Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 88

ABSTRACT

This the design and construction of anti-water drowning system

which makes use of drowning sensor switch controlled from

beneath the water level to alert monitors when the user is being

drown. When the user wares the device at hand the sensors is

activated by body contact, which is the users pressed the toggle

button it will send a wireless signal alerting the managers that he

is being drown by water, so that they can come for rescuer.

This devices when powered, it will be activated so if the users

press the danger command the microcontroller controlling the

device will sends a command wirelessly through and infrared

radio wave as a pulse to the monitor telling the devices to

activate alarm so that the managers can be alerted to come and

rescuer him/her.

This devices is found in swimming pools as a life saving devices.

1
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background study

This is the design and construction of an anti-drowning system

which is used in swimming pools to alert water system managers

when an individual is being drown by water. This system makes

user of a water proofed toggle switch, a microcontroller, and

infrared radio wave transmitting module, a dc battery of 9v and

an infrared receiver, a buzzer and LED indicators.

Drowning from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Drowning is defined as respiratory impairment from being in or

under a liquid.[1] It is further classified by outcome into: death,

ongoing health problems and no ongoing health problems. [1] Using

the term near drowning to refer to those who survive is no longer

recommended.[1] Drowning occurs more frequently in males and

the young.[2]

Drowning itself is quick and silent, although it may be preceded

by distress which is more visible. [3] Generally in the early stages of

2
drowning very little water enters the lungs: a small amount of

water entering the trachea causes a muscular spasm that seals

the airway and prevents the passage of both air and water until

unconsciousness occurs. This means a person drowning is unable

to shout or call for help, or seek attention, as they cannot obtain

enough air. The instinctive drowning response is the final set of

autonomic reactions in the 2060 seconds before sinking

underwater, and to the untrained eye can look similar to calm

safe behavior.[3][4] Lifeguards and other persons trained in rescue

learn to recognize drowning people by watching for these

movements.[3]

In 2013 there were about 1.7 million cases of drowning. [5]

Unintentional drowning is the third leading cause of unintentional

injury resulting in death worldwide. In 2013 it was estimated to

have resulted in 368,000 deaths down from 545,000 deaths in

1990.[6] Of these deaths 82,000 occurred in children less than five

years old.[6] It accounts for 7% of all injury related deaths

(excluding those due to natural disasters), with 91% of these

deaths occurring in low-income and middle-income countries. [7] In

3
many countries, drowning is one of the leading causes of death

for children under 12 years old. For example, in the United States,

it is the second leading cause of death (after motor vehicle

crashes) in children 12 and younger. [2] The rate of drowning in

populations around the world varies widely according to their

access to water, the climate and the national swimming culture.

Signs and symptoms


Drowning is most often quick and unspectacular. Its media

depictions as a loud, violent struggle have much more in common

with distressed non-swimmers, who may well drown but have not

yet begun to do so. In particular, an asphyxiating person is

seldom able to call for help.[3] The instinctive drowning response

covers many signs or behaviors associated with drowning or near-

drowning:

Head low in the water, mouth at water level

Head tilted back with mouth open

Eyes glassy and empty, unable to focus

4
Eyes open, with fear evident on the face

Hyperventilating or gasping

Trying to swim in a particular direction but not making

headway

Trying to roll over on the back to float

Uncontrollable movement of arms and legs, rarely out of the

water.

1.2 Statement of problem


Life is one of the most cherished gift in the world and should

not be joked with while comparing it with other side of the

world so saving it at all cost is every human priority.


In swimming, casualties are common so for this reason

technology has to provide solutions and devices which will help

protect life in cost of swimming to avoid death.

1.3 Aim and objectives


5
The aim of this project is to design and construct an anti-

drowning system which is use in waters to alert water system

managers about a casualty.

1.4 Scope of the project


In this project a student should be able to understand the need

for an anti-drowning system, how it works, the electronic

design and implementation and different stages of the design.

1.5 Project limitations


a. It can only work when the user is still struggling
b. It limited by signal strength and type of transmission which

involves infrared due to the cost of radio transmission using

inductive model.
c. It is limited to only infrared

1.6 Significance of the project


Many design makes use of heart rate monitor but works or

alert managers when the user is already choked and the pulse

rate is reduced.
But in the cost of my design, it was made to work by the user

pressing a toggle switch which is attached to the body and

sending message to the users.

1.7 Project report organizations

6
Chapter one carries the introduction, aim and objective, scope of

study, limitation of the work, significance and the project report

organization of the work. Chapter two carries the literature review

of the work along with other reviews of the project. Chapter three

carries the project design methodology and steps which lead to

the construction of the project. Chapter four testing the project

design, observation and Bill of engineering. Chapter five carries

summary and conclusion.

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIWE

2.1 Already existing systems

Pool safety camera

Pool Safety Cameras are video monitoring systems designed to

reduce drowning deaths in public and private pools.[1]

Classification

Aquatics video monitoring systems are broken into two

categories:

Passive

Active

7
Passive systems provide lifeguards with views of below water

swimmer activity and behaviour. The views are displayed at the

lifeguard position/chair allowing them to incorporate them into

their 10:20 scan to help with early identification of an incident

developing or abnormal events occurring. They are primarily a

means of addressing the physical limitations of viewing through

glare and into blind spots in the swimming pool tank. They are

designed to make the lifeguards job easier. Active systems are

designed to further help lifeguards in an attempt to address the

physical limitations imposed by the human factor.

Monitoring systems are further broken into three broad classes:

Viewing aids

Remote monitoring

Computer-aided drowning detection.

Viewing aids

Viewing aids are typically underwater video cameras for

lifeguards to see various views underwater simultaneously

8
without having to move. They can be used for all types of

swimming pools. Cameras can view areas which would otherwise

be obstructed. These passive systems while providing additional

vision for the lifeguards can also distract them from scanning the

pool because of the moving images on the monitor next to them.

All cameras are recorded in real-time and the below water

cameras are normally paired with above water cameras providing

face-to-body matching if there is an incident where a swimmer

needs to be identified but may not show their face below the

water (for example paedophilia).

Remote monitoring

Remote monitoring is the next step in video surveillance of

swimming pools. It uses the same technology as the viewing aids

class, and includes recording and storage capability. Remote

monitoring is effective in documenting the chain of events

surrounding any questionable situation. If used as a location from

which to actively monitor the pool, these systems face limitations.

Users must remain alert, viewing the screen without distraction

for hours at a time. Screen placement for active monitoring

9
means that response time may be increased due to the nature of

a single location from which to respond. Active monitoring with

this system also means an increase in manpower costs, as the

majority of US state's aquatic safety laws will not authorize using

this system in lieu of lifeguards on the deck.

