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MEMS Overview

SPEAKER
Andrew Mason, Asst. Professor in Electrical and Computer Engineering

TOPIC
Overview of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)

OUTLINE
Overview of MEMS & Microsystems Navid Yazdi

Micromachining & MEMS process technology Navid Yazdi

Micro-electro-mechanical devices & microsensors


Inertial sensors Navid Yazdi
Pressure sensors Navid Yazdi
Bio-sensors Andrew Mason
Shock sensors Andrew Mason

Integrated Microsystems Andrew Mason

MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 1

What is MEMS?
MEMS = Micro-
Micro-Electo-
Electo-Mechanical Systems
creation of 3-
3-dimensional structures using integrated circuits
fabrication technologies and special micromachining processes
typically done on silicon or glass (SiO2) wafers
MEMS Devices and Structures
transducers
microsensors and microactuators
mechanically functional microstructures
microfluidics:
microfluidics: valves, pumps, flow channels
microengines:
microengines: gears, turbines, combustion engines
Integrated Microsystems
integrated circuitry and transducers combined to perform a task
autonomously or with the aid of a host computer
MEMS components provide interface to non-
non-electrical world
sensors provide inputs from non-electronic events
actuators provide outputs to non-electronic events

MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 2

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Why Use MEMS?
Motivation and Benefits
Small Size
Light Weight
Enhanced Performance & Reliability
high resolution devices
array of devices
Low Cost (from batch fabrication)
Applications MEMS-
MEMS-based
Automotive System Microsystems
Health Care highly integrated systems
Automated Manufacturing sensing
Instrumentation actuation
Environmental Monitoring & Control computation
Consumer Products control
Aerospace communication

MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 3

Example MEMS-Based Microsystem


Micro Cluster Environmental Monitoring Microinstrument
(developed at U-
U-Mich in the 1990s, A. Mason, K. Wise, et. al.)

Integrated Features
Power
- Control
Pressure Humidity
Management - Microcontroller
Sensor Sensor
Accelerometer - Power Management
RF Transmitter
- Communication
Interface - RF Transceiver
35mm

Chips
Microcontroller - Sensing
- Pressure
- Humidity
On/Off Switch I/O Connector
- Temperature
60mm - Vibration
- Packaging
MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 4

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MEMS Fabrication Technologies

Applying Micromachining to create 3-D structures using


2-D processing

2-D IC fabrication 3-D structures


technology micromachining

Micromachining Processes
bulk and surface micromachining
isotropic etching
anisotropic etching
dissolved wafer process
deep reactive ion etching
anodic and fusion bonding
micromolding
MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 5

Surface vs. Bulk Micromachining

Bulk Micromachining:
Backside etch

Bulk Micromachining:
Si Substrate Front-side Etch pit

typically polysilicon

Surface Micromachined Si Substrate


Structure

MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 6

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Isotropic Etching of Silicon

Isotropic etchant
etches in all directions
forms rounded pits in surface of wafer
Most common solution
HNA: Mixture of HF, HNO3, Acetic acid (CH3COOH)

With agitation:
Good reactant mass transport Without agitation

MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 7

Anisotropic Etching of Silicon

Anisotropic etchant
directional-dependant etch; based on crystal planes
forms flat-surface pits in surface of wafer
Common anisotropic etchants
EDP, KOH, TMAH
(111) Surface
(100) Surface orientation
orientation

54.74

Silicon

Anisotropic wet etching using EDP, KOH: (100) surface


- Etch stop on (111) plane
MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 8

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Anisotropic Etching: Convex vs. Concave Corners

masking layer not attacked by Si etchant


Concave
corner
Convex
corner
Top View

(100)
Cantilever Beam
Masking layer
(111)

Side View Buried etch stop layer


(SiO2 in SOI wafers)
Silicon

MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 9

Anisotropic Etching of Silicon: Example

bulk micromachined
silicon proof mass

MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 10

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Dissolved Wafer Process
Structure created by diffusion masking layer
heavily p-dope silicon (p++)
Dissolve bulk of silicon to release the p++ structure

