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Chapter 7 Trigonometric Identities and Equations

7 
12.   2  
7-1 Basic Trigonometric Identities 3 3
7
cos 3  cos
  2 3

Page 427 Check for Understanding  cos 3
1. Sample answer: x  45 13. 330  360  30
1
2. Pythagorean identities are derived by applying csc (330)   
sin (330)
the Pythagorean Theorem to a right triangle. The 1
 
sin (360  30)
opposite angle identities are so named because A
1
is the opposite of A.  
sin 30
1 1 cos v
3. cot v , cot v  tan v , sin v
tan v       cot v,
 csc 30
1  cot2 v  csc2 v 
1
sin (A) csc v sin v
4. tan(A)    14. 
cot v 
cos v
cos (A) 
sin A sin v
  1 sin v
cos A    
sin v cos v
sin A
   1
cos A  
cos v
 tan A
 sec v
5. Rosalinda is correct; there may be other values for
15. cos x csc x tan x  cos x
sin x  cos x 
1 sin x
 
which the equation is not true.
6. Sample answer: v  0 1
sin v  cos v  tan v 16. cos x cot x  sin x  cos x 
sin x   sin x
cos x

sin 0  cos 0  tan 0 cos2 x
010 
sin x  sin x


10 
cos2 x  sin2 x

sin x
7. Sample answer: x  45 1
sec2 x  csc2 x  1  
sin x
sec2 45  csc2 45  1  csc x
(2 )2  (2)2  1 F csc v
221 17. B 
I
41 BI  F csc v
1 1
8. sec v   
cos v 9. tan v   
cot v F 
BI
csc v
1
F  BI
csc v 
1
sec v  
1 
2

tan v  
 5
3 2
F  BIsin v
3 2
sec v  
2 tan v  5
25
tan v  5 Pages 427430 Exercises
10. sin2 v cos2 v1 18. Sample answer: 45
152  cos2 v  1 sin v cos v  cot v
1 sin 45 cos 45  cot 45
  cos2 v  1 2 2
2  2   1
25
24 
cos2 v  25 1
26

2 1
cos v  5
19. Sample answer: 45
26
Quadrant III, so 5 sec v
  sin v
tan v
11. tan2 v  1  sec2 v sec 45
  sin 45
472  1  sec2 v
tan 45
2 
2
16

1
 2

49  1  sec2 v 
2
65 2
  2

49  sec2 v
65


7  sec v
65

Quadrant IV, so 
7

205 Chapter 7
20. Sample answer: 30 29. 1  cot2 v  csc2 v
cos x 2
sec2 x1 
csc x 1  cot2 v  3 
11


cos 30
sec2 30  1  
csc 30 1  cot2 v  191
3
 cot2 v  29
23 2 2
 
3  1 
2 2
cot v   

3
12 3 2

9 1 
4 Quadrant II, so  
3

1 3

3  
4 30. tan2 v  1  sec2 v
2
21. Sample answer: 30 tan2 v  1  54
sin x  cos x  1
tan2 v  1  2156
sin 30  cos 30  1
1 3
 tan2 v  19

2  2  1 6
1  3
 tan v  34
  1
2
22. Sample answer: 0 Quadrant II, so 34
sin y tan y  cos y 31. sin2 v  cos2 v  1
2
sin 0 tan 0  cos 0
00 1
13  cos2 v  1
1
  cos2 v  1
0 1 9
23. Sample answer: 45 cos2 v  89
tan2 A  cot2 A  1 cos v    22

3
tan2 45  cot2 45  1
22
111 Quadrant III, so cos v  
3
21 sin v
tan v   
cos v
24. Sample answer: 0 1
  
cos v  2  cos v  cos 2 tan v 
3

  22
cos 0  2  cos 0  cos 2

3
1 2
  tan v   or 
cos 2  cos 0  cos 2 22 4
32. tan2 v  1  sec2 v
010 2
01 23  1  sec2 v
1 1
25. csc v  
sin v 26. cot v  
tan v
4
  1  sec2 v
9
1 1 13
  sec2 v
csc v  
2 cot v  
3
 9
 
5 4 13
3  sec v
5 4
csc v  2 cot v  
3 13
Quadrant III, so sec v  

3
43 1
cot v  3 cos v   
sec v
27. sin2 v  cos2 v  1 cos v  
1
1 2 
 
4  cos2 v  1 
3
13

1 3 
313
  cos2 v  1 cos v   or  
16 13
 13
15 1
cos2 v  1
6 33. cos v    sin2 v  cos2 v  1
sec v
15
 2
cos v   
4 cos v  
1 sin2 v  57  1
7

15 5
Quadrant I, so 
4
sin2 v  2459  1
cos v  57
28. sin2 v  cos2 v  1 sin2 v  2449
2 2
sin2 v  3  1 sin v    26

7
sin2 v  49  1 26
Quadrant III, so  
7
sin2 v  59
5
sin v    3
5

Quadrant II, so 3

Chapter 7 206
1 19 
34. sec v   
cos v
tan2 v  1  sec2 v 40.   2(2)  5
5
tan2 v  1  82 19
1
tan2 v  1  64 sin 5
sec v  
1
19
tan  
 tan2 v  63 5 19
8 cos 5
tan v   37  
sec v  8 sin 2(2)  5

Quadrant IV, so 37
  
1 cos 2(2)  5
35. 1  cot2 v  csc2 v sin v   
csc v 
1 sin 5
1
2
sin v   

43  csc2 v 53

cos 5

1  19
6
 csc2 v sin v  35  tan 5
25 10 

9
 csc2 v 41.
3  3  3
1
 53  csc v csc 3  
10
10
sin 3
Quadrant IV, so 53
1
36. 1  cot2 v  csc2 v 
 sin 3  
1  (8)2  csc2 v
 3 
1
1  64  csc2 v   
65  csc2 v sin 3
65  csc v 
Quadrant IV, so 65  csc 3

37. sec v   1 42. 1290  7(180)  30



cos v
sin2 v  cos2 v  1
1
3 2 sec (1290)   
sec v  
1 sin2 v    
4  1 cos (1290)
1
3
 

 
cos (7(180)  30)
4 sin2 v  13
6
1
1
sec v   43
4
 or  13  
cos 30
3 3 sin2 v  1
6
13

 sec 30
sin v  
4 43. 660  2(360)  60
13
 cos (660)
Quadrant II, so 4 cot (660)   
sin (660)
sin v cos (2(360)  60)
tan v     
cos v sin (2(360)  60)
 cos 60
13
  
sin 60
4
tan v   cot 60
3
4

1


13 39
 cos x
tan v   or  44.
sec x

3
 3 tan x sin x

43 2  2
sec2 A  tan2 A

3 
 
39
3   cos x
1
    
2sin2 A  2cos2 A 13 2 3 2
   
 sin x
2   2 
4 4  csc x
48
 39

9
9 cos v

  45.
cot v
 
sin v

21136  213
6
cos v
cos v
1
9
  
sin v
9
 
32  csc v
 sin (v  ) sin v
16
46.
cos (v  ) 
cos v
 12
 tan v
38. 390  360  30
47. (sin x  cos x)2  (sin x  cos x)2
sin 390  sin (360  30)
 sin 30  sin2 x  2sin x cos x  cos2 x  sin2 x
27 3
 2sin x cos x  cos2 x
39.    3    2sin2 x  2 cos2 x
8 8
  cos 3  
27
cos  3  2(sin2 x  cos2 x)
8 8 2
 cos 38

207 Chapter 7
48. sin x cos x sec x cot x  sin x cos x
cos x  sin x 
1 cos x W sec v
56a. e  A
s
 cos x eAs  W sec v
49. cos x tan x  sin x cot x  cos x
cos x   sin x sin x 
sin x cos x
eAs
  W
sec v
 sin x  cos x W  eAs cos v
50. (1  cos v)(csc v  cot v)  (1  cos v)
sin v  sin v 
1 cos v

56b. W  eAs cos v
 (1  cos v)
1  cos v W  0.80(0.75)(1000) cos 40
sin v 

1  cos2 v
W  459.6266659

sin v 459.63 W
sin2 v 57. FN  mg cos v  0
 
sin v
FN  mg cos v
 sin v mg sin v  mkFN  0
51. 1  cot2 v  cos2 v  cos2 v cot2 v mg sin v  mk(mg cos v)  0
 1  cot2 v  cos2 v(1  cot2 v) mk(mg cos v)  mg sin v
 csc2 v  cos2 v(csc2 v) mk   
mg sin v
mg cos v
 csc2 v(1  cos2 v)
sin v
 csc2 v(sin2 v) mk   
cos v
1
 (sin2 v) mk  tan v
sin2 v
1 58.
sin x sin x
52.   
1  cos x 1  cos x
sin x  sin x cos x sin x  sin x cos x
  1  cos2 x  
1  cos2 x
2 sin x 
 
1  cos2 x h
2 sin x a
 
sin2 x
2
 
sin x
 2csc x a

53. cos4 a  2cos2 a sin2 a  sin4 a  (cos2 a  sin2 a)2 360 180 2 a a
v   , tan v   , so h  
2 tan v  2 cot v.
 
 12 or 1 2n n h
I  I0 cos v The area of the isosceles triangle is 2(a)2 cot n
54. 2 1 a 180

0  I0 cos2 v
 4 cot n. There are n such triangles, so
a2 180
0  cos2 v
A  4na2 cot n.
1 180
0  cos v
cos1 0  v
90  v 59. y
A B C
55. Let (x, y) be the point where the terminal side of
A intersects the unit circle when A is in standard E
position. When A is reflected about the x-axis to
obtain A, the y-coordinate is multiplied by 1,  x
but the x-coordinate is unchanged. So, O F D
sin (A)  y   sin A and
cos (A)  x  cos A.
y
(x, y) sin v  EF and cos v  OF since the circle is a unit
CD CD
OD  1  CD.
circle. tan v   
A CO CO
OD  1  CO. EOF  OBA, so
sec v   
O A x OF BA BA cos v OF

EF 
OA  1  BA. Then cot v  sin v  EF  BA.
   
EO OB 1 OB
(x, y) EF  OA , or EF  1 .
Also by similar triangles,    
1 1 OB
sin v  EF  1  OB.
Then csc v     

2

60. Cos1  
2   135

Chapter 7 208
61. y 42
68. m   
4  5 y  y1  m(x  x1)
1 
y  cos (x 6 ) 
2
 or
2
9
2
y  4  9(x  (4))
9
2 28
y  9x  9
x 69. mBCD  40
O 2 7 5 13 1
-
6 3 6 3 6 40  m (BC)
2
-
80  m (BC)
1
1 -
mBAC  2mBC
1
mBAC  2(80)

62. 2(3 30)  7 7  7    mBAC  40
180
7 The correct choice is C.
 
180
s  rv
7
s  20
180 

7-2 Verifying Trigonometric Identities
s  2.44 cm
63. B  180  (90  20) or 70
sin A  c
a b
cos A  c Page 433 Graphing Calculator Exploration
a b 1. yes 2. no 3. no
sin 20  35 cos 20  3
5 4. No; it is impossible to look at every window since
35 sin 20  a 35 cos 20  b there are an infinite number. The only way an
11.97070502  a 32.88924173  b identity can be proven is by showing algebraically
a  12.0, B  70, b  32.9 that the general case is true.
64. 2 2 1 8 4 5.

4
10
4
2 5 2 0
2x2  5x  2  0
(2x  1)(x  2)  0
2x  1  0 or x  2  0
1
x  2 x  2
1
2, 2, 2 
[2, 2] sc12 by [2, 2] sc11
65. 2x2  7x  4  0
7 sin x
x2  2x  2  0
7
x2  2x  2
7 49 49 Pages 433434 Check for Understanding
x2  2x  16  2  16
1. Answers will vary.
x  742  8116 2. Sample answer: Squaring each side can turn two
7 9 unequal quantities into equal quantities. For
x  4  4
example, 1  1, but (1)2  12.
7 9
x  4  4 3. Sample answer: They are the trigonometric
x  0.5 or 4 functions with which most people are most
66. continuous familiar.
67. 4(x  y  2z)  4(3) 4x  4y  8z  12 4. Answers will vary.
cot x
4x  y  z  0 4x  y  z  0 5. cos x   
csc x
3y  9z  12 cos x

x  y  2z  3 cos x 
sin x
1
x  5y  4z  11 
sin x
4y  2z  14 cos x
4(3y  9z)  4(12) 12y  36z  48 cos x  
1
3(4y  2z)  3(14) 12y  6z  42 cos x  cos x
30z  90
z  3
3y  9z  12 x  y  2z  3
3y  9(3)  12 x  (5)  2(3)  3
y  5 x 2
(2, 5, 3)

209 Chapter 7
6. 
1
 cos x
 Pages 434436 Exercises
tan x  sec x sin x  1 sec A
1 13. tan A  
csc A

sin x 1 
cos x
 1
   sin x  1 
cos x cos x tan A 
cos A
1
1 cos x 
sin x  1    sin A
 sin x  1
cos x sin A
cos x cos x
tan A  
cos A
  
sin x  1 sin x  1 tan A  tan A
1
7. csc v  cot v   
csc v  cot v 14. cos v  sin v cot v
1 csc v  cot v cos v
csc v  cot v  
csc v  cot v  csc v  cot v
  cos v  sin v  
sin v
csc v  cot v cos v  cos v
csc v  cot v   
csc2 v  cot2 v
csc v  cot v 1  sin x
csc v  cot v  
(1  cot2 v)  cot2 v
15. sec x  tan x   
cos x
csc v  cot v 1 sin x
csc v  cot v  
1
sec x  tan x  
cos x  cos x
 

csc v  cot v  csc v  cot v sec x  tan x  sec x  tan x


1  tan x
8. sin v tan v  sec v  cos v 16.   sec x
sin x  cos x
1
sin v tan v    cos v sin x
cos v 1 
cos x
sin v tan v 
1
  
cos2 v   sec x
cos v cos v sin x  cos x
1  cos2 v
sin v tan v   sin x
cos v 1 
cos x
sin2 v  sec x
 
cos x
sin v tan v   
cos v cos x sin x  cos x
sin v
sin v tan v  sin v   cos x  sin x
cos v 
cos x(sin x  cos x)  sec x
sin v tan v  sin v tan v 1
9. (sin A  cos A)2  1  2 sin2 A cot A

cos x  sec x
sin2 A  2 sin A cos A  cos2 A  1  2 sin2 A cot A sec x  sec x
1  2 sin A cos A  1  2 sin2 A cot A 17. sec x csc x  tan x  cot x
sin A
sin A  1  2 sin A cot A
1  2 sin A cos A   2
sec x csc x  
sin x cos x
cos x  sin x
 
cos A
sin A  1  2 sin A cot A
1  2 sin2 A   2
sec x csc x  
sin x sin x cos x cos x
cos x  sin x  sin x  cos x
   