Remote monitoring includes the recording of video for insurance

purposes, to prove that there was no negligence on the part of

the pool operator, or the staff (e.g. evidence of horseplay,

drunkenness, etc., leading up to an incident). These systems are

primarily limited to documenting the course of events for later

review due to the difficulties of adapting to active monitoring

usage.

Computer-aided drowning detection

Computer-aided drowning detection systems, such as the

Poseidon System and Drowning Early Warning System (DEWS) are

the most technologically advanced category in aquatics video

monitoring. These feed the video from the cameras into a

computerized monitoring software package capable of tracking

the activity of swimmers and alerting staff if swimmers exhibit

10
known behaviors associated with drowning. These systems are

mainly limited to static water pools, and are not yet operational in

the chaotic environment of a wave pool, whirlpool, jacuzzi, or

other motion-based novelty rides. Being video-based, neither

system is capable of operating in dark-water environments such

as lagoons, lake-fronts or beach fronts.

Active monitoring systems attempt to provide the benefits of the

video monitoring and remote monitoring classes of systems

coupled with the additional benefit of another "set of eyes"

watching over swimmers.

2.2 Related designs

A. Anti-theft system

An anti-theft system is any device or method used to prevent or

deter the unauthorized appropriation of items considered

valuable. Theft is one of the most common and oldest criminal

behaviors. From the invention of the first lock and key to the

introduction of RFID tags and biometric identification, anti-theft

11
systems have evolved to match the introduction of new

inventions to society and the resulting theft of them by others.

Anti Theft

Under normal circumstances, theft is prevented simply through

the application and social acceptance of property law. Ownership

is often indicated by means of visual marking (license plates,

name tags). When clear owner identification is not possible and

when there is a lack of social observance, people may be inclined

to take possession of items to their own benefit at the expense of

the original owner. Motive and opportunity are two enabling

factors for theft. Given that motives for theft are varied and

complex and are generally speaking not within the control of the

victim, most methods of theft prevention rely on reducing

opportunities for theft.

2.3 Comparison with the already existing on

Many design makes use of heart rate monitor but works or

alert managers when the user is already choked and the pulse

rate is reduced.

12
But in the cost of my design, it was made to work by the user

pressing a toggle switch which is attached to the body and

sending message to the users.

CHAPTER THREE: DESIGN METHODOLOGY

3.1 Project specification

In this project we are to design and implement anti water

drowning which makes use of wireless transmission to transfer

alert signal to the water managers when somebody is about to be

drown by water.

3.2 Block diagram of the project

13
Fig 3.1 Block diagram of the circuit

3.3.1 Functions of each block

This triggers the microcontroller to transfer signal to the receive

side

This microcontroller triggers the transfer module to transfer data

to the receiver

The transfer module transfer the signal to the receiving point.

14
3.4 Design pattern

This includes the stages passed for the design and construction of

this project.
3.5 Information Gathering
The link which enhanced my knowledge to the design and

construction of this project was as a result my curiosity, some

which was gotten from the internet research I did, some from the

school environment, from the already existing product which was

the main source of my knowledge on how to go about the project

then others was from my teacher and supervisor etc. all this

information I gathered for the design and construction of this

project.

3.6 Design pattern


In the designation of this project, we employed different design

pattern to run a test of this design to checkout for its perfection

when fully designed. From the origin of the design, from the list of

the circuit symbol, the way they operate help me to have a better

design of this project were employed different strategies to run

the test operation for each component for clarifications and better

understanding of them.

3.7 Design procedure

15
Before the design we first of all have our design designed using

some simulation software like the professional schematic

designer, eagle, livewire and proteuslite which they all gave use

the same out analysis of the circuit. Then I made my circuit

diagram (complete schematic of my design) and debugged the

complete design which gave me a full highlight and hint of the

physical operation of the design.

3.8 Design processes


The procedures that lead to the complete designs of this project

followed gradual processes first:

3.8.1 Choice of component


The choice of component depends on the design circuit

requirement, were the components to be used depends on circuit

connections and operation requirement.


3.8.2 Component layout
Component layout is the layout for each component according to

the location of the component symbol. This helps to allocate

components to fit the operation of the circuit which is dependent

on the circuit diagram.


3.8.3 Component mounting
Component mounting or placing is the art or process of placing

the components in the required fittings to enable lead soldering of

16
the components to the circuit printed or Vero boards before inter

connecting the components depending on the circuit connections.

3.8.4 Soldering and clearing


Soldering of the components is very essential to electronic circuit

design as it helps to hard hold the component leads from falling

off from the circuit which can cause permanent damage to the

component circuitry.
Clearing always cause before comes after soldering, as it is the

process of removing tiny segmented leads which could cause

bridges to the circuit network leading to burnt and fire outbreak

from the circuit.

3.8.5 Running cross check


Running check after any circuit design is required as it gives no

room for errors after design. This also helps to correct the network

errors and enhance operation as required after design.

3.9 Project testing


Project testing is the art of placing the design in a running mode

for test and operation analysis, this helps to show the designer

that how accurate his/her work is and encourage upgrading the

present design when dealing with that type of design.

Packaging is the art of covering the inner structure of design

using some natural inspirational art and copies of an already

17
existing design in other to convince the viewer for recommended

comment. Packaging involves the covering of the inner nature of

a design which only through its look sends a message to anybody

who gaze at it what it really is. The appearance of any design one

made is a thing to be consider important as it is the only way

which a product sells itself without human recommendations, in

this project packaging is one of the vital part of this design

because the design which is considered here is a prototype of

anti-drowning alert system.

18
CHAPTER FOUR: DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING

4.1 Design procedures

4.1.1 Information gathering

The knowledge of how to design of anti-water drown system did

not just came from anywhere even due a lot of information came

through inspirations of different ways (bio devices: Magxim

Electronics journal on Electronics & psychological effects 3 Edition

2012 for things to be down there is a source of information via

knowledge which is not only on teachings but also with metal

physical inspiration). Different sources where visited in other to

get the clear view of how to design an RF based intruder system,

this ways include internet sites where a lot of information of

different designs can be archived. Come to school premises where

the knowledge is being passed from teachers to students. Others

include pea groups and book reading etc.

19
4.1.2 Project resource centers

This includes:

a. internet resource centers


b. experimental aids and observation
c. Teachers and lectures
d. And digital electronics by J.K Mehta

4.1.1 Choice of Materials

The materials I used were from the information I got from the

internet and I have to develop the work through the source I

found online that is treating the same case.

The circuit diagram used is the diagram which was design as a

prototype but also works to revive some information about the

circuit analysis of the devices which I later entered more design

like the alarm unit and the infrared radio wave for the infrared

sensor to give a better operation of the device.

