ON position, the ECM


energizes the pilot on/off valve solenoid. The pilot on/off valve solenoid
opens the pilot on/off valve.

The pilot pump pulls oil from the hydraulic tank and sends oil flow
through the pilot on/off valve to the pilot control actuators at each end of
the control valve spools. Pilot oil pressure increases to the relief valve
pressure setting. The relief valve opens and maintains a constant pressure
in the pilot system. The control valve spools are hydraulically locked in
the HOLD position.

In the HOLD position, the control valve spools block oil flow to the lift
and tilt cylinders. Oil from the fixed pump and the variable pump flows
past the respective control valve spools to the tank.
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ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC TILT
CYLINDER
IMPLEMENT SYSTEM RIGHT
LIFT
LEFT
LIFT
CYLINDER CYLINDER
SLOW TILT
SHUTTLE
VALVE

IMPLEMENT RAISE/LOW/TILT
LOCKOUT KICKOUT SET
SWITCH SWITCH PRESSURE
REDUCING
VALVE
TILT LINKAGE
POSITION SENSOR
IMPLEMENT IMPLEMENT
CONTROL CONTROL
VALVE VALVE

ELECTRONIC
CAT CONTROL CHECK
DATA MODULE LIFT LINKAGE VALVE
LINK POSITION SENSOR PILOT
ON/OFF
VALVE

CHECK
BUCKET LIFT LOWER VALVE
KICKOUT KICKOUT KICKOUT
DETENT DETENT DETENT RELIEF
SOLENOID SOLENOID SOLENOID PILOT VALVE
RELIEF
TILT RELIEF FILTER
LIFT FIXED VALVE
VALVE
LEVER LEVER PUMP
SENSOR SENSOR VARIABLE
PUMP
PILOT SOLENOID VARIABLE
VALVE PUMP
PUMP

65

Explain schematic When the tilt control lever is moved to the SLOW TILT position, the tilt
control lever sensor sends a PWM signal to the ECM. The ECM analyzes
the tilt control lever sensor signal and the signals from the lift linkage
position sensor and the tilt linkage position sensor. The ECM then sends a
proportional signal to ENERGIZE the tilt pilot control valve solenoid on
the fixed pump implement control valve. The solenoid moves the pilot
control valve and sends pilot oil at the tilt end of the tilt/dump control
valve spool to drain. This reduces the pilot oil pressure at the tilt end of
the control valve spool. The oil pressure on the dump end of the control
valve spool moves the valve spool to the TILT position.
STMGXXX - 91 -
4/97

The fixed pump oil flows past the tilt/dump control valve spool to the rod
end of the tilt cylinder. Tilt cylinder head end oil flows past the tilt/dump
control valve spool to the tank.

The variable pump oil is not needed for slow tilt operation. The ECM
does not energize the variable pump tilt control valve solenoid. The
variable pump oil flows through the variable pump implement control
valve to the tank.

With exception of the FLOAT position, the ECM uses the oil from the
fixed pump for all implement operations until the operational demand for
oil is greater than the fixed pump can supply. The ECM will then use oil
from the variable pump to satisfy the demand.
STMGXXX - 92 -
4/97

ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC TILT
CYLINDER
IMPLEMENT SYSTEM RIGHT
LIFT
LEFT
LIFT
CYLINDER CYLINDER
FAST TILT

SHUTTLE
VALVE

IMPLEMENT RAISE/LOW/TILT
LOCKOUT KICKOUT SET
SWITCH SWITCH PRESSURE
REDUCING
VALVE
TILT LINKAGE
POSITION SENSOR
IMPLEMENT IMPLEMENT
CONTROL CONTROL
VALVE VALVE

ELECTRONIC
CAT CONTROL CHECK
DATA MODULE LIFT LINKAGE VALVE
LINK POSITION SENSOR PILOT
ON/OFF
VALVE

CHECK
BUCKET LIFT LOWER VALVE
KICKOUT KICKOUT KICKOUT
DETENT DETENT DETENT RELIEF
SOLENOID SOLENOID SOLENOID PILOT VALVE
RELIEF
RELIEF FILTER
TILT LIFT FIXED VALVE
VALVE
LEVER LEVER PUMP
SENSOR SENSOR VARIABLE
PUMP
PILOT SOLENOID VARIABLE
VALVE PUMP
PUMP

66

Explain schematic When the tilt control lever is moved to the FAST TILT position, the tilt
control lever sensor sends a PWM signal to the ECM.. The ECM analyzes
the tilt control lever sensor signal and the signals from the lift linkage
position sensor and the tilt linkage position sensor. The ECM sends a signal
to ENERGIZE the tilt pilot control actuator solenoid on the fixed pump
implement control valve and a signal to ENERGIZE the tilt pilot control
actuator solenoid on the variable pump implement control valve. The
signals may be of different proportion. The solenoids move the pilot control
actuators and send pilot oil at the tilt ends of the tilt/dump control valve
spools to drain. This reduces the pilot oil pressure at the tilt ends of the
control valve spools. The oil pressure on the dump ends of the control valve
spools move the valve spools to the FAST TILT position.
STMGXXX - 93 -
4/97

The fixed pump oil flows around the tilt control valve spool in the fixed
pump implement control valve to the rod end of the tilt cylinder. The
variable pump oil flows around the tilt control valve spool in the variable
pump implement control valve to the rod end of the tilt cylinder. The tilt
cylinder head end oil flows past both tilt control valve spools to the tank.
The return oil flow past each valve spool is proportion to the supply oil
flow past the valve spool.

