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Modeling and Simulation of Explosions in Sand, mine detonation

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Modeling and Simulation of Explosions in Sand, mine detonation

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F. Teixeira-Dias, F. Coghe, B. Dodd (editors)

Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal, 2011

B. Zakrisson a,b,? , H.-

A. Haggblad b

aBAE Systems H agglunds AB

SE-891 82 Ornsk

oldsvik

Sweden

bLule

aUniversity of Technology, Solid mechanics

SE-971 87 Lule

a

Sweden

Abstract. The demand for protection of personnel in military vehicles has increased dramatically in

the past recent years. Numerical simulations may be an effective tool in order to obtain an estimate if

a military vehicle is able to withstand a specific threat, or to compare different design concepts against

each other. The success of the outcome is however dependent on several parameters, where valid input

data to chosen material models is the focus of the current paper. A detonating explosive acting on a

deformable structure is a highly transient and non-linear event. In field blast trials of military vehicles,

a standard procedure is followed in order to reduce the uncertainties and increase the quality of the

test. The explosive is buried in the ground, where the state of the soil must meet specific demands. Soil

may be considered as a three phase medium, consisting of solid particles, water and air. Variations

between the amounts in these phases affect the stiffness of the soil, and may affect the result of the

test. Laboratory experiments have been done in the present work to characterise the behaviour of a soil

material. The experimental outcome has formed input data to represent the material behaviour under

influence of the expanding detonation products, in combination with an analytical three-phase model.

The material data derived in this work along with material data from the literature is used in numerical

simulations representing field blast trials. The blast trials included explosive buried at different depths

in wet or dry soil. A dependence of water content of the soil can be shown, both in the past field trials

along with the numerical simulations. Even though some deviations exist, the simulations showed in

general good agreement with the experimental results.

simulation; sand.

1 INTRODUCTION

Soil characteristics are of interest in a number of different fields, covering both quasi-static and

dynamic loading. Quasi-static soil properties are for instance of interest in dam engineering

and construction, while dynamic soil characteristics are of concern regarding earth quake

physics and defensive protection against land mine explosions. Soil materials consist of many

single grains of different size and shape, forming a skeleton where the voids are filled with

water and air. Soil can thus be considered as a three-phase medium, consisting mainly of

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solid grains with portions of water and air. When a small amount or no water at all is

included in the soil, the sample may be considered dry. If no air is included in the soil, the

sample is on the other hand said to be fully saturated. When the soil is under loading, it

undergoes a change in shape and compressibility. The volume decreases due to changes in

grain arrangements. Microscopic interlocking with frictional forces between the contacting

particles lead to bending of flat grains and rolling of rounded particles. If the load is further

increased, the grains eventually become crushed [1]. In quasi-static applications, the water

is often assumed to be incompressible. If the soil is compacted at a slow rate, the air and

portions of water are squeezed out of the soil skeleton. This assumption is however not valid

under shock loading, where water and air can undergo severe volumetric compression. In a

highly dynamic compaction such as an underground explosion, the air and water does not

have time to escape and may be considered as trapped in the soil [2].

In the NATO standard [3], recommendations for testing conditions of field blast trials with

explosive positioned in the ground are given. The soil shall be saturated with water prior to

testing, with the total wet density of the soil 2.20.1 g/cm3. The soil type in the ground shall

be sandy gravel, with 100% passing a 40mm sieve and maximum 10% passing a 0.08 mm sieve.

According to Table 1, definitions for gravel, sand, silt and clay based on particle size are given

based on three different classification systems [4]. Based on this, the soil type sandy gravel

may contain a particle size between 040 mm, with maximum 10% of the grains smaller than

0.08 mm.

BSCSa 60 - 2 2 0.06 0.06 0.002 < 0.002

Particle size (mm) ASTMb > 4.75 4.75 0.075 0.075 0.005 0.001 0.005

USCSc 75 4.75 4.75 0.075 < 0.075

a

British Soil Classification System

b

American Society for Testing and Materials

c

Unified Soil Classification System

Similar to rock and concrete, the strength of a soil is pressure dependent [5]. However, in

contrast to rock and concrete, soil has very low strength without some kind of confinement.

The soil material response depends on several parameters, such as for example grain size

distribution, grain density, in situ density and degree of saturation. It is common to use

a triaxial apparatus for characterisation of soil and other granular materials. A cylindrical

sample is placed into a pressurised chamber, where the stress can be individually set in the

radial and axial direction. It is thus possible to obtain both the yield function and the

compaction curve with this test. This method has been used for example in a derivation of

mechanical properties for sand with 6.57% moisture content by Laine and Sandvik [6], where

a triaxial apparatus was used up to 60 MPa confining pressure. Above 60 MPa, the data

representing the compaction curve was estimated by a 5th order polynomial function. The

material data provided by Laine and Sandvik is very often used in the industry and defence

applications involving land mine simulation due to its simplicity [7], but have also been used in

civil applications such as road side safety [8]. It is difficult to reach high hydrostatic pressures

with triaxial testing devices, but magnitudes up to 1 GPa has been reached for example by

Gabet et al. in [9]. However, a triaxial press capable of such high pressures becomes very large

and expensive. At the present, a common experimental method to reach higher pressure for

constructing a compaction curve (i.e. shock Hugoniot) is the plate impact experiment, carried

out at high strain rates. This has been done for both dry and water saturated quartz sand

by Chapman et al. in [10]. Bragov et al. [11] evaluated data using both a modified Kolsky

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bar and plate impact experiments to obtain material parameters for dry quartz sand covering

a wide range of strain rates. Using the Kolsky bar, pressures close to 280 MPa was reached,

and close to 1.8 GPa for the plate impact. No significant strain rate dependence could be

found between the two experimental methods, indicating that a quasi-static characterization

would also be valid.

