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BENHA UNIVERSITY/ FACULTY OF ENGINEERING


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
FOURTH YEAR MECHANICAL POWER
FINAL EXAMINATION
TIME ALLOWED: 4 HRS
DATE: May 4th 2009
MAXIMUM MARKS: 100
TRADITIONAL POWER STATIONS

QUESTION ONE 25 MARKS
A power station works at the critical state of pressure and temperature, has
an installed rated capacity of 400 MW. The ambient temperature in the
boiler house is 31 oC, air humidity is 0.0204 kg/kg dry air, velocity of wind
around the boiler =3 m/s and the ratio of bottom ash to fly ash =90:10.
Assume barometer reading is 760 mm of mercury. Percentage composition
of coal fuel input to the power station is taken as: C=88%, H2=4.3%,
N2=0.7%, O2=4%, S=1%, Ash=2%
Calculate
I. The gross calorific value of the fuel.
solution
CVH= [4.18/100][8080 C% + 34500 (H%-O%/8)+ 2220S%]
= [4.18/100][8080*8 + 34500 (4.3-4/8)+ 2220*1]
= 35294.24kJ/kg
CVL = CVH mw*4.18*588.76
= 35294.24 (0.043x18/2)*4.18*588.76
= 34341.83 kJ/kg =GCV
II. The minimum air/fuel ratio.
product of combustion
kgi/kgf kgO2/kgf Mi yi=xi*Mi % Mi

C=0.88 2.346667 CO2=44/12 = 3.226667 0.243535 44 10.71555 0.55804 55.80401 24.55377

O2=0.04 -0.04 O2=0.25x2.66 =0.665167 0.050204 32 1.606527 0.083664 8.366409 2.677251

N2=0.007 N2=2.66x77/23 =8.950449 0.241904 28 6.773313 0.352738 35.27379 9.876662

H2=0.043 0.344 H2O=0.043x18/2=0.387 0.029209 2 0.058418 0.003042 0.304228 0.006085

S=0.01 0.01 SO2=0.01x64/2 = 0.02 0.00151 32 0.048305 0.002516 0.251558 0.080499

Sum 2.660667 Sum 13.24928 138 19.20211 1 100 37.19426

Ash=0.02 (a/f) min= 2.6601x100/23= 11.57 Rg= 0.223637


Minimum mass of air= [2.66066x100/23] =11.57 kga/kgf
(A/f)min = 11.57 kga/kgf
2

III. If 25% excess air is supplied compute the percentage composition by


volume of the dry flue gases. Compute the gas constant of the flue
gases.
solution

Product of combustion
CO2 0.243535 =23.4%
O2 0.050204 =5.02%
N2 0.241904 =24.19%
H2O 0.029209 =2.92%
SO2 0.001510 =0.151%
Rg = 0.223637= 0.223637 kJ/kgK

IV. If a chain stoker is used to burn this fuel having grate width 5 m find
the grate length. You may assume any reasonable with justification.
Draw the chain grate stoker used showing dimension calculated.
solution
Consider the overall efficiency is being=33%=1/3
Thus =400MW/Qf= 1/3
Qf = 3x400MW =1200 MW=CVLxmf=34341.83xmf
mf = 1200x1000/(34341.83)= 34.94281kg/s= 1174078 kg/h

Astoker=mfxCVL/HA = 1174078x34341.83/(15x105x4.18)= 643.0622 m2


Lstoker = Astoker/W=643.0622 /5=128.6124m about 130 m

V. The steam produced from this boiler is used to run a Regenerative


steam power cycle. Assume cycle with suitable assumption for
number of feed water heaters. Calculate: performance on a) overall
cycle efficiency, b) specific steam and c) specific fuel consumption.
Solution
At Tcritical =374.14 oC, Pcritical =220.9 bar:
h1= 2138.2 kJ/kg, T1= 374.14 oC , P1 =220.9 bar
Assume the economizer temperature rise = 40 oC of range (30 to 50 oC)
TfB= 374.14 40 = 334.14 oC
Pcondenser= 0.07 bar, Tf, condenser=39.024 oC, hcondenser=163.32 kJ/kg