4.2 Circuit diagram of the design

Fig 4.1 Circuit diagram of the project

20
4.2.1 Circuit diagram analysis

4.3 Design implementation steps

Here, we are to show the various steps took while trying to

archive a working system (prototype system) of a biosensor

system.

4.3.1 Component listing

a. Microcontroller (Atmel89s52)
b. Voltage regulator (7805)
c. Resistors(1k,10k,4k7,5k6)
d. Transistor (c1815, Mosfet irf3205)
e. Rectifier diode (1n5408)
f. Buzzer (12v)
g. Infrared receiver

4.4 Component analysis and descriptions

Here, the whole components is discussed. The choice of

component was obtained from the circuit diagram analysis which

visually illustrates the various component connection between

each other, from there the components used was named and

given values form the parameters and so from there we obtained

21
our choice of components. This is feather analysis in the circuit

diagram analysis.

4.4.1 Diode Rectifier

A diode is an electrical device allowing current to move through it

in one direction with far greater ease than in the other. The most

common kind of diode in modern circuit design is the

semiconductor diode, although other diode technologies exist.

Semiconductor diodes are symbolized in schematic diagrams such

as Figure below. The term diode is customarily reserved for

small signal devices, I 1 A. The term rectifier is used for power

devices, I > 1 A.

Fig 4.1 Semiconductor diode schematic symbol: Arrows indicate

the direction of electron current flow.

When placed in a simple battery-lamp circuit, the diode will either

allow or prevent current through the lamp, depending on the

polarity of the applied voltage. (Figure below)

22
Fig 4.2 Diode operation: (a) Current flow is permitted; the diode is

forward biased. (b) Current flow is prohibited; the diode is

reversed biased.

When the polarity of the battery is such that electrons are allowed

to flow through the diode, the diode is said to be forward-biased.

Conversely, when the battery is backward and the diode blocks

current, the diode is said to be reverse-biased. A diode may be

thought of as like a switch: closed when forward-biased and

open when reverse-biased.

Oddly enough, the direction of the diode symbol's arrowhead

points against the direction of electron flow. This is because the

diode symbol was invented by engineers, who predominantly use

conventional flow notation in their schematics, showing current as

a flow of charge from the positive (+) side of the voltage source

to the negative (-). This convention holds true for all

semiconductor symbols possessing arrowheads: the arrow

23
points in the permitted direction of conventional flow, and against

the permitted direction of electron flow.

Diode behavior is analogous to the behavior of a hydraulic device

called a check valve. A check valve allows fluid flow through it in

only one direction as in Figure below.

Fig 4.3 Hydraulic check valve analogy: (a) Electron current flow

permitted. (b) Current flow prohibited.

Check valves are essentially pressure-operated devices: they

open and allow flow if the pressure across them is of the correct

polarity to open the gate (in the analogy shown, greater fluid

pressure on the right than on the left). If the pressure is of the

opposite polarity, the pressure difference across the check

valve will close and hold the gate so that no flow occurs.

24
Like check valves, diodes are essentially pressure- operated

(voltage-operated) devices. The essential difference between

forward-bias and reverse-bias is the polarity of the voltage

dropped across the diode. Let's take a closer look at the simple

battery-diode-lamp circuit shown earlier, this time investigating

voltage drops across the various components in Figure below.

Fig 4.4 Diode circuit voltage measurements: (a) Forward biased.

(b) Reverse biased.

A forward-biased diode conducts current and drops a small

voltage across it, leaving most of the battery voltage dropped

across the lamp. If the battery's polarity is reversed, the diode

becomes reverse-biased, and drops all of the battery's voltage

leaving none for the lamp. If we consider the diode to be a self-

actuating switch (closed in the forward-bias mode and open in the

25
reverse-bias mode), this behavior makes sense. The most

substantial difference is that the diode drops a lot more voltage

when conducting than the average mechanical switch (0.7 volts

versus tens of millivolts).

This forward-bias voltage drop exhibited by the diode is due to the

action of the depletion region formed by the P-N junction under

the influence of an applied voltage. If no voltage applied is across

a semiconductor diode, a thin depletion region exists around the

region of the P-N junction, preventing current flow. (Figure below

(a)) The depletion region is almost devoid of available charge

carriers, and acts as an insulator:

26
Fig 4.5 Diode representations: PN-junction model, schematic

symbol, physical part.

The schematic symbol of the diode is shown in Figure above (b)

such that the anode (pointing end) corresponds to the P-type

semiconductor at (a). The cathode bar, non-pointing end, at (b)

corresponds to the N-type material at (a). Also note that the

cathode stripe on the physical part (c) corresponds to the cathode

on the symbol.

If a reverse-biasing voltage is applied across the P-N junction, this

depletion region expands, further resisting any current through it.

(Figure below)

Fig 4.6 Depletion region expands with reverse bias.

27
Conversely, if a forward-biasing voltage is applied across the P-N

junction, the depletion region collapses becoming thinner. The

diode becomes less resistive to current through it. In order for a

sustained current to go through the diode; though, the depletion

region must be fully collapsed by the applied voltage. This takes a

certain minimum voltage to accomplish, called the forward

voltage as illustrated in Figure below.

Fig 4.7Inceasing forward bias from (a) to (b) decreases depletion

region thickness.

For silicon diodes, the typical forward voltage is 0.7 volts,

nominal. For germanium diodes, the forward voltage is only 0.3

volts. The chemical constituency of the P-N junction comprising

the diode accounts for its nominal forward voltage figure, which is

why silicon and germanium diodes have such different forward


28
voltages. Forward voltage drop remains approximately constant

for a wide range of diode currents, meaning that diode voltage

drop is not like that of a resistor or even a normal (closed) switch.

For most simplified circuit analysis, the voltage drop across a

conducting diode may be considered constant at the nominal

figure and not related to the amount of current.

<="" a="">

Actually, forward voltage drop is more complex. An equation

describes the exact current through a diode, given the voltage

dropped across the junction, the temperature of the junction, and

several physical constants. It is commonly known as the diode

equation:

29
The term kT/q describes the voltage produced within the P-N

junction due to the action of temperature, and is called the

thermal voltage, or Vt of the junction. At room temperature, this is

about 26 millivolts. Knowing this, and assuming a nonideality

coefficient of 1, we may simplify the diode equation and re-write it

as such:

30
You need not be familiar with the diode equation to analyze

simple diode circuits. Just understand that the voltage dropped

across a current-conducting diode does change with the amount

of current going through it, but that this change is fairly small

over a wide range of currents. This is why many textbooks simply

say the voltage drop across a conducting, semiconductor diode

remains constant at 0.7 volts for silicon and 0.3 volts for

germanium. However, some circuits intentionally make use of the

P-N junction's inherent exponential current/voltage relationship

and thus can only be understood in the context of this equation.