Released p++ structure


P++
S ili
con Dopant selective
etch (e.g. EDP)

Silicon
K.D. Wise, K. Najafi, Univ of Michigan

MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 11

Dissolved Wafer Process Example


Shock Switch
weighted cantilever beam with contacts that close by
acceleration (shock)
Fabrication Flow
create anchor, weight, support beam, and contact on Si
create cavity and contact on glass
bond wafers and then dissolve the Si wafer

LPCVD layer deposition Anodic bonding glass to


for beams silicon

Dissolve silicon bulk


and release structure

MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 12

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Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE)
Reactive Ion Etching = RIE
mechanical (ion) etching in plasma for chemical selectivity
Deep RIE
creates high aspect ratio patterns, narrow and deep
Top view

A A

mask A-A cross section

Silicon
Trench-Refill process
can fill the etched trench with another material
MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 13

Glass-Si Anodic Bonding


Bonding a glass wafer to a silicon wafer
both wafer can (and generally are) patterned with structures
Application
creating sealed cavities on a wafer surface
can be sealed in vacuum
hermetic packaging
Lead Transfer
need to bring the metal leads out of from sealed cavities

Need sealing
Metal Silicon
Interconnect
Glass

MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 14

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Silicon-Silicon Fusion Bonding
Two silicon wafer with/without SiO2 can be bonded
Advantages: No thermal mismatch
Needs contamination free, smooth, and flat wafers
(e.g. surface roughness ~5A)

Process Flow
Clean wafers
Make the surfaces hydrophilic (e.g. dip in Nitric Acid)
Rinse-Dry
Place the wafers together apply pressure
H2 or N2 anneal at 800-1000C

MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 15

Combined Bulk-Surface Process: Molding


Etch silicon with high aspect ratio (e.g., DRIE)
Refill partially with sacrificial layer (e.g. silicon oxide)
Refill completely with structural layer (e.g. polysilicon)
Example: U-Mich Precision Inertial Sensor
Polysilicon Electrode with Damping Holes

Polysilicon
Electrode
Nitride
Nitride Air Gap
Standoff Electrode
Standoff Damping Holes Air Gap Dimple

Silicon
Proof Mass Vertical
Stiffener
Silicon
Vertical Proof Mass
Air Gap Stiffener

N. Yazdi & K. Najafi, Transducers97.

MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 16

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Combined Bulk-Surface Process:
Precision Inertial Sensors
Dielectric Layer Metal Pads Metal Pad

A A

Support
Silicon Proof mass Rim

Damping Holes

N. Yazdi , A. Salian & K. Najafi, MEMS99.

MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 17

LIGA Process
LIGA: Lithographie, Galvanoformung, Abformung
Form high aspect ratio structures on top of wafer
Uses molding and electroplating
Synchrotron Radiation (X-Ray) used

Features
Aspect ratio: 100:1
Gap: 0.25m
Size: a few millimeters
uses multiple
polymethyl
metharylate
(PMMA) layers

MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 18

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LIGA Process: Example

Guckel, IEEE Proceedings, Aug. 1998.

MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 19

Monolithic Integration of MEMS and ICs

Why Monolithic?
Performance:
- Reduce parasitics due to interconnecting devices
- Reduce noise & crosstalk

Size:
- Reduce pin count
- Reduce package volume
Cost:
- Integration with signal-processing  better functionality
- Reduce packaging cost
- Self test & calibration at wafer level

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IC + MEMS Process Examples
UC Berekely Integrated CMOS & surface micromachining technology
CMOS first and MEMS second
CMOS circuit passivated using silicon nitride
Tungsten interconnects for CMOS

J. Bustillo, R. Howe, R. Muller, IEEE Proceedings Aug. 98

Sandia Integrated CMOS & surface micromachining technology


MEMS first in recessed cavity
CMOS second after planarization

J. Smith et. al., IEDM95

MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 21

MEMS Examples
Neural Recording Probes
Monolithic Integration of Wafer-Dissolved
Process and IC Technology OUTPUT LEADS