It is of interest to have one generic model which includes all the important parameters affecting

the soil response. Grujicic et al. [7] used an analytical and computational approach, where

a three-phase model was constructed in order to estimate sand response under blast loading

at different degree of saturations. An extension to include differences in grain size has also

been done in [12]. Regarding material data for larger particle sizes corresponding to gravel

or sandy gravel, not much data is available in the literature. Lekarp et al. provided yield

function data for sandy gravel in [1] which also has been used by Wu and Thomson in [8], but

no volumetric compression data has been found.

The aim of this work is to, by using relatively simple experimental techniques, characterize a

sandy gravel material previously used in blast trials. The blast trials are simulated with the

developed material data in addition to published data from the literature, and compared to

the experimental results. A three-phase modelling approach have been used to construct the

compaction curve at different degrees of saturation based on the characterized material.

In an earlier work by Zakrisson et al. [13], blast trials with the explosive placed in sandy

gravel at three different burial depths were carried out. The explosive charge was 0.75 kg

Swedish military plastic explosive m/46 (commercially known as NSP71) with a density of

1500 kg/m3 , consisting of 86% PETN and 14% fuel oil. The charge was formed to a cylindrical

shape resulting in a diameter to height (D/H) ratio of 3.The experimental setup is shown in

Figure 1, where the ground blast rig with the sides 3 2 m and total height 2.7 m includes a

hanging test module. The test module consists of a square target plate of steel quality Weldox

700E with dimension 600x600x8 mm, held in place with a plate holder with the most important

dimension shown in Figure 1. The target plate is able to deform into a tube with inner radius

250 mm, where the tube edge is rounded to a 15 mm radius allowing a smooth deformation

of the target plate. The maximum dynamic target plate deformation was measured with a

deformable crush gauge made of a small block of thin walled aluminium honeycomb mounted

inside the tube of the test module. Knowing the initial distance from the target plate to

the crush gauge, the distance the crush gauge has deformed is thus used to determine the

maximum dynamic deformation, max , of the target plate. Further, the residual target plate

deformation, res , was determined at the plate centre. The test module also includes ballast

weights, giving a total test module weight of 2120 kg. The maximum test module jump, Ztm ,

was then determined by using a deformable crush gauge in combination with a linear position

sensor. The momentum transfer, Itm , can then be estimated by

p

Itm = m 2gZtm , (1)

where m is the test module mass, g the gravity constant and Ztm is the test module jump.

measurement of momentum transfer.

In addition to 10 tests with explosive placed in sandy gravel, two tests with explosive posi-

tioning in a steel pot were done. This work focuses on the simulation of the explosion in sand,

while the steel pot simulations along with further information about the test procedure can

be found in [13, 14]. Three different depth of burial (DOB) were tested, 0, 50 and 150 mm,

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627 mm

holder plate

Crush gauge

Test module

Soil box

Figure 1: Plate holder and test module to the left, the complete experimental setup to the right.

measured from the sand top surface to the mine top surface. For all three DOBs, the soil

was watered and compacted manually. Prior to the tests, a sample using a confined volume

of 1.218 dm3 was taken from the top of the soil box to determine the initial in situ density,

moisture content and degree of saturation. Also, two tests at DOB 50 mm were carried out

without watering the soil, and may thus be considered as dry. The square soil boxes were

made of wood with the side 950 mm while the height varied between 500 and 600 mm de-

pending on DOB of the mine. The height of the soil box was 500 mm for DOB 0 and 50 mm,

while the height was increased to 600 mm for DOB 150 mm. The stand-off to the target plate

was nominally held at 250 mm and measured from the target plate to the surface of the soil.

Since the boxes varied in height, the test module had to be adjusted vertically in the hanging

chains to keep the nominal stand-off distance, even though a slight variation was experienced.

The charges buried at 0 and 50 mm depth had a stand-off of 246 mm, while 150 mm DOB

had a 235 mm stand-off.

The complete description of all 10 tests is given by Zakrisson et al. in [13], while the average

initial states and the experimental results are given in Table 2 with deviations. The definitions

of volumes of a three-phase soil sample is shown in Figure 2, where the initial relative volume,

, for each phase is defined as

Vi0 0

= = i0 , (2)

V0 i0

where i = a, w, s represents air, water and solid grains, respectively. The saturation, S, is

determined as

S = Vw /Vp , (3)

and if the degree of saturation is 1 (i.e. 100%), the soil is fully saturated and only consisting

of solid grains and water. The moisture content is denoted w and determined as

w = mw /ms , (4)

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where mw is the mass of water in the soil sample and ms is the mass of the sand particles.

The sandy gravel used in the tests is commercially distributed as concrete gravel, with solid

grain density of 2.70.03 g/cm3 and a particle size ranging between 0-8 mm.

Table 2: Initial conditions for the soil along with test results.

DOB 0 mm 50 mm 150 mm 50 mm

State Wet Wet Wet Dry

(kg/m3 ) 18401717 185448 31 18421717 177155

s0 (%) 63.80.5

0.5

1.3

64.51.1 0.5

64.20.7

w0 (%) 13.60.4

0.4

1.4

13.21.3 0.2

12.80.3

a0 (%) 22.60.9

0.9

1.4

22.32.7 0.6

23.00.8

w (%) 8.00.2

0.1 7.70.6

0.8

0.1

7.40.1

S (%) 37.61.5

1.5 37.35.4

3.9

1.2

35.60.7

max (mm) 92.21.6

1.7 102.51.82.3 0.4

72.30.5 0.1

92.20.1

res (mm) 84.60.9

0.9 91.82.0

1.1

0.8

59.51.3 0.4

82.20.4

Itm (Ns) 19902020 2623307373 28337743 220555

55

Air Va0

Vp0

Vw0 V0

Water

Vs0

Solid grains

3 MODELLING

The general numerical methods used in this work to describe the blast loading and structural

deformation are described in this section. The explicit solver of the commercial finite element

(FE) software LS-DYNA V971 R5.1.1 [15] was used for the calculations. The numerical

simulations in this work were executed on a Linux SMP cluster with 4-8 Gb of available

memory. Only one core was used on a 2.8 GHz dual core AMD Opteron 2220 processor, with

double precision. The numerical code has been used without modifications.