Also, since temperature is a factor in the diode equation, a

forward-biased P-N junction may also be used as a temperature-

sensing device, and thus can only be understood if one has a

conceptual grasp on this mathematical relationship.

A reverse-biased diode prevents current from going through it,

due to the expanded depletion region. In actuality, a very small

amount of current can and does go through a reverse-biased

diode, called the leakage current, but it can be ignored for most

purposes. The ability of a diode to withstand reverse-bias voltages

31
is limited, as it is for any insulator. If the applied reverse-bias

voltage becomes too great, the diode will experience a condition

known as breakdown (Figure below), which is usually destructive.

A diode's maximum reverse-bias voltage rating is known as the

Peak Inverse Voltage, or PIV, and may be obtained from the

manufacturer. Like forward voltage, the PIV rating of a diode

varies with temperature, except that PIV increases with increased

temperature and decreases as the diode becomes cooler --

exactly opposite that of forward voltage.

Fig 4.7 Diode curve: showing knee at 0.7 V forward biases for Si,

and reverse breakdown.

Typically, the PIV rating of a generic rectifier diode is at least 50

volts at room temperature. Diodes with PIV ratings in the many

thousands of volts are available for modest prices.

Types of diode
32
There are many different types of diodes that are available for use

in electronics design. Different semiconductor diode types can be

used to perform different functions as a result of the properties of

these different diode types. Semiconductor diodes can be used for

many applications. The basic application is obviously to rectify

waveforms.

Backward diode: This type of diode is sometimes also called

the back diode. Although not widely used, it is a form of PN

junction diode that is very similar to the tunnel diode in its

operation. It finds a few specialist applications where its particular

properties can be used.

BARITT diode: This form of diode gains its name from the

words Barrier Injection Transit Time diode. It is used in microwave

applications and bears many similarities to the more widely used

IMPATT diode.

Gunn Diode: Although not a diode in the form of a PN junction,

this type of diode is a semiconductor device that has two

terminals. It is generally used for generating microwave signals.

33
Laser diode: This type of diode is not the same as the ordinary

light emitting diode because it produces coherent light. Laser

diodes are widely used in many applications from DVD and CD

drives to laser light pointers for presentations. Although laser

diodes are much cheaper than other forms of laser generator,

they are considerably more expensive than LEDs. They also have

a limited life.

Light emitting diodes: The light emitting diode or LED is one

of the most popular types of diode. When forward biased with

current flowing through the junction, light is produced. The diodes

use component semiconductors, and can produce a variety of

colours, although the original colour was red. There are also very

many new LED developments that are changing the way displays

can be used and manufactured. High output LEDs and OLEDs are

two examples.

Photodiode: The photo-diode is used for detecting light. It is

found that when light strikes a PN junction it can create electrons

and holes. Typically photo-diodes are operated under reverse bias

conditions where even small amounts of current flow resulting

34
from the light can be easily detected. Photo-diodes can also be

used to generate electricity. For some applications, PIN diodes

work very well as photo detectors.

PIN diode: This type of diode is typified by its construction. It

has the standard P type and N-type areas, but between them

there is an area of intrinsic semiconductor which has no doping.

The area of the intrinsic semiconductor has the effect of

increasing the area of the depletion region which can be useful for

switching applications as well as for use in photodiodes, etc.

PN Junction: The standard PN junction may be thought of as

the normal or standard type of diode in use today. These diodes

can come as small signal types for use in radio frequency, or

other low current applications which may be termed as signal

diodes. Other types may be intended for high current and high

voltage applications and are normally termed rectifier diodes.

Schottky diodes: This type of diode has a lower forward

voltage drop than ordinary silicon PN junction diodes. At low

currents the drop may be somewhere between 0.15 and 0.4 volts

35
as opposed to 0.6 volts for a silicon diode. To achieve this

performance they are constructed in a different way to normal

diodes having a metal to semiconductor contact. They are widely

used as clamping diodes, in RF applications, and also for rectifier

applications.

Step recovery diode: A form of microwave diode used for

generating and shaping pulses at very high frequencies. These

diodes rely on a very fast turn off characteristic of the diode for

their operation.

Tunnel diode: Although not widely used today, the tunnel diode

was used for microwave applications where its performance

exceeded that of other devices of the day.

Varactor diode or varicap diode: This type of diode is used in

many radio frequency (RF) applications. The diode has a reverse

bias placed upon it and this varies the width of the depletion layer

according to the voltage placed across the diode. In this

configuration the varactor or varicap diode acts like a capacitor

with the depletion region being the insulating dielectric and the

36
capacitor plates formed by the extent of the conduction regions.

The capacitance can be varied by changing the bias on the diode

as this will vary the width of the depletion region which will

accordingly change the capacitance.

Zener diode: The Zener diode is a very useful type of diode as

it provides a stable reference voltage. As a result it is used in vast

quantities. It is run under reverse bias conditions and it is found

that when a certain voltage is reached it breaks down. If the

current is limited through a resistor, it enables a stable voltage to

be produced. This type of diode is therefore widely used to

provide a reference voltage in power supplies. Two types of

reverse breakdown are apparent in these diodes: Zener

breakdown and Impact Ionisation. However the name Zener diode

is used for the reference diodes regardless of the form of

breakdown that is employed.

Semiconductor diodes are widely used throughout all areas of the

electronics industry from electronics design through to production

and repair. The semiconductor diode is very versatile, and there

37
are very many variants and different types of diode that enable all

the variety of different applications to be met.

Diode as a rectifier

Rectifier circuits may be single-phase or multi-phase (three being

the most common number of phases). Most low power rectifiers

for domestic equipment are single-phase, but three-phase

rectification is very important for industrial applications and for

the transmission of energy as DC (HVDC).

Half-wave rectification

In half wave rectification of a single-phase supply, either the

positive or negative half of the AC wave is passed, while the other

half is blocked. Because only one half of the input waveform

reaches the output, mean voltage is lower. Half-wave rectification

requires a single diode in a single-phase supply, or three in a

three-phase supply. Rectifiers yield a unidirectional but pulsating

direct current; half-wave rectifiers produce far more ripple than

38
full-wave rectifiers, and much more filtering is needed to

eliminate harmonics of the AC frequency from the output.

Fig 4.8 Half-wave rectifier

The no-load output DC voltage of an ideal half wave rectifier for a

sinusoidal input voltage is:

Where: Vdc, Vav - the DC or average output voltage,

Vpeak, the peak value of the phase input voltages,

Vrms, the root-mean-square value of output voltage.

Full-wave rectification

A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input waveform to

one of constant polarity (positive or negative) at its output. Full-

wave rectification converts both polarities of the input waveform

39
to pulsating DC (direct current), and yields a higher average

output voltage. Two diodes and a center tapped transformer, or

four diodes in a bridge configuration and any AC source (including

a transformer without center tap), are needed. [3] Single

semiconductor diodes, double diodes with common cathode or

common anode, and four-diode bridges, are manufactured as

single components.

