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# Chapter 7 Trigonometric Identities and Equations

7 
12.   2  
7-1 Basic Trigonometric Identities 3 3
7
cos 3  cos
  2 3

Page 427 Check for Understanding  cos 3
1. Sample answer: x  45 13. 330  360  30
1
2. Pythagorean identities are derived by applying csc (330)   
sin (330)
the Pythagorean Theorem to a right triangle. The 1
 
sin (360  30)
opposite angle identities are so named because A
1
is the opposite of A.  
sin 30
1 1 cos v
3. cot v , cot v  tan v , sin v
tan v       cot v,
 csc 30
1  cot2 v  csc2 v 
1
sin (A) csc v sin v
4. tan(A)    14. 
cot v 
cos v
cos (A) 
sin A sin v
  1 sin v
cos A    
sin v cos v
sin A
   1
cos A  
cos v
 tan A
 sec v
5. Rosalinda is correct; there may be other values for
15. cos x csc x tan x  cos x
sin x  cos x 
1 sin x
 
which the equation is not true.
6. Sample answer: v  0 1
sin v  cos v  tan v 16. cos x cot x  sin x  cos x 
sin x   sin x
cos x

sin 0  cos 0  tan 0 cos2 x
010 
sin x  sin x


10 
cos2 x  sin2 x

sin x
7. Sample answer: x  45 1
sec2 x  csc2 x  1  
sin x
sec2 45  csc2 45  1  csc x
(2 )2  (2)2  1 F csc v
221 17. B 
I
41 BI  F csc v
1 1
8. sec v   
cos v 9. tan v   
cot v F 
BI
csc v
1
F  BI
csc v 
1
sec v  
1 
2

tan v  
 5
3 2
F  BIsin v
3 2
sec v  
2 tan v  5
25
tan v  5 Pages 427430 Exercises
10. sin2 v cos2 v1 18. Sample answer: 45
152  cos2 v  1 sin v cos v  cot v
1 sin 45 cos 45  cot 45
  cos2 v  1 2 2
2  2   1
25
24 
cos2 v  25 1
26

2 1
cos v  5
26
Quadrant III, so 5 sec v
  sin v
tan v
11. tan2 v  1  sec2 v sec 45
  sin 45
472  1  sec2 v
tan 45
2 
2
16

1
 2

49  1  sec2 v 
2
65 2
  2

49  sec2 v
65


7  sec v
65

7

205 Chapter 7
20. Sample answer: 30 29. 1  cot2 v  csc2 v
cos x 2
sec2 x1 
csc x 1  cot2 v  3 
11


cos 30
sec2 30  1  
csc 30 1  cot2 v  191
3
 cot2 v  29
23 2 2
 
3  1 
2 2
cot v   

3
12 3 2

9 1 
4 Quadrant II, so  
3

1 3

3  
4 30. tan2 v  1  sec2 v
2
21. Sample answer: 30 tan2 v  1  54
sin x  cos x  1
tan2 v  1  2156
sin 30  cos 30  1
1 3
 tan2 v  19

2  2  1 6
1  3
 tan v  34
  1
2
sin y tan y  cos y 31. sin2 v  cos2 v  1
2
sin 0 tan 0  cos 0
00 1
13  cos2 v  1
1
  cos2 v  1
0 1 9
23. Sample answer: 45 cos2 v  89
tan2 A  cot2 A  1 cos v    22

3
tan2 45  cot2 45  1
22
111 Quadrant III, so cos v  
3
21 sin v
tan v   
cos v
  
cos v  2  cos v  cos 2 tan v 
3

  22
cos 0  2  cos 0  cos 2

3
1 2
  tan v   or 
cos 2  cos 0  cos 2 22 4
32. tan2 v  1  sec2 v
010 2
01 23  1  sec2 v
1 1
25. csc v  
sin v 26. cot v  
tan v
4
  1  sec2 v
9
1 1 13
  sec2 v
csc v  
2 cot v  
3
 9
 
5 4 13
3  sec v
5 4
csc v  2 cot v  
3 13
Quadrant III, so sec v  

3
43 1
cot v  3 cos v   
sec v
27. sin2 v  cos2 v  1 cos v  
1
1 2 
 
4  cos2 v  1 
3
13

1 3 
313
  cos2 v  1 cos v   or  
16 13
 13
15 1
cos2 v  1
6 33. cos v    sin2 v  cos2 v  1
sec v
15
 2
cos v   
4 cos v  
1 sin2 v  57  1
7

15 5
4
sin2 v  2459  1
cos v  57
28. sin2 v  cos2 v  1 sin2 v  2449
2 2
sin2 v  3  1 sin v    26

7
sin2 v  49  1 26
7
sin2 v  59
5
sin v    3
5


Chapter 7 206
1 19 
34. sec v   
cos v
tan2 v  1  sec2 v 40.   2(2)  5
5
tan2 v  1  82 19
1
tan2 v  1  64 sin 5
sec v  
1
19
tan  
 tan2 v  63 5 19
8 cos 5
tan v   37  
sec v  8 sin 2(2)  5

  
1 cos 2(2)  5
35. 1  cot2 v  csc2 v sin v   
csc v 
1 sin 5
1
2
sin v   

43  csc2 v 53

cos 5

1  19
6
 csc2 v sin v  35  tan 5
25 10 

9
 csc2 v 41.
3  3  3
1
 53  csc v csc 3  
10
10
sin 3
1
36. 1  cot2 v  csc2 v 
 sin 3  
1  (8)2  csc2 v
 3 
1
1  64  csc2 v   
65  csc2 v sin 3
65  csc v 
Quadrant IV, so 65  csc 3

## 37. sec v   1 42. 1290  7(180)  30


cos v
sin2 v  cos2 v  1
1
3 2 sec (1290)   
sec v  
1 sin2 v    
4  1 cos (1290)
1
3
 

 
cos (7(180)  30)
4 sin2 v  13
6
1
1
sec v   43
4
 or  13  
cos 30
3 3 sin2 v  1
6
13

 sec 30
sin v  
4 43. 660  2(360)  60
13
 cos (660)
Quadrant II, so 4 cot (660)   
sin (660)
sin v cos (2(360)  60)
tan v     
cos v sin (2(360)  60)
 cos 60
13
  
sin 60
4
tan v   cot 60
3
4

1


13 39
 cos x
tan v   or  44.
sec x

3
 3 tan x sin x

43 2  2
sec2 A  tan2 A

3 
 
39
3   cos x
1
    
2sin2 A  2cos2 A 13 2 3 2
   
 sin x
2   2 
4 4  csc x
48
 39

9
9 cos v

  45.
cot v
 
sin v

21136  213
6
cos v
cos v
1
9
  
sin v
9
 
32  csc v
 sin (v  ) sin v
16
46.
cos (v  ) 
cos v
 12
 tan v
38. 390  360  30
47. (sin x  cos x)2  (sin x  cos x)2
sin 390  sin (360  30)
 sin 30  sin2 x  2sin x cos x  cos2 x  sin2 x
27 3
 2sin x cos x  cos2 x
39.    3    2sin2 x  2 cos2 x
8 8
  cos 3  
27
cos  3  2(sin2 x  cos2 x)
8 8 2
 cos 38

207 Chapter 7
48. sin x cos x sec x cot x  sin x cos x
cos x  sin x 
1 cos x W sec v
56a. e  A
s
 cos x eAs  W sec v
49. cos x tan x  sin x cot x  cos x
cos x   sin x sin x 
sin x cos x
eAs
  W
sec v
 sin x  cos x W  eAs cos v
50. (1  cos v)(csc v  cot v)  (1  cos v)
sin v  sin v 
1 cos v