Temperature rise in the feed water heaters = 334.14 39.024


3

=295.116oC
Number of feed water heaters = 295.116/50 = 5.90232 = 6
Temperature per FWH = 295.116/6 = 49.186 oC
hB=h1- 4.18 *TfB = 2138.2 4.18 * 334.14 = 741.4948 kJ/kg

Enthalpies:
h2'=1391.6 kJ/kg, x2'=0.51
h2 = h1-T(h1-h2') = 2138.2-o.80*(2138.2-1391.6)
= 1540.92 kJ/kg
Water tempratures:
T3 =39.024 oC =T4
T5 = 39.024+49.186 = 88.21oC
Tf,pf=88.21+3=91.21oC
Pf=0.734bar
hh'= 1579.7kJ/kg
hh=2138.2-o.80*(2138.2-1579.7)= 1691.4kJ/kg
T6 = 88.21+49.186=127.234oC
Te,pf=127.234+3=130.234oC
Pe=2.72bar
he'=1699.9kJ/kg,
he=2138.2-o.80*(2138.2-1699.9)= 1787.16kJ/kg
T7 = 127.234+49.186 =176.42oC
Td,pf=176.42+3=179.42oC
Pd=9.894bar
hd'=1829.2kJ/kg
T8=176.42+49.186=225.606oC
Tc,pf=225.606o +3=228.606oC
Pc=27.279bar,
hc'=1935.2kJ/kg
hc=2138.2-o.80*(2138.2-1935.2)= 1975.8kJ/kg
T9 = 225.606+ 49.186 = 274.792 oC
Tb,pf=274.792 +3=277.792 oC
Pb=62.072bar,
hb'=2040.7kJ/kg
hb=2138.2-o.80*(2138.2-2040.7)= 2060 kg
T10 = 274.792+ 49.186 = 323.978oC
Tb,pf=(274.792 +324)/2 oC= 299.396oC
Pa= 85.158 bars
ha= 2063.5 kJ/kg
4

Teconomizer = 323.978+ 50 = 374 oC


heconomizer= 374*4.18 = 1563.32kJ/kg

Heat Balance of FWHs:


Assume sixth FWH is open feed water heater
(1-ma)(cp*T9) +ma ha=cpT10
ma= 4.18*49.186/(2063.5-4.18*274.792)= 0.224729

The fifth FWH Heat balance:


mb*(hb cp*T9) = (1-ma)*cp*(T9 T8)
mb=(1-ma)*cp*(T9 T8)/ (hb cp*T9)
= (1-0.0545)*4.18*(49.186)/ (2060 4.18*274.792) = 0.174226
mc=(1-ma-mb)*cp*(T8 T7)/ (hc cp*T8)
=(1-0.0479-0.21)*4.18*(49.186)/ (1975.8 4.18x225.606)
= 0.142677
Mass fraction:
ma=0.224729
mb=0.174226
mc=0.142677
md=0.0761
me=0.004914
mh=0.054681

Wnet=h1-ha+(1-ma)(ha-hb)+(1-ma-mb)(hb-hc)+(1-ma-mb-mc)(hc-hd)+
(1-m=a-mb-mc-md)(hd-he)+(1-ma-mb-mc-md-me)(he-hh)+
(1-ma-mb-mc-md-me-mh)(hh-h2)
= 342.5379kJ/kg

ms=400X1000/(0.9x342.5379) =1297.504kg/sec
= 4671.016 t/h
Heat addition = h1-h9=783.972kJ/kg
Thermal efficiency=wnet/qadd=342.5379/783.97= 0.436926=43%
SSC=3600/mwnet=11.67754kg/kwh
SFC=3600/ (0.8x0.436926x35294.24)=0.29181kg/kWh
5