1  2 sin2 A cot A  1  2 sin2 A cot A sec x csc x  


sin2 x cos2 x
cos x sin x  sin x cos x
 
1
10. Sample answer: sin x   sin2 x  cos2 x
4 sec x csc x   
cos x sin x
1
tan x  4 sec x 1
sec x csc x   
cos x sin x
tan x 1
   1 1
sec x 4 sec x csc x  
cos x  sin x
 
sin x
 1 sec x csc x  sec x csc x
cos x

1
 4 2 sin2 v  1

cos x
18. sin v  cos v   
sin v  cos v
1 2 sin2 v  (sin2 v  cos2 v)
sin x  4 sin v  cos v  
sin v  cos v
11. Sample answer: cos x  1 sin2 v  cos2 v
sin v  cos v   
sin v  cos v
cot x  sin x  cos x cot x (sin v  cos v)(sin v  cos v)
cos x cos x sin v  cos v  
sin v  cos v

sin x  sin x  cos x  
sin x
sin v  cos v  sin v  cos v
cos x  sin2 x  cos2 x 2  sec A csc A
cos2 x  sin2 x  cos x 19. (sin A  cos A)2   
sec A csc A
1  cos x (sin A  cos A)2  
2 sec A csc A
sec A csc A  sec A csc A
 
cos x  1 1 1
I cos v I cot v (sin A  cos A)2  2
sec A  csc A  1
 
12. 
R2  
R2 csc v
cos v (sin A  cos A)2  2 cos A sin A  1
I 
I cos v
 
sin v (sin A  cos A)2  2 cos A sin A  sin2 A  cos2 A
R2 1
R2  
sin v (sin A  cos A)2  (sin A  cos A)2
cos v
I cos v I 
sin v sin v

R2  1
 
sin v
2 
R sin v
I cos v I cos v

R2  R
2

Chapter 7 210
20. (sin v  1)(tan v  sec v)  cos v 27. sin x  cos x  
cos x sin x
1  tan x  1  cot x
 
sin v tan v  tan v  sin v sec v  sec v  cos v
cos x sin x
sin v sin v 1 1
sin x  cos x   sin x 

cos v  cos v  sin v cos v  cos v   cos v
sin v      cos x
1 
cos x 1 
sin x
sin2 v  sin v  sin v  1

cos v  cos v cos x sin x
cos x sin x
sin2 v  1 sin x  cos x   sin x  cos x 
  cos x  sin x


cos v  cos v 1  cos x
  1  sin x
 
cos2 v cos2 x sin2 x

cos v  cos v sin x  cos x  
cos x  sin x  sin x  cos x
 

cos v  cos v sin x  cos x  


cos2 x sin2 x
sin x  cos x  sin x  cos x
 
cos y 1  sin y
21. 
1  sin y  
cos y sin2 x  cos2 x
sin x  cos x   
sin x  cos x
cos y 1  sin y 1  sin y

1  sin y  
1  sin y  
cos y (sin x  cos x)(sin x  cos x)
sin x  cos x   sin x  cos x
cos y(1  sin y) 1  sin y

1  sin2 y  
cos y sin x  cos x  sin x  cos x
cos y(1  sin y) 1  sin y 28. sin v  cos v  tan v sin v  sec v  cos v tan v

cos2 y  
cos y sin v
1  sin y 1  sin y sin v  cos v  
cos v sin v  sec v  cos v tan v


cos y  
cos y sin2 v
cos v  sec v  cos v tan v
sin v  cos v   
22. cos v cos (v)  sin v sin (v)  1
cos2 v sin2 v
cos v cos v  sin v(sin v)  1 cos v  cos v  sec v  cos v tan v
sin v    
cos2 v  sin2 v  1 cos2 v  sin2 v
11 sin v     sec v  cos v tan v
cos v
cot2 x 1
23. csc x  1    cos v  sec v  cos v tan v
sin v   
csc x  1

csc x  1   
csc2 x  1 sin v  sec v  sec v  cos v tan v
csc x  1 cos v
cos v  sec v  sec v  cos v tan v
sin v 
(csc x  1)(csc x  1) 
csc x  1  
csc x  1 sin v
cos v  sec v  sec v  cos v tan v
cos v  
csc x  1  csc x  1
24. cos B cot B  csc B  sin B cos v tan v  sec v  sec v  cos v tan v
1 sec v  cos v tan v  sec v  cos v tan v
cos B cot B    sin B
sin B
29. Sample answer: sec x  2 
1 sin2 B
cos B cot B     csc x
sin B sin B 
cot x  2

1  sin2 B
cos B cot B  
sin B 
1
sin v
cos2 B  2

cos B cot B  
sin B
cos v

sin v
cos B
cos B cot B  cos B   1
sin B 
cos x  2

cos B cot B  cos B cot B
sec x  2

25. sin v cos v tan v  cos2 v  1
sin v
30. Sample answer: tan x  2
cos v  cos v  1
sin v cos v   2 1  tan x

1  cot x 2
sin2 v cos2 v 1 sin x
1 1 1 
 2
cos x
1  cos x cos x
26. (csc x  cot x)2   
1  cos x 1 
sin x
1  cos x cos x  sin x
csc2 x  2 csc x cot x  cot2 x   
1  cos x 
1 1 cos x cos2 x 1  cos x
cos x
2

sin2 x  2
sin x  sin x  sin2 x  1  cos x
    sin x  cos x

sin x
1  2 cos x  cos2 x 1  cos x
   sin x
sin2 x 1  cos x 
cos x 2
(1  cos x)2 1  cos x

1  cos2 x  
1  cos x tan x  2
(1  cos x)2 1  cos x
   31. Sample answer: cos x  0
(1  cos x)(1  cos x) 1  cos x
1 sec x
1  cos x
 
1  cos x


cot x 
csc x  cos x

1  cos x 1  cos x
1

tan x  cos x

1
 cos x

sin x
sin x
tan x  
cos x  cos x
tan x  tan x  cos x
0  cos x

211 Chapter 7
1 38. yes
32. Sample answer: sin x  2
1  cos x sin x
   4
sin x 1  cos x
1  2 cos x  cos2 x sin2 x
   4
sin x(1  cos x) sin x(1  cos x)
1  2 cos x  cos2 x  sin2 x

sin x(1  cos x) 4
2  2 cos x

sin x(1  cos x) 4
2(1  cos x)
 4 
sin x(1  cos x) [2, 2] sc12 by [4, 4] sc11
2

sin x 4 39. no
2  4 sin x
1

2  sin x
33. Sample answer: sin x  1
cos2 x  2 sin x  2  0
1  sin2 x  2 sin x  2  0
0  sin2 x  2 sin x  1
0  (sin x  1)2 
[2, 2] sc12 by [4, 4] sc11
0  sin x  1
sin x  1 40a. P  I 02 R sin2 2 ft
34. Sample answer: cot x  1 P  I 02 R(1  cos2 2pft)
csc x  sin x tan x  cos x 40b. P  I 02 R sin2 2ft
sin x I 02 R
csc x  sin x 
cos x  cos x

P 
sin2 x cos2 x csc2 2ft
cos x  cos x
csc x    
x
1 41. f(x)  

1  4
csc x   
cos x
x2
1
1 1  tan v
   2
sin x cos x f(x)  

1
4 
cos x 2
tan v
1

sin x 1 
2
cot x  1 1
tan3 v  1 tan v 
  sec2 v 2
35. tan v  1 10 
(tan v  1)(tan2 v  tan v  1)
f(x)  
1  ta
n2 v
  (tan2 v  1) 10
tan v  1 1
 tan v
tan2 v  tan v  1  tan2 v  1 10 2
tan v  1  0 
f(x)   sec2 v
tan v  1
1
1 
tan v
cot v    2
tan v f(x)  
1 sec v
cot v  1
1 sin v
cot v  1 

cos v
2
36. no f(x)  1

cos v
1
f(x)  2 sin v
sin a
42. sin a  sin a sin c sin a   
sin c
cos b
sin a cos b  sin a cos b
cos b   
cos c
cos c  cos a cos b cos b   
cos a
 Then cos b  sin a cos b
[2 , 2 ] sc12 by [2, 8] sc11
sin a cos c
sin c  cos a
  
37. yes
sin a cos c

cos a  sin c
 

 tan a cot c
gv2 x sin v
43. y   
2v02 cos2 v
 
cos v
gv2
y  sec2 v  x tan v
2v 2 0
g x2
 y    (1  tan2 v)  x tan v
2v 2
[2 , 2 ] sc12 by [4, 4] sc11 0

Chapter 7 212
44. We find the area of ABTP by subtracting the area 51. Let x  the number of shirts and y  the number
of OAP from the area of OBT. of pants. y
1
OB
1 1
 BT  2OA  AP  2  1  tan v  2 cos v sin v
1 x  1.5y 100 100 2.5x  2y  180
2
2.5x  2y 180
 2
cos v  cos v sin v
1 sin v
 80 (0, 65)
1.5x  3y 195 x  1.5y  100
x 0
 2 sin v
cos v  cos v
1 1 60
 (40, 40)
y 0 1.5x  3y  195
 2 sin v
cos v  cos v 
1 1 cos2 v 40
 
x0 (72, 0)
sin v 
1 1 cos2 v
 
2

cos v
20
(0, 0) x
sin v 
1 sin2 v
 
2

cos v O 20 40 60 80 100
1 sin v y0
 
2   2
cos v sin v
1 P(x, y)  5x  4.5y
  tan v sin2 v
2 P(0, 0)  5(0)  4.5(0) or 0
b a a sin b
sin b  sin a , so b  sin a .
45. By the Law of Sines,     P(0, 65)  5(0)  4.5(65) or 292.50
Then P(40, 40)  5(40)  4.5(40) or 380
1 P(72, 0)  5(72)  4.5(0) or 360
A  2ab sin  40 shirts, 40 pants
A  2a
sin a  sin 
1 a sin b
 52. {16}, {4, 4}; no, 16 is paired with two elements of
a2 sin
sin  the range
A 
2 sin a ab ba ab ba
a2 sin b sin  53. 
ab 
ba  ab  ba
  
A 
2 sin (180  (b  )) ab ab
a2 sin b sin  
a  b  1(a  b)
 
A 
2 sin (b  )
 1
sin x sin x
 cos x  sin x 
 
The correct choice is D.
tan x  cos x  sin x tan x cos x cos x
46. 
sec x  tan x  
1 sin x
  
cos x cos x
sin x  cos2 x  sin2 x
 
cos x
1  sin x
7-3 Sum and Difference Identities

cos x
sin x  1 cos x
   
1  sin x
cos x Pages 441442 Check for Understanding
1 1. Find a counterexample, such as x  30 and
47. A  2
360
  180
c
2  45 y  60.
k
A  2 k2 c  90 2. Find the cosine, sine, or tangent, respectively, of
y  2sin (2x  90) the sum or difference, then take the reciprocal.
15 15 180 3. The opposite side for 90  A is the adjacent side
48.   1
6  

16 for A, so the right-triangle ratio for sin (90  A) is
 168.75 the same as that for cos A.
60
168.75  168  0.75  1

 168  45
168 45 90  A
3 3
49.  3y  1  2  0 Check: 3y  1  2  0
3 3
 3y  1  2  3(3)  12 0
3
3y  1  8 8 2 0 A
y3 22 0 1
4. cot (a  b)   
tan (a  b)
50. x  1  0
x  1 1
 
tan a  tan b
3x 
f(x)  
x1 1  tan a tan b
3x 1  tan a tan b
y 
x1  
tan a  tan b
y(x  1)  3x 1
1 1
cot a  cot b
 
cot a cot b
yx  y  3x   1 1  
cot a cot b
y  3x  yx   
cot a cot b
y  x(3  y) cot a cot b  1
y  
cot a  cot b

3y x
3y0
y3

213 Chapter 7
5. cos 165  cos (45  120) 10. sin (90  A)  cos A
 cos 45 cos 120  sin 45 sin 120 sin 90 cos A  cos 90 sin A  cos A

2 
2 3
 1  cos A  0  sin A  cos A
 2 
1
 
2

2  
2 cos A  cos A

tan v  2  cot v
2   6
 
4
11.

sin v  2
  
6. tan 12  
tan 3  4   cot v
  
tan 3  tan 4 cos v  2
    
1  tan 3 tan 4 sin v cos 2  cos v sin 2
3
1  cot v
  
 1  3
1 cos v cos 2  sin v sin 2
4  23
 (sin v)  0  (cos v)  1  cot v
 
2

(cos v)  0  (sin v)  1
 2  3  
cos v
  cot v
sin v
7. 795  2(360)  75
cot v  cot v
sec 795  sec 75
12. sin (x  y)  1  cot x tan y
cos 75  cos (30  45) 
csc x sec y
 cos 30 cos 45  sin 30 sin 45 cos x sin y
1 sin x  cos y
 
3 2 1 2
   
2 2  2  
2 sin (x  y)  1 1
  
6  2
 sin x cos y
 
4 cos x sin y
4 1 sin x  cos y
 
sec 795   sin x cos y
6  2
 sin (x  y)  1 1  
sin x cos y
  
 6
  2
 sin x cos y
sin (x  y)  sin x cos y  cos x sin y
8. cos x  
1  si
n2 x cos y  
1  si
n2 y 
1

 1

2 4

9  1

2 1

4
sin (x  y)  sin (x  y)
13. sin (nq0t  90)  sin nq0t cos 90  cos nq0t sin 90
 
65

65


81 or 9  
15

15


16 or 4
 sin nq0t  0  cos nq0t  1
 cos nq0t
sin (x  y)  sin x cos y  cos x sin y
15
 65

 9 
4    9  4 
4 1
 


  65
415  Pages 442445 Exercises
36
14. cos 105  cos (45  60)
cos x  
1  si
1
9. csc x   
sin x n2 x  cos 45 cos 60  sin 45 sin 60

1

2 1 2 3
5

3  
sin x
1
  3
 2
5
     
2 2 2  
2
2  6
 
sin x  5
3
 1265 or 45 4
15. sin 165  sin (120  45)
sin x
tan x   
cos x  sin 120 cos 45  cos 120 sin 45
3  2  1 2 
3

5 3
      
2 2 2 2  
  or 
4 6   2 

5
4   4
7  
sin y  
1  co
s2 y tan y   
cos y
sin y 16. cos 12 
  cos   
4 3 
   
 cos 4 cos 3  sin 4 sin 3
1 
5 2
 
12
  
13 13 12
 or 5  
2 1 2 3

2  2  2  2
5   
 
144
169
12
 or 
13

13 2
 
  6 
4
tan x  tan y
tan (x  y)      
1  tan x tan y 17. sin 12 
  sin   
3 4 
3 12    
 
4

5  sin 3 cos 4  cos 3 sin 4
 
 3 2  1 2

1  45
3 12   2  2  2  2
  

63 6  2 
   4
20

4
5
63
 16

Chapter 7 214
18. tan 195  tan (45  150) 113 17
25.   4(2)  
12 12
tan 45  tan 150
  113 17
1  tan 45 tan 150 cot 12  cot 1
2