The desired tilt cylinder speed determines the difference in oil flow
between the fixed pump and the variable pump. A slow tilt cylinder
speed will cause a larger difference in oil flow between the two pumps
than a fast tilt cylinder speed.
STMGXXX - 94 -
4/97

ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC TILT
CYLINDER
IMPLEMENT SYSTEM RIGHT
LIFT
LEFT
LIFT
CYLINDER CYLINDER
SLOW LIFT

SHUTTLE
VALVE

IMPLEMENT RAISE/LOW/TILT
LOCKOUT KICKOUT SET
SWITCH SWITCH PRESSURE
REDUCING
VALVE
TILT LINKAGE
POSITION SENSOR
IMPLEMENT IMPLEMENT
CONTROL CONTROL
VALVE VALVE

ELECTRONIC
CAT CONTROL CHECK
DATA MODULE LIFT LINKAGE VALVE
LINK POSITION SENSOR PILOT
ON/OFF
VALVE

CHECK
BUCKET LIFT LOWER VALVE
KICKOUT KICKOUT KICKOUT
DETENT DETENT DETENT RELIEF
SOLENOID SOLENOID SOLENOID PILOT VALVE
RELIEF
RELIEF FILTER
TILT LIFT FIXED VALVE
VALVE
LEVER LEVER PUMP
SENSOR SENSOR VARIABLE
PUMP
PILOT SOLENOID VARIABLE
VALVE PUMP
PUMP

67

Explain schematic When the operator moves the lift control lever to the SLOW LIFT
position, the lift control lever sensor sends a PWM signal to the ECM.
The ECM analyzes the lift control lever sensor signal and the signals from
the lift linkage position sensor and the tilt linkage position sensor. The
ECM then sends a proportional signal to ENERGIZE the lift pilot control
actuator solenoid on the fixed pump implement control valve. The
solenoid moves the pilot control actuator and sends pilot oil at the lift end
of the lift/lower control valve spool to drain. This reduces the pilot oil
pressure at the lift end of the control valve spool. The oil pressure on the
lower end of the control valve spool moves the valve spool to the LIFT
position.
STMGXXX - 95 -
4/97

The fixed pump oil flows past the lift/lower control valve spool to the
head end of the lift cylinders. Lift cylinder rod end oil flows past the
lift/lower control valve spools to the tank.

The variable pump oil is not needed for slow lift operation. The ECM
does not energize the variable pump lift control actuator. The variable
pump oil flows through the variable pump implement control valve to the
tank.
STMGXXX - 96 -
4/97

ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC
IMPLEMENT SYSTEM TILT
RIGHT CYLINDER LEFT
FAST LIFT LIFT LIFT
CYLINDER CYLINDER

SHUTTLE
VALVE

IMPLEMENT RAISE/LOW/TILT
LOCKOUT KICKOUT SET
SWITCH SWITCH PRESSURE
REDUCING
VALVE
TILT LINKAGE
POSITION SENSOR
IMPLEMENT IMPLEMENT
CONTROL CONTROL
VALVE VALVE

ELECTRONIC
CAT CONTROL CHECK
DATA MODULE LIFT LINKAGE VALVE
LINK POSITION SENSOR PILOT
ON/OFF
VALVE

CHECK
BUCKET
LIFT LOWER VALVE
KICKOUT
KICKOUT KICKOUT
DETENT
DETENT DETENT RELIEF
SOLENOID SOLENOID PILOT
SOLENOID VALVE
RELIEF
RELIEF FILTER
TILT LIFT FIXED VALVE
VALVE
LEVER LEVER PUMP
SENSOR SENSOR VARIABLE
PUMP
PILOT SOLENOID VARIABLE
VALVE PUMP
PUMP

68

Explain schematic When the lift control lever is moved to the FAST LIFT position, the lift
control lever sensor sends a proportional PWM signal to the ECM. The
ECM analysis the lift control lever sensor signal, the signal from the lift
sensor and the signal from the tilt sensor. The ECM sends a signal to the
lift actuator solenoid on the fixed pump implement control valve and to
the lift actuator solenoid on the variable pump implement control valve.
The signals may be of different proportion. The solenoids move the pilot
control actuators and send pilot oil at the LIFT ends of the lift/lower
valves to drain. This reduces the pilot pressure at the lift ends of the
control valve spools. The oil pressure on the lower ends of the control
valve spools move the valve spools to the FAST LIFT position.