2
1
Chinemy

Turbine
superheater

2
Condenser

Coal
Fuel
3

130m 5
m
11
6
Economizer

7
10

9
6

VI. Calculate: The boiler capacity in tons/hour, and the firing fuel rate in
tons/h, boiler feed water temperature in oC, and % CO2 in flue gases, %
CO in flue gases.
Solution
ms= 400X1000/(0.9x342.5379) =1297.504kg/sec
= 4671.016 t/h choice of water tube
mf= sfc *400=116.7241t/h < 117.4078 t/h of stoker design.
88
C moles 0.073333
100 * 12
77 * Airth %N 2fuel
N 2 moles 0.809
100 * 28
100 * C moles
CO 2th 0.149
N 2moles C moles
Execss Air S upplied,%
7900 * (CO 2th - %CO 2flue )
EAS 25%
%CO 2flue * (100 CO 2th )

VII. Show the method of firing this fuel and give description for it.
i) Hand firing.
ii) Semi mechanized firing
iii) Stoker firing.

VIII. Describe the types of draught and compute the height of the chimney to
get static draught of 22 mm of water if the mean flue gas temperature in
the chimney is measured as 190 oC.

Solution
P= (air-gas) H=P[(1/RaTa)-(1/RgTg)]H
=1.013x105[(1/ (287x304)-1/(224x463)]
= w hw =1000x22x10-3=22
H=22/ {1.013x105[(1/(287x304)-1/(224x463)]}= 120.9127 m

IX. Compute: all losses in the boiler and its efficiency if the surface area of
the boiler of heat transfer equals 600 m2.

EAS
AAS (1 ) * Airth =1.25*11.52=14.4
100
7

100 * 14.38273 * 0.23 * (190 31)


L1 =1.531592
34341.83

)584 0.45(Tflue Tatm )


%H 2fuel
100 * 9 (
L2 100 * 4.18
CV
)584 0.45(190 31)
4.3
100 * 9 (
100 * 4.18
34341.83
8.208255

L3

M moisture 584 0.45 T f Ta 4.18
CV
0
100 * 14.4 * 0.0204 * 0.45 * (190 31)
L4 * 4.18
34341.83
12.54
%[ 14.9 88] 5744
L5 4.18
%[ 14.9 88]34341.83
8.908
L6= 0.548 x [[(70+273)/55.55]4 [(31+273)/55.55]4 +1.957 x(70-31)1.25
x[(196.85x3 +68.9)/68.9]0.5]*4.18= 628.405 W/m2
100 * 628.405 * 600x3600
L 6 (%)
116 .724 x10 3 x 34341.83
33.86175098
Total Ash Collected/kg of Fuel Burnt * CVflyash
L 7 100
CV
0.058
Total Ash Collected/kg of Fuel Burnt * CVbottomash
L 8 100
CV
5.24
L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L6% L7 L8 Sum
1.531 8.208 0 12.54 8.908 628.405 33.86 0.058 5.24 70.35
0.00446 0.023 0 0.0365 0.0259 0.098 0.00017 0.00017 0.205

Efficiency of the boiler = 100-20.5=79.5%


8

X. \Find: the ratio of circulating water to steam flows if the condenser


pressure is 0.07bar and the cooling tower cools the water to 25 oC.
Design and draw the condenser & feed water heaters: that would
handle and drains water to the boiler.

Solution

Q AUUm
(Tsi Tw i ) (Tso Tw o )
Tm , Tsi Tso
Tsi Tw i
ln
Tso Tw o
U C1 C 2 C 3 C 4 V
A Total Surface Area of Tubes

Q m C w Tw o Tw i
.

Water inlet velocity is limited to a maximum 2.5 m/s to minimize erosion,


and a minimum 1.5 to 1.8 m/s for good heat transfer. Values between 2.1 to
2.5 m/s are most common.