In this section, the material modelling for the soil is presented.

The LS-DYNA material model 16 together with a tabulated equation of state (EOS) is used

to describe the soil in this work. The deviatoric and volumetric response is decoupled, where

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the deviatoric response is given by a yield function and the volumetric response is given by

the EOS [16]. The material model gives the yield function relation between the deviatoric

stress, q, versus pressure, P , in a piecewise tabulated form, together with a tensile cut-off

value. The initial density and the Poissons ratio are also given in the material model. The

EOS is given in piecewise tabular form of 10 points, relating pressure versus volumetric strain,

v , given by the natural logarithm of the relative volume based on the initial density given by

the material model. The EOS also relates the unloading bulk modulus, K, to the tabulated

pressure points. LS-DYNA extrapolates if needed [15]. Thus, Poissons ratio, , given in

the material model and the bulk modulus from the EOS complete the relation between the

isotropic elastic constants as

3K(1 2)

G= , (5)

2(1 + )

where G is the shear modulus. If the bulk modulus is varying, also the shear modulus will

vary, leaving Poissons ratio constant. Thus, the sound speed, c, in the material will also vary

since

p

c = K/. (6)

An example of the yield function and the volumetric response defined by the equation of

state is shown in Figure 3. The volumetric response is in the figure given in the form of

pressure-density, since it usually is more intuitive to relate to compared to volumetric strain.

Figure 3: Soil material input. Yield function defining shear stress against pressure shown to the left,

compaction equation of state representing pressure versus density shown to the right.

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A soil sample can, as mentioned in the introduction and shown in Figure 2, be divided

into three phases, solid particles, water and air, with the volumes denoted Vs , Vw and Va ,

respectively. In an explosive process, it may be assumed that the air and water does not have

time to escape, i.e. all three phases exist during the compaction. The total volume is thus

the sum of the volume of each of the three individual phases. The procedure used here was

originally proposed by Henrych [17], and has previously been adapted by An, Fiserova, Wang

et al. and Grujicic et al. to mention a few [2, 4, 7, 18].

The initial relative volume for each phase is defined according to Equation (2) and can be

written as

V0 Va0 + Vw0 + Vs0

= = a0 + w0 + s0 . (7)

V0 V0

Vi 0

= = i , (8)

V0 i

and the total current relative volume

0 V Va + Vw + Vs

= = = a + w + s . (9)

V0 V0

Equation (9) shows that the current density of the soil sample can be described by the sum

of the relative volumes of each individual phase. All three phases will experience the same

pressure at the same time, but each phase may experience different individual densities due

to different compressibility defined by its equations of state. For air, the equation of state can

be expressed in an adiabatic form such as

Va0

P = P0 , (10)

Va

where P0 is the atmospheric pressure and = 1.4 is the adiabatic constant. Equation (10)

can be rewritten using Equations (2) and (8) to

a a0

P = P0 = P0 . (11)

a0 a

1/

P

a = a0 . (12)

P0

" #

2 w kw

w0 Cw0

P = P0 + 1 , (13)

kw w0

where Cw0 = 1415 m/s, kw = 3, w0 = 1000 kg/m3 [4]. Using Equations (2) and (8) and

rearranging Equation (13) analogously as for the air EOS, we get

1/kw

P P0

w = w0 2 kw + 1 . (14)

w0 Cw0

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Using Equation (9) and rearranging, the expression for the current density becomes

0

= , (15)

a + w + s

where a and w is calculated using Equations (12) and (14) for a given pressure. If a relation

for the current relative volume for the sand, s is known, Equation (15) is completed and the

pressure-density data to the equation of state can be derived.

The explosive is modelled as a high explosive material with a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) form

of equation of state. A combined programmed burn and beta burn model determines when

an explosive element is detonated based on the initial density 0 , detonation pressure PCJ

and detonation velocity D [15]. When the criteria for detonation of an explosive element is

achieved, the energy is then released with the pressure defined according to the three term

JWL equation of state as

(R1 v) E

P =A 1 e +B 1 e(R2 v) + , (16)

R1 v R2 v v

where A, B, R1 , R2 and are material constants, is the relative volume and E is the internal

energy per unit reference volume. The JWL equation of state for the plastic explosive m/46

used in the blast trials have been calibrated and validated using cylinder tests presented in a

report by Helte et al. [19], and is used in previous applied work by Zakrisson et al. [14]. The

material- and JWL parameters for m/46 are given in Table 3.

Table 3: Material- and JWL-parameters for the plastic explosive m/46 [19].

D PCJ A B R1 R2 E0

kg/m3 m/s GPa GPa GPa kJ/cm3

1500 7680 21.15 759.9 12.56 5.1 1.5 0.29 7.05

The air is modelled with an ideal gas form of equation of state, defined as

p = (1 ) E, (17)

0

where is the current density and 0 the initial density while E is the internal energy per unit

reference volume. Also, = 1.4 is defined as the ratio between the specific heat at constant

pressure and volume, respectively. With initial density 1.169 kg/m3 , the initial pressure is 1

bar which results in an initial internal energy E0 of 250 kJ/m3 [20].