The fixed pump oil flows around the lift control valve spool in the fixed
pump implement control valve to the head ends of the lift cylinders.
STMGXXX - 97 -
4/97

The variable pump oil flows around the lift control valve spool in the
variable pump implement control valve to the head ends of the lift
cylinders. The lift cylinders rod end oil flows past both lift control valve
spools to the tank. The return oil flows past each valve spool in
proportion to the supply oil flow past the valve spool.

The desired lift cylinder speed determines the difference in oil flow
between the fixed pump and the variable pump. A slow lift cylinder
speed will cause a larger difference in oil flow between the two pumps
than a fast lift cylinder speed.
STMGXXX - 98 -
4/97

IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


SLOW TILT LIFT LIFT
TILT CYLINDER CYLINDER
CYLINDER

PRESSURE
REDUCING
SHUTTLE
VALVE
VALVE

LOWER TILT TILT LOWER RIDE


CONTROL

PILOT
ON/OFF
VALVE

VARIABLE PUMP
SOLENOID VALVE
RAISE DUMP DUMP RAISE

PILOT FAN
RELIEF MOTOR
VALVE FAN SPEED
PRESSURE
CUTOFF
COOLER
SHUTTLE
VALVE FIXED
PUMP

LOAD LIMIT FAN


FLUID CONTROL
SAMPLING DRIVE
PORT SMALL PUMP
ACTUATOR
VARIABLE
LARGE PUMP
ACTUATOR
PILOT
PUMP

69

Explain schematic Implement Hydraulic Schematics

This schematic shows the oil flow in the implement pilot system and the
implement hydraulic system when the engine is running and the control
valves are in the HOLD position.

In the pilot system, the pilot pump pulls oil from the tank and sends oil
flow to the pilot relief valve, the variable pump control, the variable pump
torque valve, the ride control valve (optional) and the pilot on/off valve.

The pilot relief valve maintains pilot system at 2514 205 kPa (365 30
psi).
STMGXXX - 99 -
4/97

When the variable pump oil is not being used, pilot oil pressure assists the
small actuator spring in the variable pump control and moves the swash
plate to maximum angle.

When the variable pump torque valve solenoid is ENERGIZED, pilot oil
flows to the load limit control valve in the variable pump control and
prevents movement of the load limit control valve until the variable pump
oil pressure increase to 0000 000 kPa (0000 000 psi). When oil
pressure reaches 0000 000 kPa (0000 000 psi), the load limit control
destrokes the pump and decreases flow by approximately 20%. As
pressure increases, the load limit control valve will maintain flow at
approximately 80% of maximum until pump pressure reaches 28925 kPa
(4200 psi). When pump pressure increase to 28925 kPa (4200 psi), the
pressure cutoff valve destrokes the pump and maintains pump pressure at a
maximum of 28925 kPa (4200 psi).

The pilot on/off valve solenoid is controlled by the implement lockout


switch (not shown). When the implement lockout switch is in the OFF
position, the ECM (not shown) will not energize the pilot on/off valve
solenoid. Pilot oil is blocked at the pilot on/off valve. When the
implement lockout switch is in the ON position, the ECM energizes the
pilot on/off valve solenoid. Pilot oil flows past the pilot on/off valve to the
pilot control solenoid valves.

In the implement fixed pump hydraulic system, the fixed pump pulls oil
from the tank and sends oil flow to the left side main control valve. When
the control valve spools are in the HOLD position, oil flows past the fixed
pump relief valve and through the open-centered control valve to the tank.
The fixed pump relief valve constantly senses pressure at the fixed pump
and opens to the tank when the pressure reaches the maximum setting of
31000 kPa (4500 psi).
STMGXXX - 100 -
4/97

The implement variable pump hydraulic system, the variable pump pulls
oil from the tank and sends oil flow to the right side main control valve.
When the control valve spools are in the HOLD position, oil flows past
the variable pump relief valve and through the open-centered control
valve to the tank. Variable pump pressure is controlled by the variable
pump compensator valve. The variable pump relief valve serves as a
backup in case of a compensator valve failure. The variable pump relief
valve is set at 31000 kPa (4500 psi)

In the HOLD position, oil flow to and from the cylinders are blocked at
the control valve spools.
STMGXXX - 101 -
4/97

IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


SLOW TILT LIFT LIFT
TILT CYLINDER CYLINDER
CYLINDER

PRESSURE
REDUCING
SHUTTLE
VALVE
VALVE

LOWER TILT TILT LOWER RIDE


CONTROL

PILOT
ON/OFF
VALVE

VARIABLE PUMP
SOLENOID VALVE
RAISE DUMP DUMP RAISE

PILOT
RELIEF
VALVE FAN SPEED
PRESSURE
CUTOFF
SHUTTLE
VALVE FIXED
PUMP

LOAD LIMIT
FLUID CONTROL
SAMPLING
PORT SMALL
ACTUATOR
VARIABLE
LARGE PUMP
ACTUATOR
PILOT
PUMP

70

Explain schematic When the tilt/dump control lever (not shown) is moved to the SLOW
TILT position, the tilt/dump control lever sensor (not shown) sends a
PWM signal to the ECM (not shown). The ECM analyzes the tilt/dump
control lever sensor signal and the signals from the lift linkage position
sensor (not shown) and the tilt linkage position sensor (not shown). The
ECM then sends a proportional signal to ENERGIZE the tilt pilot control
valve solenoid on the fixed pump implement control valve. The solenoid
moves the pilot control valve and sends pilot oil at the tilt end of the
tilt/dump control valve spool to drain. This reduces the pilot oil pressure
at the tilt end of the control valve spool. The oil pressure on the dump end
of the control valve spool moves the valve spool to the TILT position.
STMGXXX - 102 -
4/97

The tilt/dump control valve spool blocks the flow of fixed pump oil to the
tank and opens the passage to the tilt cylinder. The fixed pump oil flows
past the tilt/dump load check valve and past the tilt/dump control valve
spool to the rod end of the tilt cylinder. Oil from the head end of the tilt
cylinder flows past the tilt/dump control valve spool to the tank.

The variable pump oil flows through the right side implement control
valve to the tank.
STMGXXX - 103 -
4/97

IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


FAST TILT LIFT LIFT
TILT CYLINDER CYLINDER
CYLINDER

PRESSURE
REDUCING
SHUTTLE
VALVE VALVE

TILT LOWER RIDE


LOWER TILT
CONTROL

PILOT
ON/OFF
VALVE

VARIABLE PUMP
SOLENOID VALVE
RAISE DUMP DUMP RAISE

PILOT FAN
RELIEF MOTOR
VALVE FAN SPEED
PRESSURE
CUTOFF
COOLER
SHUTTLE
VALVE FIXED
PUMP

LOAD LIMIT FAN


FLUID CONTROL
SAMPLING DRIVE
PORT SMALL PUMP
ACTUATOR
VARIABLE
LARGE PUMP
ACTUATOR
PILOT
PUMP

71

Explain schematic When the tilt/dump control lever (not shown) is moved to the FAST TILT
position, the tilt/dump control lever sensor (not shown) increases the
PWM signal to the ECM (not shown).. The ECM analyzes the increased
tilt/dump control lever sensor signal, the lift linkage position sensor signal
(not shown) and the tilt linkage position sensor signal (not shown). The
ECM increases the signal to the TILT solenoid on the fixed pump
tilt/dump control valve. The ECM also sends a signal to ENERGIZE the
TILT solenoid on the variable pump tilt/dump control valve. Often the
signal voltage is different to the two pumps.

On the fixed pump control valve, the increased ECM signal increases the
TILT pilot control valve solenoid magnetic field.
STMGXXX - 104 -
4/97

The stronger magnetic field moves the TILT pilot control valve further
against the spring enlarging the drain passage. The additional oil drain
decreases the oil pressure at the TILT end of the tilt/dump control valve
spool. The oil pressure on the DUMP end of the tilt/dump control valve
spool moves the valve spool to the FAST TILT position.

In the FAST TILT position, the fixed pump oil flow is increased to the rod
end of the tilt cylinder. The increase in oil flow allows the bucket to
travel faster. The tilt cylinder head end oil flows past the tilt/dump
control valve spool to the tank.

On the variable pump control valve, the ECM signal ENERGIZES the
TILT solenoid on the tilt/dump control valve . The TILT solenoid moves
the pilot control valve and opens a passage for pilot oil to drain to tank.
This reduces the pilot oil pressure at the TILT end of the tilt/dump control
valve. The pilot oil pressure on the DUMP end of the control valve spool
moves the control valve spool to the TILT position.

In the FAST TILT position, the tilt/dump control valve spool blocks the
oil flow to the tank and opens the passage to the rod end of the tilt
cylinder. The variable pump oil flows past the tilt/dump load check valve,
past the tilt/dump control valve spool and joins with the oil from the fixed
pump. The combined oil flows to the rod end of the tilt cylinder. The tilt
cylinder head end oil flows past the tilt/dump control valve spool to the
tank.