56b. W  eAs cos v
 (1  cos v)
1  cos v W  0.80(0.75)(1000) cos 40
sin v 

1  cos2 v
W  459.6266659

sin v 459.63 W
sin2 v 57. FN  mg cos v  0
 
sin v
FN  mg cos v
 sin v mg sin v  mkFN  0
51. 1  cot2 v  cos2 v  cos2 v cot2 v mg sin v  mk(mg cos v)  0
 1  cot2 v  cos2 v(1  cot2 v) mk(mg cos v)  mg sin v
 csc2 v  cos2 v(csc2 v) mk   
mg sin v
mg cos v
 csc2 v(1  cos2 v)
sin v
 csc2 v(sin2 v) mk   
cos v
1
 (sin2 v) mk  tan v
sin2 v
1 58.
sin x sin x
52.   
1  cos x 1  cos x
sin x  sin x cos x sin x  sin x cos x
  1  cos2 x  
1  cos2 x
2 sin x 
 
1  cos2 x h
2 sin x a
 
sin2 x
2
 
sin x
 2csc x a

53. cos4 a  2cos2 a sin2 a  sin4 a  (cos2 a  sin2 a)2 360 180 2 a a
v   , tan v   , so h  
2 tan v  2 cot v.
 
 12 or 1 2n n h
I  I0 cos v The area of the isosceles triangle is 2(a)2 cot n
54. 2 1 a 180

0  I0 cos2 v
 4 cot n. There are n such triangles, so
a2 180
0  cos2 v
A  4na2 cot n.
1 180
0  cos v
cos1 0  v
90  v 59. y
A B C
55. Let (x, y) be the point where the terminal side of
A intersects the unit circle when A is in standard E
position. When A is reflected about the x-axis to
obtain A, the y-coordinate is multiplied by 1,  x
but the x-coordinate is unchanged. So, O F D
sin (A)  y   sin A and
cos (A)  x  cos A.
y
(x, y) sin v  EF and cos v  OF since the circle is a unit
CD CD
OD  1  CD.
circle. tan v   
A CO CO
OD  1  CO. EOF  OBA, so
sec v   
O A x OF BA BA cos v OF

EF 
OA  1  BA. Then cot v  sin v  EF  BA.
   
EO OB 1 OB
(x, y) EF  OA , or EF  1 .
Also by similar triangles,    
1 1 OB
sin v  EF  1  OB.
Then csc v     

2

60. Cos1  
2   135

Chapter 7 208
61. y 42
68. m   
4  5 y  y1  m(x  x1)
1 
y  cos (x 6 ) 
2
 or
2
9
2
y  4  9(x  (4))
9
2 28
y  9x  9
x 69. mBCD  40
O 2 7 5 13 1
-
6 3 6 3 6 40  m (BC)
2
-
80  m (BC)
1
1 -
mBAC  2mBC
1
mBAC  2(80)

62. 2(3 30)  7 7  7    mBAC  40
180
7 The correct choice is C.
 
180
s  rv
7
s  20
180 

7-2 Verifying Trigonometric Identities
s  2.44 cm
63. B  180  (90  20) or 70
sin A  c
a b
cos A  c Page 433 Graphing Calculator Exploration
a b 1. yes 2. no 3. no
sin 20  35 cos 20  3
5 4. No; it is impossible to look at every window since
35 sin 20  a 35 cos 20  b there are an infinite number. The only way an
11.97070502  a 32.88924173  b identity can be proven is by showing algebraically
a  12.0, B  70, b  32.9 that the general case is true.
64. 2 2 1 8 4 5.

4
10
4
2 5 2 0
2x2  5x  2  0
(2x  1)(x  2)  0
2x  1  0 or x  2  0
1
x  2 x  2
1
2, 2, 2 
[2, 2] sc12 by [2, 2] sc11
65. 2x2  7x  4  0
7 sin x
x2  2x  2  0
7
x2  2x  2
7 49 49 Pages 433434 Check for Understanding
x2  2x  16  2  16
x  742  8116 2. Sample answer: Squaring each side can turn two
7 9 unequal quantities into equal quantities. For
x  4  4
example, 1  1, but (1)2  12.
7 9
x  4  4 3. Sample answer: They are the trigonometric
x  0.5 or 4 functions with which most people are most
66. continuous familiar.
67. 4(x  y  2z)  4(3) 4x  4y  8z  12 4. Answers will vary.
cot x
4x  y  z  0 4x  y  z  0 5. cos x   
csc x
3y  9z  12 cos x

x  y  2z  3 cos x 
sin x
1
x  5y  4z  11 
sin x
4y  2z  14 cos x
4(3y  9z)  4(12) 12y  36z  48 cos x  
1
3(4y  2z)  3(14) 12y  6z  42 cos x  cos x
30z  90
z  3
3y  9z  12 x  y  2z  3
3y  9(3)  12 x  (5)  2(3)  3
y  5 x 2
(2, 5, 3)

209 Chapter 7
6. 
1
 cos x
 Pages 434436 Exercises
tan x  sec x sin x  1 sec A
1 13. tan A  
csc A

sin x 1 
cos x
 1
   sin x  1 
cos x cos x tan A 
cos A
1
1 cos x 
sin x  1    sin A
 sin x  1
cos x sin A
cos x cos x
tan A  
cos A
  
sin x  1 sin x  1 tan A  tan A
1
7. csc v  cot v   
csc v  cot v 14. cos v  sin v cot v
1 csc v  cot v cos v
csc v  cot v  
csc v  cot v  csc v  cot v
  cos v  sin v  
sin v
csc v  cot v cos v  cos v
csc v  cot v   
csc2 v  cot2 v
csc v  cot v 1  sin x
csc v  cot v  
(1  cot2 v)  cot2 v
15. sec x  tan x   
cos x
csc v  cot v 1 sin x
csc v  cot v  
1
sec x  tan x  
cos x  cos x
 

## csc v  cot v  csc v  cot v sec x  tan x  sec x  tan x

1  tan x
8. sin v tan v  sec v  cos v 16.   sec x
sin x  cos x
1
sin v tan v    cos v sin x
cos v 1 
cos x
sin v tan v 
1
  
cos2 v   sec x
cos v cos v sin x  cos x
1  cos2 v
sin v tan v   sin x
cos v 1 
cos x
sin2 v  sec x
 
cos x
sin v tan v   
cos v cos x sin x  cos x
sin v
sin v tan v  sin v   cos x  sin x
cos v 
cos x(sin x  cos x)  sec x
sin v tan v  sin v tan v 1
9. (sin A  cos A)2  1  2 sin2 A cot A

cos x  sec x
sin2 A  2 sin A cos A  cos2 A  1  2 sin2 A cot A sec x  sec x
1  2 sin A cos A  1  2 sin2 A cot A 17. sec x csc x  tan x  cot x
sin A
sin A  1  2 sin A cot A
1  2 sin A cos A   2
sec x csc x  
sin x cos x
cos x  sin x
 
cos A
sin A  1  2 sin A cot A
1  2 sin2 A   2
sec x csc x  
sin x sin x cos x cos x
cos x  sin x  sin x  cos x
   