A common model used to describe materials subjected to large deformation, high strain rate

and adiabatic temperature softening is the Johnson and Cook (JC) model. The model is based

on von Mises plasticity, where the yield stress is scaled depending on the state of equivalent

plastic strain, strain rate and temperature. A modified JC model is described by Brvik et

al. in [21], where the equivalent yield stress is defined as

C

Bneq (1 T m ) ,

eq = A + 1+ (18)

eq

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where A, B, n, C and m are material constants, eq and 0 are the equivalent plastic- and

reference strain rate, respectively. The homologous temperature, T , is defined as T =

(T Tr )/(Tm Tr ), where T is the current temperature, Tr the room- or initial temperature

and Tm the material melting temperature. In this work, the modified JC model is used for the

steel plate Weldox 700E, which undergoes large plastic deformation. The material parameters

for Weldox 700E regarding the modified JC model is given by Brvik et al. in [22], shown in

Table 4. The strain rate parameters and C has been adjusted and used in previous work by

Zakrisson et al. [14], in order to better correlate the model response with the experimental

strain rate experiments presented in [22].

Table 4: Weldox 700E material constants for the modified JC constitutive model [22].

A (MPa) B (MPa) n () 0 (s1 ) C () Tr (K) Tm (K) m ()

819 308 0.64 1a 0.0221a 293 1800 1

E (GPa) () (kg/m3 ) Cp (J/kgK) () (K1 )

210 0.33 7850 452 0.9 1.2 105

a

Modified values compared to reference [22].

In this section, the material characterisation of the soil material is presented. The soil material

used in this work is sandy gravel, with a theoretical maximum density (TMD) of the solid

grains of TMD,s = 2.67 g/cm3 and grain size distribution according to Table 5. The material

is categorized as 0-8 mm Concrete gravel. Three types of experiments are carried out, with

the experimental setups shown in Figure 4. First, confined compression is done in order to

determine the volumetric response, so a compaction curve with pressure versus density can

be created. After that, the cylindrical samples created in the confined compression test are

used in a uniaxial compression test (UCT) or Brazilian disc (BD) tests in order to create a

yield function.

% passing 2 5 11 24 48 71 90 97 100

The test setup for the confined compression is shown in Figure 4a, together with the definition

of coordinate system. Two-sided compaction is done with a Dartec 250 kN press. The die

has an inner diameter of 25 mm, where the granular sample is filled. The largest grains

were removed in order to keep the sample diameter about 5 times larger than the maximum

grain size in the specimen [1]. The soil sample was moistened to an average moisture content

of 0.94%. The die walls were treated with Zink stearate to reduce the friction during the

compaction. A state of uniaxial strain is assumed, i.e. strain in the z-direction only where

the the radial elasticity of the die is assumed to be negligible during the compaction. Hookes

law can in tensor format be written

1

ij = 3K (kk ij + (1 2) ij ) , (19)

(1 + )

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Figure 4: Test setups for the material characterisation. In a), the confined compression is shown and

in b), the uniaxial compression is shown, c) shows the Brazilian disc test.

For an isotropic material, i.e. ij = ji, the relation between the elastic constants G, K and

is given by Equation (5). The bulk modulus, assuming small strains, is defined as

P

K= , (20)

v

where P is pressure defined positive in compression and v is the volumetric strain. In uniaxial

strain, Equation (20) becomes

P

K= , (21)

z

Evaluating Equation (19) for z using the assumption of uniaxial strain yields

(1 )

z = 3K z , (22)

(1 + )

Inserting Equation (21) in Equation (22), rearranged for the pressure, we have

(1 + )

P = z , (23)

3 (1 )

where z may be estimated from the surface pressure of the punch, knowing the press force

and punch area. Reported values in the literature regarding Poissons ratio for sandy gravel

is between 0.150.35 [8], where = 0.25 is chosen for this evaluation. Since Equation (23)

is only valid during elastic loading-unloading, it is only the maximum value on the pressure-

density curve and the following elastic unloading that is represented, i.e. not the non-linear

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Moisture 0.94 % Equation of State

1200 1200

1100 Measurements 1100 Function

Fully compacted Fully compacted

1000 1000

Function Tab. indata

900 2 3 4 5 900 Unloading

p() = k1 + k2* + k3* + k4* + k5* + k6*

800 k1 = -31194 800

P (MPa)

k2 = 86608 700

P (MPa)

700

k3 = -95882 600

600

k4 = 52939

500 500

k5 = -14589

400 k6 = 1607 400

300 300

200 200

100 100

1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6

3

(g/cm3) (g/cm )

Figure 5: In a), measurement data is shown together with polynomial function and fully compacted

line. In b), the corresponding equation of state is shown.

compaction path. The measured maximum values are shown in Figure 5a, representing press

forces 50 kN, 140 kN and 240 kN, resulting in a maximum pressure of about 270 MPa.

Even though Equation (23) is only valid for the elastic loading-unloading, it is used during

the non-linear compaction for all measured press force points to evaluate the test with the

highest density up to 270 MPa. The curve, named Function in Figure 5a, is close to the

measured points at all evaluated pressures, and here used as a reasonable assumption also

for the compaction curve outside the measured points. A 5th order polynomial function is

constructed and used up to the full compaction is reached, given in Figure 5a with coefficients.

The full compaction is assumed linear from the theoretical maximum density of the individual

grains, using the bulk stiffness of Westerly granite with 21501 GPa/(g/cm3 ) [23] (also used

in [6]). The compaction curve is then used to form the input for the EOS model described in

Section 3.1, where 10 tabulated points at equally spaced densities are formed. Since LS-DYNA

uses extrapolation outside the data points, both the two last points is on the fully compacted

curve to ensure the fully compaction line is never exceeded. The elastic unloading is also

defined by 10 tabulated points for each of the 10 pressures. The first value is defined by the

linear unloading between the two first pairs of data points, while the two last points represent

the fully compacted line. The values at the intermediate points are interpolated between the

1st and the 9th value of the bulk modulus. Note that the input data in LS-DYNA is based

on pressure versus logarithmic relative volume, and not density as shown in Figure 5b. The

input data for the unloading is represented by the bulk modulus. The complete input data

for the virgin material tested is shown in Figure 5b is given in Table 6, together with the

corresponding density.