The return oil flow past each valve spool is proportion to the supply oil
flow past the valve spool.
STMGXXX - 105 -
4/97

IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


SLOW LOWER LIFT LIFT
TILT CYLINDER CYLINDER
CYLINDER

PRESSURE
REDUCING
SHUTTLE
VALVE VALVE

TILT LOWER RIDE


LOWER TILT
CONTROL

PILOT
ON/OFF
VALVE

VARIABLE PUMP
SOLENOID VALVE
RAISE DUMP DUMP RAISE

PILOT FAN
RELIEF MOTOR
VALVE FAN SPEED
PRESSURE
CUTOFF
COOLER
SHUTTLE
VALVE FIXED
PUMP

LOAD LIMIT
CONTROL FAN
FLUID DRIVE
SAMPLING SMALL PUMP
PORT ACTUATOR
VARIABLE
LARGE PUMP
ACTUATOR
PILOT
PUMP

72

Explain schematic When the raise/lower control lever (not shown) is moved to the SLOW
LOWER position, the raise/lower control lever sensor (not shown) sends a
PWM signal to the ECM (not shown). The ECM analyzes the raise/lower
control lever sensor signal, the lift linkage position sensor signal (not
shown) and the tilt linkage position sensor signal (not shown). The ECM
then sends a proportional signal to ENERGIZE the fixed pump
raise/lower control valve lower solenoid. The lower solenoid moves the
pilot control valve and opens a passage for pilot oil at the raise/lower
control valve LOWER end to drain to tank. This reduces the pilot oil
pressure at the LOWER end of the raise/lower control valve. The pilot oil
pressure on the RAISE end of the control valve spool moves the control
valve spool to the SLOW LOWER position.
STMGXXX - 106 -
4/97

The raise/lower control valve spool blocks the flow of fixed pump oil to
the tank and opens the passage to the lift cylinders.

The fixed pump oil flows past the raise/lower load check valve and past
the raise/lower control valve spool to the rod ends of the lift cylinders.
Oil from the head end of the lift cylinders flow past the raise/lower
control valve spool to the tank.

The variable pump oil flows through the right side implement control
valve to the tank.
STMGXXX - 107 -
4/97

IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


FAST LOWER LIFT LIFT
TILT CYLINDER CYLINDER
CYLINDER

PRESSURE
REDUCING
SHUTTLE
VALVE
VALVE

LOWER TILT TILT LOWER RIDE


CONTROL

PILOT
ON/OFF
VALVE

VARIABLE PUMP
SOLENOID VALVE
RAISE DUMP DUMP RAISE

PILOT FAN
RELIEF MOTOR
VALVE FAN SPEED
PRESSURE
CUTOFF
COOLER
SHUTTLE
VALVE FIXED
PUMP

FLUID LOAD LIMIT FAN


SAMPLING CONTROL DRIVE
PORT PUMP
SMALL
ACTUATOR
LARGE VARIABLE
ACTUATOR PUMP

PILOT
PUMP

73

Explain schematic When the raise/lower control lever (not shown) is moved to the FAST
LOWER position, the raise/lower control lever sensor (not shown)
increases the PWM signal to the ECM (not shown).. The ECM analyzes
the increased raise/lower control lever sensor signal, the lift linkage
position sensor signal (not shown) and the tilt linkage position sensor
signal (not shown). The ECM increases the signal to the LOWER
solenoid on the fixed pump raise/lower control valve. The ECM also
sends a signal to ENERGIZE the LOWER solenoid on the variable pump
raise/lower control valve. Often the signal voltage is different to the two
pumps.

On the fixed pump control valve, the increased ECM signal increases the
LOWER pilot control valve solenoid magnetic field.
STMGXXX - 108 -
4/97

The stronger magnetic field moves the LOWER pilot control valve further
against the spring and increases the drain passage. The increased oil drain
decreases the oil pressure on the LOWER end of the raise/lower control
valve spool. The oil pressure on the RAISE end of the raise/lower control
valve spool moves the valve spool to the FAST LOWER position.

In the FAST LOWER position, the fixed pump oil flow is increased to the
rod ends of the lift cylinders. The increase in oil flow allows the lift arm
to be lowered faster. The lift cylinders head end oil flow past the
raise/lower control valve spool to the tank.

On the variable pump control valve, the ECM signal ENERGIZES the
LOWER solenoid on the raise/lower control valve . The LOWER
solenoid moves the pilot control valve and opens a passage for pilot oil to
drain to tank. This reduces the pilot oil pressure at the LOWER end of
the raise/lower control valve. The pilot oil pressure on the RAISE end of
the raise/lower control valve spool moves the control valve spool to the
LOWER position. The raise/lower control valve spool blocks the oil flow
to the tank and opens the passage to the rod ends of the lift cylinders. The
variable pump oil flows past the raise/lower load check valve, past the
raise/lower control valve spool and joins with the fixed pump oil. The
combined oil flows to the rod end of the lift cylinders. The lift cylinders
head end oil flow past the raise/lower control valve spools to the tank.