4.9 Graetz bridge rectifier: a full-wave rectifier using 4 diodes.

For single-phase AC, if the transformer is center-tapped, then two

diodes back-to-back (cathode-to-cathode or anode-to-anode,

depending upon output polarity required) can form a full-wave

rectifier. Twice as many turns are required on the transformer

secondary to obtain the same output voltage than for a bridge

rectifier, but the power rating is unchanged.

40
Fig 4.10: Full-wave rectifier using a center tap transformer and 2

diodes.

Fig 4.11: Full-wave rectifier, with vacuum tube having two anodes.

The average and root-mean-square no-load output voltages of an

ideal single-phase full-wave rectifier are:

Very common double-diode rectifier vacuum tubes contained a

single common cathode and two anodes inside a single envelope,

41
achieving full-wave rectification with positive output. The 5U4 and

5Y3 were popular examples of this configuration.

Diode Bridge

Fig 4.12 Detail of a diode bridge, rated at 1000 Volts x 4 Amperes,

a handmade diode bridge. The wide silver band on the diodes

indicates the cathode side of the diode.

A diode bridge is an arrangement of four (or more) diodes in a

bridge circuit configuration that provides the same polarity of

output for either polarity of input. When used in its most common

application, for conversion of an alternating current (AC) input

into a direct current (DC) output, it is known as a bridge

rectifier. A bridge rectifier provides full-wave rectification from a

two-wire AC input, resulting in lower cost and weight as compared

42
to a rectifier with a 3-wire input from a transformer with a center-

tapped secondary winding

4.4.2 Transistors

Fig 4.13transistor images

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and

switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of

semiconductor material with at least three terminals for

connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to

one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current through

another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power

can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can

amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged

43
individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated

circuits.

The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern

electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern electronic

systems. Following its development in 1947 by American

physicists John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley,

the transistor revolutionized the field of electronics, and paved

the way for smaller and cheaper radios, calculators, and

computers, among other things. The transistor is on the list of

IEEE milestones in electronics, and the inventors were jointly

awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for their achievement.

Simplified operation

44
Fig 4.14 a simple circuit diagrams to show the labels of a npn

bipolar transistor. (C1815)

The essential usefulness of a transistor comes from its ability to

use a small signal applied between one pair of its terminals to

control a much larger signal at another pair of terminals. This

property is called gain. It can produce a stronger output signal, a

voltage or current, that is proportional to a weaker input signal;

that is, it can act as an amplifier. Alternatively, the transistor can

be used to turn current on or off in a circuit as an electrically

controlled switch, where the amount of current is determined by

other circuit elements.

There are two types of transistors, which have slight differences in

how they are used in a circuit. A bipolar transistor has terminals

labeled base, collector, and emitter. A small current at the base

terminal (that is, flowing between the base and the emitter) can

control or switch a much larger current between the collector and

emitter terminals. For a field-effect transistor, the terminals are

labeled gate, source, and drain, and a voltage at the gate can

control a current between source and drain.

45
The image to the right represents a typical bipolar transistor in a

circuit. Charge will flow between emitter and collector terminals

depending on the current in the base. Because internally the base

and emitter connections behave like a semiconductor diode, a

voltage drop develops between base and emitter while the base

current exists. The amount of this voltage depends on the

material the transistor is made from, and is referred to as VBE.

Types

PNP P-channel

NPN N-channel

BJT JFET
BJT and JFET symbols

P-channel

46
N-channel

JFET MOSFET enh MOSFET dep


JFET and IGFET symbols

Fig 4.15 Transistors are categorized by

Semiconductor material (date first used): the

metalloidsgermanium (1947) and silicon (1954) in amorphous,

polycrystalline and monocrystalline form; the compoundsgallium

arsenide (1966) and silicon carbide (1997), the alloysilicon-

germanium (1989), the allotrope of carbongraphene (research

ongoing since 2004), etc.see Semiconductor material

Structure: BJT, JFET, IGFET (MOSFET), insulated-gate bipolar

transistor, "other types"

Electrical polarity (positive and negative): npn, pnp (BJTs); n-

channel, p-channel (FETs)

Maximum power rating: low, medium, high

47
Maximum operating frequency: low, medium, high, radio (RF),

microwave frequency (the maximum effective frequency of a

transistor is denoted by the term , an abbreviation for transition

frequencythe frequency of transition is the frequency at which

the transistor yields unity gain)

Application: switch, general purpose, audio, high voltage, super-

beta, matched pair

Physical packaging: through-hole metal, through-hole plastic,

surface mount, ball grid array, power modulessee Packaging

Amplification factor hfe, F (transistor beta)[33] or gm

(transconductance).

Thus, a particular transistor may be described as silicon, surface-

mount, BJT, npn, low-power, high-frequency switch.

4.4.3 Infrared Sensor

48
Fig 4.16 infrared transmitter receiver image

Detecting Obstacle with IR (Infrared) Sensor

The basic concept of IR (infrared) obstacle detection is to transmit

the IR signal (radiation) in a direction and a signal is received at

the IR receiver when the IR radiation bounces back from a

surface of the object.

Here in the figure the object can be any thing which has certain

shape and size, the IR LED transmits the IR signal on to the object

and the signal is reflected back from the surface of the object.
49
The reflected signals is received by an IR receiver. The IR receiver

can be a photodiode / phototransistor or a ready made module

which decodes the signal.

In order to implement the IR obstacle detection, we need to

understand the following

We need to understand how to transmit IR signal using

commercially available electronic components. Same way we also

need to understand the IR receiver.

My main focus in this document is to explain the implementation

of IR based obstacle detection in detail.

IR Transmitter

In general, the basic building block of any IR transmitter is

modulation of the information signal with carrier signal, because

the receiver modules which are available off-the-shelf are made

for a particular carrier frequency. So it is clear that when you

chose a particular IR receiver module, you also need to transmit

the the modulated wave with the same carrier frequency of that

50
of a IR receiver module.

Modulating a 38 Khz carrier signal

ON state = 10ms

OFF state = 90ms

The figure above explains the modulation process, this is similar

to OOK(ON-OFF Keying) modulation, where the carrier signal is

ON for certain period of time. When transmitting a signal for

obstacle detection, it is necessary that the carrier signal is

transmitted for a short while and remains OFF for longer period of

time.

If the transmission of the carrier signal is prolonged, in other

words, instead of having a short transmission period(10

milliseconds in our case, as explained in the figure) of carrier

signal, if we have it for a long period of time then the receiver

51
module will treat it as a noise and ignores receiving the

transmitted signal.