The initial relative volumes for the sample used to create the input data given in Table 6

is a0 = 0.392, w0 =0.017, s0 = 0.591. Using the polynomial function given in Figure 5a

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Table 6: Equation of state data for sandy gravel with 0.94% average moisture content.

1 1592 0 0.1 4.3

2 1733 -0.0848629 0.5 7685.1

3 1874 -0.1630841 4.3 15366.0

4 2015 -0.2356281 13.0 23046.7

5 2156 -0.3032636 31.5 30727.6

6 2297 -0.3666128 81.2 38408.4

7 2438 -0.4261869 208.0 46089.3

8 2579 -0.4824106 492.6 53770.1

9 2720 -0.5356408 1075.1 61444.0

10 3000 -0.6336212 7095.4 61444.0

together with Equation (12), (14) and (15), a relation for P(s ) can be derived. For a given

pressure and desired values for the initial relative volumes representing the three phases, a

and w is determined by Equation (12) and (14). The current relative volume for sand, s , is

determined by interpolation from the previously derived relation P(s ). Equation (15) finally

gives the total density of the three-phase system, and completes the soil compaction curve.

The three-phase approach can now be used to create the EOS data corresponding to the

relative volumes representing the field blast trials, given in Table 2.

It is reasonable to assume that the theoretical maximum density for the three-phase medium

should reduce if a greater content of water exist in the medium, since the TMD for water is

lower than the solid grains. The density of air is low in comparison to water and sand and

is therefore neglected. A function for the theoretical maximum density of the three-phase

medium depending on the moisture content is introduced as

TMD = ww0 + (1 w) TMD,s . (24)

Thus, if no water is included in the medium then TMD = TMD,s , and if no solid grains is

included in the medium then TMD = w0 . The bulk stiffness of Westerly granite representing

the fully compacted material is identical for all states, but the start value at P = 0.1 MPa is

shifted to the TMD according to Equation (24).

The yield strength is characterised by means of using two different experimental methods;

uniaxial compression test and Brazilian disc test, (also known as or diametral compression).

For the UCT, a cylindrical sample is manufactured. A height to diameter of 2 is considered

to be sufficient to eliminate the end effects on the strength measurements [1, 5]. There exists

a significant difference in the present study compared to unconfined compaction of concrete

and rock, since the latter samples are casted or taken from a drilled core and not compacted

in a closed die, as in the present case. The height to diameter 2 was initially tested in the

setup, but the wall friction between the sample and die walls was deemed too high, even

though Zink stearate was used to reduce the friction. Further, a specimen with height to

diameter of 2 showed a more significant tendency to form surface cracks during the ejection

phase. Both effects will influence the unconfined compressive strength. For that reason, a

height to diameter of about 1 was chosen, even though the strength is likely to be somewhat

overestimated.

The previously compacted and ejected cylindrical sample using confined compression is placed

on a rigid support, without lateral confinement in the radial direction. The Dartec press pushes

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A. H 13

in the vertical direction, where a uniaxial stress state is assumed. With the von Mises yield

stress defined as r

p 3

q = 3J2 = Sij Sij , (25)

2

where J2 is the second stress invariant and Sij the deviatoric stress tensor, the shear stress in

uniaxial stress state while the press pushes in the vertical direction becomes

q = |z |. (26)

1

P = kk , (27)

3

which in uniaxial stress becomes

z

P = . (28)

3

The vertical stress z is, in the same way as for the confined compression test, estimated as

the surface pressure defined by the press force and the punch surface area. When the sample

is compressed, the deviatoric stress will increase according to Equation (26), and successively

expand radially since no confinement exists. When the failure stress is reached, the ability for

the sample to carry strength is successively reduced. The maximum value is thus defined as

the failure strength at pressure defined by Equation (28). The samples corresponding to the

experiments in Figure 5a are evaluated with UCT, where the residual (unloaded) density is

determined after the ejection phase. This gives an individual point on the yield function for

all UCT, related to its density.

The second test used here to form the yield function is the Brazilian disc test, where a biaxial

stress state is experienced by the specimen. The experimental setup for a Brazilian disc test

is shown in Figure 4c, and consists of a frame with two parallel compressive tools and a

load cell mounted into a Dartec 100 kN press. The displacement is measured with a LVDT-

displacement transducer, mounted between the compressive tools with an accuracy of 0.1%

linearity. The load cell measures forces up to 5 kN with an accuracy of 0.5 N. A thin disc

is compressed diametrally, where a thickness over diameter ratio t/D 0.25 ensures plane

stress condition [24]. This introduces tensile force in the positive and negative x-direction

according to Figure 6. The method has evolved from applying a single point load to instead

applying a pressure over a segment. The distributed load decrease the risk of introducing

fracture near the load contact but has almost no influence within the body, and is valid for

angles up to 2 = 22.90 , while the angles used in the experimental setup shown in Figure 4c

is 2 = 14 with the arc radius 12.7 mm [24]. The equations relating the stress at the centre

of the specimen, where the shear failure is expected, is

2p

x (0, 0) = (sin(2) ) . (29)

2p

y (0, 0) = (sin(2) + ) . (30)

xy (0, 0) = 0 (31)

where p is the surface pressure. Substituting the pressure by the press force given by F =

pDt, where D is the diameter and t is the thickness of the disc, the deviatoric stress and the

hydrostatic pressure is determined according to Equation (25) and Equation (27), respectively,

since the other stresses are zero due to plane stress condition. The yield strength for both the

UCT and BD tests are shown in Figure 7. It was difficult to reach equal densities in the two

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A. H 14

ways testing, but at =2.234 g/cm3 points can be connected. As can be seen in the figure,

the inclination of the yield function would not deviate largely if any of the other points would

have been suitable. Since the deviatoric and volumetric response of the yield model used in

the simulations is decoupled, the model is thus independent of density and one yield function

for a general density is sufficient. The relation between shear strength and pressure is close to

linear for soft soils loaded up to 500 MPa [11]. In this work, the failure line is extrapolated up

to the unconfined strength of Pikes Peak granite at 226 MPa [23]] where a von Mises cut-off

is used, in analogy with previous work by Laine and Sandvik [6]. The complete yield function

is shown in Figure 3, and given in tabular form in Table 7. Further, a tensile cut-off of 0.001

Pa is used, which is reasonable since soils with larger grain size are generally considerable

cohesion less [12].

y

p

2

x

o

r

Figure 7: Yield function for sandy gravel constructed by uniaxial compressive test and Brazilian disc

test.