3
1  3
17 7 
tan 12  tan 6  4
    
   
3
1  13 tan 6  tan 4
 p 
3  

3 1  tan 6 tan 4
3
 
3
3  
3   1
 3
3
 
3
12  63  1  3  1

 or 2  3
6 
33
   
19. cos  
12  cos 4  3  
3

   p  3  
3
 cos 4 cos 3  sin 4 sin 3 
3
2 1 2 3   3
2
  2  2  2  2
  
113 1
2
  6
 cot 
12  
2
3
 
4
 2  3

20. tan 165  tan (45  120)
tan 45  tan 120 26. sin x  
1  co
s2 x cos y  
1  si
n2 y


1  tan 45 tan 120

 
1  (3 )  
1
 8 2

17  
1 

2 12

37

 

1  1 (3 ) 225 15 1225 35
1  3    or 
289 17   
1369 or 37

 1  3
sin (x  y)  sin x cos y  cos x sin y
4  2 3
  or 2  3   1
7  37    17  37 
15 35 8 12
2   
23  5
21. tan   tan   
12 4  3   
629
621
 5
tan 4  tan 3 27. sin x  
1  co
s2 x sin y  
1  co
s2 y

1
 1

 5 3 2 2
1  tan 4 tan 3   
5   4

5
1  (3 )
 
1  1 (3
4  2 3
)  
16

4

25 or 5  
9

3

25 or 5
  
2 or 2  3  cos (x  y)  cos x cos y  sin x sin y
 55  55
3 4 4 3
22. 735  2(360)  15
sin 735  sin 15 24
sin 15  sin (45  30)  25
 sin 45 cos 30  cos 45 sin 30 28. cos x  
1  si
n2 x sin y  
1  co
s2 y
2 3  2
1
 1

1
      2 2
2
6
2
  2

2

2   8

17   3

5
  
4
23. 1275  3(360)  195
 
225 15
 or 
289 17  
16

4

25 or 5
sin x sin y
sec 1275  sec 195 tan x   
cos x tan y   
cos y
cos 195  cos (150  45) 8

4

17 5
 cos 150 cos 45  sin 150 sin 45
  
 15  3
3 2 1 2  
 2  2  2  2 17 5
  2
6  8 4
   
15  
3
4 tan x  tan y
4 tan (x  y)  
sec 1275   1  tan x tan y
  2
6  8 4
  
 2
  6
 15 3

5


 sin 6  4
  8 4
24. sin 12 1  15  3
   
 sin 6 cos 4  cos 6 sin 4 12
15

2 
3 
2
1
 2  2  2  2  77

45
  6
2 
 36
4  77
5 4
csc 2  
  6
2 
 6
  2


215 Chapter 7
29. sec x  
tan2 x cos y  
1  si
1
1 n2 y 31. sin x   
csc x sec y  
tan2 y
1

 
  1
2 5

3  1


2 1

3 
1
5

 
  1
2 12

5

 
89 or 
2
34 34 2 3
  or   
9
3
3
3
34
3

3

5  
169 13
 or 
25 5
cos x   or  1
34
 34
cos x  
1  si
n2 x cos y   
sec y
sin x
tan x  
1

1
cos x 2
5

sin x

  3

5

 13

3 5
334

34   or 16

25
4

5 
5

13
5
34
sin x   
34 sin y  
1  co
s2 y
cos (x  y)  cos x cos y  sin x sin y

3

34 2
  
2
5
  
34 1
 
 
1

2 5

13


34 3 34 3 144 12
668 4
53   or 
169 13
 
102  102
 
cos(x  y)  cos x cos y  sin x sin y
1217  534

 
 51
3    5  13 
4 5 3 12
102  
1 1 56
30. tan x   
cot x cos y   
sec y  65
1 1 1
  sec (x  y)   
cos (x  y)
6 3
 
5 2 1
5 2 
 
6  
3
56

55
sin y  
1  co
s2 y 65
 56
 1

 2 2

3 32. cos a  
1  si
n2a sin b  
1  co
s2b
  5
9

 or 
3
5
 1


2 1

5  1


2 2

7
sin y
tan y  
cos y
5


 
24

2

25 or 5
6
 
45

3

49 or 7
5


3 5

or 2 sin (a  b)  sin a cos b  cos a sin b
2 3
 57  57
2 1 2 6 5

3
tan x  tan y 
2  630
tan (x  y)   
1  tan x tan y  
35

5
5
   33. sin x  
1  co
s2 x sin y  
1  co
s2 y
6 2

5 5 
1  62  1


2 1

3  1


2 3

4


10  65

12
 89 or 
2

3
2
 7
 
16 or 4

7


cos (x  y)  cos x cos y  sin x sin y
12  5
5
 2 
7
 34  34
1 3 2
12

10  6 5
 

12  5 5 
3  2 
14
12

270  1225 
 1
9 34. cos 2  x  sin x
 
cos 2 cos x  sin 2 sin x  sin x
0  cos x  1  sin x  sin x
sin x  sin x
35. cos (60  A)  sin (30  A)
cos 60 cos A  sin 60 sin A  sin 30 cos A 
cos 30 sin A
1 
3 1 
3

2 cos A  2 sin A  2 cos A  2 sin A
36. sin (A  )  sin A
sin A cos   cos A sin   sin A
(sin A)(1)  (cos A)(0)  sin A
sin A  sin A

Chapter 7 216

37. cos (180  x)  cos x 43. VL  I0qL cos qt  2
cos 180 cos x  sin 180 sin x  cos x  
1  cos x  0  sin x   cos x VL  I0qLcos qt cos 2  sin qt sin 2
cos x  cos x VL  I0qL(cos qt  0  sin qt  1)
1  tan x
38. tan (x  45)   
1  tan x VL  I0qL(sin qt)
tan x  tan 45
 
1  tan x
 VL  I0qL sin qt
1  tan x tan 45 1  tan x
sin 2(a  b)
1
tan x  1 1  tan x
  
1  (tan x)(1) 1  tan x 44. n  
1  tan x 1  tan x b
   sin 2
1  tan x 1  tan x
sin 2(a  60)
tan A  tan B 1
39. sin (A  B)   
sec A sec B
sin A sin B
n   60
 + 
cos A cos B
sin 2
sin (A  B) 
sin 2  30
a
1 1
  
cos A cos B n   sin 30
sin A sin B
+
cos A
cos B a a
cos A cos B sin 2 cos 30  cos 2 sin 30
sin (A  B)  1  
  
1 cos A cos B n   1
cos A cos B 
sin A cos B  cos A sin B 2
sin (A  B)   3
n  2   cos 2  2
a a 1
1 sin2 
2
sin (A  B)  sin (A  B) a a
1  tan A tan B n  3
 sin 2  cos2
40. cos (A  B)  
sec A sec B
sin A sin B
45. The given expression is the expanded form of the
1 cos A  cos B
   
sine of the difference of 3  A and 3  A. We have
cos (A  B) 
 
sin 3  A  3  A  sin (2A)
1 1
  
cos A cos B
1
sinA sin B  sin 2A
cos A  cos B
 
cos A cos B f(x  h)  f(x) sin (x  h)  sin x
cos (A  B)  1 1  
cos A cos B 46a. 
h  
h
  
cos A cos B sin x cos h  cos x sin h  sin x
cos A cos B  sin A sin B
 
h
cos (A  B)  
1
46b. y y  sin x cos 0.1  cos x sin 0.1  sin x
cos (A  B)  cos (A  B) 1 0.1
sec A sec B
41. sec (A  B)   
1  tan A tan B
1 1 0.5
 

cos A
cos B
sec (A  B) 
sin A sin B
1
cos A  cos B
  O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x
1 1
 
cos A

cos B 0.5
cos A cos B
sec (A  B)  sin A sin B  cos A cos B

1  cos A  cos B
    1
1
sec (A  B)  
cos A cos B  sin A sin B 46c. cos x
1 sin (a  b)
sec (A  B)  
cos (A  B) 47. tan (a  b)   
cos (a  b)
sec (A  B)  sec (A  B) sin a cos b  cos a sin b
tan (a  b)  
cos a cos b  sin a sin b
42. sin (x  y) sin (x  y)  sin2 x  sin2 y sin a cos b cos a sin b
  
(sin x cos y  cos x sin y)(sin x cos y  cos x sin y) cos a cos b cos a cos b
 sin2 x  sin2 y tan (a  b) 
cos a cos b sin a sin b
  
(sin x cos y)  (cos x sin y)  sin2 x  sin2 y
2 2 cos a cos b cos a cos b
tan a  tan b
sin2 x cos2 y  cos2 x sin2 y  sin2 x  sin2 y tan (a  b)   
1  tan a tan b
sin2 x cos2 y  sin2 x sin2 y  sin2 x sin2 y
Replace b with b to find tan(a  b).
 cos2 x sin2 y  sin2 x  sin2 y tan a  tan (b)
sin x(cos y  sin y)  sin2 y(sin2 x  cos2 x)
2 2 2 tan (a  (b))  
1  tan a tan (b)
 sin2 x  sin2 y tan a  tan b
tan (a  b)  
1  tan a tan b
(sin2 x)(1)  (sin2 y)(1)  sin2 x  sin2 y
sin2 x  sin2 y  sin2 x  sin2 y 48a. Answers will vary.

217 Chapter 7
48b. tan A  tan B  tan C  tan A tan B tan C 56. s  rv
1
A  2r2 v
tan A  tan B  tan (180  (A  B)) 1
18  r(2.9) A 2(6.2)2(2.9)
 tan A tan B tan(180  (A  B))
tan 180  tan (A  B) 6.2 r; 6.2 ft A 55.7 ft2
tan A  tan B  
1  tan 180 tan (A  B)
tan 180  tan (A  B) 57. c2  702  1302  2(70)(130) cos 130
 tan A tan B 1  tan 180 tan (A  B) c2 33498.7345
tan A  tan B 
0  tan (A  B)
 c 183 miles
1  0  tan (A  B)
0  tan (A  B) 58. 120  90, consider Case 2.
 tan A tan B 1  0  tan (A  B) 4  12, 0 solutions
tan A  tan B  tan (A  B) 59.
 tan A tan B tan (A  B)
1  tan A tan B 
1  tan A tan B  tan (A  B)
(tan A  tan B)   

 tan A tan B (A  B)
tan (A  B)(1  tan A tan B)  tan (A  B) 35 ft
 tan A tan B (A  B)
(1  tan A tan B  1) tan (A  B)
 tan A tan B (A  B)
tan A tan B tan (A  B)  tan A tan B (A  B)
1  cos2 x 3712 
49. sec2 x    x
1  sin2 x  csc x  cot x
 2 2
640
1  cos2 x
sec2 x  
cos2 x  1  cot x  cot x
 2 2
v  37 12  6 40 or 30 32
1 cos2 x
sec2 x  
cos2 x  cos2 x  1
  a  90  6 40 or 96 40
sec2 x  sec2 x  1  1 b  180  (30 32  96 40) or 52 48
35 x
sec2 x  sec 2 x 
sin 30 32  
sin 52 48
sin v 35 sin 52 48
50. sin2 v  cos2 v  1 tan v    x 
cos v sin 30 32
182  cos2 v  1 1
8 x 54.87 ft
63 
60. 4x3  3x2  x  0
cos2 v  64 3 7
8 x(4x2  3x  1)  0
37
cos v 
8 1 x(4x  1)(x  1)  0
 

3
7 37 x  0 or 4x  1  0 or x  1  0
Quadrant III, so  8 
7
 
21
1
x  4 x  1

51. Arctan 3
 
3 61. Case 1 Case 2
 x  1  4 x  1  4
sin (Arctan 3
)  sin 
3 (x  1)  4 x14

3
 2 x  1  4 x3
52. k, where k is an integer x  5
86  50 2  86  50 x 5 {xx 5 or x  3}
53. A  2   2 h  2

1 2

4
A  18  68  68 62.  1(6)  3(2)
3 6
  6  6 or 12
y  18 sin  t  c   68
2 63. fg(4)  f(g(4))

50  18 sin    1 
2 c  68  f(5(4)  1)
  f(21)
18  18 sin    c
2   3(21)2  4

1  sin   c 
2
 1319
 gf(4)  g(f(4))
sin1 ( 1)  2  c  g(3(4)2  4)
3   g(44)
    c
2 2
 5(44)  1
c  221

y  18sin 2t    68 (8)62
64. (8)62 862  6
8 62
   (1)62  1
2 8 8
360 30
54. 8  8; 1  360; 1  30 The correct choice is A.
55. sin (540)  sin (360  180)
0

Chapter 7 218
Page 445 Mid-Chapter Quiz 9. cos x  
1  si
n2 x cos y  
1  si
n2 y
1
1. csc v  
sin v 1 cot2 v csc2
7 2
v
 1


2 2

3  1


23

4
1 1  cot2 v   


2

7 1 cot2 v
2
49

 59 or 35  7



16 or 4
7

7
4 cos (x  y)  cos x cos y  sin x sin y
 
cot2 v
45

5 
7
 34  34
2  2 3
4
3
5
cot v 
2 
35  6
35
 
12
Quadrant 1, so 
5
2
1
10. tan x  4 tan y  
sec2 y
1
2. tan2 v1 sec2 v cos v  
sec v  
22 1
4 2
3  1  sec2 v  
1
5
 3

3 tan x  tan y
tan (x  y)   
1  tan x tan y
16 3
 1 sec2 v  5
  
9 5
25 4 3

9  sec2 v  
1  4 3
5
5

3  sec v
5 
5  43
Quadrant II, so 3 
4
19  
3.   5  4  4  5
3
4 
4
19 
cos 4  cos 5  4 
5  43


4  53


 cos 4 
80  413 
80  413
1 1
  or 
59 59
4. 
1  tan2 x 
1  cot2 x  1

1 1
sec2 x  csc2 x 1
 

cos2 x  sin2 x 1
11
7-3B Reduction Identities
csc2 v sec2v
5. 
sec2 v  csc2 v
2
csc v 2
sec v Page 447
sec2 v  sec2 v  csc2 v
 
1. sin, cos, sin 2. cot, tan, cot
1

sin2 v 3. tan, cot, tan 4. csc, sec, csc

1 1  csc2 v 5. sec, csc, sec

cos2 v
cos2 v 6a. (1) cos, sin, cos
sin2 v  1  csc2 v

(2) sin, cos, sin
cot2 v  1  csc2 v (3) cot, tan, cot
csc2 v  csc2 v (4) tan, cot, tan
6. cot x sec x sin x  2  tan x cos x csc x (5) csc, sec, csc
cos x 1 sin x 1 (6) sec, csc, sec

sin x 
cos x  sin x  2  cos x  cos x  sin x
  
6b. Sample answer: If a row for sin a were placed
121 above Exercises 1-5, the entries for Exercise 6a
11 could be obtained by interchanging the first and
1  cot a tan b third columns and leaving the middle column
7. tan (a  b)   
cot a  tan b
1
alone.
1 tan a  tan b

7a. (1) cos, sin, cos
tan (a  b) 
1
  tan b (2) sin, cos, sin
tan a (3) cot, tan, cot
1
1 (4) tan, cot, tan
tan a  tan b

tan a (5) csc, sec, csc
tan (a  b)  1  
  tan b tan a (6) sec, csc, sec
tan a
tan a  tan b 7b. Sample answer: The entries in the rows for cos a
tan (a  b)   
1  tan a tan b and sec a are unchanged. All other entries are
tan (a  b)  tan(a  b) multiplied by 1.
8. cos 75  cos(30  45) 8a. Sample answer: They can be used to reduce
 cos 30 cos 45  sin 30 sin 45 trigonometric functions of large positive or

3 
2 
2
 22  22
1 negative angles to those of angles in the first
quadrant.
  2
6 

4 8b. Sample answer: sum or difference identities

219 Chapter 7
sin v
7-4 Double-Angle and Half-Angle 8. sin2 v  cos2 v  1 tan v   
cos v
Identities 2

5
2 2
 

5  cos2 v  1 



21
Page 453 Check for Understanding 5
1. If you are only given the value of cos v, then 21 2 2
21
cos2 v  25  
21
 or 
21
cos 2v  2 cos2 v  1 is the best identity to use.