The return oil flow past each valve spool is proportion to the supply oil
flow past the valve spool.
STMGXXX - 109 -
4/97

IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


FLOAT LIFT LIFT
TILT CYLINDER CYLINDER
CYLINDER

PRESSURE
REDUCING
SHUTTLE
VALVE
VALVE

LOWER TILT TILT LOWER RIDE


CONTROL

PILOT
ON/OFF
VALVE

VARIABLE PUMP
SOLENOID VALVE
RAISE DUMP DUMP RAISE

PILOT FAN
RELIEF MOTOR
VALVE FAN SPEED
PRESSURE
CUTOFF
COOLER
SHUTTLE
VALVE FIXED
PUMP

LOAD LIMIT FAN


FLUID CONTROL
SAMPLING DRIVE
PORT SMALL PUMP
ACTUATOR
LARGE VARIABLE
ACTUATOR PUMP

PILOT
PUMP

74

Explain schematic TTo enter the FLOAT position, the wheel loader lift arm must be below
the mid position.

When the wheel loader lift arm is below the mid position and the
raise/lower control lever (not shown) is moved to the FLOAT position, the
raise/lower control lever sensor (not shown) sends a PWM signal to the
ECM (not shown).. The ECM analyzes the raise/lower control lever
sensor signal, the lift linkage position sensor signal (not shown) and the
tilt linkage position sensor signal (not shown). The ECM sends a strong
signal and ENERGIZES the LOWER pilot control actuator solenoid on
the fixed pump raise/lower control valve and the LOWER pilot control
actuator solenoid on the variable pump raise/lower control valve. The
ECM also sends a signal and ENERGIZES the FLOAT solenoid on the
raise/lower control lever assembly (not shown).
STMGXXX - 110 -
4/97

On the fixed pump control valve, the strong ECM signal creates a strong
magnetic field in the LOWER pilot control actuator solenoid. The strong
magnetic field moves the LOWER pilot control actuator and fully opens
the drain passage to the tank. The pilot oil in the LOWER end of the
raise/lower control valve spool and the pilot oil in the float valve spring
chamber flow to the tank.

The pilot oil pressure decreases on the LOWER end of the raise/lower
control valve spool. The pilot oil pressure on the RAISE end of the
raise/lower control valve spool moves the valve spool to the FAST
LOWER position.

When the pilot oil pressure decreases in the spring chamber of the float
valve. The pilot oil pressure at the opposite end of the float valve
overcomes the spring and moves the float valve to the open position. The
oil in the spring chamber of the float check valve flows through the float
valve to the tank. The float check valve spring chamber pressure is
reduced to approximately tank pressure.

The fixed pump oil flows past the raise/lower load check valve and past
the raise/lower control valve spool to the float check valve. The fixed
pump oil pressure lifts the float check valve off its seat. The fixed pump
oil flows past the float check valve to the tank.

On the variable pump control valve, the strong ECM signal creates a
strong magnetic field in the LOWER pilot control actuator solenoid. The
strong magnetic field moves the LOWER pilot control actuator and fully
opens the drain passage to the tank. The pilot oil in the LOWER end of
the raise/lower control valve spool flows to the tank. The pilot oil
pressure decreases on the LOWER end of the raise/lower control valve
spool. The pilot oil pressure on the RAISE end of the raise/lower control
valve spool moves the valve spool to the FAST LOWER position.
STMGXXX - 111 -
4/97

The oil in the variable pump float valve spring chamber combines with
the oil from the fixed pump float valve spring chamber. The combined oil
flow pass the sequence valve in the fixed pump control valve to the tank.
The variable pump float valve spring chamber pressure is reduced to
approximately tank pressure.

The variable pump oil flows past the raise/lower load check valve and
past the raise/lower control valve spool to the float valve. The variable
pump oil pressure lifts the float valve off its seat. The variable pump oil
flows past the float valve to the tank.
STMGXXX - 112 -
4/97

IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


LOWER ENGINE OFF LIFT LIFT
TILT CYLINDER CYLINDER
CYLINDER

PRESSURE
REDUCING
SHUTTLE
VALVE
VALVE

LOWER TILT TILT LOWER RIDE


CONTROL

PILOT
ON/OFF
VALVE

VARIABLE PUMP
SOLENOID VALVE
RAISE DUMP DUMP RAISE

PILOT FAN
RELIEF MOTOR
VALVE FAN SPEED

PRESSURE
CUTOFF COOLER
SHUTTLE
VALVE FIXED
PUMP

FLUID LOAD LIMIT FAN


SAMPLING CONTROL DRIVE
PORT PUMP
SMALL
ACTUATOR
LARGE VARIABLE
ACTUATOR PUMP

PILOT
PUMP

75

Explain schematic In this schematic, the bucket is being LOWERED with the ENGINE OFF.

