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ABSTRACT

Traveling is a large growing business in India and other countries. Bus


reservation system deals with maintenance of records of details of each
passenger who had reserved a seat for a journey. It also includes maintenance
of information like schedule and details of each bus.
We observed the working of the Bus reservation system and after going through
it, we get to know that there are many operations, which they have to do
manually. It takes a lot of time and causes many errors. Due to this, sometimes
a lot of problems occur and they were facing many disputes with customers. To
solve the above problem, and further maintaining records of items, seat
availability for customers, price of per seat, bill generation and other things, we
are offering this proposal of reservation system.
By using this software, we can reserve tickets from any part of the world,
through telephone lines, via internet. This project provides and checks all sorts
of constraints so that user does give only useful data and thus validation is done
in an effective way.
1. INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT:
Our project is to computerize traveling company to manage data, so that all the
transactions become fast and there should not be any error in transaction like
calculation mistake, bill generation and other things. It replaces all the paper
work. It keeps records of all bills also, giving to ensure 100% successful
implementation of the computerized Bus reservation system.
Our reservation system has three modules. First module helps the customer to
enquire the availability of seats in a particular bus at particular date. Second
module helps him to reserve a ticket. Using third module he can cancel a
reserved ticket.

2. EXISTING SYSTEM & NEED FOR THE SYSTEM:

There are some disadvantages of the existing system due to which the need for
the new system is required; some of them are as follows:

(a) The application does not provide security to the system.

(b) There is no flexibility to the database.

(c) There is no GUI interaction for more convenience.

(d) Coding is not much efficient.

(e) Most of the work is done manually.

(f) More man power is required, so it is costly.

(g) The redundancy and inconsistency of data is major drawback.


3. OPERATING ENVIRONMENT HARDWARE & SOFTWARE

The hardware and software requirement for this project are as follows:

HARDWARE - Hard Disk : 5 GB


RAM : 128 MB

SOFTWARE - Operating System : Windows X Family


Visual Basic 6.0 : As Front End
MS- Access : AS Back End

4. FEASIBILITY STUDY:

As the initial investigation is completed, it leads to a more detailed investigation


of the system. The conclusions of the initial study become the input for the
detailed study. We can also refer to the feasibility study as the detailed study or
detailed investigation. Feasibility study is called like because as in the first phase,
we just check briefly about the problems related to the old system, & the need of
the new system. So, in this phase, that initial survey is further expanded to a more
detailed feasibility study.

The tasks performed during this phase were as follows:

(a) The users demonstrable needs are fulfilled.

(b) The availability of resources was being checked.

(c) The estimation required for the resources were achieved.

(d) The impact of the system on the organization has been check by placing a
model in it.
5. PROPOSED SYSTEM:

Objective To Be Fulfilled:

(a) Development of software in the given time.

(b) To create an effective and efficient application.

User Requirements:

(a) The application should provide a user friendly environment.

(b) The application should be easily understandable and reliable.

(c) The application should fulfill all essential facilities.

(d) The software being built must provide platform independent application.

Requirement Determination Techniques & System Analysis Method:

(a) User communication

(b) Team discussion

(c) Analysis of existing system

(d) Study of old projects and records.

Prototyping:

A prototype can effectively provide the users a look-and-feel and convey a


sense of how the system will work. The software application comprises of 10
forms, 1 module and 6 data reports. The functions used in this application are
discussed below:

Form 1. Loading Form: This is the first form of our software in which the
application is loading. This loading is shown by progress bar.

Form 2. Login Form: This form allows any user in logon to the software
only if he/she has a correct password. This software is password protected.
Form 3. Current Booking: This form is used to reserved the seat on the present day at
which bus is traveling. Only essential fields are included in this form like seat number,
destination and time.

Form 4. Advance Booking: This form is used to reserved seats in advance. It includes
all essential fields required in this form like name, age, address, contact number of the
passenger, seat number, departure time, day of traveling, category, destination and
amount.

Form 5. Cancellation Form: This form is used to cancel the reserved seat. The input
to this form is only the ticket number, once it is enter the whole entry is displayed from
the database.

Form 6. Seat Status: This form displays the reserved seats for a particular bus at
particular destination. What kind of seat is available (general, window or front) it
displays all properties.