4.4.4 Battery Power Supply and Lm7805

Fig 4.16 a sample circuit of a power supply using 7805 voltage

regulator

A regulated power supply is very much essential for several

electronic devices due to the semiconductor material employed in

them have a fixed rate of current as well as voltage. The device

may get damaged if there is any deviation from the fixed rate.

The AC power supply gets converted into constant DC by this

circuit. By the help of a voltage regulator DC, unregulated output

will be fixed to a constant voltage. The circuit is made up of linear

52
voltage regulator 7805 along with capacitors and resistors with

bridge rectifier made up from diodes. From giving an unchanging

voltage supply to building confident that output reaches

uninterrupted to the appliance, the diodes along with capacitors

handle elevated efficient signal conveyal.

Description:

As we have previously talked about that regulated power supply is

a device that mechanized on DC voltages and also it can uphold

its output accurately at a fixed voltage all the time although if

there is a significant alteration in the DC input voltage.

ICs regulator is mainly used in the circuit to maintain the exact

voltage which is followed by the power supply. A regulator is

mainly employed with the capacitor connected in parallel to the

input terminal and the output terminal of the IC regulator. For the

checking of gigantic alterations in the input as well as in the

output filter, capacitors are used. While the bypass capacitors are

used to check the small period spikes on the input and output

level. Bypass capacitors are mainly of small values that are used

to bypass the small period pulses straightly into the Earth.


53
A circuit diagram having regulator IC and all the above discussed

components arrangement revealed in the figure below.

Regulated Power Supply Circuit

4.4.5 Microcontroller (Atmel89s52)

The AT89s52 is a low powered 5V microcontroller, high

performance cmos 8-bit microcomputer with 8Kbytes of flash

programmable, 32bit IO ports and erasable read only memory

(EEPROM). The device is manufactured using Atmel`s high density

nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the

industry standard MCS-51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip

flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in system

or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By

combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with flash on a monolithic chip,

the Atmel AT89s52 is a powerful microcomputer, which provides a

54
highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded

control application.

The AT89s52 is designed with static logic for operation down to

zero frequency and support two software selectable power saving

modes. The idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM,

timer/counters, serial port and interrupt system to continue

functioning. The power down mode saves the RAM contents but

freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the

next hardware reset

Fig4.17 Pin configuration of AT89S52

Features of AT89S52

Programmable serial channel

Compatible with MCS-51TM product

55
8Kbytes of in-system Reprogrammable flash memory - Endurance:

1,000 write/Erase cycles

Fully static operation:0Hz to 12MHz

Three-level program memory lock

256x 32-bit external RAM

32 programmable I/O lines

Two 16-bit timer/counters

Six interrupt sources

Low-power idle and power-down modes.

56
Fig 4.18: Block diagram of AT89s52 internal circuitry

Pin description

Vcc

Supply voltage.

GND

Ground.

Port 0

Port 0 is an 8-bit open-drain bi-directional I/O port. As an output

port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to

57
port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high impedance inputs. Port 0

may also be configured to be the multiplexed low order

Address/data bus during accesses to external program and data

memory. In this mode P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives

the code bytes during Flash programming, and outputs the code

bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required

during program verification.

Port 1

Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The

Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are

written to Port 1 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups

and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are

externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the

internal pull-ups. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes

during Flash programming and verification.

Port 2

Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The

Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are

written to Port 2 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups

58
and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are

externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the

internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during

fetches from external program memory and during accesses to

external data memory that uses 16-bit addresses (MOVX @

DPTR). In this application, it uses strong internal pull-ups when

emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that uses

8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2

Special Function Register.

Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control

signals during Flash programming and verification.

Port 3

Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The

Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are

written to Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups

and can be used as inputs. As inputs,

Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current

(IIL) because of the pull-ups. Port 3 also serves the functions of

various special features of the AT89S51 as listed below.

59
Alternate functions of port 3

Table 4.1: port 3 pin functions

Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming

and verification.

RST

Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the

oscillator is running resets the device.

ALE/PROG

Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the low byte of the

address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the

program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal

operation ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator

frequency, and may be used for external timing or clocking


60
purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during

each access to external Data Memory. If desired, ALE operation

can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit

set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction.

Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable

bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution

mode.

PSEN

Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program

memory. When the AT89C51 is executing code from external

program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle,

except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access

to external data memory.

EA/VPP

External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to

enable the device to fetch code from external program memory

locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH.

Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be

internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for

61
internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt

programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming, for

parts that require 12-volt VPP.

XTAL1

Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal

clock operating circuit.

4.4.7Resistors

Resistance is the property of a component which restricts the flow

of electric current. Energy is used up as the voltage across the

component drives the current through it and this energy appears

as heat in the component.

Resistance is measured in ohms; the symbol for ohm is an omega

1 is quite small for electronics so resistances are often given in

k and M .

1 k = 1000 1 M = 1000000 .

Resistors used in electronics can have resistances as low as 0.1

or as high as 10 M .

62
Resistors connected in Series

Fig 4.19 Resistor connected in series

When resistors are connected in series their combined resistance

is equal to the individual resistances added together. For example

if resistors R1 and R2 are connected in series their combined

resistance, R, is given by:

63
R1 + R2

Resistors connected in Parallel


Combined resistance in series: R = R1 + R2
R= R1 R2
This can be extended for more resistors:

R = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + ...

Note that the combined resistance in series will always be greater

than any of the individual resistances.

Combined resistance of

two resistors in parallel:

Fig 4.20 Resistors connected in parallel

When resistors are connected in parallel their combined

resistance is less than any of the individual resistances. There is a

64
special equation for the combined resistance of two resistors R1

and R2:

For more than two resistors connected in parallel a more difficult

equation must be used. This adds up the reciprocal ("one over") of

each resistance to give the reciprocal of the combined resistance,

R:

1/R=1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3

The simpler equation for two resistors in parallel is much easier to

use!

Note that the combined resistance in parallel will always be less

than any of the individual resistances.

How to read Resistor Colour Codes

Table 4.2 Resistor color code

Brow Orang Gree Blu Viole Gra


Black Red Yellow White
n e n e t y

65
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

The mnemonic

Bad Boys Ravish Only Young Girls But Violet Gives Willingly

Black is also easy to remember as zero because of the

nothingness common to both.

Fig4.21 Resistor color code representation

First find the tolerance band, it will typically be gold ( 5%) and

sometimes silver (10%). Starting from the other end, identify the

first band - write down the number associated with that color; in

this case Blue is 6. Now 'read' the next color, here it is red so

write down a '2' next to the six (you should have '62' so far.) Now

66
read the third or 'multiplier' band and write down that number of

zeros.