An attempt was made to determine the Poissons ratio during the BD test with use of digital

speckle photography (DSP) with CCD cameras shown in Figure 4c, using the commercial sys-

tem ARAMIS. The DSP measures movement of small speckle points (usually applied) on the

surface of a specimen, and is for example used to measure localized strains in characterization

of steel materials [25]. The sand has a natural speckle pattern due to the different sizes of

the sand grains, and no external pattern was applied on the surface. The Poissons ratio is

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1 -0.067 0

2 80.5 226

3 500 226

evaluated at the center of the specimen, and is according to Hondros [26] defined as

(3x + y )

= , (32)

(3y + x )

where x and y is the strains in the x- and y-directions, respectively. Since Poissons ratio is an

elastic parameter, Equation (32) is only valid in the elastic part of the diametral compression.

The Poissons ratio for two tests are shown in Figure 8, where it seems to be stabilizing

after a short time around = 0.25 0.32. Fracture occurs quickly in the specimen and the

elastic assumption fails, where the Poissons ratio becomes non-linear. This indicates however

that the assumption of = 0.25 used in section 4.1 seems reasonable, even though the DSP

measurements was sensitive where many tests resulted in unsatisfactory data.

Figure 8: Poissons ratio determined with DSP during Brazilian disc testing.

In Figure 9, literature data are shown together with data derived in the present work. Re-

garding the equation of state data shown in Figure 9a, both dry and fully saturated quartz

sand is shown together with sand with moisture content 6.57% and the sandy gravel with

0.94% moisture content. Also, a fully saturated sandy gravel curve is shown, derived using

the three-phase approach. The quartz sand data show that fully saturated state stiffens and

reach its fully compacted state earlier than the dry state. A similar trend can be seen regard-

ing the sandy gravel. The sand and sandy gravel is more porous compared to quartz sand,

which may be explained due to the difference in the grain size and its distribution, see Table 1.

In Figure 9b, the yield function derived in the present work has steeper inclination compared

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A. H 16

to both yield functions from the literature [1, 6]. The literature data was derived using a

triaxial apparatus. The sand & gravel data was derived with the primary aim to characterize

the development of cumulative permanent axial strain with the number of load applications

for different tests [1]. A number of 80000 cycles was done. How the multiple cyclic loading

affects the yield function compared to a single cycle test is not reported.

1500 3

Dry quartz [10]

Sat. quartz [10] 2.5

Sand w=6.57% [6]

Sandy gravel w=0.94%

1000 2

Sat. sandy gravel

P (MPa)

q (MPa)

1.5

500 1

Sand [6]

0.5

Sand & gravel [1]

Sandy gravel (present work)

0 0

1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

3

(g/cm ) P (MPa)

Figure 9: In a), equation of state data is shown, b) shows the yield function. Literature data is

compared with the present work.

5 NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS

The finite element models and the numerical simulations corresponding to the field blast

trials are described in this section. In order to simulate the large expansion of gases (such

as explosion in sand and air), an Euler description have been used. The structural plate

deformation is described with a Lagrange description, where frictionless contact is defined

between the surrounding structures. A penalty based fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) is used

to couple the state variables from the gases in the Eulerian domain to the structural parts

in the Lagrangian domain [11]. All models and simulations are representing the geometry of

the test rig used in the field blast trials. The experimental geometry is represented in 3D,

which is modelled using quarter symmetry, see to the right in Figure 10. The gas dynamics

of the blast process can however be considered as axisymmetric until the shock wave reaches

the structure. The gas expansion is therefore simulated in a 2D axisymmetric Eulerian model

until the symmetry condition is about to be violated. A map file of the state variables is then

written from the last state of the 2D simulation. The map file is then used to initialise, or

fill, the 3D Eulerian domain with the last state of the 2D simulation, where the sequence

is shown in Figure 10 from left to right. In this way, a denser Euler mesh can be used in the

initial 2D simulation to preserve accuracy of the shock wave build-up, while a coarser Eulerian

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A. H 17

mesh is used in the 3D domain to save computer (CPU) time without significantly reducing

the accuracy. This approach has recently been used by Zakrisson et al. in [13].

Air

Test module

Explosive Target plate

Sand

Axis of

revolution

Figure 10: To the left, the 2D model is shown prior to detonation. In the middle, the shock wave

reaches the upper boundary of the 2D model. To the right, the 3D model is shown after mapping from

the last 2D state.

The FE model of both the initial 2D Eulerian model and the 3D Eulerian and Lagrangian

model is shown in Figure 10. The 2D model regarding DOB 0 and 50 mm has dimensions

500 750 mm while DOB 150 mm has dimensions 500 850 mm, with uniform quadrilateral

element size 0.5 mm leading to a total of 1492000 and 1700000 elements respectively. In order

to preserve the accuracy, a uniform 2D mesh size of 0.5 mm was found necessary in free air

detonation using identical stand-off, charge size and geometry in [14], and is thus used here

for detonation in soil as well.

Regarding the 3D Eulerian mesh, smaller element sizes were used closer to the axis of rev-

olution and towards the target plate, with coarser elements towards the boundaries. The

same Eulerian domain is used irrespectively of DOB, and consists of 174000 solid hexagonal

elements in total. The size and mesh distribution in the XZ-view is given in Figure 11, where

the sign # is followed by the number of elements along a distance. The element length bias

ratio across a distance is defined as B = Le,max /Le,min , where Le,max and Le,min is the largest

and smallest element side length respectively. For the 3D model, outflow is prevented on the

two symmetry planes and at the bottom surface, but allowed on the top and outward lateral

boundaries. The Eulerian domain consists of air, soil and explosive.