## 1  2 sin2 A cot A  1  2 sin2 A cot A sec x csc x  

sin2 x cos2 x
cos x sin x  sin x cos x
 
1
10. Sample answer: sin x   sin2 x  cos2 x
4 sec x csc x   
cos x sin x
1
tan x  4 sec x 1
sec x csc x   
cos x sin x
tan x 1
   1 1
sec x 4 sec x csc x  
cos x  sin x
 
sin x
 1 sec x csc x  sec x csc x
cos x

1
 4 2 sin2 v  1

cos x
18. sin v  cos v   
sin v  cos v
1 2 sin2 v  (sin2 v  cos2 v)
sin x  4 sin v  cos v  
sin v  cos v
11. Sample answer: cos x  1 sin2 v  cos2 v
sin v  cos v   
sin v  cos v
cot x  sin x  cos x cot x (sin v  cos v)(sin v  cos v)
cos x cos x sin v  cos v  
sin v  cos v

sin x  sin x  cos x  
sin x
sin v  cos v  sin v  cos v
cos x  sin2 x  cos2 x 2  sec A csc A
cos2 x  sin2 x  cos x 19. (sin A  cos A)2   
sec A csc A
1  cos x (sin A  cos A)2  
2 sec A csc A
sec A csc A  sec A csc A
 
cos x  1 1 1
I cos v I cot v (sin A  cos A)2  2
sec A  csc A  1
 
12. 
R2  
R2 csc v
cos v (sin A  cos A)2  2 cos A sin A  1
I 
I cos v
 
sin v (sin A  cos A)2  2 cos A sin A  sin2 A  cos2 A
R2 1
R2  
sin v (sin A  cos A)2  (sin A  cos A)2
cos v
I cos v I 
sin v sin v

R2  1
 
sin v
2 
R sin v
I cos v I cos v

R2  R
2

Chapter 7 210
20. (sin v  1)(tan v  sec v)  cos v 27. sin x  cos x  
cos x sin x
1  tan x  1  cot x
 
sin v tan v  tan v  sin v sec v  sec v  cos v
cos x sin x
sin v sin v 1 1
sin x  cos x   sin x 

cos v  cos v  sin v cos v  cos v   cos v
sin v      cos x
1 
cos x 1 
sin x
sin2 v  sin v  sin v  1

cos v  cos v cos x sin x
cos x sin x
sin2 v  1 sin x  cos x   sin x  cos x 
  cos x  sin x


cos v  cos v 1  cos x
  1  sin x
 
cos2 v cos2 x sin2 x

cos v  cos v sin x  cos x  
cos x  sin x  sin x  cos x
 

## cos v  cos v sin x  cos x  

cos2 x sin2 x
sin x  cos x  sin x  cos x
 
cos y 1  sin y
21. 
1  sin y  
cos y sin2 x  cos2 x
sin x  cos x   
sin x  cos x
cos y 1  sin y 1  sin y

1  sin y  
1  sin y  
cos y (sin x  cos x)(sin x  cos x)
sin x  cos x   sin x  cos x
cos y(1  sin y) 1  sin y

1  sin2 y  
cos y sin x  cos x  sin x  cos x
cos y(1  sin y) 1  sin y 28. sin v  cos v  tan v sin v  sec v  cos v tan v

cos2 y  
cos y sin v
1  sin y 1  sin y sin v  cos v  
cos v sin v  sec v  cos v tan v


cos y  
cos y sin2 v
cos v  sec v  cos v tan v
sin v  cos v   
22. cos v cos (v)  sin v sin (v)  1
cos2 v sin2 v
cos v cos v  sin v(sin v)  1 cos v  cos v  sec v  cos v tan v
sin v    
cos2 v  sin2 v  1 cos2 v  sin2 v
11 sin v     sec v  cos v tan v
cos v
cot2 x 1
23. csc x  1    cos v  sec v  cos v tan v
sin v   
csc x  1

csc x  1   
csc2 x  1 sin v  sec v  sec v  cos v tan v
csc x  1 cos v
cos v  sec v  sec v  cos v tan v
sin v 
(csc x  1)(csc x  1) 
csc x  1  
csc x  1 sin v
cos v  sec v  sec v  cos v tan v
cos v  
csc x  1  csc x  1
24. cos B cot B  csc B  sin B cos v tan v  sec v  sec v  cos v tan v
1 sec v  cos v tan v  sec v  cos v tan v
cos B cot B    sin B
sin B
29. Sample answer: sec x  2 
1 sin2 B
cos B cot B     csc x
sin B sin B 
cot x  2

1  sin2 B
cos B cot B  
sin B 
1
sin v
cos2 B  2

cos B cot B  
sin B
cos v

sin v
cos B
cos B cot B  cos B   1
sin B 
cos x  2

cos B cot B  cos B cot B
sec x  2

25. sin v cos v tan v  cos2 v  1
sin v
30. Sample answer: tan x  2
cos v  cos v  1
sin v cos v   2 1  tan x

1  cot x 2
sin2 v cos2 v 1 sin x
1 1 1 
 2
cos x
1  cos x cos x
26. (csc x  cot x)2   
1  cos x 1 
sin x
1  cos x cos x  sin x
csc2 x  2 csc x cot x  cot2 x   
1  cos x 
1 1 cos x cos2 x 1  cos x
cos x
2

sin2 x  2
sin x  sin x  sin2 x  1  cos x
    sin x  cos x

sin x
1  2 cos x  cos2 x 1  cos x
   sin x
sin2 x 1  cos x 
cos x 2
(1  cos x)2 1  cos x

1  cos2 x  
1  cos x tan x  2
(1  cos x)2 1  cos x
   31. Sample answer: cos x  0
(1  cos x)(1  cos x) 1  cos x
1 sec x
1  cos x
 
1  cos x


cot x 
csc x  cos x

1  cos x 1  cos x
1

tan x  cos x

1
 cos x

sin x
sin x
tan x  
cos x  cos x
tan x  tan x  cos x
0  cos x

211 Chapter 7
1 38. yes
32. Sample answer: sin x  2
1  cos x sin x
   4
sin x 1  cos x
1  2 cos x  cos2 x sin2 x
   4
sin x(1  cos x) sin x(1  cos x)
1  2 cos x  cos2 x  sin2 x

sin x(1  cos x) 4
2  2 cos x

sin x(1  cos x) 4
2(1  cos x)
 4 
sin x(1  cos x) [2, 2] sc12 by [4, 4] sc11
2

sin x 4 39. no
2  4 sin x
1

2  sin x
33. Sample answer: sin x  1
cos2 x  2 sin x  2  0
1  sin2 x  2 sin x  2  0
0  sin2 x  2 sin x  1
0  (sin x  1)2 
[2, 2] sc12 by [4, 4] sc11
0  sin x  1
sin x  1 40a. P  I 02 R sin2 2 ft
34. Sample answer: cot x  1 P  I 02 R(1  cos2 2pft)
csc x  sin x tan x  cos x 40b. P  I 02 R sin2 2ft
sin x I 02 R
csc x  sin x 
cos x  cos x

P 
sin2 x cos2 x csc2 2ft
cos x  cos x
csc x    
x
1 41. f(x)  

1  4
csc x   
cos x
x2
1
1 1  tan v
   2
sin x cos x f(x)  

1
4 
cos x 2
tan v
1

sin x 1 
2
cot x  1 1
tan3 v  1 tan v 
  sec2 v 2
35. tan v  1 10 
(tan v  1)(tan2 v  tan v  1)
f(x)  
1  ta
n2 v
  (tan2 v  1) 10
tan v  1 1
 tan v
tan2 v  tan v  1  tan2 v  1 10 2
tan v  1  0 
f(x)   sec2 v
tan v  1
1
1 
tan v
cot v    2
tan v f(x)  
1 sec v
cot v  1
1 sin v
cot v  1 

cos v
2
36. no f(x)  1

cos v
1
f(x)  2 sin v
sin a
42. sin a  sin a sin c sin a   
sin c
cos b
sin a cos b  sin a cos b
cos b   
cos c
cos c  cos a cos b cos b   
cos a
 Then cos b  sin a cos b
[2 , 2 ] sc12 by [2, 8] sc11
sin a cos c
sin c  cos a
  