Form 7. Enquiry: This form enquires about the route to the destination, fare to be
paid for the destination and categories of bus available for the destination.

Form 8. Cancel List: This form consists of a calendar to display the list of the cancel
tickets. The date selected in the calendar displays all entries for that particular date.

Form 9. Reservation Report: This form also consist a calendar to display list of
those passenger who have reserved seats on that particular date.

Form 10. Current Report: This form displays the list of those passenger who have
reserved seat on that particular day.

Data Report 1. Bus list is a chart that displays a list of all buses having fields name as
bus_id, source, destination, time, category, amount, kilometers and bypass.

Data Report 2. Reservation is the list of those passengers who have reserved seats
and this list is displayed according to the date mentioned in the query.

Data Report 3. Current booking is the list of those passengers who have reserved
seats on the day of traveling.

Data Report 4. Cancellation is the list of those passengers who have cancelled their
tickets and list is displayed according to the date mentioned in the query.
Front End
What is Html?

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web
pages and web applications. With Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and JavaScript it forms a triad of
cornerstone technologies for the World Wide Web.[1] Web browsers receive HTML documents from
a webserver or from local storage and render them into multimedia web pages. HTML describes the
structure of a web page semantically and originally included cues for the appearance of the
document.

HTML elements are the building blocks of HTML pages. With HTML constructs, images and other
objects, such as interactive forms, may be embedded into the rendered page. It provides a means to
create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs,
lists, links, quotes and other items. HTML elements are delineated by tags, written using angle
brackets. Tags such as <img /> and <input /> introduce content into the page directly. Others
such as <p>...</p> surround and provide information about document text and may include other
tags as sub-elements. Browsers do not display the HTML tags, but use them to interpret the content
of the page.

HTML can embed programs written in a scripting language such as JavaScript which affect the
behavior and content of web pages. Inclusion of CSS defines the look and layout of content.
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), maintainer of both the HTML and the CSS standards, has
encouraged the use of CSS over explicit presentational HTML since 1997

What is bootstrap?
Bootstrap is a free and open-source front-end web framework for
designing websites and web applications. It contains HTML- and CSS-based design templates
for typography, forms, buttons, navigation and other interface components, as well as
optional JavaScript extensions. Unlike many web frameworks, it concerns itself with front-end
development only.
What is css?
CSS is the language for describing the presentation of Web pages, including colors, layout,

and fonts. It allows one to adapt the presentation to different types of devices, such as large screens,

small screens, or printers. CSS is independent of HTML and can be used with any XML-based

markup language. The separation of HTML from CSS makes it easier to maintain sites, share style

sheets across pages, and tailor pages to different environments. This is referred to as the separation

of structure (or: content) from presentation.

Backend
What is PHP ?

1
PHP is a server-side scripting language designed primarily for web development but also used as
a general-purpose programming language. Originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994,[4] the
PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Development Team.[5] PHP originally
stood for Personal Home Page,[4] but it now stands for the recursive acronym PHP: Hypertext
Preprocessor.[6]

PHP code may be embedded into HTML or HTML5 markup, or it can be used in combination with
various web template systems, web content management systems and web frameworks. PHP code is
usually processed by a PHP interpreter implemented as a module in the web server or as a Common
Gateway Interface (CGI) executable. The web server software combines the results of the interpreted
and executed PHP code, which may be any type of data, including images, with the generated web
page. PHP code may also be executed with a command-line interface (CLI) and can be used to
implement standalone graphical applications.[7]

The standard PHP interpreter, powered by the Zend Engine, is free software released under the PHP
License. PHP has been widely ported and can be deployed on most web servers on almost
every operating system and platform, free of charge.[8]

The PHP language evolved without a written formal specification or standard until 2014, leaving the
canonical PHP interpreter as a de facto standard. Since 2014 work has gone on to create a formal
PHP specification.[9]

1. PHP 3 and 4
Zeev Suraski and Andi Gutmans rewrote the parser in 1997 and formed the base of PHP 3,
changing the language's name to the recursive acronym PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor.[5]
[19]
Afterwards, public testing of PHP 3 began, and the official launch came in June 1998. Suraski and
Gutmans then started a new rewrite of PHP's core, producing the Zend Engine in 1999.[20] They also
founded Zend Technologies in Ramat Gan, Israel.[5]