21
If you are only given the value of sin v, then cos v  
5 (Quadrant I)
cos 2v  1  2 sin2 v is the best identity to use. If sin 2v  2 sin v cos v
you are given the values of both cos v and sin v, 
21
 25
5 
2
then cos 2v  cos2 v  sin2 v is just as good as the
other two. 4
21

25
2. cos 2  1  2 sin2 v
cos 2v  1  2 sin2 v cos 2v  cos2 v  sin2 v
 2
21 2 2
cos 2v  1
  sin2 v  
5   5

2
17
1  cos 2v
  sin2 v  25
2
2 tan v
1 cos 2v tan 2v  
  sin v



2
1  tan2 v
2

 221 

1  cos 2 2
21
a a 
Letting v  2 yields sin 2 
 ,
2  21 2
2
1  cos 1  21 


2
.
a
or sin 2 

4
21
3a. III or IV 3b. I or II 3c. I, II, III or IV  
21 4
21
4. sin 2v  2 sin v 
17 or 
17

  21
sin 22  2 sin 2
 9. tan2 v  1  sec2 v sin2 v  cos2 v  1
sin   2 sin 2 4 2 3 2
0  2(1)
 

3  1  sec2 v sin2 v  5  1
25 16
0 2   sec2 v sin2 v  2
9 5

Sample answer: v  2 5
3  sec v (Quadrant III)
4
sin v  5
5. Both answers are correct. She obtained two cos v 
1
 (Quadrant III)
sec v
different representations of the same number. One
1
 
way to verify this is to evaluate each expression 3
5 or 5
with a calculator. To verify it algebraically, square 
3
each answer and then simplify. The same result is sin 2v  2 sin v cos v
obtained in each case. Since each of the original
 255
4 3
answers is positive, and they have the same
24
square, the original answers are the same  25
number.
cos 2v  cos2 v  sin2 v
 3 2 4 2
 5  5

 4
6. sin 
8  sin  7
2  2
5



1  cos  2 tan v
 
4
(Quadrant I) tan 2v   
1  tan2 v
2

23
4


2
1  2
   4 2
1  3
2

2  2

 
2
8

3 24
7. tan 165  tan 2
330  or 7
7
9
1  cos 330
 
1  co

s 330 (Quadrant II)
10. tan 2v   
2
cot v  tan v


3

1  3 tan 2v  
2 tan v
cot v  tan v  tan v
 

3 2 tan v
1  3 tan 2v  
cot v tan v  tan2 v
 (2  3
) 2 tan v
tan 2v  
1  tan2 v
 32
tan 2v  tan 2v

Chapter 7 220
1 sec A  sin A 5
11. 1  2 sin 2A   
sec A

6
5
1 16. tan   tan 
1  sin A 
cos A
12 2
1  sin 2A  5


2

1 1  cos 6
cos A
 5 (Quadrant I)
1
 sin A
 1  cos 6
cos A
1 cos A
1  2 sin 2A  1  


 cos A 
3
cos A 1  2
1
1
 sin 2A  1  sin A cos A  
3
1  2
2
1 1
1  sin 2A  1  2

2  2 sin A cos A


1 1 
2  3

1  sin 2A  1  2

2 sin 2A 2

x x sin x  
2  3
12. sin 2 cos 2  2 
2
x x


2 sin 2 cos 2 (2  3
)(2  3
)
  sin x

 
(2  3
)(2  3
)
2 2

   
x (2  3
 )2
sin 2 2 
sin x 43
 
2 2  2  3

sin x sin x 3
  2 
2 3 4
17. sin 8  sin 
2
13. cos 2v  2 cos2
v1


3
cos 2v  1  2 cos2 v 1  cos 4
1 1  (Quadrant I)

2 cos 2v  2  cos2 v 2



2
P  I02 R sin2 qt  1  2
P  I02 R (1  cos2 qt)  2
P  I02 R1 2 cos 2qt  2
1 1

P  I02 R2  2 cos 2qt


1 1  
  2
2

7
2


1 1 
P  2 I02 R  2 I02 R cos 2qt 7 6
18. cos 12  
cos 2
7


1  cos 6
Pages 454455 Exercises  (Quadrant II)
30
2
14. cos 15  cos 2


  3
1 2
1  cos 30
 2
 (Quadrant I)  
2



3
1  2  
2  3

  2
 2 45
19. tan 22.5  tan 2
  2  3

2
150

 
1  cos
1  cos 45

45 (Quadrant I)
15. sin 75  sin 2


1  cos 150 
2
 

2 (Quadrant I) 1  2

2



3 
1  2 1  2
 


2 
2  2

2

 
2  

2

3

2  

2
2

  (2  2

)(2  2
(2  2
)
)(2  2
)

 
 )2
(2  2

42

 
2  2

2
2
22
 
2

 2
1

221 Chapter 7
23. tan2 v  1  sec2 v
20. tan 2 
v


1  cos
1  cos v

v (2)2  1  sec2 v
5  sec2 v


1
1  4
 
5   sec v (Quadrant II)
1
1   cos v  sec v
4
1 
5
  or 5


3
 5
4
sin2 v  cos2 v  1
 5
  2
5
4 sin2 v  5  1
 35 or 

15

5 sin2 v  25
20

sin v 2
5
21. sin2 v  cos2 v  1 tan v   
cos v sin v  5 (Quadrant II)
v 
4
sin2  2 1 3 sin 2v  2 sin v cos v
5 
5 2 
5
 255
5
sin2 v
9
 
4
25 
3 5 4
sin v  
5 3
 5
 
(Quadrant I) 4 cos 2v  cos2 v  sin2 v
 2
5 2
 5  5
5 2
sin 2v  2 sin v cos v
 255
3 4 3
 5
24
 25 tan 2v   
2 tan v
1  tan2 v
cos 2v  cos2 v  sin 2 v  
2(2)
1  (2)2
 
4 2
 5  5
3 2
   
4

4
7 3 or 3
 2 1
5
2 tan v 24. cos v   
sec v
tan 2v   
1  tan2 v 1
 
4
3
3
2 4 
 
3
4
 1  4  
3 2

3 sin2 v  cos2 v  1

sin2 v  4  1
2 24 3 2
 or 
7 7
 7
16 sin2 v  1
6
sin v
22. sin2 v cos2 v1 tan v   
7
cos v sin v  4 (Quadrant II)
 
1
 2
3  cos2 v1 1

3 tan v 
sin v

8  cos v
cos2 v  9 2

2 7
3 
2
2 4
cos v  3 1 
2 
  or 4 3
22  4
(Quadrant I) 7
 3
sin 2v  2 sin v cos v
1 2 sin 2v  2 sin v cos v
 2  
2
 

7
 244
3 3 3
42
 
9 3
7
 8
cos 2v  cos2 v  sin2 v
2 cos 2v  cos2 v  sin2 v
 3  3
2 2 1 2
 2
7
 4  4
3 2
7
 
9 2 1
2 tan v
 1 
6 or 8
tan 2v  
1  tan2 v 2 tan v
tan 2v   
1  tan2 v

2
2 
4
  
37 
 
2

2
1  2     
7
4 1  
3 
 2
2
 2 7
2 4
2 

14
or 7 3
  2 or 37

16 
9

Chapter 7 222
1 2 tan v
25. 1  cot2 v  csc2 v tan v   
cot v tan 2v   
1  tan2 v

1  2  csc2 v
1 221 
21 
3 2 
 3 2 

2 
2
21 2
 1  21 
13 2 
  csc2 v  
4 3

13 421

2  csc v (Quadrant III) 
21 4
21
sin v
1
 sin2 v  cos2 v  1 
17 or 
17
csc v 
21
1 
213 2
 

 

13 13   cos v  1
 2
27. sin2 a  cos2 a  1 tan a  
sin a

2 cos a
117
2 2
13 cos2 v 
16 9 7


  or 
2 2
a 
13
 13 3 3
cos v   
13
sin2 3 1  
2
13

3
(Quadrant III)
7 7
 
14
sin 2v  2 sin v cos v sin2 a  9   or  2
2

2 3
 2
13  13 
13 13 
7
 
sin a  3 (Quadrant II)
12
 1
3 tan 2a  
2 tan a
1  tan2 a
cos 2v  cos2 v  sin2 v 14 
 2  2 2

 13
313
 
213
13   
2

1  2
5 14
 13 2
2 tan v 
14 2
14
tan 2v     
5 or 
5
1  tan2 v  

2
2
2 3   1
 28. csc 2v  2 sec v csc v
2 2
  
1  3 
1
sin 2v
1
 2 sec v csc v
1 1
4
 
2 sin v cos v  2 sec v csc v
3 12
  or  1 1 1 1
5
 5 
2    
sin v cos v  2 sec v csc v
9
1 1
1  csc v sec v  2 sec v csc v
26. sin v   
csc v sin2 v  cos2 v  1 2
1 1

1
5
252  cos2 v  1 
2 sec v csc v  2 sec v csc v
cos 2A
2 21 29. cos A  sin A   
cos2 v  25 cos A  sin A
2 cos2 A  sin2 A
 5 cos v  

21 cos A  sin A   
cos A  sin A
5
(cos A  sin A)(cos A  sin A)
(Quadrant IV) cos A  sin A  
cos A  sin A
sin v
tan v   
cos v
cos A  sin A  cos A  sin A
2 30. (sin v  cos v)2  1  sin 2v
5
sin v  2 sin v cos v  cos2 v  1  sin 2v
2
 
21 2 sin v cos v  1  1  sin 2v

5
2 sin v cos v  sin 2v
2 2
21
 21 or 
21 sin 2v  sin 2v
cos 2x  1
sin 2v  2 sin v cos v 31. cos x  1   
2(cos x  1)

21
 25
5 
2 2 cos2 x  1  1
cos x  1   
2(cos x  1)
4
21 2 cos2 x  2
 
25 cos x  1   
2(cos x  1)
cos 2v  cos2 v  sin2 v 2(cos2 x  1)
cos x  1   
2(cos x  1)

21
   
2 2
 2 5 2(cos x  1)(cos x  1)
5 cos x  1  
2(cos x  1)
17
 
25 cos x  1  cos x  1
cos2 v  sin2 v
32. sec 2v   
cos2 v  sin2 v
1
sec 2v   
cos 2v
sec 2v  sec 2v
A sin A
33. tan 2   
1  cos A

223 Chapter 7
L
tan 45  tan 2
39a. tan45  2  
1

A  
A
sin 2 2 L
1  tan 45 tan 2
tan 2  
1  cos 22
A L
1  tan 2
A A  
A 2 sin  cos  L
tan 2  
2 2 1  1  tan 2
A
1  cos L
1  2 cos2 2  1 1
 
1  cos L
A A  
2 sin 2 cos 2 1  cos L
A
tan 2   1  

1  cos L
A
2 cos2 2 1  cos L 1  cos 60
A
1
 
1  cos L
1   
1  cos 60
  
A sin 2 39b. 1  cos L 1  cos 60
tan 
2   A
1  

1  cos L 1  

1  cos 60
cos 2


1
A A 1  2
tan 2  tan 2  1 
1
1  
34. sin 3x  3 sin x  4 sin3 x 2


sin(2x  x)  3 sin x  4 sin3 x 1
1  
2
sin 2x cos x  cos 2x sin x  3 sin x  4 sin3 x 1 
1
2 sin x cos2 x  (1  2 sin2 x) sin x  3 sin x  4 sin3 x 1  2

2 sin x(1  sin2 x)  (1  2 sin2 x) sin x  3 sin x  4 sin3 x


2 sin x  2 sin3 x  sin x  2 sin3 x  3 sin x  4 sin3 x 
1
1  
3
 
3 sin x  4 sin3 x  3 sin x  4 sin3 x

1
1  3
35. cos 3x  4 cos3 x  3 cos x
cos(2x  x)  4 cos3 x  3 cos x 3  3

3
(2 cos x  1)cos x  2 sin2 x cos x  4 cos3 x  3 cos x
2
 
3  3
(2 cos2 x  1)cos x  2(1  cos2 x)cos x  4 cos3 x  3 cos x 
3
2 cos3 x  cos x  2 cos x  2 cos3 x  4 cos3 x  3 cos x 12  6 3
4 cos3 x  3 cos x  4 cos3 x  3 cos x  
6 or 2  3

v2
 sin2 2v 21
2g sin2 2v 40. tan (a  30)  7
36. 
v2
 
sin2 v
 sin2 v tan (a  30)  3
2g
tan a  tan 30
(2 sin v cos v)2 
1  tan a tan 30 3
 
sin2 v 3
4 sin2 v cos2 v tan a    3  3
 tan a
 
sin2 v
3

3
 4 cos2 v  tan a  3  3
tan a  3

3
37. PBD is an inscribed angle that subtends the (1  3
) tan a  3  3
same arc as the central angle POD, so mPBD 3
1 1 PA 3  
3
 v. By right triangle
2 trigonometry, tan2v  
BA
tan a  
1  3
PA sin v
    . 9  3