37. yes
sin a cos c

cos a  sin c
 

 tan a cot c
gv2 x sin v
43. y   
2v02 cos2 v
 
cos v
gv2
y  sec2 v  x tan v
2v 2 0
g x2
 y    (1  tan2 v)  x tan v
2v 2
[2 , 2 ] sc12 by [4, 4] sc11 0

Chapter 7 212
44. We find the area of ABTP by subtracting the area 51. Let x  the number of shirts and y  the number
of OAP from the area of OBT. of pants. y
1
OB
1 1
 BT  2OA  AP  2  1  tan v  2 cos v sin v
1 x  1.5y 100 100 2.5x  2y  180
2
2.5x  2y 180
 2
cos v  cos v sin v
1 sin v
 80 (0, 65)
1.5x  3y 195 x  1.5y  100
x 0
 2 sin v
cos v  cos v
1 1 60
 (40, 40)
y 0 1.5x  3y  195
 2 sin v
cos v  cos v 
1 1 cos2 v 40
 
x0 (72, 0)
sin v 
1 1 cos2 v
 
2

cos v
20
(0, 0) x
sin v 
1 sin2 v
 
2

cos v O 20 40 60 80 100
1 sin v y0
 
2   2
cos v sin v
1 P(x, y)  5x  4.5y
  tan v sin2 v
2 P(0, 0)  5(0)  4.5(0) or 0
b a a sin b
sin b  sin a , so b  sin a .
45. By the Law of Sines,     P(0, 65)  5(0)  4.5(65) or 292.50
Then P(40, 40)  5(40)  4.5(40) or 380
1 P(72, 0)  5(72)  4.5(0) or 360
A  2ab sin  40 shirts, 40 pants
A  2a
sin a  sin 
1 a sin b
 52. {16}, {4, 4}; no, 16 is paired with two elements of
a2 sin
sin  the range
A 
2 sin a ab ba ab ba
a2 sin b sin  53. 
ab 
ba  ab  ba
  
A 
2 sin (180  (b  )) ab ab
a2 sin b sin  
a  b  1(a  b)
 
A 
2 sin (b  )
 1
sin x sin x
 cos x  sin x 
 
The correct choice is D.
tan x  cos x  sin x tan x cos x cos x
46. 
sec x  tan x  
1 sin x
  
cos x cos x
sin x  cos2 x  sin2 x
 
cos x
1  sin x
7-3 Sum and Difference Identities

cos x
sin x  1 cos x
   
1  sin x
cos x Pages 441442 Check for Understanding
1 1. Find a counterexample, such as x  30 and
47. A  2
360
  180
c
2  45 y  60.
k
A  2 k2 c  90 2. Find the cosine, sine, or tangent, respectively, of
y  2sin (2x  90) the sum or difference, then take the reciprocal.
15 15 180 3. The opposite side for 90  A is the adjacent side
48.   1
6  

16 for A, so the right-triangle ratio for sin (90  A) is
 168.75 the same as that for cos A.
60
168.75  168  0.75  1

 168  45
168 45 90  A
3 3
49.  3y  1  2  0 Check: 3y  1  2  0
3 3
 3y  1  2  3(3)  12 0
3
3y  1  8 8 2 0 A
y3 22 0 1
4. cot (a  b)   
tan (a  b)
50. x  1  0
x  1 1
 
tan a  tan b
3x 
f(x)  
x1 1  tan a tan b
3x 1  tan a tan b
y 
x1  
tan a  tan b
y(x  1)  3x 1
1 1
cot a  cot b
 
cot a cot b
yx  y  3x   1 1  
cot a cot b
y  3x  yx   
cot a cot b
y  x(3  y) cot a cot b  1
y  
cot a  cot b

3y x
3y0
y3

213 Chapter 7
5. cos 165  cos (45  120) 10. sin (90  A)  cos A
 cos 45 cos 120  sin 45 sin 120 sin 90 cos A  cos 90 sin A  cos A

2 
2 3
 1  cos A  0  sin A  cos A
 2 
1
 
2

2  
2 cos A  cos A

tan v  2  cot v
2   6
 
4
11.

sin v  2
  
6. tan 12  
tan 3  4   cot v
  
tan 3  tan 4 cos v  2
    
1  tan 3 tan 4 sin v cos 2  cos v sin 2
3
1  cot v
  
 1  3
1 cos v cos 2  sin v sin 2
4  23
 (sin v)  0  (cos v)  1  cot v
 
2

(cos v)  0  (sin v)  1
 2  3  
cos v
  cot v
sin v
7. 795  2(360)  75
cot v  cot v
sec 795  sec 75
12. sin (x  y)  1  cot x tan y
cos 75  cos (30  45) 
csc x sec y
 cos 30 cos 45  sin 30 sin 45 cos x sin y
1 sin x  cos y
 
3 2 1 2
   
2 2  2  
2 sin (x  y)  1 1
  
6  2
 sin x cos y
 
4 cos x sin y
4 1 sin x  cos y
 
sec 795   sin x cos y
6  2
 sin (x  y)  1 1  
sin x cos y
  
 6
  2
 sin x cos y
sin (x  y)  sin x cos y  cos x sin y
8. cos x  
1  si
n2 x cos y  
1  si
n2 y 
1

 1

2 4

9  1

2 1

4
sin (x  y)  sin (x  y)
13. sin (nq0t  90)  sin nq0t cos 90  cos nq0t sin 90
 
65

65


81 or 9  
15

15


16 or 4
 sin nq0t  0  cos nq0t  1
 cos nq0t
sin (x  y)  sin x cos y  cos x sin y
15
 65

 9 
4    9  4 
4 1
 


  65
415  Pages 442445 Exercises
36
14. cos 105  cos (45  60)
cos x  
1  si
1
9. csc x   
sin x n2 x  cos 45 cos 60  sin 45 sin 60

1

2 1 2 3
5

3  
sin x
1
  3
 2
5
     
2 2 2  
2
2  6
 
sin x  5
3
 1265 or 45 4
15. sin 165  sin (120  45)
sin x
tan x   
cos x  sin 120 cos 45  cos 120 sin 45
3  2  1 2 
3

5 3
      
2 2 2 2  
  or 
4 6   2 

5
4   4
7  
sin y  
1  co
s2 y tan y   
cos y
sin y 16. cos 12 
  cos   
4 3 
   
 cos 4 cos 3  sin 4 sin 3
1 
5 2
 
12
  
13 13 12
 or 5  
2 1 2 3

2  2  2  2
5   
 
144
169
12
 or 
13

13 2
 
  6 
4
tan x  tan y
tan (x  y)      
1  tan x tan y 17. sin 12 
  sin   
3 4 
3 12    
 
4

5  sin 3 cos 4  cos 3 sin 4
 
 3 2  1 2

1  45
3 12   2  2  2  2
  

63 6  2 
   4
20

4
5
63
 16

Chapter 7 214
18. tan 195  tan (45  150) 113 17
25.   4(2)  
12 12
tan 45  tan 150
  113 17
1  tan 45 tan 150 cot 12  cot 1
2

3
1  3
17 7 
tan 12  tan 6  4
    
   
3
1  13 tan 6  tan 4
 p 
3  

3 1  tan 6 tan 4
3
 
3
3  
3   1
 3
3
 
3
12  63  1  3  1

 or 2  3
6 
33
   
19. cos  
12  cos 4  3  
3

   p  3  
3
 cos 4 cos 3  sin 4 sin 3 
3
2 1 2 3   3
2
  2  2  2  2
  
113 1
2
  6
 cot 
12  
2
3
 
4
 2  3

20. tan 165  tan (45  120)
tan 45  tan 120 26. sin x  
1  co
s2 x cos y  
1  si
n2 y


1  tan 45 tan 120

 
1  (3 )  
1
 8 2

17  
1 

2 12

37

 