On May 22, 2000, PHP 4, powered by the Zend Engine 1.0, was released. [5] As of August 2008 this
branch reached version 4.4.9. PHP 4 is no longer under development nor will any security updates
be released.[21][22]

2. PHP 5
On July 13, 2004, PHP 5 was released, powered by the new Zend Engine II. [5] PHP 5 included new
features such as improved support for object-oriented programming, the PHP Data Objects (PDO)
extension (which defines a lightweight and consistent interface for accessing databases), and
numerous performance enhancements.[23] In 2008 PHP 5 became the only stable version under
development. Late static binding had been missing from PHP and was added in version 5.3.[24][25]

Many high-profile open-source projects ceased to support PHP 4 in new code as of February 5,
2008, because of the GoPHP5 initiative,[26] provided by a consortium of PHP developers promoting
the transition from PHP 4 to PHP 5.[27][28]

Over time, PHP interpreters became available on most existing 32-bit and 64-bit operating systems,
either by building them from the PHP source code, or by using pre-built binaries. [29] For the PHP
versions 5.3 and 5.4, the only available Microsoft Windows binary distributions were 32-
bit x86 builds,[30][31] requiring Windows 32-bit compatibility mode while using Internet Information
Services (IIS) on a 64-bit Windows platform. PHP version 5.5 made the 64-bit x86-64 builds
available for Microsoft Windows.[32]

2
3. PHP 6 and Unicode
PHP has received criticism due to lacking native Unicode support at the core language level, instead
only supporting byte strings. In 2005, a project headed by Andrei Zmievski was initiated to bring
native Unicode support throughout PHP, by embedding the International Components for
Unicode (ICU) library, and representing text strings as UTF-16 internally.[33] Since this would cause
major changes both to the internals of the language and to user code, it was planned to release this
as version 6.0 of the language, along with other major features then in development. [34]

However, a shortage of developers who understood the necessary changes, and performance
problems arising from conversion to and from UTF-16, which is rarely used in a web context, led to
delays in the project.[35] As a result, a PHP 5.3 release was created in 2009, with many non-Unicode
features back-ported from PHP 6, notably namespaces. In March 2010, the project in its current form
was officially abandoned, and a PHP 5.4 release was prepared containing most remaining non-
Unicode features from PHP 6, such as traits and closure re-binding.[36] Initial hopes were that a new
plan would be formed for Unicode integration, but as of 2014 none have been adopted.

4. PHP 7
During 2014 and 2015, a new major PHP version was developed, which was numbered PHP 7. The
numbering of this version involved some debate.[37] While the PHP 6 Unicode experiment had never
been released, several articles and book titles referenced the PHP 6 name, which might have
caused confusion if a new release were to reuse the name.[38] After a vote, the name PHP 7 was
chosen.[39]

The foundation of PHP 7 is a PHP branch that was originally dubbed PHP next generation (phpng).
It was authored by Dmitry Stogov, Xinchen Hui and Nikita Popov,[40] and aimed to optimize PHP
performance by refactoring the Zend Engine to use more compact data structures with
improved cache locality while retaining near-complete language compatibility.[41] As of 14 July
2014, WordPress-based benchmarks, which served as the main benchmark suite for the phpng
project, showed an almost 100% increase in performance. Changes from phpng are also expected
to make it easier to improve performance in the future, as more compact data structures and other
changes are seen as better suited for a successful migration to a just-in-time (JIT) compiler.
[42]
Because of the significant changes, the reworked Zend Engine is called Zend Engine 3,
succeeding Zend Engine 2 used in PHP 5.[43]

Because of major internal changes in phpng, it must receive a new major version number of PHP,
rather than a minor PHP 5 release, according to PHP's release process. [44]Major versions of PHP are
allowed to break backward-compatibility of code and therefore PHP 7 presented an opportunity for
other improvements beyond phpng that require backward-compatibility breaks, including wider use
of exceptions,[45][46] reworking variable syntax to be more consistent and complete,[47] and the
deprecation or removal of various legacy features.[48][49]

PHP 7 also introduced new language features, including return type declarations for functions,
[50]
which complement the existing parameter type declarations, and support for the scalar types
(integer, float, string, and boolean) in parameter and return type declarations. [51]

3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

4
2. INTRODUCTION TO WEB
3.
4. What is a Website ?
A Website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images,
videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible
via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN.