The weight of the implement creates a high pressure in the head end of the
lift cylinders. The high lift cylinder pressure oil flows through the hose
and shuttle valve to the pressure reducing valve. The pressure reducing
valve reduces the lift cylinder oil pressure to approximately 2070 kPa
(300 psi). The reduced pressure oil flows past the check valve to the pilot
on/off solenoid valve and becomes the oil supply for the pilot system.
When the on/off solenoid is de-energized, pilot oil is blocked at the on/off
solenoid valve. When the on/off solenoid is energized (as shown), pilot
oil flows through the on/off solenoid valve and pressurizes the pilot
solenoid valves.
STMGXXX - 113 -
4/97

When the lift control lever is moved to the LOWER position, the EIC
(not shown) operation is the same as when the engine is on. The lift
control spool directs oil in the head end of the lift cylinders to the tank.

Tank oil flows through the rod end makeup valves into the rod end of the
lift cylinders and prevents cylinder cavitation.
STMGXXX - 114 -
4/97

IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


RIDE CONTROL ON LIFT LIFT
TILT CYLINDER CYLINDER
CYLINDER

PRESSURE
REDUCING
SHUTTLE
VALVE
VALVE

LOWER TILT TILT LOWER RIDE


CONTROL

PILOT
ON/OFF
VALVE

VARIABLE PUMP
SOLENOID VALVE
RAISE DUMP DUMP RAISE

PILOT FAN
RELIEF MOTOR
VALVE FAN SPEED
PRESSURE
CUTOFF
COOLER
SHUTTLE
VALVE FIXED
PUMP

FLUID LOAD LIMIT FAN


SAMPLING CONTROL DRIVE
PORT PUMP
SMALL
ACTUATOR
LARGE VARIABLE
ACTUATOR PUMP

PILOT
PUMP

76

Explain schematic This schematic shows the hydraulic flow when the ride control solenoid
valve is activated. The ride control solenoid valve is controlled by the
transmission ECM.

The ride control switch (not shown) allows the operator to select between
the ride control ON, the ride control OFF and the ride control AUTO
positions.

When the ride control switch is in the ON position, the transmission ECM
will continually energize the ride control solenoid.
STMGXXX - 115 -
4/97

When the ride control switch is in the AUTO position, the transmission
ECM will ENERGIZE the ride control solenoid when the machine ground
speed is above 9.7 km/hr (6 mph) and will DE-ENERGIZE the ride
control solenoid when the ground speed is below 8.8 km/hr (5.5 mph).

When the ride control solenoid valve is ENERGIZED, pilot pressure at


the selector spool flows to the tank. The spring shifts the selector spool to
connect the head end of the lift cylinders with the accumulators. A
floating piston in the accumulators separate the oil from the nitrogen gas.

Introduce and perform Since nitrogen gas is compressible, the gas serves as a spring. Any
Lab A and Lab B downward force on the lift arms is transferred through the oil at the head
Summarize labs by end of the lift cylinders to the accumulators. The force in the oil is
asking questions
transmitted to the accumulator piston which compresses the nitrogen gas.
Compressing the nitrogen gas absorbs the pressure spike and the oil
displacement caused by the downward force on the lift arms. This
operation results in less ground induced shocks on structures and
components, reduced tire flexing and a greater payload retention.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: At this time, introduce and perform "Lab A:


Implement Hydraulic System Component Identification Quiz" and "Lab
B: Implement Hydraulic System Tests." These labs will reinforce the
material discussed in the preceding slide presentation.
STMGXXX - 116 -
4/97

FAN DRIVE SYSTEM FAN


ENGINE OFF FAN
MOTOR

SCREEN

MAKEUP
VALVE

FAN PROPORTIONAL
DRIVE VALVE
PUMP OIL
COMPENSATOR COOLER
VALVE IMPLEMENT BYPASS
HYDRAULIC VALVE
COOLER

TANK

77

Identify components: FAN DRIVE SYSTEM

- Hydraulic tank
- Fan drive pump Shown is a schematic of the fan drive system. Components of the fan
- Proportional valve
- Fan drive motor
drive system are:
- Makeup valve
- Fan Hydraulic tank: Reservoir for the hydraulic oil supply.
- Oil cooler
- Oil cooler bypass
valve Fan drive pump: Pulls oil from the tank and supplies oil to the fan drive
motor.

Proportional valve: Controls the signal to the pump.

Compensator valve: Controls fan speed by controlling pump flow.


STMGXXX - 117 -
4/97

Fan motor: Works with the fan drive pump to turn the fan.

Makeup valve: Prevents cavitation of the fan drive motor.

Fan: Circulates air through the radiator, hydraulic system oil cooler,
steering and brake systems oil cooler, brake and axle oil cooler and air
conditioner condenser.

Oil cooler: Cools the oil used in the fan drive and hydraulic systems.