C1: Dimensional factor depending upon tube outer diameter:


Tube outer diameter- inch C1
3/4 = 1.905 cm 2777
7/8 = 2.2225 cm 2705
1 = 2.54 cm 2582
9

C2: Dimensionless correction factor for circulating water inlet


temperature:
Twi, 35 40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100
o
F

C2 0.57 0.64 0.72 0.79 0.86 0.92 1 1.04 1.08 1.1

C3: Dimensionless correction factor for tube material:


Tube Material 304 Admiralty Aluminum brass Aluminum Bronze 70-30 Cu-Ni
Stainless arsenic Muntz Metal 90-10 Cu-Ni
Steel copper

18 gauge 0.58 1 0.96 0.9 0.83

17 gauge 0.56 0.98 0.94 0.87 0.8

16 gauge 0.54 0.96 0.91 0.84 0.76

C4: Dimensionless cleanliness factor


C4 = 0.85 for clean tubes, less for algae covered or sludge tubes

Design of the condenser & Heaters

Item U mw/ms DTm A N Ncorrect A


condenser 2.785566 33.15677 18.4429 26977.76 2260.958 2261 2697.825
H 3.722131 0.452109 39.65229 629.7971 52.78219 53 63.2396
E 3.722131 0.037237 39.65229 51.87227 4.347324 5 5.966
D 3.722131 0.527587 39.65229 734.94 61.59403 62 73.9784
C 3.722131 0.880384 39.65229 1226.394 102.7819 103 122.8996
B 3.722131 0.941797 39.65229 1311.943 109.9517 110 131.252

mcwxCpxTcw=msX(h2-h3)(1-ma)
mcw/ms=(h2-h3)(1-ma)/CpxDTcw
= 33.155677
10

QUESTION TWO 25 MARKS


The daily load curve for a power station is given by the following equation:
L=350 + 10t -t2, where t is the time in hours from 0 to 24 hours and L is in
MW.
Calculate:
I. Draw the daily load curve and daily duration curve.
t L I Hr
1 359 62.36838667 0.173728 5.756121
2 366 64.77420889 0.176979 5.650397
3 371 66.52052 0.179301 5.577226
4 374 67.57945333 0.180694 5.534226
5 375 67.93428889 0.181158 5.52004
6 374 67.57945333 0.180694 5.534226
7 371 66.52052 0.179301 5.577226
8 366 64.77420889 0.176979 5.650397
9 359 62.36838667 0.173728 5.756121
10 350 59.34206667 0.169549 5.898008
11 339 55.74540889 0.164441 6.081218
12 326 51.63972 0.158404 6.31297
13 311 47.09745333 0.151439 6.603329
14 294 42.20220889 0.143545 6.96646
15 275 37.04873333 0.134723 7.422656
16 254 31.74292 0.124972 8.001784
17 231 26.40180889 0.114294 8.749401
18 206 21.15358667 0.102687 9.738301
19 179 16.13758667 0.090154 11.09212
20 150 11.50428889 0.076695 13.03862
21 119 7.41532 0.062314 16.04786
22 86 4.043453333 0.047017 21.26895
23 51 1.572608889 0.030835 32.43019
24 14 0.197853333 0.014132 70.75949
11

400

350

300
L
250 I
Efficiency
MW

HR
200

150

100

50

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
time, hour

Variation of L, I versus t

II. Peak load and its time:


L=350+10t-t2
dL/dt=10-2t*= 0 , thus t*=5 h,
Lp=350+10x5-(5)2 = 375 MW
III. Average load:
24 24
2 2 3
Lav = [1/24] (L=350+10t-t )dt =[1/24][350t+5t -t /3]
0 0
= 274 MW
IV. Load factor:
L.f = Lav/Lp = 274/375 = 0.74
V. Reserve factor of that station:
R.f = LR/LP = (5x80)/(375) = 1.067
VI. Average heat rate and efficiency for a day:
av=Lav/Iav =[274]/[4.18x106(8+6x274+0.4x(274)2)] = 0.180694
HR= Iav/Lav = 5.534226
VII. Input-time curve for a day: see Figure.
12