A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML, that is almost always accessible
via HTTP, a protocol that transfers information from the Web server to display in the user's
Web browser.

All publicly accessible websites are seen collectively as constituting the "World Wide
Web".

The pages of websites can usually be accessed from a common root URL called the
homepage, and usually reside on the same physical server. The URLs of the pages organize
them into a hierarchy, although the hyperlinks between them control how the reader perceives
the overall structure and how the traffic flows between the different parts of the sites.

Some websites require a subscription to access some or all of their content. Examples
of subscription sites include many business sites, parts of many news sites, academic journal
sites, gaming sites, message boards, Web-based e-mail, services, social networking website,
and sites providing real-time stock market data.

As of March 2007 there are over 8 billion web pages in total on the World Wide Web.

5
REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS

Project Description

This is Online Bus Reservation package to manage Buses, Routes, Services,


Passengers & avail a degree of comfort to both Organization & Passenger. Today
the leading Bus Travel companies are using these
Packages to have a ease of mentality with their work.

Features:

The project keep track of following modules:

Avail Online Reservation

Rootmaps

Availability Of Seats

Fares

Services

Payment

Development:

6
This project is coded under PHPenvironment in \
.NETProj\Online_reservation

DATABASE: The finance management system handles MS-Access


database called\Finance\App_Data\bus.mdb.This database contains four
tables with following structures:

1.Source

2.Destination

3.Arrival Time

4.Departure Time

5.Fare

BUS TABLE:-

7
6.5 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM:

A properly defined flow model diagram, not only helps to understand the working
of the model, but also helps the software designer to built it and test it for validation
with ease.

A DFD is a graphical representation that depicts the information flow and the
transforms that are applied as data moves from input to output. It can be used to
represent software at any level of abstraction. In fact, DFDs may be partitioned
into levels that represent increasing information flow and functional details. The
graphical representation makes it a good tool for communication between designer
and analyst.

8
DFD for Bus Reservation System

Printed ticket DATABASE

Cancellation requests

Reservation BUS Reservation chart


RESERVATION
SYSTEM RESERVATION
PASSENGER
OFFICER
Enquiry

Special buses
Status Information

LEVEL - 0

9
Printed ticket
Fare database
Details

Pay fare
Fare Mgmt.
Process 1.1
Cancellation requests

Passenger
Reservation request Update

Reservation Status database


/Cancel
process 2.2

Information
Enquiry
Information
Enquiry
counter 1.3

Status Information

Reservation officer

LEVEL 1

SYSTEM ANALYSIS
System Analysis is a management technique, which helps in designing a new system or
improving an existing system. System Analysis is the process of gathering and interpreting facts,
diagnosing problems (if any), using information to recommend improvements to the system.
There are four basic elements of system analysis: - Output, Input, Files, processes. For
computerization of any system, the existing system must be thoroughly being understood to
determine how the computer can be best used to make its operation most effective. This is
acquired by analyzing existing system.

1. FEASIBILITY STUDY

Feasibility study is the process of determination of whether or not a project is worth


doing. Feasibility studies are undertaken within tight time constraints and normally culminate in a
written and oral feasibility report. I have taken two weeks in feasibility study with my co-
developer. The contents and recommendations of this feasibility study helped us as a sound basis
for deciding how to proceed the project. It helped in taking decisions such as which software to
use, hardware combinations, etc.
Technical Feasibility
Economical Feasibility
Operational Feasibility

1. Technical Feasibility
Technical feasibility determines whether the work for the project can be done with the
existing equipment, software technology and available personnel. Technical feasibility is
concerned with specifying equipment and software that will satisfy the user requirement.
This project is feasible on technical remarks also, as the proposed system is more
beneficiary in terms of having a sound proof system with new technical components installed on
the system. The proposed system can run on any machines supporting Windows and Internet
services and works on the best software and hardware that had been used while designing the
system so it would be feasible in all technical terms of feasibility.