1  OA 1  cos v tan a  
3 33

2v2 cos v sin(v  a)
38. R   
6  53
g cos2 a tan a  
3
2v2 cos v sin(v  45)   
R 
g cos2 45 41. cos 12  cos 3  4
2v2 cos v(sin v cos 45  cos v sin 45)    
R 
g cos2 45  cos 3 cos 4  sin 3 sin 4
2  2  
2 
3 
2
    
1
2v2 cos v (sin v)  
2  (cos v) 2
  2  2  2  2
R     6
2 

2 
 
g 
2
 2

4
1

2
sec 12   
2 2 cos  
2 v cos v(sin v  cos v) 12
R   1
1  
g  2 2  6
 
4
2
v2 (2 cos v sin v  2 cos2 v)
R  4
2  4
6
g  or 6
4   2

v2 
2
R  g(2 cos v sin v  (2 cos2 v  1) 1) 42. Sample answer:
v2 
2 )2  cos(
sin( )2  sin   cos 
R (sin
g 2v  cos 2v  1)  0  (1)
 1
1

Chapter 7 224
17 17 180
43. s  rv   1
0  

10 7-5 Solving Trigonometric Equations
17  10  v 97.4
17

10 v
Page 458 Graphing Calculator Exploration
44. Let x  the distance from A to the point beneath
the mountain peak. 1.
h
tan 2110   
570  x
h  (570  x) tan 2110
h
tan 3640  x
h  x tan 3640
(570  x) tan 2110  x tan 3640
570 tan 2110  x tan 3640  x tan 2110
570 tan 2110  x(tan 3640  tan 2110) 2.
570 tan 2110

tan 3640  tan 2110 x
617.7646751 x
h
tan 3640  x
h
tan 3640  
617.8
h 460 ft
45. (x  (3))(x  0.5)(x  6)(x  2)  0 3. Exercise 1: (1.1071, 0.8944), (4.2487, 0.8944)
(x  3)(x  0.5)(x  6)(x  2)  0 Exercise 2: (5.2872, 0.5437), (0.9960, 0.5437)
(x2  2.5x  1.5)(x2  8x  12)  0 4. The x-coordinates are the solutions of the
x4  5.5x3  9.5x2  42x  18  0 equations. Substitute the x-coordinates and see
2x4  11x3  19x2  84x  36  0 that the two sides of the equation are equal.
46. y  2x  5 y 5.
x  2y  5
y  2x  5
x  5  2y
x5

2 y
O x
x5
y 2


[0, 2] sc14 by [3, 3] sc11
5a. The x-intercepts of the graph are the solutions of
47. x  2y  11 3x  5y  11
the equation sin x  2 cos x. They are the same.
x  11  2y 3(11  2y)  5y  11
33  6y  5y  11 5b. y  tan 0.5x  cos x or y  cos x  tan 0.5x
11y  22
y2
x  2y  11 Page 459 Check for Understanding
x  2(2)  11 1. A trigonometric identity is an equation that is
x 7 (7, 2) true for all values of the variable for which each
48. ab  3 side of the equation is defined. A trigonometric
3
b  a equation that is not an identity is only true for
certain values of the variable.
(a  b)2  64
2. All trigonometric functions are periodic. Adding
a2  2ab  b2  64
the least common multiple of the periods of the
a2  2aa  a  64
3 3 2
functions that appear to any solution to the
equation will always produce another solution.
a2  6  a  64
3 2
3. 45  360x and 135  360x, where x is any
a2  a  70
3 2
integer
a2  b2  70
The correct answer is 70.

225 Chapter 7
4. Each type of equation may require adding, 12. tan2 x  2 tan x  1  0
subtracting, multiplying, or dividing each side by (tan x  1)(tan x  1)  0
the same number. Quadratic and trigonometric tan x  1  0
equations can often be solved by factoring. Linear tan x  1
and quadratic equations do not require identities. 3
x  4  k
All linear and quadratic equations can be solved
algebraically, whereas some trigonometric 13. cos2 x  3 cos x  2
equations require a graphing calculator. A linear cos2 x  3 cos x  2  0
equation has at most one solution. A quadratic (cos x  1)(cos x  2)  0
equation has at most two solutions. A cos x  1  0 or cos x  2  0
trigonometric equation usually has infinitely cos x  1 cos x  2
many solutions unless the values of the variable x  (2k  1) no solutions
are restricted. 14. sin 2x  cos x  0
5. 2 sin x  1  0 6. 2 cos x  30 2 sin x cos x  cos x  0
cos x (2 sin x  1)  0
2 sin x  1 
2 cos x  3
cos x  0 or 2 sin x  1  0

3
sin x  12 cos x  2 
x  2  k
1
sin x  2
x  30 x  30 
3
x  6  2k
7. sin x cot x  
2 5
3
or x  6  2k
sin x  
cos x
 
sin x 2 15. 2 cos v  1 0
3
cos x  
2
2 cos v 1
1
x  30 or x  330 cos v 2
8. cos 2x  sin2 x  2 1 2
cos v  2 at 3 and 3
4
2 cos2 x  1  (1  cos2 x)  2 2 4
2 cos2 x  1  cos2 x  1 v 3

3
3 cos2 x  0 16. W  Fd cos v
cos2 x  0 1500  100  20 cos v
cos x  0 0.75  cos v
x  90 or x  270
v 41.41
9. 3 tan2 x  1  0
3 tan2 x  1
1
tan2 x  3 Pages 459461 Exercises

3
tan x 
3 17. 2
 sin x  1  0 18. 2 cos x  1  0
 5 7 11
x  6 or x  6 or x  6 or x  6 2 sin x  1 2 cos x  1
10. 2 sin2 x  5 sin x  3 1 1
sin x   cos x  2
2 sin x  5 sin x  3  0
2 2 
(2 sin x  1)(sin x  3)  0 2
sin x  
2 x  120
2 sin x  1  0 or sin x  3  0
x  45
sin x  12 sin x  3
19. sin 2x  1  0
7 11
x  6 or x  6 no solutions 2 sin x cos x  1  0
11. sin2 2x  cos2 x  0 sin2 x cos2 x  14
1  cos2 2x  cos2 x  0 1
1  (2 cos2 x  1)2  cos2 x  0 sin2 x (1  sin2 x)  4
1  (4 cos4 x  4 cos2 x  1)  cos2 x  0 sin2 x  sin4 x  4  0
1
4 cos4 x  5 cos2 x  0 1
cos2 x(4 cos2 x  5)  0 sin4 x  sin2 x  4  0
cos2 x  0 4 cos2 x  5  0
or
5 sin2 x  12sin2 x  12  0
cos x  0 cos2 x  4 1
 5 sin2 x  2  0
x 
2  k cos x  
2 1
sin2 x  2
no solutions
1 
2
sin x   or 2
2 
x  45

Chapter 7 226
20. tan 2x  30 28. cos (x  45)  cos (x  45)  2

tan 2x  3
 cos x cos 45  sin x sin 45
2 tan x  cos x cos 45  sin x sin 45  2


1  tan2 x  3
 
2 
2
cos x  2  sin x  2
2 tan x  3 (1  tan2 x)

2 
2
2 tan x  3  3 tan2 x  cos x  2  sin x  2  2

3  tan x  2 tan x  3
2 0 2 cos x  2 
(3 tan x  1)(tan x  3 )  0 cos x  1
3 tan x  1  0 tan x  30 x  0
1 29. 2 sin v cos v  3  sin v  0
tan x   tan x  3

3 sin v (2 cos v  3 )  0
3 sin v  0 or 2 cos v + 3 0
tan x  
3
x  60
v  0 or v  180 2 cos v  3

x  30 
3
21. cos2 x  cos x cos v  2
cos2 x  cos x  0 v  150
cos x(cos x  1)  0 or v  210
cos x  0 or cos x  1  0 30. (2 sin x  1)(2 cos2 x  1)  0
x  90 cos x  1 2 sin x  1  0 or 2 cos2 x  1  0
x  0 2 sin x  1 2 cos2 x  1
22. sin x  1  cos x
2 1 1
sin x  2 cos2 x  2
sin x  1  1  sin2 x
 
2
sin2 x  sin x  2  0 x  6 cos x 
2
(sin x  1)(sin x  2)  0 5  3
or x  6 x  4 or x  4
sin x  1  0 or sin x  2  0
5 7
sin x  1 sin x  2 or x  4 or x  4
x  90 no solution
31. 4 sin2 x  1  4 sin x
23. 2  cos x  1  0 4 sin2 x  4 sin x  1  0
2 cos x  1 (2 sin x  1)(2 sin x  1)  0
2
 2 sin x  1  0
cos x  2
2 sin x  1
x  135 or x  225 1
1 sin x  2
24. cos x tan x  2
7 11
sin x 1 x  6 or x  6
cos x  2
cos x   
1 32. 2
 tan x  2 sin x
sin x  2 sin x

2 cos x  2 sin x

x  30 or x  150
25. sin x tan x  sin x  0   2 cos x
2
2
sin x (tan x  1)  0 
2  cos x
sin x  0 or tan x  1  0  7
x  0 or x  180 tan x  1 x  4 or x  4
x  45 or x  225 2  tan x  2 sin x would also be true if both tan x
sin x
26. 2 cos x  3 cos x  2  0
2 and sin x equal 0. Since tan x   
cos x , tan x equals
(2 cos x  1)(cos x  2)  0 0 when sin x  0. Therefore x can also equal 0 and
2 cos x  1  0 or cos x  2  0 .
 7
2 cos x  1 cos x  2 0, 4, , 4
1
cos x  2 no solution 33. sin x  cos 2x  1
x  60 or x  300 sin x  1  2 sin2 x  1
27. sin 2x  sin x 2 sin x  sin x  0
2

2 sin x cos x  sin x sin x(2 sin x  1)  0


2 sin x cos x  sin x  0 sin x  0 or 2 sin x  1  0
sin x (2 cos x  1)  0 x  0 or x   2 sin x  1
sin x  0 or 2 cos x  1  0 sin x  2
1

x  0 or x  180 2 cos x  1 7
1 x  6 or
cos x  2 11
x  6
x  120
or x  240

227 Chapter 7
34. cot2 x  csc x  1 41. 
1
 cos x  sin x
cos x  sin x
csc2 x  1  csc x  1
(cos x  sin x)(cos x  sin x)  1
csc2 x  csc x  2  0
cos2 x  sin2 x  1
(csc x  2)(csc x  1)  0
cos2 x  (1  cos2 x)  1
csc x  2  0 or csc x  1  0
2 cos2 x  1  1
csc x  2 or csc x  1
1 2 cos2 x  2
sin x  2 sin x  1 cos2 x  1
x

 or x 
5

3
x  2 cos x 
1
6 6
x  k
35. sin x  cos x  0
42. 2 tan2 x  3 sec x  0
sin x  cos x
2(sec2 x  1)  3 sec x  0
sin2 x  cos2 x
(2 sec x  1)(sec x  2)  0
sin2 x  cos2 x  0
2 sec2 x  3 sec x  2  0
sin2 x  1  sin2 x  0
2 sec x  1  0 or sec x  2  0
2 sin2 x  1  0
1
2 sec x  1 sec x  2
sin2 x  2 1 1
sec x  2 cos x  2
1 2
sin x 
 or
2 
2 cos x  2 x  3  2k or
3
sin x and cos x must be opposites, so x   5
4 no solution x  3  2k
7
or x  . 1
4 43. sin x cos x  2
36. 1  3 sin v  cos 2v 1
1  3 sin v  1  2 sin2 v sin2 x cos2 x  4
2 sin v  3 sin v  2  0
2
sin2 x(1  sin2 x)  4
1

(2 sin v  1)(sin v  2)  0 1
2 sin v  1  0 or sin v  2  0 sin2 x  sin4 x)  4
2 sin v  1 sin v  2 sin4 x  sin2 x  4  0
1
1
sin v  2 no solution
7 11 sin2 x  12sin2 x  12  0
v 
6 or v  
6 1
1 sin2 x  2  0
37. sin x  2 1
7 11 sin2 x  2
x  
6 2 k or x  6  2k 
2
sin x 
2
38. cos x tan x  2 cos2 x  1

sin x x  4  k
cos x  2 cos x  1
cos x   2

3
sin x  2(1  sin2 x)  1 44. cos2 x  sin2 x  2
2 sin2 x  sin x  1  0 cos2 x  (1  cos2 x)  2

3
(2 sin x  1)(sin x  1)  0 
3
2 sin x  1  0 or sin x  1  0 2 cos2 x  1  2
2 sin x  1 sin x  1 2  3

1 3
2 cos2 x  2
sin x  
2 x 
2  2k 2  3

 5
cos2 x  4
x 
6  2k or x  
6  2k 2
 3

cos x 

2
39. 3 tan2 x  3 tan x  11
3 tan x  3
2  tan x  0 x  12  k or x  12  k
tan x(3 tan x  3)  0 45. sin4 x  1  0
tan x  0 or 3 tan x  3 0 (sin2 x  1)(sin2 x  1)  0
sin2 x  1  0 or sin2 x  1  0
x  k 3 tan x  3


3
sin x  1
2 sin2 x  1
tan x  3 sin x 
1 no solutions
 
x  6  k x  2  k
40. 2(1  sin2 x)  3 sin x 46. sec2 x  2 sec x  0
2  2 sin2 x  3 sin x sec x(sec x  2)  0
2 sin x  3 sin x  2  0
2 sec x  0 or sec x  2  0
(2 sin x  1)(sin x  2)  0 1
cos x  0 sec x  2
2 sin x  1  0 or sin x  2  0 1
2 sin x  1 sin x  2 no solution cos x  2
1 2
sin x  2 no solution x  3  2k or
 4
x  6  2k or x  3  2k
5
x  6  2k

Chapter 7 228
47. sin x  cos x  1 58a. n1 sin i  n2 sin r
sin2 x  2 sin x cos x  cos2 x  1 1.00 sin 35  2.42 sin r
sin2 x  2 sin x cos x  1  sin2 x  1 sin r  
1.00 sin 35