QUESTION THREE 25 MARKS


Consider a combined reheat and regenerative cycle utilizing steam as the
working fluid. The net power output of the turbine is 400MW. Steam enters
the high-pressure turbine at 8 MPa, 550oC, and is extracted for purpose of
feed-water heating in closed heater at 1.2 MPa. The remainder of the steam
is reheated at this pressure to 550oC and fed to the low-pressure turbine.
Steam is extracted from the low-pressure turbine at 0.4 MPa for feed-water
heating in an open heater. The condenser pressure is 10 kPa. The condensate
from the closed heater is throttled into the open heater. The isentropic
efficiencies of high and low pressure turbines are 90% and 85%
respectively, and the pump isentropic efficiency is 80%.
I. Draw a line diagram of the unit and show the state points on a T-s
and h-s diagrams.
II. What is the steam flow rate to the high-pressure turbine?
III. What power motor is required to drive each of the pumps?
IV. If there is a 10oC rise in the temperature of the cooling water, what
is the rate of flow of cooling water through the condenser?
V. If the velocity of the steam flowing from the turbine to the
condenser is limited to a maximum of 120 m/s. What is the
diameter of this connecting pipe?
Solution
h1= 3520 kJ/kg, h2=2960 kJ/kg, h2 = 3016 kJ/kg, h3 = 3582 kJ/kg, h4 =
2480 kJ/kg, h4 = 3274.3 kJ/kg, h5 = 2645.3 kJ/kg, h6 = 191.81 kJ/kg, h7 =
191.81+0.001(400-10)=192.2 kJ/kg, h7 = 192.3 kJ/kg, h8 = 604.73 kJ/kg,
h9 = 604.73 +0.001(8000-400)=614.33 kJ/kg, h10 = 798.641 kJ/kg, h11 =
h10 = 798.641 kJ/kg, h12 = 798.641 kJ/kg.
m1= 0.0832, m2 =0.117, wnet= 1279.18 kJ/kg, ms= 312.7 kg/s,
Wp1=122.54 kW, Wp2 =2970.65 kW, mcw= 1467.1 kg/s, D=6.515 m.
h1= 3520 kJ/kg, h2=2960 kJ/kg, h2 = 3016 kJ/kg, h3 = 3582 kJ/kg, h4 =
2480 kJ/kg, h4 = 3274.3 kJ/kg, h5 = 2645.3 kJ/kg, h6 = 191.81 kJ/kg, h7 =
191.81+0.001(400-10)=192.2 kJ/kg, h7 = 192.3 kJ/kg, h8 = 604.73 kJ/kg,
h9 = 604.73 +0.001(8000-400)=614.33 kJ/kg, h10 = 798.641 kJ/kg, h11 =
h10 = 798.641 kJ/kg, h12 = 798.641 kJ/kg.
m1= 0.0832, m2 =0.117, wnet= 1279.18 kJ/kg, ms= 312.7 kg/s,
Wp1=122.54 kW, Wp2 =2970.65 kW, mcw= 1467.1 kg/s, D=6.515 m.
13

QUESTION FOUR 25 MARKS

A combined-cycle unit combines the Rankine (steam turbine) and Brayton


(gas turbine) thermodynamic cycles by using heat recovery boilers to
capture the energy in the gas turbine exhaust gases for steam production to
supply a steam turbine as shown in the Figure "Combined-Cycle
Cogeneration Unit". The Process steam can be also provided for industrial
purposes for 20% of steam produced. Take Tamb=25 oC, relative air
humidity, =50%, maximum temperature after the combustion chamber =
1100 K, and pressure ratio of the compressor = 30:1. Assume reasonable
assumption with justification to design the combined cycle shown for each
pressure and temperature and mass flow rate of steam per kg of circulating
air in the compressor. Calculate: a) the thermal efficiency and b) SFC if the
fuel Calorific value is 6x104kJ/kg.

Solution
Gas Turbine Cycle Steam Cycle
T1, K 298 50%
T2, K 787.5006 DBT 25
T3, K 1100 WBT 18
T4, K 416.2536 Tcooling Tower 19.4
T5, K 376 Tcondenser 32.4
h8 135.432
h9 292.6
With Best and Great Success Dr Atef A Aly