2. Economical Feasibility
Economical feasibility determines whether there are sufficient benefits in creating to
make the cost acceptable, or is the cost of the system too high. As this signifies cost-benefit
analysis and savings. On the behalf of the cost-benefit analysis, the proposed system is feasible
and is economical regarding its pre-assumed cost for making a system.
We classified the costs of e-shopping according to the phase in which they occur. As
we know that the system development costs are usually one-time costs that will not recur after the
project has been completed. For calculating the Development costs we evaluated certain cost
categories viz.

1. Personal costs
2. Computer usage
3. Supply and equipments costs
4. Cost of any new computer equipments and software.

3. Operational Feasibility
Operational feasibility criteria measure the urgency of the problem (survey and study
phases) or the acceptability of a solution (selection, acquisition and design phases). How do you
measure operational feasibility? There are two ects of operational feasibility to be considered:

UML (UNIFIED MODIFY LANGUAGE)


The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standard language for specifying, visualizing,
constructing, and documenting the artifacts of software systems, as well as for business modeling
and other non-software systems. The UML represents a collection of best engineering practices
that have proven successful in the modeling of large and complex systems. The UML is a very
important part of developing object oriented software and the software development process. The
UML uses mostly graphical notations to express the design of software projects. Using the UML
helps project teams communicate, explore potential designs, and validate the architectural design
of the software.

1. Goals of UML
The primary goals in the design of the UML were:

1. Provide users with a ready-to-use, expressive visual modeling language so they can
develop and exchange meaningful models.

2. Provide extensibility and specialization mechanisms to extend the core concepts.

3. Be independent of particular programming languages and development processes.

4. Provide a formal basis for understanding the modeling language.


5. Encourage the growth of the OO tools market.

6. Support higher-level development concepts such as collaborations, s, patterns and


components.

7. Integrate best practices.

2. Why Use UML?


As the strategic value of software increases for many companies, the industry looks for
techniques to automate the production of software and to improve quality and reduce cost and
time-to-market. These techniques include component technology, visual programming, patterns
and s. Businesses also seek techniques to manage the complexity of systems as they increase in
scope and scale. In particular, they recognize the need to solve recurring architectural problems,
such as physical distribution, concurrency, replication, security, load balancing and fault tolerance.
Additionally, the development for the World Wide Web, while making some things simpler, has
exacerbated these architectural problems. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) was designed to
respond to these needs.

2.
3. REQUIREMENTS:
INTERFACE REQUIRED-

PLATFORM USED:- WIN XP OR HIGHER VERSION

LANGUAGE USED: -PHP

DATABASE USED:MYSQLI
HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS-

PROCESSOR: -456 MHZ OR ABOVE

RAM:- 128 MB AND ABOVE


DESIGN

Forms Name

Home Page
Rootmap Page
Reservation Page
Available Bus Page
Reservation Form Page
Confirmation Page
Contact Us Page

Coding
This project is coded under the PHPenvironment using software visual studio 2008
..there are coding of some pages--------

1.HTML coding for master page-

Future Scope
o As mentioned above ,although our system had been completed but it is
not perfect , we had planned to make some enhancement in the future .
o We think that our system still has potential to grow besides ,we will
include more functions and introduce more widgets to the system .like
Mobile aps
Mobile version
Home delivery
Call center support
We also plan to enhance the interface so that it look more attractive and
interactive

Advantages
We provide online ticket reservation when any customer book
ticket from any location without stand in any row and time and
money also save
Here some advantages .
o we can book ticket from any location
o discount will give from online
o no need to stand in row for ticket
o ticket status can view from home
o save money ,time
RESULT

The project on ONLINE BUS RESERVATION is


successfully done. By the PHPTechnology, we make the project and get as same as in the
above pages in this report.

CONCLUSION
The architecture of the PHP the way various units are linked to each other and the
way working of PHPproject coding is controlled make the student realize that engineering
is not just learning the structured description and working of PHPproject but the greater
part is of planning and proper management. It is also used to learn new and advanced
technology.
Training is not carried out into its tree sprit. It is recommended that there should be
some project specially meant for student where presence of authorities should be ensured .
However training has proved to be quite faithful. It has allowed an opportunity to get
an exposure of the practical implement to theoretical fundamentals.