2.42
2 sin x cos x  0
sin x cos x  0 sin r 0.2370150563
sin2 x cos2 x  0 r 13.71
sin2 x (1  sin2 x)  0 58b. Measure the angles of incidence and refraction
sin x  0
2 or 1  sin2 x  0 to determine the index of refraction. If the index
sin x  0 sin2 x  1 is 2.42, the diamond is genuine.
x  2k sin x 
1 59. D  0.5 sin (6.5 x) sin (2500t)

x  2  2k 0.01  0.5 sin (6.5(0.5)) sin (2500t)
0.02  sin 3.25 sin 2500t
48. 2 sin x  csc x  3
0.1848511958 sin 2500t
2 sin2 x  1  3 sin x
0.1859549654 2500t
2 sin x  3 sin x  1  0
2
The first positive angle with sine equivalent to
(2 sin x  1)(sin x  1)  0
sin (0.1859549654) is   0.1859549654 or
2 sin x  1  0 or sin x  1  0
3.326477773.
2 sin x  1 sin x  1 3.326477773
1  t  
sin x  2 x  2  2k 2500
 t 0.0013 s
x  6  2k or a
5 60. a sin(bx  c)  d  d  2
x 
6  2k a
3  a sin(bx  c)  2
49. cos v  2 1
3  5 7 sin(bx  c)  2
cos v  2 at 6 and 6 360
The period of the function sin(bx  c) is b, so
5 7
  v   360
6 6 the given interval consists of 
360
 b periods.
1 
50. cos v  2  0
  b
1
1 The equation sin (bx  c)  2 has two solutions
cos v  2
per period, so the total number of solutions is 2b.
1  5
cos v  2 at 3 and 3
 5
61.  xy  34
0  v 3 or 3 v 2
cos v sin v 17

 sin v  1 0
51. 2  sin v cos v 4 22

3


2  sin v 1
cos v  4 sin v 17

2
sin v 2  33 sin v  4 cos v 22



2  3
sin v  2 at 4 and 4 3 cos v  4 sin v  17

0v

 or
3
 v 2 3 sin v  4 cos v  22
4 4

52. 0.4636, 3.6052 53. 0, 1.8955
9 cos v  12 sin v  317

54. 0.3218, 3.4633
 16 cos v  12 sin v  82
55. sin v  D
5.5  107 25 cos v  82  317

sin v      317
82 
0.003
cos v  
25
sin v 0.0001833333333
v 0.01 v 18.68020037
360  v 341.32
56. sin 2x sin x
2 sin x cos x sin x
2 sin x cos x sin x 0
sin x(2 cos x  1) 0
The product on the left side of the inequality is
 5
equal to 0 when x is 0, 3, , or 3. For the product
to be negative, one factor must be positive and the
 5
other negative. This occurs if 3 x  or 3 x
2.
v2
57. R  g sin 2v
152
20  
9.8 sin 2v
0.8711111111 sin 2v
2v 60.5880156 or 2v 119.4119844
v 30.29 v 59.71

229 Chapter 7
 0 3 2
135 1 67. 2 1
62. cot 67.5  cot 2 cot v   
tan v
2 4 2
tan 2 
135


1 co s 135

1  co s 135 (Quadrant 1) 1 2 1 0
x2  2x  1  0



1  
2
2
 (x  1)(x  1)  0
  x10 x10
2
1  
2

 x  1 x  1
(x  2)(x  1(x  1)


2  2


2 68.
 
2 2


2


(2  2
)(2  2
)
 
(2  2
)(2  2
)


 4 
(2  
2) 2
 
2
22 
 
2
1
[5, 5] sc11 by [2, 8] sc11
cot 67.5   max: (1, 7), min: (1, 3)
2  2 

2 69. 3x  4  16 6  2y
2 x4 y3 (4, 3)
 
2  2 70. x  y  z  1 xyz1
2 (2  2) 2x  y  3z  5 x  y  z  11
 
(2  2 )(2  2) 3x  4z  6 2x  12
2
22 x6
 
42 3x  4z  6 x  y  z  11
 2
1 3(6)  4z  6 6  y  (3)  11
tan x 
2 4z  12 y2
63.   5
sec x z  3
sin x
 (6, 2, 3)
cos x 
2

1
 5
 71. g (x)
cos x x g(x)

2 7 4
sin x  5

2 5 2
Sample answer: sin x  5 g (x )  |x  3|
3 0
2
64. A  ,
3 2 1 2
y 1 4
2 O x
3
2
y  cos
3
1
72. A  2bh
1
O 90 180 270 360 A  2(6)(1)
A3
The correct choice is C.
 23

45 miles 5280 ft 12 inches 1 hour


65. 
hour 
mile 
     792 in/sec
ft 3600 sec
v
v  r t
v
792  7 1
792
  
7
792
 radians
7 2 18 rps
66. undefined

Chapter 7 230
Page 462 History of Mathematics 4.
Slope-Intercept Form: y  mx  b, displays
1. x2  52  52  2(5)(5) cos 10 slope and y-intercept
x 0.87
Point-Slope Form: y  y1  m(x  x1),
x2  52  52  2(5)(5) cos 20
displays slope and a point on the line
x 1.74
x2  52  52  2(5)(5) cos 30 Standard Form: Ax  by  C  0, displays
x 2.59 no information
x2  52  52  2(5)(5) cos 40 Normal Form: x cos f  y sin f  p  0,
x 3.42 displays length of the normal and the angle
x2  52  52  2(5)(5) cos 50 the normal makes with the x-axis
x 4.23
See students work for sample problems.
x2  52  52  2(5)(5) cos 60
x5 5. x cos f  y sin f  p  0
x2  52  52  2(5)(5) cos 70 x cos 30  y sin 30  10  0
3 1
x 5.74 x
2  2y  10  0
x2  52  52 2(5)(5) cos 80
3 x  y  20  0
x 6.43
x2  52  52  2(5)(5) cos 90 6. x cos f  y sin f  p  0
x 7.07 x cos 150  y sin 150  3 0

3 1
2x  2y  3
0
Angle Length of
Measure Chord (cm) 3x  y  23 0
10 0.87 7. x cos f  y sin f  p  0
7 7
20 1.74 x cos 4  y sin 4  52
0
30 2.59 2
x
2  
2
 2 y  52
0
40 3.42
2x  2y  102 0
50 4.23 x  y  10  0
60 5.00 8. 4x  3y  10 A2  
B2  
42  32 or 5
70 5.74 4 3 10
4x  3y  10  0 x
5 
5 y  5  0
 
80 6.43
4 3
90 7.07 5x  5y  2  0
3 4
sin f  5, cos f  5, p  2; Quadrant III
3
5 3
tan f  
4
or 4
7-6 Normal Form of a Linear Equation 5
f
9. y  3x  2
Page 467 Check for Understanding 3x  y  2  0
1. Normal means perpendicular A2  
B2   32  12 or 10

2. Compute cos 30 and sin 30. Use these as the 3 1 2
x y  0
coefficients of x and y, respectively, in the normal 
10 
10 10

3 1 3
10 10 
10
form. The normal form is 2x  2y  10  0. x
10 10 y  5  0
 

3. The statement is true. The given line is tangent to 


10 3
10 
10
sin f 
10 , cos f  10 ,
  p  
5 ; Quadrant I
the circle centered at the origin with radius p.

10
 
10 1
tan f  or 3
310
 
10
f 18

231 Chapter 7
10. 2x  2y  6 17. x cos f  y sin f  p  0
2
x  2y  6  0 x cos 210  y sin 210  5  0

3 1
 B2  
A2   22  
(2)2 or 2 2x  2y  5  0
2 2 6
x
2  2y  2  0 3 x  y  10  0
2 2 18. x cos f  y sin f  p  0
x
2  2y  3  0
4 4
2 2 x cos 3  y sin 3  5  0
sin f  2, cos f  2, p  3; Quadrant IV
1 
3
2  2x  2y  5  0
2
tan f  or 1 x  3y  10  0
2

2 19. x cos f  y sin f  p  0
3
f 315 x cos 300  y sin 300  2  0
11a. 3x  4y  8 y 1 
3 3
x
2  2y  2  0
3
y x
4 2 x  3y  3  0
20. x cos f  y sin f  p  0
11 11
x cos 6  y sin 6  43
0
O x 3 1
x
2  2y  43
0
3x  4y  8
3x  y  830
21. 
A2  
B2  52  1
22 or 13
5 12 65
x
13 
13 y  13  0
 
11b. 3x  4y  8 5 12
3 x  13 y  5  0
1 
3x  4y  8  0
12 5
A2  
B2   32  (
4)2 or 5 3 , cos f   13 , p  5; Quadrant III
sinf  1 
3 4 8
x
5  5y  5  0 1
12
3 12
8 tan f  or 5
p  or 1.6 miles 5
5 13

Pages 467469 Exercises f 247


12. x cos f  y sin f  p  0 22. xy1
x cos 60  y sin 60  15  0 xy10

3
1
x
2  2y  15  0 
A2  
B2  
12  12 or 2

1 1 1
x  3 y  30  0 
x   y   0
2 
2 
2
13. x cos f  y sin v  p  0 2 2 2
 
x
2  2y  2  0
x cos 4  y sin 4  12  0 2  2 
2
2 2
sin f  2, cos f  2, p  2; Quadrant I
x
2  y
2  12  0
2x  2 y  24  0
14. x cos f  y sin f  p  0 2

x cos 135  y sin 135  32 0 tan f  2
or 1
2 2 2
2x  y  32
0 
2 2
2 x  2 y  620
f  45
xy60
15. x cos f  y sin f  p  0 23. 3x  4y  15
5 5 3x  4y  15  0
x cos 
6  y sin 
6  23
0
3 1 A2  
B2   32  (
4)2 or 5
2x  y
2  23
0 3 4 15
x  y    0
3x  y  43 0 5 5 5
3 4
x  y  3  0
16. x cos f  y sin f  p  0 5 5
  4 3
x cos 
2  y sin 
2 20 sin f  5, cos f  5, p  3; Quadrant IV
0x  1y  2  0 4
5
y20 tan f  or 3
4
3

5

f 307

Chapter 7 232
x
24. y  2x 4 28. 
3 y4
2x  y  4  0 x
 y40
A2  
B2   (2)2 
3
 12 or 5

2 1 4 x  3y  12  0
x  y    0

 5  5 
 5   A2  
B2  
12  (
3)2 or 10

25 5 4 5 1 3 12
x
5  5 y  5  0
    x   y   0
10 10 10
5 2
5 4
5  3 
610
sin f  5, cos f  5, p  5; Quadrant IV 
10
 
10
 10 x  10 y  5  0
 
5 3  
610
5 sin f  
10 10
10 , cos f   10 , p  
 
tan f 
1
or 2 5 ; Quadrant II
25 310
  
5 10
f 333 tan f  
10
or 3

10
25. x3
x30 f 108
x y

A2  
B2  
12  02 or 1 29.   
20 24 1
1 3 x y
x
1  
1 0     1
20 24 0
x30 6x  5y  124  0
sin f  0, sin f  1, p  3 A2  
B2   62  52 or 61

0
tan f  1 or 0 
6
x  
5
y  
124
0

61 61 61
f  0 661 561 12061
61 x  61 y 
     0
26. 3 x  y  2 61
561 6
61 
12061
3 x  y  2  0 sin f   , cos f  
61

61 , p  
61 ; Quadrant I
5
 A2  
B2   (3 
)2  (
1)2 or 2  
61
61

3 1 2 5
2x  2y  2  0 tan f  6 61 or 6
 

3 1 61
2x  2y  1  0 f 40
1 
3
sin f  2, cos f  2, p  1; Quadrant III 30. 
A2  
B2  
62  82 or 10; p  10
1 6 3 8 4
2 0 or 5 , sin f  10 or 5
cos f  1   

3
tan f  or 3 x cos f  y sin f  p  0
3
2 3 4
x
5  5y  10  0
f 210
1 3x  4y  50  0
27. y  2  4(x  20)
31. 
A2  
B2  
(4)2 
 42 or 42
; p  42

1 
y  2  4x  5 4 2 4 
2
cos f   or , sin f   or 
4 2  2 4 2 2 
x  4y  28  0 x cos f  y sin f  p  0

A2  
B2  
(1)2 
 42 or 17
 
2 
2
1 4 28
2x  2y  42
0
 x   y   0

17 
17 7
1 xy80
17 417 
2817
 17 x  17 y  17  0
     32. 22x  y  18
4
17 
17 
2817 22x  y  18  0
sin f   17 , cos f   17 ,
  p
17 ; Quadrant II
4
17 A2  
B2   2(2)2 
(1)2  9
3
  22 1 18
17 x  y    0
tan f  or 4 3 3 3

17

17
18
p  3  6 units
f 104
33a. y

45
O x

1.25 ft

233 Chapter 7
33b. p  1.25, f  45 36a. y
x cos (45)  y sin (45)  1.25  0
2 
2
x
2  2y  1.25  0
x  2
2 y  2.5  0

34a. y 2
1 x
O

The angles of the quadrilateral are 180  a,


90, f2  f1, and 90. Then 180  a  90 
f2  f1  90  360, which simplifies to
 
f2  f1  a. If the lines intersect so that a is an
O x interior angle of the quadrilateral, the equation
 works out to be f2  180  f1  a.
36b. tan f2  tan(f1  a)
tan f  tan a
f and the supplement of v are complementary  1

1  tan f tan a
angles of a right triangle, so f  180  v  90. 1

Simplifying this equation gives v  f  90. If the lines intersect so that a is an interior
angle of the quadrilateral, the equation works
34b. tan v. The slope of a line is the tangent of the tan f1  tan a
angle the line makes with the positive x-axis out to be tan f2   
1  tan f1 tan a .

34c. Since the normal line is perpendicular to , the 37. 5x  y  15


slope of the normal line is the negative 5x  y  15  0
reciprocal of the slope of . That is, 
1 A2  B2   52  (
1)2 or 26 
tan v 

5 1 15
cot v.  x   y   0

26 
26 26
34d. The slope of  is the negative reciprocal of the 5
26 26 
1526 
1526
1 x   y     0, p  
slope of the normal, or  tan f  cot f.
 26 26 26 26

35a. 
A2  
B2  
52  1
22 or 13 3x  4y  36
5 12 39 3x  4y 36  0
x  y    0
13 13 13  A2  B2  32  42 or 5
5 12 3 4 36 36
x  y  3  0 x  y    0, p  
13 13 5 5 5 5
12 5
35b. 3 , cos f  13 ;
sin f  1  Quadrant I 5x  2y  20
12 5x  2y  20  0

13
12 52  (
2)2  25
4  or 29

tan f  5 or 5 5 2 20
 x   y   0
13 
29 
29 29
f 67 5
29 2
29 
2029 
2029
x   y     0, p  
f  90  67  90 or 157 29 29 29 29
x cos 157  y sin 157  3  0 
1526 36
 5  

2029
29 13.85564879
  
12 5 26
1
3x  y
13 30 13.85564879  500 6927.824395; $6927.82
y 38. 2 cos2 x  7 cos x  4  0
12 5
(2 cos x  1)(cos x  4)  0
13 x  13 y 30
2 cos x  1  0 or cos x  4  0
2 cos x  1 cos x  4
1
cos x  2 no solution
 5
x 
3 or x  
3
39. sin x  
1  co
s2 x sin y  
1  co
s2 y
O x

1  6 1  3
2 2

1
 
2

  
35c. See students work. 36 
35 5 5 
  
36 or 6
 
9 or 3
35d. The line with normal form x cos f  y sin f 
p  0 makes an angle of f with the positive sin(x  y)  sin x cos y  cos x sin y
 2
35 
5
 
6  3    6  3 
x-axis and has a normal of length p. The graph 1
  
of Armandos equation is a line whose normal
  5
235 
makes an angle of f  d with the x-axis and also 
18
has length p. Therefore, the graph of Armandos
equation is the graph of the original line rotated
d counterclockwise about the origin. Armando is
correct. See students graphs.