In this example it is two so we get '6200' or '6,200'. If the

'multiplier' band is Black (for zero) don't write any zeros down. If

the 'multiplier' band is Gold move the decimal point one to the

left. If the 'multiplier' band is Silver move the decimal point two

places to the left. If the resistor has one more band past the

tolerance band it is a quality band.

Read the number as the '% Failure rate per 1000 hour' this is

rated assuming full wattage being applied to the resistors. (To get

better failure rates, resistors are typically specified to have twice

the needed wattage dissipation that the circuit produces) 1%

resistors have three bands to read digits to the left of the

multiplier. They have a different temperature coefficient in order

to provide the 1% tolerance.

At 1% most error is in the temperature coefficient - i.e. 20ppm.

67
4.4 Component gathering

The list of the component used was given so I have to go to the

market to porches some of them alongside with the sensor which

is to be used for the design

4.4.1 Component testing

Before the design and implementation phase, the system built

has to be tested for Durability, Efficiency, and Effectiveness and

also ascertain if there is need to modify this design. The system

was first assembled using a breadboard. All components were

properly inserted into the breadboard from whence some tests

were carried out at various stages.

Similar components like resistors were packed together. Other

components includes capacitor, preset switches, transformer,

diodes (rectifier) LED, transistor, voltage regulator etc

Reference was made to resistor color code data sheet to ascertain

the expected values of resistors used. Each resistor was tested

and the value read and recorded. Also for transistor test the DMM

was switched to the diode range with the symbol

68
The collector, base and emitter junctions were tested in the

following order. The collector, emitter and base pins were gotten

from the data analysis on power transistor.

To ensure proper functioning of components expected data, the

components were tested using a digital multimeter (DMM).

Resistors were tested to ensure that they were within the

tolerance value. Faulty resistors were discarded .The 78LS05

voltage regulator was also tested, the resulting output was 5.02v

which is just a deviation of 0.20v from the expected result of

5.00v.The LEDs were tested to ensure that they were all working

properly.

TRANSFORMER TEST (STEP-DOWN)

Expectedly, the transformer was rated 240v/15v, 2000mA. From

the mains power supply, the primary coil received 220v input; the

output was measured to be 17.75v using a DMM.

Test data on transformer has it that the resistance of the primary

windings for step down transformer is higher than that of the

secondary side. This was ascertained.

A. 4.5.6 Led

69
Blue, green, and red LEDs in 5 mm

diffused case
Working
Electroluminescence
principle
Oleg Losev (1927)[1]

James R. Biard

Invented (1961)[2]

Nick Holonyak

(1962)[3]
First
October 1962
production
Pin
Anode and cathode
configuration
Electronic symbol

70
Parts of an LED. Although unlabeled, the flat bottom surfaces of

the anvil and post embedded inside the epoxy act as anchors, to

prevent the conductors from being forcefully pulled out via

mechanical strain or vibration.

A bulb-shaped modern retrofit LED lamp with aluminium heat

sink, a light diffusing dome and E27 screw base, using a built-in

power supply working on mains voltage

71
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light

source. It is a pn junction diode, which emits light when

activated.[4]

When a suitable voltage is applied to the leads, electrons are able

to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing

energy in the form of photons. This effect is called

electroluminescence, and the color of the light (corresponding to

the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy band gap

of the semiconductor.

An LED is often small in area (less than 1 mm2) and integrated

optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern.[5]

Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962, [6] the

earliest LEDs emitted low-intensity infrared light. Infrared LEDs

are still frequently used as transmitting elements in remote-

control circuits, such as those in remote controls for a wide

variety of consumer electronics. The first visible-light LEDs were

also of low intensity, and limited to red. Modern LEDs are

available across the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths,

with very high brightness.


72
Early LEDs were often used as indicator lamps for electronic

devices, replacing small incandescent bulbs. They were soon

packaged into numeric readouts in the form of seven-segment

displays, and were commonly seen in digital clocks.

Recent developments in LEDs permit them to be used in

environmental and task lighting. LEDs have many advantages

over incandescent light sources including lower energy

consumption, longer lifetime, improved physical robustness,

smaller size, and faster switching. Light-emitting diodes are now

used in applications as diverse as aviation lighting, automotive

headlamps, advertising, general lighting, traffic signals, camera

flashes and lighted wallpaper. As of 2015, LEDs powerful enough

for room lighting remain somewhat more expensive, and require

more precise current and heat management than compact

fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output.

LEDs have allowed new text, video displays, and sensors to be

developed, while their high switching rates are also used in

advanced communications technology.

73
4.5 Design Steps

This are the various steps we took on the design of this project

4.5.1 Component placing and wiring

Here, the whole components were place into the vero board

according to its position in the circuit diagram, the legs were bend

to avoid living its space and to avoid it from failing off.

4.5.2 Component soldering

The components were solder using a soft thick lead oxide and the

component connections was done with a tiny flexible wire we got

from a networking cable to join one component to the other

according to the circuit diagram.

4.6 Embedded software integration

After the design of the circuit the microcontroller was

programmed to control the whole circuit with the software

program running inside of it.

74
Software Development Process

In writing the software for this project a modular approach

was employed. This made it easier to check for errors and debug

the program. Three major tools were used in the development

process; the keil C51 compiler was used to translate from the

source code into the object code. The SDCC was employed to link

the program while the PACKIHX did the conversion from binary to

hex.

Choice of Programming Language

My implementation programming language for this project is ANSI

C programming language, reason being the fact that it combines

the elements of high level languages with the functionalism of

assembly language. C allows the manipulation of bits, bytes and

addresses. Also C codes are portable which means that it is

possible to adapt software written for one type of computer to

another.

Nevertheless, a special feature of ANSI C is that it allows the

direct manipulation of bits, bytes, words and pointers. This suits it

75
to system-level programming, where these operations are

common.

4.6.1 Programming language

This is an executable written commands which a computer can

understand when translated to binary format by a compiler.

4.6.2 Programming steps

Program Entry and Editing

After the design of the software, a text editor is employed to enter

the source code into the disk file. As noted earlier, the text editor

also functions to correct error in the program. The text editor used

is KEIL C51 compiler and text editor.

4.6.3 Design program source code

#include "AT89x52.h"

#include "string.h"

76
#define lcd P2

sbit en = P3^6;

sbitrs = P3^7;

unsignedinta,b;

unsigned char lcdcode[] = {0x38, 0x0e , 0x01, 0x06,

0x80 } ;

charnextline[]= {0xc0};

char left = 0x18;

voidmsdelay(unsigned int time)

unsignedm,n ;

for(m=0;m<time;m++)

for(n=0;n<time;n++);

77
}

4.6.4 Compilation of the source code (Language-assembly-

hexadecimal or machine code)

After writing the program in the editors environment, the

software was use to compiler the entire program to generate a

hex file which will be burn into the microcontroller.