The Lagrangian domain consists of the test module, including the target plate and plate

holder, and is identical to the model used in [14]. The Lagrangian parts consist of 12180

elements in total, where the target plate is represented by 3600 elements. Only fully inte-

grated shell elements with 5 through thickness integration points have been used for structural

calculations in 3D, where also thickness change due to membrane stretching is accounted for.

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800 mm

#30, B9 550 mm

Le,min = 5.0 mm

#30, B3.25

250 mm

Le,min = 4.3 mm

#10, B1

300 mm

#15, B6

600 mm

Le,min = 14.1 mm

#40, B6

Le,min = 4.5 mm

Figure 11: The XZ-view of the mesh distribution in the Eulerian domain is shown, with a total of

174000 elements. Denser element distribution is located laterally towards the symmetry axis as well

as vertically towards the position of the target plate. Bias B indicates the ratio of the largest/smallest

element length across a distance.

Two types of soil materials, with data derived in the present work and data from literature [6],

are used in the simulations and represent the soil conditions of the experiments presented in

Section 2. The simulation cases are presented in Table 8, together with the test conditions of

the soil material. The sandy gravel characterised in section 4 is named SG, and the sand data

derived by Laine and Sandvik in [6] is named S. For the soil type SG, the three-phase model

is used for all characterisations except Case 7, where the virgin (dry) material is used from

Table 6 but adapted to the pre-compacted dry density. Simulation cases 1-6 are based on the

average input data from all wet tests presented in Table 2, while cases 7-8 are based on the dry

tests. Cases 9 and 10 represent the high and low variation of the initial density and saturation

of the wet tests at DOB 50 mm, since there was a large scatter in both the soil state and the

measured response. Case 11 represent fully saturated soil, where no measured data exist for

comparison. However, it represents the conditions suggested for field blast trials in [3]. The

simulation cases are representing the condition of the test with the stand-off distance from

the surface of the sand to the target plate as stated in Section 2. Equation of state data for

the simulation models related to cases 16 and 8 are provided in Table 9.

The mapping from 2D to 3D is used in all simulations, and since all simulations in this work

has different initial conditions, an initial 2D simulation has to be done for every simulation

case. The actual time when the shock wave reaches the boundary in the 2D model deviates

due to the different soil states and burial depths, but is about 0.06, 0.3 and 0.65 ms with

the increasing DOB tested. In 3D, the simulation continues to 2 ms for DOB 0 mm, 4 ms

for DOB 50 mm and 8 ms for DOB 150 mm. At those times, the FSI force is close to zero

and the Eulerian domain is deleted since the blast acting on the structure has past. The

calculation is thereafter restarted to allow the residual deformation of the plate to converge,

and continues until 12 ms for DOB 0 and 50 mm, and 16 ms for DOB 150 mm. The maximum

plate deformation, max , is stored in the calculation, while the residual plate deformation, res ,

is determined with the inner edge of the rigid rig as reference. From the time of the maximum

plate deformation to the simulation end time, a mean value is calculated which represents the

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1 0 SG 7.7 36.8 1.845 Wet

2 0 S 6.57 - 1.845 Wet

3 50 SG 7.7 36.8 1.845 Wet

4 50 S 6.57 - 1.845 Wet

5 150 SG 7.7 36.8 1.845 Wet

6 150 S 6.57 - 1.845 Wet

7 50 SG 0.9 4.1 1.771 Dry

8 50 S 6.57 - 1.771 Dry

9 50 SG 8.3 42.7 1.902 Wet

10 50 SG 7.8 33.4 1.823 Wet

11 50 SG 20.9 100 2.200 Saturated

P K P K P K

# (kg/m3 ) (MPa) (MPa) (kg/m3 ) (MPa) (MPa) (kg/m3 ) (MPa) (MPa)

1 1845 0.1 320.9 1845 0.1 8895.8 1771 0.1 5905.8

2 1939 16.1 7624.1 1848 13.0 8895.8 1773 7.2 5905.8

3 2034 33.1 14927.3 1965 25.6 16326.1 1901 18.2 13763.3

4 2128 71.1 22230.5 2083 46.8 23756.5 2030 35.9 21620.7

5 2222 147.1 29533.7 2201 80.0 31186.8 2158 64.4 29478.2

6 2317 279.1 36836.9 2318 140.8 38617.1 2286 120.8 37335.7

7 2411 489.1 44140.1 2436 238.0 46047.4 2415 215.7 45193.1

8 2505 795.1 51443.3 2554 399.8 53477.7 2543 382.6 53050.6

9 2600 1229.9 58255.9 2671 650.7 60908.0 2671 650.7 60908.0

10 2822 6020.3 58255.9 3000 7718.9 60908.0 3000 7718.9 60908.0

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residual plate deformation in the calculations. The impulse is determined by integrating the

total vertical FSI force over time, IFSI, where the end value represents the transferred impulse

to the quarter symmetry model. The presented values in comparison to the experiments are

thus multiplied by four. This is an identical approach as previously used in [14].

6 RESULTS

The results from all simulation cases are shown in Table 10. A relative comparison between

the numerical results for cases 18 and the experimental results presented in Table 2 is shown

in Figure 12. The filled symbols represent sandy gravel, while blank symbols represent sand.

The symbols diamond, square and circle represent maximum plate deformation, residual plate

deformation and impulse, respectively. Also, an error bar representing the experimental scat-

ter in results is given.