Chapter 7 234
2 
40. A  1, 4  2 or 90 1

y
45.

1 2
4 3
2

1
34
1 3 2
 5
4 1   
1 y  sin 4
1 2
4 3
 
x
y

15
0
   
1 3 2
 1 2
  x 1 3 2
5 4 1  4 3  y  5 4 1  15
    0
  
O 45 90 x
y
1 30
 5
15
  
1
x
y

6
3
  
(6, 3)
d 46. The value of 2a  b cannot be determined from
41. r  2
the given information. The correct choice is E.
13.4
r  2 or 6.7
x2  6.72  6.72  2(6.7)(6.7) cos 2620
x2 9.316604344
x 3.05 cm 7-7 Distance From a Point to a Line
x 17 1
42. 
x5 
25  x2  x  5
 
x 17 1 Page 474 Check for Understanding

x5 
x2  25  x  5
 
1. The distance from a point to a line is the distance
(x  5)(x  5)
x  5 
x

from that point to the closest point on the line.
17
(x  5)(x  5)
(x  5)(x  5)   (x  5)(x  5) x  5 
1
  2. The sign should be chosen opposite the sign of C
where Ax  By  C  0 is the standard form of
x(x  5)  17  x  5
the equation of the line.
x2  5x  17  x  5
x2  4x  12  0 3. In the figure, P and Q are any points on the lines.
(x  6)(x  2)  0 The right triangles are congruent by AAS. The
x  6  0 or x  2  0 corresponding congruent sides of the triangles
x  6 x2 show that the same distance is always obtained
between the two lines.
43. original box: V  wh
462 P
 48
new box: V  wh
1.5(48)  (4  x)(6  x)(2  x)
72  x3  12x2  44x  48
0  x3  12x2  44x  24
Q
x V(x) 4. The formula is valid in either case. Examples will
0.4 4.416 vary. For a vertical line, x  a, the formula
0.5 1.125 subtracts a from the x-coordinate of the point. For
a horizontal line, y  b, the formula subtracts b
V(0.5) is closer to zero, so x  0.5. from the y-coordinate of the point.
4  x  4  0.5 or 4.5 5. 2x  3y  2 2x  3y  2  0
6  x  6  0.5 or 6.5 Ax1  By1  C
2  x  2  0.5 or 2.5 d 
 A2  
B2
4.5 in. by 6.5 in. by 2.5 in. 2(1)  (3)(2)  2
d 
44. y x2  22  (
3)2
2 2
13
(2, 6) d or 
 13 13 
xy8 6. 6x  y  3 6x  y  3  0
(5, 3) Ax1  By1  C
d 
(2, 3) y3  A2  
B2
6(2)  (1)(3)  3
x d 
 62  (
1)2
O 12 
1237
d  or 

37

37
f(x, y)  3x  y  4
f(2, 3)  3(2)  3  4 or 7
f(2, 6)  3(2)  6  4 or 4
f(5, 3)  3(5)  3  4 or 16
16, 4

235 Chapter 7
7. 3x  5y  1 When x  2, y  1. Use (2, 1). 2
14. y  4  3x 2x  3y  12  0
3x  5y  3 3x  5y  3  0 Ax1  By1  C
Ax1  By1  C d 
d  A2  
B2
 A2  B2 2(2)  3(3)  (12)
3(2)  (5)(1)  3 d 
d   22  32
 32  (
5)2
25 2513

4
d   or 
2

34 d   or 13
17 
13
 34
2
34 
2513
   
17 13

8.
1
y  3x  3 Use (0, 3). 15. y  2x  5 2x  y  5  0
Ax1  By1  C
1 d 
y  3x  7 x  3y  21 0 A2  B2
2(3)  3(1)(1)  (5)
Ax1  By1  C d 
d   22  (
1)2
 A2  B2
0
1(0)  3(3)  21 d   or 0
d   5
 12  32 4
16. y  3x  6 4x  3y  18  0
30
d   or 310  Ax1  By1  C
 10 d  

310 A2  B2
6x1  8y1  5 2x1  3y1  4 4(1)  3(2)  (18)
9. d1   d2   d  
62  82  22  (
3)2  42  32
6x1  8y1  5 2x1 3y1  4 16 16
   d  5 or 5
 
10 13
16
x  813
613 y  513
  20x  30y  40 
5
(20  613
)x  Ax1  By1  C
17. d  
(30  813
)y  40  513
  0;  A2  B2
6x1  8y1  5 2x1 3y1  4 3(0)  (1)(0)  1
     d 
10 
13  32  (
1)2
x  813
613 y  513
  20x  30y  40 1 
10
d   or 
(20  613)x  (813
  30)y  40  513
0  10
10

10

10. (2000, 0) 10
When x  0, y  8. Use 0, 8.
Ax1  By1  C 3 3
d  18. 6x  8y  3
A2  
B2
6x  8y  5 6x  8y  5  0
5(2000)  (3)(0)  0 Ax1  By1  C
d  d 
52  (
3)2  A2  B2
10,000 3
d  or about 1715
34
ft  
6(0)  (8) 8  1
d 
 62  (
8)2
8 4
d  or 
10 5
Pages 475476 Exercises 4

5
Ax1  By1  C
11. d   19. 4x  5y  12 When x  3, y  0. Use (3, 0).
 A2  
B2
3(2)  (4)(0)  15 4x  5y  6 4x  5y  6  0
d  Ax1  By1  C
 32  (
4)2 d 
21  A2  
B2
d 
5 4(3)  (5)(0)  (6)
21 d 
 42  (
5)2
5
Ax1  By1  C 6 6
41
12. d  
d   or 
41 41
 A2  
B2
5(3)  (3)(5)  10
20. y  2x  1 Use (0, 1).
d  2x  y  2 2x  y  2  0
 52  (
3)2
Ax1  By1  C
10 
534 d 
d 
34
 or 17  A2  
B2
 2(0)  (1)(1)  (2)
534
 d 
17 22  (
1)2
13. 2x  y  3 2x  y  3  0 3 
35
Ax1  By1  C d 
5
 or  
5
d 
35
A2  B2 
2(0)  (1)(0)  3 5
d 
(2)2 
 (1)2
3 3 5
d  or 
5
5

Chapter 7 236
21. y  3x  6 Use (0, 6). 2
27. y  3x  1 2x  3y  3  0
3x  y  4 3x  y  4  0
Ax1  By1  C
y  3x  2 3x  y  2  0
d  2x1  3y1  3 3x1  y1  2
A2  
B2 d1  
 22  (
3)2 d2  
 32  12
3(0)  1(6)(1)  (4)
d   2x1  3y1  3 3x  y  2
32  12    
1 1

 10

2 10 13
d  10 or 
 
 5 x  310
210 y  310
  313
x  13
y  213

8
22. y  5x 1 Use (0, 1).   313
(210 )x  (13
  310
)y  310
  213
0
2x1  3y1  3 3x1  y1  2
8x  15  5y 8x  5y  15  0   
Ax1  By1  C  13 10 
d 
 A2  
B2 210
x  310
y 310
  313
x  13
y  213

8(0)  (5)(1)  15   313
(210 )x  (13
  310
)y  310
  213
0
d 
 82  (
5)2 28a. Linda: (19, 112)
20 
2089 Ax1  By1  C
d or 
d 
 89 89
 A2  B2

2089
  4(19)  (3)(112)  228
89
d 
3  42  (
3)2
23. y  2x Use (0, 0). 32
3
d  or 6.4
5
y  2x  4 3x  2y  8  0
Father: (45, 120)
Ax1  By1  C
d  Ax1  By1  C
 A2  B2 d 
 A2  B2
3(0)  2(0)  8
d 
d
4(45)  (3)(120)  228

 32  22
 42  (
3)2
8 
813 48
d   or 13 d  or 9.6
13 5
8
13
  Linda
13
24. y  x  6 Use (0, 6). 28b. 4x  3y  228  0
xy10 4x  3(140)  228  0
Ax1  By1  C 4x  192
d 
 A2  
B2 x  48
1(0)  1(6)  (1) 29. Let x  1.
d 
12  12 y
tan v  x
5 52
d  or  y
2 2
tan 40  1
3x1  4y1  10 5x1  12y1  26
25. d1   d2   y 0.8390996312
 32  42 52  (
12)2 0.839  0
3x1  4y1  10 5x1  12y1  26 m 
10 y  y1  m(x  x1)
  
5 13
m 0.839 y  0.839 0.839(x  1)
39x  52y  130  25x  60y  130
y 0.839x
14x  112y  0
0.839x  y 0
x  8y  0 Ax1  By1  C
3x1  4y1  10 5x  12y 26 d 
 
5  
1

13
1
A2  
B2
0.839(16)  1(12)  0
39x  52y  130  25x  60y  130 d 
64x  8y  260  0 0.839
2  12

d  1.092068438
16x  2y  65  0
4x1  y1  6 15x1  8y1  68 1.09 m
26. d1   d2  
 4  1
2 2 (15)
 2  82 30. The radius of the circle is 
[(5) 
(2)]2 (6  2)2
4x1  y1  6 15x1  8y1  68 or 5. Now find the distance from the center of the
   
17
 17 circle to the line.
68x  17y  102  1512
x  817
y  6817
 Ax1  By1  C
d 
(68  1517
)x  (17  817
)y  102  6817
0
 A2  B2
4x1  y1  6 15x1  8y1  68 5(5)  (12)(6)  32
    d 
17
 17  52  (
12)2
68x  17y  102  1512
x  817
y  6817
 65
d 
13
(68  1517
)x  (17  817
)y  102  6817
0
d5
Since the distance from the center of the circle to
the line is the same as the radius of the circle, the
line can only intersect the circle in one point. That
is, the line is tangent to the circle.

237 Chapter 7
47 3 33. 2x  7y  5
31. m1    
3  1 or 4
3
2x  7y  5  0
y7 (x
4  1)  A2  
B2  
22  (
7)2 or 53

3x  4y  25  0 
2
x y  
7
0
5
Ax1  By1  C 
53  53 
 53 
a1   2
53 7 5
53 53
 A2  B2  53 x   0
   
3(1)  (4)(3)  25 53 y 53
a1  
 32  (
4)2 34. cos 2A  1  2 sin2 A
3 2
34
a1  5  1  2 6 
5
3  4 7  6
m2    or 
1  (3) 2
2 60
7 35.   2,   60
y  4  2(x  (3)) 1 1

7x  2y  13  0 y
Ax1  By1  C
a2  
 A2  B2
7(1)  2(7)  13
a2  
1
 72  22 y  csc (  60)
34 
3453 O 120
a2    or
 53
 
53
1 300 480
7  (3)
m3   
1  (1) or 5
y  7  5(x  1)
5x  y  2  0
Ax1  By1  C
a3   36. 110  3  330 180  (60  40)  80
 A2  
B2 x2  3302  3302  2(330)(330) cos 80
5(3)  (1)(4)  2
a3   x2 179979.4269
 52  (
1)2 x 424.24 miles
17 
1726 
a3   or 

 26

26 37. T  2 g
 1726
34 3453 
,   
T  2 
 2
5 53 , 26 
9.8
32. y T 2.8 s
10 2 1
38.  8 k
8 2 20
6 1 10 20  k
4 20  k  0
2
k  20
O 2 4 6 8 x 39. 2x  y  z  9 2x  y  z  9

2(x  3y  2z)  2(10) 2x  6y  4z  20
The standard form of the equation of the line 7y  5z  11
through (0, 0) and (4, 12) is 3x  y  0. The x  2y  z  7
standard form of the equation of the line through x  3y  2z  10
(4, 12) and (10, 0) is 2x  y  20  0. The y  2z  3
standard form for the x-axis is y  0. To find the
3x  y 5(y  z)  5(3) 5y  5z  15
bisector of the angle at the origin, set   y
3 
10 7y  5z  11 7y  5z  11
and solve to obtain y   x. To find the 2y  4
1  10 
bisector of the angle of the triangle at (10, 0), set y  2
2x  y  20 yz3 x  2y  z  7
  y and solve to obtain 2x  (1  5
)y
5 2  z  3 x  2(2)  (5)  7
 20  0. The intersection of these two bisectors 5  z x  6
is the center of the inscribed circle. To solve the (6, 2, 5)
1
system of equations, substitute y  
3
x into 40. square: A  s2 triangle: A  2bh
1  10  1
the equation of the other bisector and solve for x to 16  s2 6  2(4)h
20(1  10
) 20(1  10
) 4s 3h
get x   . Then y   
5  3 5  210
 5  3 5  210
 AE  s  h
3 60
    . This y-coordinate is the AE  4  3 or 7
1  
10 5  35   210

EF  AE
inradius of the triangle. The approximate value is EF  7
3.33. The correct choice is C.