1  1 (3 ) 225 15 1225 35
1  3    or 
289 17   
1369 or 37

 1  3
sin (x  y)  sin x cos y  cos x sin y
4  2 3
  or 2  3   1
7  37    17  37 
15 35 8 12
2   
23  5
21. tan   tan   
12 4  3   
629
621
 5
tan 4  tan 3 27. sin x  
1  co
s2 x sin y  
1  co
s2 y

1
 1

 5 3 2 2
1  tan 4 tan 3   
5   4

5
1  (3 )
 
1  1 (3
4  2 3
)  
16

4

25 or 5  
9

3

25 or 5
  
2 or 2  3  cos (x  y)  cos x cos y  sin x sin y
 55  55
3 4 4 3
22. 735  2(360)  15
sin 735  sin 15 24
sin 15  sin (45  30)  25
 sin 45 cos 30  cos 45 sin 30 28. cos x  
1  si
n2 x sin y  
1  co
s2 y
2 3  2
1
 1

1
      2 2
2
6
2
  2

2

2   8

17   3

5
  
4
23. 1275  3(360)  195
 
225 15
 or 
289 17  
16

4

25 or 5
sin x sin y
sec 1275  sec 195 tan x   
cos x tan y   
cos y
cos 195  cos (150  45) 8

4

17 5
 cos 150 cos 45  sin 150 sin 45
  
 15  3
3 2 1 2  
 2  2  2  2 17 5
  2
6  8 4
   
15  
3
4 tan x  tan y
4 tan (x  y)  
sec 1275   1  tan x tan y
  2
6  8 4
  
 2
  6
 15 3

5


 sin 6  4
  8 4
24. sin 12 1  15  3
   
 sin 6 cos 4  cos 6 sin 4 12
15

2 
3 
2
1
 2  2  2  2  77

45
  6
2 
 36
4  77
5 4
csc 2  
  6
2 
 6
  2


215 Chapter 7
29. sec x  
tan2 x cos y  
1  si
1
1 n2 y 31. sin x   
csc x sec y  
tan2 y
1

 
  1
2 5

3  1


2 1

3 
1
5

 
  1
2 12

5

 
89 or 
2
34 34 2 3
  or   
9
3
3
3
34
3

3

5  
169 13
 or 
25 5
cos x   or  1
34
 34
cos x  
1  si
n2 x cos y   
sec y
sin x
tan x  
1

1
cos x 2
5

sin x

  3

5

 13

3 5
334

34   or 16

25
4

5 
5

13
5
34
sin x   
34 sin y  
1  co
s2 y
cos (x  y)  cos x cos y  sin x sin y

3

34 2
  
2
5
  
34 1
 
 
1

2 5

13


34 3 34 3 144 12
668 4
53   or 
169 13
 
102  102
 
cos(x  y)  cos x cos y  sin x sin y
1217  534

 
 51
3    5  13 
4 5 3 12
102  
1 1 56
30. tan x   
cot x cos y   
sec y  65
1 1 1
  sec (x  y)   
cos (x  y)
6 3
 
5 2 1
5 2 
 
6  
3
56

55
sin y  
1  co
s2 y 65
 56
 1

 2 2

3 32. cos a  
1  si
n2a sin b  
1  co
s2b
  5
9

 or 
3
5
 1


2 1

5  1


2 2

7
sin y
tan y  
cos y
5


 
24

2

25 or 5
6
 
45

3

49 or 7
5


3 5

or 2 sin (a  b)  sin a cos b  cos a sin b
2 3
 57  57
2 1 2 6 5

3
tan x  tan y 
2  630
tan (x  y)   
1  tan x tan y  
35

5
5
   33. sin x  
1  co
s2 x sin y  
1  co
s2 y
6 2

5 5 
1  62  1


2 1

3  1


2 3

4


10  65

12
 89 or 
2

3
2
 7
 
16 or 4

7


cos (x  y)  cos x cos y  sin x sin y
12  5
5
 2 
7
 34  34
1 3 2
12

10  6 5
 

12  5 5 
3  2 
14
12

270  1225 
 1
9 34. cos 2  x  sin x
 
cos 2 cos x  sin 2 sin x  sin x
0  cos x  1  sin x  sin x
sin x  sin x
35. cos (60  A)  sin (30  A)
cos 60 cos A  sin 60 sin A  sin 30 cos A 
cos 30 sin A
1 
3 1 
3

2 cos A  2 sin A  2 cos A  2 sin A
36. sin (A  )  sin A
sin A cos   cos A sin   sin A
(sin A)(1)  (cos A)(0)  sin A
sin A  sin A

Chapter 7 216

37. cos (180  x)  cos x 43. VL  I0qL cos qt  2
cos 180 cos x  sin 180 sin x  cos x  
1  cos x  0  sin x   cos x VL  I0qLcos qt cos 2  sin qt sin 2
cos x  cos x VL  I0qL(cos qt  0  sin qt  1)
1  tan x
38. tan (x  45)   
1  tan x VL  I0qL(sin qt)
tan x  tan 45
 
1  tan x
 VL  I0qL sin qt
1  tan x tan 45 1  tan x
sin 2(a  b)
1
tan x  1 1  tan x
  
1  (tan x)(1) 1  tan x 44. n  
1  tan x 1  tan x b
   sin 2
1  tan x 1  tan x
sin 2(a  60)
tan A  tan B 1
39. sin (A  B)   
sec A sec B
sin A sin B
n   60
 + 
cos A cos B
sin 2
sin (A  B) 
sin 2  30
a
1 1
  
cos A cos B n   sin 30
sin A sin B
+
cos A
cos B a a
cos A cos B sin 2 cos 30  cos 2 sin 30
sin (A  B)  1  
  
1 cos A cos B n   1
cos A cos B 
sin A cos B  cos A sin B 2
sin (A  B)   3
n  2   cos 2  2
a a 1
1 sin2 
2
sin (A  B)  sin (A  B) a a
1  tan A tan B n  3
 sin 2  cos2
40. cos (A  B)  
sec A sec B
sin A sin B
45. The given expression is the expanded form of the
1 cos A  cos B
   
sine of the difference of 3  A and 3  A. We have
cos (A  B) 
 
sin 3  A  3  A  sin (2A)
1 1
  
cos A cos B
1
sinA sin B  sin 2A
cos A  cos B
 
cos A cos B f(x  h)  f(x) sin (x  h)  sin x
cos (A  B)  1 1  
cos A cos B 46a. 
h  
h
  
cos A cos B sin x cos h  cos x sin h  sin x
cos A cos B  sin A sin B
 
h
cos (A  B)  
1
46b. y y  sin x cos 0.1  cos x sin 0.1  sin x
cos (A  B)  cos (A  B) 1 0.1
sec A sec B
41. sec (A  B)   
1  tan A tan B
1 1 0.5
 

cos A
cos B
sec (A  B) 
sin A sin B
1
cos A  cos B
  O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x
1 1
 
cos A

cos B 0.5
cos A cos B
sec (A  B)  sin A sin B  cos A cos B

1  cos A  cos B
    1
1
sec (A  B)  
cos A cos B  sin A sin B 46c. cos x
1 sin (a  b)
sec (A  B)  
cos (A  B) 47. tan (a  b)   
cos (a  b)
sec (A  B)  sec (A  B) sin a cos b  cos a sin b
tan (a  b)  
cos a cos b  sin a sin b
42. sin (x  y) sin (x  y)  sin2 x  sin2 y sin a cos b cos a sin b
  
(sin x cos y  cos x sin y)(sin x cos y  cos x sin y) cos a cos b cos a cos b
 sin2 x  sin2 y tan (a  b) 
cos a cos b sin a sin b
  
(sin x cos y)  (cos x sin y)  sin2 x  sin2 y
2 2 cos a cos b cos a cos b
tan a  tan b
sin2 x cos2 y  cos2 x sin2 y  sin2 x  sin2 y tan (a  b)   
1  tan a tan b
sin2 x cos2 y  sin2 x sin2 y  sin2 x sin2 y
Replace b with b to find tan(a  b).
 cos2 x sin2 y  sin2 x  sin2 y tan a  tan (b)
sin x(cos y  sin y)  sin2 y(sin2 x  cos2 x)
2 2 2 tan (a  (b))  
1  tan a tan (b)
 sin2 x  sin2 y tan a  tan b
tan (a  b)  
1  tan a tan b
(sin2 x)(1)  (sin2 y)(1)  sin2 x  sin2 y
sin2 x  sin2 y  sin2 x  sin2 y 48a. Answers will vary.