Oil cooler bypass valve: Allows cold oil to bypass the cooler, usually at
engine start-up.
STMGXXX - 118 -
4/97

3
13
1
4

6
10 7
9
8
11
2
5

12

78

Identify components Fan Drive System Components


1. Fan drive pump
2. Pump drive The fan drive pump (1) is a variable displacement piston. The pump is
housing
3. Pump outlet tube mounted to the right front of the pump drive housing (2) opposite the
4. Signal pressure variable displacement implement pump (not shown).
outlet
5. Electro-hydraulic
proportional valve Other components of the fan drive pump are the outlet tube (3), the signal
6. Proportional valve
solenoid pressure outlet (4), the electro-hydraulic proportional valve (5), the
7. Drain tube
proportional valve solenoid (6), the proportional valve drain tube (7), the
8. Signal hose
9. Margin spool proportional valve signal hose (8), the margin spool adjustment (9), the
adjustment
10. Compensator valve compensator valve (10), The pressure compensator valve adjustment (11),
11. Pressure
the signal pressure test port (12) and the system pressure test port (13).
compensator
adjustment
12. Signal pressure
test port
13. System pressure
test port
STMGXXX - 119 -
4/97

79

Identify components The fan drive motor (1) is located at the rear of the machine in front of the
1. Fan drive motor engine radiator assembly.
2. Intake hose
3. Output hose
4. Case drain hose Also shown are the motor intake hose (2), the motor output hose (3) and
the case drain hose (4).
STMGXXX - 120 -
4/97

FAN DRIVE SYSTEM FAN


SOLENOID DE-ENERGIZED FAN
MOTOR

SCREEN

MAKEUP
VALVE

FAN PROPORTIONAL
DRIVE VALVE
PUMP OIL
COMPENSATOR COOLER
VALVE IMPLEMENT BYPASS
HYDRAULIC VALVE
COOLER

TANK

80

Explain schematic Fan Drive System Schematics

When the engine is running, the fan drive pump pulls oil from the
implement hydraulic tank and sends oil flow to the fan motor. The fan
motor turns the cooling fan and sends air flow through the engine radiator,
the implement hydraulic cooler, the steering and brake oil cooler, the front
and rear axle coolers and the air condition condenser. Oil from the fan
motor flows through the implement hydraulic cooler to the implement
hydraulic tank.

Also, the fan drive pump sends oil flow through the screen to the electro-
hydraulic proportional valve.
STMGXXX - 121 -
4/97

The electro-hydraulic proportional valve controls the signal oil to the


pump compensator valve. When the engine ECM de-energizes the
electro-hydraulic proportional valve solenoid (as shown), the proportional
valve internal passage to drain is blocked. The signal oil flows through
the two orifices to the pump compensator valve.
STMGXXX - 122 -
4/97

FAN DRIVE SYSTEM FAN


SOLENOID ENERGIZED FAN
MOTOR

SCREEN

MAKEUP
VALVE

FAN PROPORTIONAL
DRIVE VALVE
PUMP OIL
COMPENSATOR COOLER
VALVE IMPLEMENT BYPASS
HYDRAULIC VALVE
COOLER

TANK

81

Explain schematic When the engine ECM energizes the electro-hydraulic proportional valve
solenoid, the proportional valve opens the internal passage to drain. The
size of the opening is proportional to the signal from the engine ECM.

When the proportional valve sends some of the signal oil to drain, the
proportional valve reduces the signal pressure to the compensator valve.
The reduced signal pressure allows the compensator valve to destroke the
pump. Destroking the pump decreases pump speed and decreases the
horsepower needed to turn the fan.

When the engine is operating below 88C (190F), the fan will operate at
a minimum speed of 375 50 rpm.
STMGXXX - 123 -
4/97

Above 98C (208F), the fan will be at a maximum speed of 885 rpm.

If an electrical failure of the system occurs, the fan will go to maximum


(100%) speed.
STMGXXX - 124 -
4/97

FAN DRIVE SYSTEM FAN


RAPID ENGINE DECELERATION FAN
MOTOR

SCREEN

MAKEUP
VALVE

FAN PROPORTIONAL
DRIVE VALVE
PUMP OIL
COMPENSATOR COOLER
VALVE IMPLEMENT BYPASS
HYDRAULIC VALVE
COOLER

TANK

82

Explain schematic In this illustration, the fan motor is being driven by the fan.

During normal operation, oil pressure at the fan motor inlet is higher than

oil pressure at the fan motor outlet. The higher inlet pressure seats the

motor check valve.

When the engine is decelerated rapidly from high idle, the inertia of the

fan keeps the fan drive motor turning faster than the fan drive pump can

supply oil. The oil pressure at the fan motor inlet becomes lower than the

oil pressure at the fan motor outlet.


STMGXXX - 125 -
4/97

The higher outlet pressure opens the check valve and allows oil from the
outlet to flow back to the inlet. The combination of oil flow through the
check valve and the pump oil flow prevents cavitation of the fan motor.

When pump output matches fan speed, the motor inlet oil pressure
increases above the motor outlet oil pressure. The higher inlet pressure
closes the check valve.