P++ RIM

INTERCONNECTING
LEADS SIGNAL PROCESSING
CIRCUITRY

RECORDING/STIMULATING
SITES

- Neural probes with signal processing circuitry SUPPORTING SILICON


SUBSTRATE

- P++ shanks
- P++ rim and timed etch to protect Najafi,
active circuitry
Wise, JSSC-21 (6), May 1986

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Example: Capacitive Accelerometer
Suspension
Suspension
Anchor Mass
Anchor Mass
Cs
Sense
Vertical Substrate Conductive
Electrode
Substrate Capacitance

accelerometer (a) (b)

One of the sense


Bidirectional capacitor elements Anchors
Anchors Sense Fingers

Mass
Bidirectional
Cs Mass
Sense Fingers

Lateral Suspensions Substrate


Suspensions
accelerometer (a) (b)

MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 23

Example: Z-Axis Torsional Accelerometer


Torque Support
Anchor produced by beam Anchor
A'
the mass wm
T T
C

Fixed Inertial Element


Sense
Fingers
A Support
posts on
Glass Substrate glass

Anchor
Selvakumar, Najafi, JMEMS 1998. Torsional suspension

Mass plate

Sense
fingers

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Capacitive Accelerometer
3-Axis Monolithic Surface Micromachined Accelerometer

Analog Devices ADXL50

Sense & Feedback


Interdigitated Fingers

Proofmass

Suspension

Courtesy of Lemkin, Boser, Trasnducers97. Courtesy of Kevin Chau, Analog Devices Inc.

MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 25

All-Silicon Micro-G Accelerometer


Metal Pads
A Damping Holes
Anchor Dielectric

Silicon
Proofmass
A
Polysilicon
Top/Bottom Polysilicon
Electrode Stiffeners
Top View Proofmass
Suspension
Beams
A-A Cross-Sectional View

Frame
Stiffened Polysilicon Proofmass Stiffened Polysilicon Proofmass
Electrode Electrode

MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 26

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MEMS Gyroscopes
GM & UM Ring Gyroscope
Drapers Tuning Fork Gyroscope
Perforated
masses (tines)

Drive
Combs

Electrodes
Suspension

Ring
structure

MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 27

Capacitive Pressure Sensors


Consists of two components:
Fixed electrode
Flexible diaphragm forming a moving electrode
Sealed vacuum cavity between the two electrodes
Diaphragm (Upper electrode)

Lower electrode

Silicon

P++ Si
Ti/Pt/Au
Poly-Si

SiO2/Si3N4/SiO2
External lead for
Tab Contact Glass Substrate glass electrode A. Chavan, K.D. Wise, Transducers97

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Integrated Microsystems Architecture
Flexible Architectures
reconfigurable
new/different sensors can be added
sensor bus

Power
Management
Chip Accelerometer
Pressure Transducer
Telemetry Humidity Transducer Array
Sensor Array

EPROM
RAM
Crystal
SPI Analog Analog

Sensor
Interface Interface

Temp
Wired MCU Digital
SCI
I/O Port Bus Interface
Bus
Interface Interface Bus
Interface
Timer A/D
Battery
Capacitive Sensor
Interface Chips

Sensor Bus

MEMS Overview, Prof. A. Mason Page 29

Microsystem Component: Interface Circuit


Generic capacitive sensor interface
sensor readout
sensor bus communication
programmable operation useful for range of sensors
Element Digital Gain
Cf
Select Control fs
Sensor1

Charge Variable Sample


Sensor2
Integrator Gain Amp & Hold
MUX

Temperature
Sensor5
Sensor
Programmable
Sensor6 Reference Capacitor
Element
MUX
Digital Select
Control
Self-Test b2
b1
DAC Bus Interface
b0 Address Command Data
Self-Test Register Decoder Latch
Command

Sensor Bus
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Microsystem Component: Shock switch
System wake-up switch
allows events to be captured while system is in sleep mode
useful for system-level power management
implements several shock thresholds

Suspension B eam

Silicon Anchor

Support
Altar
Air
Gap Iner tial
Mass

Metal Pads
& Interconnect
Cantilevered
Mass Symm etric
Contacts

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