217 Chapter 7
48b. tan A  tan B  tan C  tan A tan B tan C 56. s  rv
1
A  2r2 v
tan A  tan B  tan (180  (A  B)) 1
18  r(2.9) A 2(6.2)2(2.9)
 tan A tan B tan(180  (A  B))
tan 180  tan (A  B) 6.2 r; 6.2 ft A 55.7 ft2
tan A  tan B  
1  tan 180 tan (A  B)
tan 180  tan (A  B) 57. c2  702  1302  2(70)(130) cos 130
 tan A tan B 1  tan 180 tan (A  B) c2 33498.7345
tan A  tan B 
0  tan (A  B)
 c 183 miles
1  0  tan (A  B)
0  tan (A  B) 58. 120  90, consider Case 2.
 tan A tan B 1  0  tan (A  B) 4  12, 0 solutions
tan A  tan B  tan (A  B) 59.
 tan A tan B tan (A  B)
1  tan A tan B 
1  tan A tan B  tan (A  B)
(tan A  tan B)   

 tan A tan B (A  B)
tan (A  B)(1  tan A tan B)  tan (A  B) 35 ft
 tan A tan B (A  B)
(1  tan A tan B  1) tan (A  B)
 tan A tan B (A  B)
tan A tan B tan (A  B)  tan A tan B (A  B)
1  cos2 x 3712 
49. sec2 x    x
1  sin2 x  csc x  cot x
 2 2
640
1  cos2 x
sec2 x  
cos2 x  1  cot x  cot x
 2 2
v  37 12  6 40 or 30 32
1 cos2 x
sec2 x  
cos2 x  cos2 x  1
  a  90  6 40 or 96 40
sec2 x  sec2 x  1  1 b  180  (30 32  96 40) or 52 48
35 x
sec2 x  sec 2 x 
sin 30 32  
sin 52 48
sin v 35 sin 52 48
50. sin2 v  cos2 v  1 tan v    x 
cos v sin 30 32
182  cos2 v  1 1
8 x 54.87 ft
63 
60. 4x3  3x2  x  0
cos2 v  64 3 7
8 x(4x2  3x  1)  0
37
cos v 
8 1 x(4x  1)(x  1)  0
 

3
7 37 x  0 or 4x  1  0 or x  1  0
Quadrant III, so  8 
7
 
21
1
x  4 x  1

51. Arctan 3
 
3 61. Case 1 Case 2
 x  1  4 x  1  4
sin (Arctan 3
)  sin 
3 (x  1)  4 x14

3
 2 x  1  4 x3
52. k, where k is an integer x  5
86  50 2  86  50 x 5 {xx 5 or x  3}
53. A  2   2 h  2

1 2

4
A  18  68  68 62.  1(6)  3(2)
3 6
  6  6 or 12
y  18 sin  t  c   68
2 63. fg(4)  f(g(4))

50  18 sin    1 
2 c  68  f(5(4)  1)
  f(21)
18  18 sin    c
2   3(21)2  4

1  sin   c 
2
 1319
 gf(4)  g(f(4))
sin1 ( 1)  2  c  g(3(4)2  4)
3   g(44)
    c
2 2
 5(44)  1
c  221

y  18sin 2t    68 (8)62
64. (8)62 862  6
8 62
   (1)62  1
2 8 8
360 30
54. 8  8; 1  360; 1  30 The correct choice is A.
55. sin (540)  sin (360  180)
0

Chapter 7 218
Page 445 Mid-Chapter Quiz 9. cos x  
1  si
n2 x cos y  
1  si
n2 y
1
1. csc v  
sin v 1 cot2 v csc2
7 2
v
 1


2 2

3  1


23

4
1 1  cot2 v   


2

7 1 cot2 v
2
49

 59 or 35  7



16 or 4
7

7
4 cos (x  y)  cos x cos y  sin x sin y
 
cot2 v
45

5 
7
 34  34
2  2 3
4
3
5
cot v 
2 
35  6
35
 
12
5
2
1
10. tan x  4 tan y  
sec2 y
1
2. tan2 v1 sec2 v cos v  
sec v  
22 1
4 2
3  1  sec2 v  
1
5
 3

3 tan x  tan y
tan (x  y)   
1  tan x tan y
16 3
 1 sec2 v  5
  
9 5
25 4 3

9  sec2 v  
1  4 3
5
5

3  sec v
5 
5  43
4
19  
3.   5  4  4  5
3
4 
4
19 
cos 4  cos 5  4 
5  43


4  53


 cos 4 
80  413 
80  413
1 1
  or 
59 59
4. 
1  tan2 x 
1  cot2 x  1

1 1
sec2 x  csc2 x 1
 

cos2 x  sin2 x 1
11
7-3B Reduction Identities
csc2 v sec2v
5. 
sec2 v  csc2 v
2
csc v 2
sec v Page 447
sec2 v  sec2 v  csc2 v
 
1. sin, cos, sin 2. cot, tan, cot
1

sin2 v 3. tan, cot, tan 4. csc, sec, csc

1 1  csc2 v 5. sec, csc, sec

cos2 v
cos2 v 6a. (1) cos, sin, cos
sin2 v  1  csc2 v

(2) sin, cos, sin
cot2 v  1  csc2 v (3) cot, tan, cot
csc2 v  csc2 v (4) tan, cot, tan
6. cot x sec x sin x  2  tan x cos x csc x (5) csc, sec, csc
cos x 1 sin x 1 (6) sec, csc, sec

sin x 
cos x  sin x  2  cos x  cos x  sin x
  
6b. Sample answer: If a row for sin a were placed
121 above Exercises 1-5, the entries for Exercise 6a
11 could be obtained by interchanging the first and
1  cot a tan b third columns and leaving the middle column
7. tan (a  b)   
cot a  tan b
1
alone.
1 tan a  tan b

7a. (1) cos, sin, cos
tan (a  b) 
1
  tan b (2) sin, cos, sin
tan a (3) cot, tan, cot
1
1 (4) tan, cot, tan
tan a  tan b

tan a (5) csc, sec, csc
tan (a  b)  1  
  tan b tan a (6) sec, csc, sec
tan a
tan a  tan b 7b. Sample answer: The entries in the rows for cos a
tan (a  b)   
1  tan a tan b and sec a are unchanged. All other entries are
tan (a  b)  tan(a  b) multiplied by 1.
8. cos 75  cos(30  45) 8a. Sample answer: They can be used to reduce
 cos 30 cos 45  sin 30 sin 45 trigonometric functions of large positive or

3 
2 
2
 22  22
1 negative angles to those of angles in the first
  2
6 

4 8b. Sample answer: sum or difference identities

219 Chapter 7
sin v
7-4 Double-Angle and Half-Angle 8. sin2 v  cos2 v  1 tan v   
cos v
Identities 2

5
2 2
 

5  cos2 v  1 



21
Page 453 Check for Understanding 5
1. If you are only given the value of cos v, then 21 2 2
21
cos2 v  25  
21
 or 
21
cos 2v  2 cos2 v  1 is the best identity to use.