Case DOB (mm) Soil max (mm) res (mm) IF SI (Ns)

1 0 SG 82.4 75.8 1768

2 0 S 81.3 74.9 1535

3 50 SG 97.0 89.5 2188

4 50 S 97.8 90.8 2307

5 150 SG 75.5 67.2 2461

6 150 S 87.8 79.5 2849

7 50 SG 86.4 81.1 2139

8 50 S 90.6 84.9 2142

9 50 SG 103.4 95.2 2352

10 50 SG 92.1 85.7 2158

11 50 SG 164.5 127.5 3333

In general, no great difference is shown between the two soil parameter setups, even though

the sand model results in overall larger values compared to the sandy gravel model except

for flush buried explosive. The largest deviation in results between the two soil parameter

setups is shown at 150 mm overburden, where the sand model overestimates the response

between 0.633.6%. The sandy gravel model overestimates the residual plate deformation

and underestimates the impulse transfer with about 13%.

The dry soil condition shows good agreement to the experimental results for both sandy gravel

and sand, with total deviation in results between 3.36.3%.

By using the three-phase model, it is possible to tune the input data to the specific state of

the sand at the test. Case 9 and 10 uses the lower and upper variations of density and relative

volumes of the corresponding test at 50 mm depth of burial. The numerical comparison to the

corresponding experimental result is shown in Figure 13. With the upper limit of input data,

both maximum and residual plate deformation is close to the corresponding experimental

result. The impulse is however underestimated with about 20%, even though an increase

of 164 Ns can be seen when comparing Case 3 to Case 9. With the lower limit of input

data regarding Case 10, the comparison is less accurate. Case 11 represents fully saturated

sand, where no experimental data exist for comparison. A significant increase in both plate

deformation and impulse is seen compared to the other numerical and experimental results.

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Figure 12: Numerical results for Case 18, relative to the experimental results given with confidence

bounds from the experiments. Black markers represents sandy gravel, white markers represents sand.

Diamonds, squares and circles represents max plate deformation, residual plate deformation and im-

pulse, respectively.

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Figure 13: Numerical results for Case 9 and 10, relative to the experimental results given with confi-

dence bounds from the experiments. Diamonds, squares and circles represents max plate deformation,

residual plate deformation and impulse, respectively.

Blast experiments have been investigated in an earlier work, with explosive located in moist-

ened sandy gravel at three different burial depths, where also dry soil state has been tested

at one burial depth. In the wet soil experiments, the average moisture content was 7.7%.

One purpose with the experiments was to collect data to be used for validation of numerical

modelling of the blast process.

In this work, material characterisation of sandy gravel at low moisture content has been

presented. Even though a relatively simple approach of characterisation has been used, the

derived data compares reasonably well with similar data reported in the literature. A DSP

technique has been used as an attempt to determine the Poissons ratio for a compacted soil

specimen. Even though many tests showed unreliable results, it seems like an interesting

approach for further evaluation. One suggestion for further study is to apply an external

speckle pattern on the sand surface, instead of using the natural grains of the specimen for

speckle correlation.

A three-phase model representing the soil skeleton has been used in order to analytically

construct material parameters depending on the relative volumes of sand, air and water, i.e.

different degrees of water saturation. The characterised material data has, together with data

representing sand taken from literature, been used as input for numerical simulations where a

comparison against the experimental blast results has been made. The literature data for sand

consists of 6.57% moisture content, and permits no option to use the three-phase model to

adjust for different water contents. When simulating dry soil, the density has been changed

but the input data still represents 6.57% moisture content.

When the numerical simulations for dry soil are considered, good agreement for both sand

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and sandy gravel is shown against the experimental results. However, the numerical results

using the sand material slightly overshoots the results for sandy gravel. One explanation may

be that the moisture content of 6.57% is still represented in the sand data, while sandy gravel

only consists of about 0.94% moisture content. For flush buried explosive, all numerical results

underestimated the measured values with about 1012% except for the sand material, which

underestimated the impulse with 23%. No reason has been found for this large difference in

impulse between sandy gravel and sand at 0 mm overburden. Experience from earlier work

shows that an underestimation of about 10% may be expected concerning the plate response,

when the explosive gas is expanding freely in air using a similar numerical approach as in

this work [14]. However, an underestimation of only about 11.5% is expected regarding the

impulse. At 50 mm burial depth, both models of sandy gravel and sand gave satisfactory

results regarding the plate deformation, with an underestimation 1.15.4% compared to the

average experimental result. The impulse was underestimated with 1216.6%. However, a

large deviation in the experimentally measured impulse was seen, and if the numerical results

are compared against the lowest experimentally measured impulse, the numerical deviation

is only about 2.5%. The largest deviation in results between the two soil parameter setups

was experienced at 150 mm DOB. The sand model overestimated the experimental results

up to 33.4%, while the numerical results using the sandy gravel model deviate 13%. One

reason for this deviation between the models may be that accurate soil response is of more

importance at larger burial depths.

The three-phase model was used to simulate individual tests at 50 mm DOB, using the upper

and lower values of density and saturation, where results are compared to the corresponding

experimental values. The impulse was underestimated with about 2026%. For the upper

values of the input data, the plate response was within 1.5% of the experimental values, while

the results using the lower values underestimated the corresponding experimental results with

8.612.1%.

The density and water content measurements in the blast trials were done manually using

a confined volume, hence there exist an experimental uncertainty regarding the state and

uniformity of the soil. There was a large scatter in the density and water content measurements

at 50 mm depth of burial in wet soil, along with the experimental results. Even though, the

large underestimation of the impulse in the corresponding numerical simulations can perhaps

be attributed uncertain initial conditions.

Altogether, the numerical results using material data for sand taken from the literature showed

in general good agreement to the experimental results, except at 150 mm depth of burial.

The material data derived for sandy gravel along with use of the three-phase model showed

acceptable results at all explosive burial depths. Further validation of the three-phase model

should if possible be carried out at a greater variation of saturations, with more reliable

determination of the initial state of the soil.

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