4.6.7 Burning of the hex file into the microcontrollers

In burning the hex into the microcontroller, we have to use an in

system programmer known as ISP programmer which will now

read and verifier the microcontroller design nomenclature and

then will copy the hex codes into the microcontroller.

4.6.8 Inserting the microcontroller into the hardware

design

Then after that the microcontroller will now be inserted into the

circuit for testing.

4.7 Circuit test

78
After the implementation of the circuit diagram it has to be

powered and checked for accurate functionality before coupling

and packaging.

The design makes use of 9v battery which was converter to dc

using a diode rectifier and a capacitor filter to get an accurate dc

from the voltage supply unit.

4.8 Packaging

As a prototype design, we have to copy an existing system which

makes use of a robotic motion detector system.

4.9 Final test

The final test was undergone for proper function and design

usage.

CHAPTER FIVE

DESIGN TEST AND INTEGRATION

5.1 APPLICATIONS OF THE PROJECT

This devices is use in various places like the following.

79
a. In hospitals
b. In clinic centers
c. In military health issues
d. In sports
e. In security places
f. Etc.

5.2 COMPONENT TESTING AND OBSERVATIONS

System Testing and Integration

After the design and implementation phase, the system built has

to be tested for Durability, Efficiency, and Effectiveness and also

ascertain if there is need to modify this design. The system was

first assembled using a breadboard. All components were properly

inserted into the breadboard from whence some tests were

carried out at various stages.

To ensure proper functioning of components expected data, the

components were tested using a digital millimeter (DMM).

Resistors were tested to ensure that they were within the

tolerance value. Faulty resistors were discarded .The 78LS05

voltage regulator was also tested, the resulting output was 5.02v

which is just a deviation of 0.20v from the expected result of

5.00v.The LEDs were tested to ensure that they were all working

properly.

80
5.2.1 Test plan and Test data

This chapter entails an overall system testing of the integrated

design of the voltage measurement device. The testing and

integration is done to ensure that the design is functioning

properly as expected thereby enabling one or even intended

users for which the project was targeted for, appreciate its

implementation and equally approaches used in the design and

integration of the various modules of the project.

However, this involves checks made to ensure that all the various

units and subsystems function adequately. Also there has to be a

good interface existing between the input/output unit

subsystems.

When the totality of the modules was integrated together, the

system was created and all modules and sections responded to as

specified in the design through the power supply delivering into

the system designed.

5.2.2 Components Test

81
Similar components like resistors were packed together. Other

components includes capacitor, preset switches, transistor and

display unit

Reference was made to resistor color code data sheet to ascertain

the expected values of resistors used. Each resistor was tested

and the value read and recorded. Also for transistor test the DMM

was switched to the diode range with the symbol

The collector, base and emitter junctions were tested in the

following order. The collector, emitter and base pins were gotten

from the data analysis on power transistor.

Table 5.1 Test for Transistor

Black probe Red probe


1 test on pins
st
Collector Base
2nd test on pins Emitter Base

5.2.3 System Test

The system was powered and operated upon using several

possibilities but we used battery. They include depressing more

than one button at the same time and noting the output

responses of the system hardware. The system allows only one

input at a time.

82
5.2.4 Other Tests

Light emitting diode (LED) emits rays when forward biased .For

capacitors the DMM was switched to the 22uf range and the

capacitors were inserted into the slot provided for it by the meter.

5.2.5 EXPERIMENTED RESULT VS ACTUAL RESULT

Table 5.2 Experimented Value/ Actual value

COMPONENTS EXPERIMENTED ACTUAL UNIT TOLERANCE

VALUE VALUE
Resistor 10000 10000

2000 2000
220 218 5%

10000 9980

Capacitor 10 10.20 f

10 10.15 f
30 29.82
f
Transistor Rbe 520 550

Rbc 510 548


Display 5.00 5.02
83
V
5.3 Performance Evaluation

From the table above, shows the range between the expected

value and the actual value can be tolerated. As a result of this the

drift in expected value has no critical effect on the system design

since the result current range was not also exceeded, also the

operational voltage range was not exceeded.

CHAPTER SIX

SUMMARY

6.1 Summary and Conclusion

This section of this project report forms the concluding part of the

write up and takes a look at some of the problems encountered

during the progressive job on the system and also brings in

84
suggestions for further improvement and/or enhancement for the

system design.

6.2 Summary of Achievement

The design and development of this project has really been

challenging, as I have been faced with choices far beyond what I

expected. But in the long run the result paid off.

After the complete design of the system, the deviation between

the expected result and the actual result was very close. The

performance and efficiency was beyond expectation and from

every ramification, the design of the project was a success.

6.3 Problems Encountered and Solution

During the course of the design of this system, there were series

of problems which came in the way of achieving the design goals

of this project, most of them where over come via share

troubleshooting, in some cases some parts require redesigning

and the software debugging also created a bit of a problem.

One major setback of this project is the availability of components

required to build the hardware of the system. In most cases I had

85
to look through electrical catalogs to obtain replacements of some

of the components which are not available in the market.

After developing the software for the microcontroller, it was very

difficult to find a firm/individual to help program the chip (burning

the embedded software on to the chip). This posed serious

problem as it brought about delay in the design time and it was

also costly, this also affected the overall cost of the system.

The final packaging of the design was also another trouble, as this

actually caused problems on the circuit board. Such problems

include partial contact within the circuit board, between

components and also with the wiring. This was actually one of the

most challenging aspects of the circuit implementation phase.

Due to this fact, there was a lot of soldering and de-soldering to

ensure that the circuit was well implemented.

6.4 Suggestions for further improvement

It will be more appreciated if the system is designed to have

integrated voice output playback with video capture.

86
6.5: Conclusion

Going through the planning, flow process, design and software

implementation the system had really been a tough one; but on

the whole it has been a chance to show case a little bit of

craftsmanship.

Reference

a) Also called burglar alarms, security systems, alarm systems,

intrusion detection systems, or perimeter detection systems.

87
b) Bill Waters. "How Motion Sensors Work with a Security

System". theHomeSecurityAdviser.com.
c) "Bowmark Capital backs 32 million MBO of CSL DualCom".

12 Jan 2012.
d) Sampson, Rana, False Burglar Alarms 2nd Edition (PDF), US

Department of Justice / Office of Community Oriented

Policing Services, ISBN 1-932582-04-5


e) U.S. Patent #3,482,037
f) "City of Reno : Newsroom : Council Approves Changes to

Alarm Ordinance". Reno.gov. 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2011-12-

06.
g) Harrelson, Chuck, Audio Verification Equals More

Apprehensions, EH Publishing, retrieved May 17, 2014

88