21
If you are only given the value of sin v, then cos v  
cos 2v  1  2 sin2 v is the best identity to use. If sin 2v  2 sin v cos v
you are given the values of both cos v and sin v, 
21
 25
5 
2
then cos 2v  cos2 v  sin2 v is just as good as the
other two. 4
21

25
2. cos 2  1  2 sin2 v
cos 2v  1  2 sin2 v cos 2v  cos2 v  sin2 v
 2
21 2 2
cos 2v  1
  sin2 v  
5   5

2
17
1  cos 2v
  sin2 v  25
2
2 tan v
1 cos 2v tan 2v  
  sin v



2
1  tan2 v
2

 221 

1  cos 2 2
21
a a 
Letting v  2 yields sin 2 
 ,
2  21 2
2
1  cos 1  21 


2
.
a
or sin 2 

4
21
3a. III or IV 3b. I or II 3c. I, II, III or IV  
21 4
21
4. sin 2v  2 sin v 
17 or 
17

  21
sin 22  2 sin 2
 9. tan2 v  1  sec2 v sin2 v  cos2 v  1
sin   2 sin 2 4 2 3 2
0  2(1)
 

3  1  sec2 v sin2 v  5  1
25 16
0 2   sec2 v sin2 v  2
9 5

Sample answer: v  2 5
3  sec v (Quadrant III)
4
sin v  5
5. Both answers are correct. She obtained two cos v 
1
sec v
different representations of the same number. One
1
 
way to verify this is to evaluate each expression 3
5 or 5
with a calculator. To verify it algebraically, square 
3
each answer and then simplify. The same result is sin 2v  2 sin v cos v
obtained in each case. Since each of the original
 255
4 3
answers is positive, and they have the same
24
square, the original answers are the same  25
number.
cos 2v  cos2 v  sin2 v
 3 2 4 2
 5  5

 4
6. sin 
8  sin  7
2  2
5



1  cos  2 tan v
 
4
(Quadrant I) tan 2v   
1  tan2 v
2

23
4


2
1  2
   4 2
1  3
2

2  2

 
2
8

3 24
7. tan 165  tan 2
330  or 7
7
9
1  cos 330
 
1  co

10. tan 2v   
2
cot v  tan v


3

1  3 tan 2v  
2 tan v
cot v  tan v  tan v
 

3 2 tan v
1  3 tan 2v  
cot v tan v  tan2 v
 (2  3
) 2 tan v
tan 2v  
1  tan2 v
 32
tan 2v  tan 2v

Chapter 7 220
1 sec A  sin A 5
11. 1  2 sin 2A   
sec A

6
5
1 16. tan   tan 
1  sin A 
cos A
12 2
1  sin 2A  5


2

1 1  cos 6
cos A
1
 sin A
 1  cos 6
cos A
1 cos A
1  2 sin 2A  1  


 cos A 
3
cos A 1  2
1
1
 sin 2A  1  sin A cos A  
3
1  2
2
1 1
1  sin 2A  1  2

2  2 sin A cos A


1 1 
2  3

1  sin 2A  1  2

2 sin 2A 2

x x sin x  
2  3
12. sin 2 cos 2  2 
2
x x


2 sin 2 cos 2 (2  3
)(2  3
)
  sin x

 
(2  3
)(2  3
)
2 2

   
x (2  3
 )2
sin 2 2 
sin x 43
 
2 2  2  3

sin x sin x 3
  2 
2 3 4
17. sin 8  sin 
2
13. cos 2v  2 cos2
v1


3
cos 2v  1  2 cos2 v 1  cos 4

2 cos 2v  2  cos2 v 2



2
P  I02 R sin2 qt  1  2
P  I02 R (1  cos2 qt)  2
P  I02 R1 2 cos 2qt  2
1 1

## P  I02 R2  2 cos 2qt

1 1  
  2
2

7
2


1 1 
P  2 I02 R  2 I02 R cos 2qt 7 6
18. cos 12  
cos 2
7


1  cos 6
Pages 454455 Exercises  (Quadrant II)
30
2
14. cos 15  cos 2


  3
1 2
1  cos 30
 2
2



3
1  2  
2  3

  2
 2 45
19. tan 22.5  tan 2
  2  3

2
150

 
1  cos
1  cos 45

15. sin 75  sin 2


1  cos 150 
2
 

2 (Quadrant I) 1  2

2



3 
1  2 1  2
 


2 
2  2

2

 
2  

2

3

2  

2
2

  (2  2

)(2  2
(2  2
)
)(2  2
)

 
 )2
(2  2

42

 
2  2

2
2
22
 
2

 2
1

221 Chapter 7
23. tan2 v  1  sec2 v
20. tan 2 
v


1  cos
1  cos v

v (2)2  1  sec2 v
5  sec2 v


1
1  4
 
5   sec v (Quadrant II)
1
1   cos v  sec v
4
1 
5
  or 5


3
 5
4
sin2 v  cos2 v  1
 5
  2
5
4 sin2 v  5  1
 35 or 

15

5 sin2 v  25
20

sin v 2
5
21. sin2 v  cos2 v  1 tan v   
cos v sin v  5 (Quadrant II)
v 
4
sin2  2 1 3 sin 2v  2 sin v cos v
5 
5 2 
5
 255
5
sin2 v
9
 
4
25 
3 5 4
sin v  
5 3
 5
 
(Quadrant I) 4 cos 2v  cos2 v  sin2 v
 2
5 2
 5  5
5 2
sin 2v  2 sin v cos v
 255
3 4 3
 5
24
 25 tan 2v   
2 tan v
1  tan2 v
cos 2v  cos2 v  sin 2 v  
2(2)
1  (2)2
 
4 2
 5  5
3 2
   
4

4
7 3 or 3
 2 1
5
2 tan v 24. cos v   
sec v
tan 2v   
1  tan2 v 1
 
4
3
3
2 4 
 
3
4
 1  4  
3 2

3 sin2 v  cos2 v  1

sin2 v  4  1
2 24 3 2
 or 
7 7
 7
16 sin2 v  1
6
sin v
22. sin2 v cos2 v1 tan v   
7
cos v sin v  4 (Quadrant II)
 
1
 2
3  cos2 v1 1

3 tan v 
sin v

8  cos v
cos2 v  9 2

2 7
3 
2
2 4
cos v  3 1 
2 
  or 4 3
22  4
 3
sin 2v  2 sin v cos v
1 2 sin 2v  2 sin v cos v
 2  
2
 

7
 244
3 3 3
42
 
9 3
7
 8
cos 2v  cos2 v  sin2 v
2 cos 2v  cos2 v  sin2 v
 3  3
2 2 1 2
 2
7
 4  4
3 2
7
 
9 2 1
2 tan v
 1 
6 or 8
tan 2v  
1  tan2 v 2 tan v
tan 2v   
1  tan2 v

2
2 
4
  
37 
 
2

2
1  2     
7
4 1  
3 
 2
2
 2 7
2 4
2 

14
or 7 3
  2 or 37

16 
9

Chapter 7 222
1 2 tan v
25. 1  cot2 v  csc2 v tan v   
cot v tan 2v   
1  tan2 v

1  2  csc2 v
1 221 
21 
3 2 
 3 2 

2 
2
21 2
 1  21 
13 2 
  csc2 v  
4 3

13 421

2  csc v (Quadrant III) 
21 4
21
sin v
1
 sin2 v  cos2 v  1 
17 or 
17
csc v 
21
1 
213 2
 

 