Chapter 7 238
sin4 x  cos4 x
Chapter 7 Study Guide and Assessment 19. 
sin2 x
 1  cot2 x
(sin2 x  cos2 x)(sin2 x  cos2 x)
  1  cot2 x
Page 477 Understanding and Using the sin2 x
sin2 x  cos2 x
Vocabulary   1  cot2 x
sin2 x
1. b 2. g 3. d 4. a cos2 x
1 
sin2 x
 1  cot2 x
5. i 6. j 7. h 8. f
9. e 10. c  1  cot2 x
1  cot2 x
20. cos 195  cos (150  45)
 cos 150 cos 45  sin 150 sin 45

3 
2 
2
 22  2  2
1
Pages 478480 Skills and Concepts
1
11. csc v      2
6 
sin v 
4
1
 
1 21. cos 15  cos (45  30)

2  cos 45 cos 30  sin 45 sin 30
2 
2 
3 
2 1
 2  2  2  2
12. tan2v1 v sec2   2
6 
42  1  sec2 v 
4
17  sec2 v 22. sin 1
17 17
2   sin 12

17
  sec v  7
13. sin v  
1
 sin2 v  cos2 v  1  sin 4  6
csc v
 7  7

1

2
35  cos2 v  1  sin 4 cos 6  cos 4 sin 6
5
 
2 
3 
2
 22  22
3 1
16
3 cos2 v  2
5
    2
6 
5
cos v  5
4  
4
1   2
6 
14. sec v   
cos v tan2 v  1  sec2 v 
4
5 2 11 2 
tan2 v  1  4 2  tan  3  4 
1
 
4 23. tan 1  

5 2 
tan   tan 
5 9 3 4
 
4 tan2 v  1
6  
2 
3 1  tan  tan 
3 4
tan v  4
 31
 
  (1  sin2 x)
1 1 1  (3)(1)
15. csc x  cos2 x csc x  
sin x sin x
1  3
1 1  
     sin x
sin x sin x
1 3 

4  23
 sin x  or 2  3
2 
16. cos2 x  tan2 x cos2 x  1 24. cos x  
1  si
n2 x sin y  
1  co
s2 x
sin2 x
cos2 x 
cos2 x
cos2 x1
 1

 7
 2
25  
1  3
2 2

cos2 x  sin2 x  1

5
   
576 24 5
11  or 
625 25
 or 
9 3
1  cos v
17. 
1  cos v
 (csc v  cot v)2 cos (x  y)  cos x cos y  sin x sin y

5
cos v 2
 253  253
1  cos v 24 2 7
 
1
   
1  cos v sin v sin v
(1  cos v)2 
48  75
1  cos v  7

1  cos v
 
sin2 v 5
1  cos v (1  cos v)2

1  cos v
 
1  cos2 v
1  cos v (1  cos v)2

1  cos v
 
(1  cos v)(1  cos v)
1  cos v 1  cos v

1  cos v
 
1  cos v
sec v  1 tan v
18. 
tan v
 
sec v  1
sec v  1 tan v(sec v  1)

tan v
 
sec2 v  1
sec v  1 tan v(sec v  1)

tan v
 
tan2 v
sec v  1 sec v  1

tan v
 
tan v

239 Chapter 7
1 
25. cos y    sin y  
1  co
s2 y 

6
sec y 29. tan   tan 


12 2
1  3
1 2 2
 
3  


 1  cos 
2 6
   (Quadrant I)

5 1  cos 6
 
2 5
 3  or 
9 3


sin y 
3
tan y    1 
2

cos y
 
5  
3

3 
5 1 
 
2
or 2 2


tan (x  y) 
tan x  tan y

3
 
2  
2  3



3
1  tan x tan y


(2  3
)(2  3
)
5 5
  
  
4 2 (2  3
)(2  3
)
 
5 5
  
1  4 
2

 
(2  3

43
 )2

5  2
5

4
 2  3

 
8  5
5 30. sin2 v  cos2 v  1

3 2
sin2 v  5  1
8
10  45
 
16
8  5
5
sin2 v  25
180  825
 180  255

 
61
or 61 sin v  5
4
150
26. cos 75  cos 
2 sin 2v  2 sin v cos v
   255
1  cos 150 4 3
 (Quadrant I)
2
24



3  25
1  
2
 
 
2 31. cos 2v  2 cos2 v  1
3 2
 25  1

2  

3 7
 2  2
5
7 sin v 2 tan v
7

4 32. tan v   
cos v tan 2v   
1  tan2 v
27. sin   sin 
 
8 2 4 4
 2 3
7


5 4
1  cos 4   or   
3
  3 4 2
2
(Quadrant II) 
5  
1  3


2 24
1   7
2
 
33. sin 4v  sin 2(2v)
2
 
2  2
  2 sin 2v cos 2v
 2
 2252
5
24 7
45
28. sin 22.5  sin 2 336
  
 

1  cos 45 625
 (Quadrant I)
2
34. tan x  1  sec x


2 (tan x  1)2  sec2 x
1 
2
  tan2 x  2 tan x  1  tan2 x  1
2
2 tan x  0
2 
 2

 2 tan x  0
x  0
35. sin2 x  cos 2x  cos x  0
1  cos2 x  2 cos2 x  1  cos x  0
cos2 x  cos x  0
cos x (cos x  1)  0
cos x  0 or cos x  1  0
x  90 or x  270 cos x  1
x  0

Chapter 7 240
36. cos 2x  sin x  1 45. 6x  4y  5
1  2 sin2 x  sin x  1 6x  4y  5  0
2 sin2 x  sin x  0  A2  
B2   62  (
4)2 or 213

sin x (2 sin x  1)  0 
6
x  
4
y  
5
0
sin x  0 or 2 sin x  1  0 2 13 2 13 213
1 3 2 5
x  0 or x  180 sin x  2 
13 13 13
13 x  13 y  26  0
    
x  30 or 2
13 313 5
13
x  150 sin f   13 , cos f   13 , p
  
26 ; Quadrant II

2 2
13
37. sin x tan x  2 tan x  0  
2
13
tan f  or 3
tan x sin x  2  0
2

313
 
13
2

tan x  0 or sin x  2  0
x  k f 146
2

sin x  2 46. 9x  5y  3
 3 9x  5y  3  0
x  4  2k or 4  2k
A2  
B2   92  52 or 106

38. sin 2x  sin x  0 9 5 3
x  y    0
2 sin x cos x  sin x  0 106 106 1
06
sin x (2 cosx  1)  0 9106 
51 06
x  y    0
3
106
sin x  0 or 2 cos x  1  0 106 106 106
51
06 9106 
3106
x  k cos x  2
1 sin f  106 , cos f  
  , p  ; Quadrant I
106 106
2 106 5
x  3  2k tan f   or 9

9106
4 
or x  3  2k 106
f 29
39. cos2 x  2  cos x
cos2x  cos x  2  0 47. x  7y  5
(cos x  1)(cos x  2)  0 x  7y  5  0
cos x  1  0 or cos x  2  0  A2  
B2  
12  (
7)2 or 52

cos x  1 cos x  2 1 7
x  y    0
5
52 52 52
x  2k no solution
2 72 2
40. x cos f  y sin f  p  0 10x  10y  2  0
  72
 2 2

x cos 3  y sin 3  23
0 sin f  10, cos f  10, p  2; Quadrant II
1 
3
x
2  2y  23
0 72


10
x  3y  43 0 tan f  or 7
2 

41. x cos f  y sin f  p  0 10
x cos 90  y sin 90  5  0 f 98
0x  1y  5  0 Ax1  By1  C
48. d  2
y50 2A
 
B
42. x cos f  y sin f  p  0 2(5)  (3)(6)  2
2 2
d 
x cos 3  y sin 3  3  0  22  (
3)2

1 
3 6 6
13
2x  2y  3  0 d or 
 13 
13

x  3 y  6  0 49. 2y  3x  6 3x  2y  6  0
Ax  By  C
43. x cos f  y sin f  p  0 d
1 1

2 A
2  B
x cos 225  y sin 225  42 0 3(3)  2(4)  (6)

2 
2 d 
2 x  2y  42
0 32  22
23 2313
xy80 d   or 13

13
44. 
A2  
B2  
72  32 or 58
 
2313
 
7 3 8 13
x   y  0

58 58 58 50. 4y  3x  1 3x  4y  1  0

758 
358 
458 Ax1  By1  C
x  y    0
58 58 29 d  2 

358 
758 4
58 A

2 
B
sin f  58 , cosf  58,
  p  29; Quadrant I 3(2)  (4)(4)  (1)
d 

358  32  (
4)2

58 3 23 23
tan f   or 7 d  5 or 5

758
 23

58 5
f 23

241 Chapter 7
1
51. y  3x  6 x  3y  18  0 57. x  3y  2  0
Ax1  By1  C 3
d  y  5x  3 3x  5y  15  0
A 2 B2 x1  3y1  2 3x1  5y1  15
1(21)  (3)(20)  18 d1   d2  
d  (1)2 
 32 3 2  (
5)2
12  
(3)2 x1  3y1  2 3x1  5y1  15
   
21 
2110
d   or 
10
10 34
 10
x 34
x  334
y  234  310
x  510
y 
52. y  3  6 Use (0, 6). 
1510
x
y  3  2 x  3y  6  0   310
(34 )x  (334
  510
)y 
Ax1  By1  C   1510
234  0
d  2 x1  3y1  2 3x1  5y1  15
 A  B2   
1(0)  (3)(6)  6
d   10  34
 12  (
3)2
x  510
310 y  1510
  34
x  334
y
24 12 10
d   or 
5  234

 10
12 10   310
(34 )x  (334

d   5 )y 234
510   1510
0
3
53. y  4x  3 Use (0, 3).
3 1
y  4x  2 3x  4y  2 0
Ax1  By1  C
Page 481 Applications and Problem Solving
d  2  58. The formulas are equivalent.
A  B2
sin2 v
3(0)  (4)(3)  (2)  
d   v02 tan2 v
v0 2
cos2 v
32  (
4)2  
2g sec2 v
  1
14 14 2g  
d  5 or 5 cos2 v
14 sin2 v
d  5 v0 2   
cos2 v cos2 v
   
54. x  y  1 Use (0, 1). 2g  
1 cos2 v
xy5xy50 cos2 v
Ax  By  C v02 sin2 v
d
1 1
  2 g
2 A
2   B Ax1  By1  C
1(0)  1(1)  (5) 59. d  
d  A2 B2
12  12 4(1600)  (2)(0)  0
4 d 
d  or 22  42  ( 2)2
2
6400
d  22
 d  
20
2
55. y  3x  2 Use (0, 2). d  1431 ft
Ax1  By1  C x
d   60. sin 30   
100 30  45  v  90
A 2B2
2(0)  (3)(2)  3 100 sin 30  x v  15
d 
22  (
3)2 50  x
x
9 9
13 cos v  y
d   or 

13 13 50
56. y  3x  2 3x  y  2  0 cos 15  y
x 3 50
y  2  2 x  2y  3  0 y 
cos 15

d1 
3x1  y1  2
 d2  
x1  2y1  3 y 51.76 yd
 32  12  12  22
3x1 y1 2 x1 2y1  3
   
10 5 Page 481 Open-Ended Assessment
35x  5
y  25  10
x  210
y  310
 30
1. Sample answer: 15; 15  2
(35  10
)x  (5  210
)y  25
  310
0
sin 2  

3x1 y1 2 x 2y  3
30 1  cos 30



  
1 1
 2
10 5 


3
35x  5
y  25  10
x  210
y  310
 1 
2
  10
(35 )x  (5
  210
)y  25
  310
0  
2

2  

3
 2
30
cos 2  

1  cos 30
2



3
1 
2
 
2
 
2  3

 2

Chapter 7 242
30
tan 2  
1  cos
1  cos 30

30
3. One way to solve this problem is to label the three
interior angles of the triangle, a, b, and c. Then



3 write equations using these angles and the
1 
2

  exterior angles.

3
1  a  b  c  180
2
x  a  180
y  b  180


2  3


 
2 z  c  180
2  3
 Add the last three equations.

2 x  a  y  b  z  c  180  180  180


(2  3
)(2  3
) x  y  z  a  b  c  180  180  180
 
(2  3
)(2  3
) Replace a  b  c with 180.

4
x  y  z  180  180  180  180
(2  3)2
 
3 x  y  z  180  180 or 360
 2  3
 The correct choice is D.
1  cos2 x
2. Sample answer: sin x tan x    4. Since x  y  90, x  90  y.
cos x
1  cos2 x Then sin x  sin (90  y).
sin x tan x   
cos x sin (90  y)  cos y
sin x sin2 x sin x sin(90  y) cos y
cos x  cos x
sin x          1
cos y cos y cos y
sin2 x sin2 x

cos x  
cos x
The correct choice is D.
Another solution is to draw a diagram and notice
b b
that sin x  c and cos y  c.
b

SAT & ACT Preparation sin x

cos y 
c
1 x
b

c
c
a
Page 483 SAT and ACT Practice y
1. The problem states that the measure of A is 80. b
Since the measure of B is half the measure of
5. In order to represent the slopes, you need the
A, the measure of B must be 40. Because A,
coordinates of point A. Since A lies on the y-axis,
B, and C are interior angles of a triangle, the
let its coordinates be (0, y). Then calculate the two
sum of their measures must equal 180. y0 y
slopes. The slope of  0  (3)  3 . The slope
 is 
AB  
mA  mB  mC  180 y0 y
80  40  mC  180 of ADis 
0  3   3 . The sum of the slopes is
 
y y
120  mC  180     0.
3 3
mC  60 The correct choice is B.
The correct choice is B. 6. Since PQRS is a rectangle, its angles measure 90.
2. To find the point of intersection, you need to solve The triangles that include the marked angles are
a system of two linear equations. Substitution or right triangles. Write an equation for the measure
elimination by addition or subtraction can be used of PSR, using expressions for the unmarked
to solve a system of equations. To solve this angles on either side of the angle of x.
system of equations, use substitution. Substitute 90  (90  a)  x  (90  b)
2x  2 for y in the second equation. 0  90  a  b  x
7x  3y  11 a  b  90  x
7x  3(2x  2)  11 The correct choice is A.
7x  6x  6  11
x5
Then use this value for x to calculate the value
for y.
y  2x  2
y  2(5)  2 or 8
The point of intersection is (5, 8). The correct
choice is A.

243 Chapter 7
7. Simplify the fraction. One method is to multiply 9. Since the volume V varies directly with the
y2 temperature T, the volume and temperature
both numerator and denominator by .
y2 satisfy the equation V  kT, where k is a constant.
1 1 1

 
y  y
y2
y  y When V  12, T  60. So 12  60k, or k  5.
  y2  1
The relationship is V  5T.
2 1 2 1
1  y   1  y  
y2 y2 To find the volume when the temperature is 70,
y3  y 1
  substitute 70 for T in the equation V  5T.
y2  2y  1 1
y(y2  1) V  5(70) or 14. The volume of the balloon is
 
(y  1)(y  1) 14 in3.
y(y  1)(y  1)
 
(y  1)(y  1)
The correct choice is C.
y2  y
10. Two sides have the same length. The lengths of all

y1 sides are integers. The third side is 13. From
Another method is to write both the numerator Triangle Inequality, the sum of the lengths of any
and denominator as fractions, and then simplify. two sides must be greater than the length of the
1 y2  1
third side. Let s be the length of the other two
y  y 



y sides. Write and solve an inequality.
 
2s  13
2 1 y2  2y  1
1  y    s  6.5
y2 y2
y2  1 y2 The length of the sides must be greater than 6.5.
 y
y2  2y  1 

But the length of the sides must be an integer.
y(y  1)(y  1)
 
(y  1)(y  1)
The smallest integer greater than 6.5 is 7. The
y2  y answer is 7. If you answered 6.5, you did not find

y1 an integer. If you answered 6, you found a number
The correct choice is A. that is less than 6.5.
8. Since the triangles are similar, use a proportion
with corresponding sides of the two triangles.
BC BD
  
AC AE
2 4
  
23 AE
2AE  4(2  3)
AE  10
The correct choice is E.

Chapter 7 244