13 13   cos v  1
 2
27. sin2 a  cos2 a  1 tan a  
sin a

2 cos a
117
2 2
13 cos2 v 
16 9 7


  or 
2 2
a 
13
 13 3 3
cos v   
13
sin2 3 1  
2
13

3
7 7
 
14
sin 2v  2 sin v cos v sin2 a  9   or  2
2

2 3
 2
13  13 
13 13 
7
 
sin a  3 (Quadrant II)
12
 1
3 tan 2a  
2 tan a
1  tan2 a
cos 2v  cos2 v  sin2 v 14 
 2  2 2

 13
313
 
213
13   
2

1  2
5 14
 13 2
2 tan v 
14 2
14
tan 2v     
5 or 
5
1  tan2 v  

2
2
2 3   1
 28. csc 2v  2 sec v csc v
2 2
  
1  3 
1
sin 2v
1
 2 sec v csc v
1 1
4
 
2 sin v cos v  2 sec v csc v
3 12
  or  1 1 1 1
5
 5 
2    
sin v cos v  2 sec v csc v
9
1 1
1  csc v sec v  2 sec v csc v
26. sin v   
csc v sin2 v  cos2 v  1 2
1 1

1
5
252  cos2 v  1 
2 sec v csc v  2 sec v csc v
cos 2A
2 21 29. cos A  sin A   
cos2 v  25 cos A  sin A
2 cos2 A  sin2 A
 5 cos v  

21 cos A  sin A   
cos A  sin A
5
(cos A  sin A)(cos A  sin A)
(Quadrant IV) cos A  sin A  
cos A  sin A
sin v
tan v   
cos v
cos A  sin A  cos A  sin A
2 30. (sin v  cos v)2  1  sin 2v
5
sin v  2 sin v cos v  cos2 v  1  sin 2v
2
 
21 2 sin v cos v  1  1  sin 2v

5
2 sin v cos v  sin 2v
2 2
21
 21 or 
21 sin 2v  sin 2v
cos 2x  1
sin 2v  2 sin v cos v 31. cos x  1   
2(cos x  1)

21
 25
5 
2 2 cos2 x  1  1
cos x  1   
2(cos x  1)
4
21 2 cos2 x  2
 
25 cos x  1   
2(cos x  1)
cos 2v  cos2 v  sin2 v 2(cos2 x  1)
cos x  1   
2(cos x  1)

21
   
2 2
 2 5 2(cos x  1)(cos x  1)
5 cos x  1  
2(cos x  1)
17
 
25 cos x  1  cos x  1
cos2 v  sin2 v
32. sec 2v   
cos2 v  sin2 v
1
sec 2v   
cos 2v
sec 2v  sec 2v
A sin A
33. tan 2   
1  cos A

223 Chapter 7
L
tan 45  tan 2
39a. tan45  2  
1

A  
A
sin 2 2 L
1  tan 45 tan 2
tan 2  
1  cos 22
A L
1  tan 2
A A  
A 2 sin  cos  L
tan 2  
2 2 1  1  tan 2
A
1  cos L
1  2 cos2 2  1 1
 
1  cos L
A A  
2 sin 2 cos 2 1  cos L
A
tan 2   1  

1  cos L
A
2 cos2 2 1  cos L 1  cos 60
A
1
 
1  cos L
1   
1  cos 60
  
A sin 2 39b. 1  cos L 1  cos 60
tan 
2   A
1  

1  cos L 1  

1  cos 60
cos 2


1
A A 1  2
tan 2  tan 2  1 
1
1  
34. sin 3x  3 sin x  4 sin3 x 2


sin(2x  x)  3 sin x  4 sin3 x 1
1  
2
sin 2x cos x  cos 2x sin x  3 sin x  4 sin3 x 1 
1
2 sin x cos2 x  (1  2 sin2 x) sin x  3 sin x  4 sin3 x 1  2

## 2 sin x(1  sin2 x)  (1  2 sin2 x) sin x  3 sin x  4 sin3 x

2 sin x  2 sin3 x  sin x  2 sin3 x  3 sin x  4 sin3 x 
1
1  
3
 
3 sin x  4 sin3 x  3 sin x  4 sin3 x

1
1  3
35. cos 3x  4 cos3 x  3 cos x
cos(2x  x)  4 cos3 x  3 cos x 3  3

3
(2 cos x  1)cos x  2 sin2 x cos x  4 cos3 x  3 cos x
2
 
3  3
(2 cos2 x  1)cos x  2(1  cos2 x)cos x  4 cos3 x  3 cos x 
3
2 cos3 x  cos x  2 cos x  2 cos3 x  4 cos3 x  3 cos x 12  6 3
4 cos3 x  3 cos x  4 cos3 x  3 cos x  
6 or 2  3

v2
 sin2 2v 21
2g sin2 2v 40. tan (a  30)  7
36. 
v2
 
sin2 v
 sin2 v tan (a  30)  3
2g
tan a  tan 30
(2 sin v cos v)2 
1  tan a tan 30 3
 
sin2 v 3
4 sin2 v cos2 v tan a    3  3
 tan a
 
sin2 v
3

3
 4 cos2 v  tan a  3  3
tan a  3

3
37. PBD is an inscribed angle that subtends the (1  3
) tan a  3  3
same arc as the central angle POD, so mPBD 3
1 1 PA 3  
3
 v. By right triangle
2 trigonometry, tan2v  
BA
tan a  
1  3
PA sin v
    . 9  3

1  OA 1  cos v tan a  
3 33

2v2 cos v sin(v  a)
38. R   
6  53
g cos2 a tan a  
3
2v2 cos v sin(v  45)   
R 
g cos2 45 41. cos 12  cos 3  4
2v2 cos v(sin v cos 45  cos v sin 45)    
R 
g cos2 45  cos 3 cos 4  sin 3 sin 4
2  2  
2 
3 
2
    
1
2v2 cos v (sin v)  
2  (cos v) 2
  2  2  2  2
R     6
2 

2 
 
g 
2
 2

4
1

2
sec 12   
2 2 cos  
2 v cos v(sin v  cos v) 12
R   1
1  
g  2 2  6
 
4
2
v2 (2 cos v sin v  2 cos2 v)
R  4
2  4
6
g  or 6
4   2

v2 
2
R  g(2 cos v sin v  (2 cos2 v  1) 1) 42. Sample answer:
v2 
2 )2  cos(
sin( )2  sin   cos 
R (sin
g 2v  cos 2v  1)  0  (1)
 1
1

Chapter 7 224
17 17 180
43. s  rv   1
0  

10 7-5 Solving Trigonometric Equations
17  10  v 97.4
17

10 v
Page 458 Graphing Calculator Exploration
44. Let x  the distance from A to the point beneath
the mountain peak. 1.
h
tan 2110   
570  x
h  (570  x) tan 2110
h
tan 3640  x
h  x tan 3640
(570  x) tan 2110  x tan 3640
570 tan 2110  x tan 3640  x tan 2110
570 tan 2110  x(tan 3640  tan 2110) 2.
570 tan 2110

tan 3640  tan 2110 x
617.7646751 x
h
tan 3640  x
h
tan 3640  
617.8
h 460 ft
45. (x  (3))(x  0.5)(x  6)(x  2)  0 3. Exercise 1: (1.1071, 0.8944), (4.2487, 0.8944)
(x  3)(x  0.5)(x  6)(x  2)  0 Exercise 2: (5.2872, 0.5437), (0.9960, 0.5437)
(x2  2.5x  1.5)(x2  8x  12)  0 4. The x-coordinates are the solutions of the
x4  5.5x3  9.5x2  42x  18  0 equations. Substitute the x-coordinates and see
2x4  11x3  19x2  84x  36  0 that the two sides of the equation are equal.
46. y  2x  5 y 5.
x  2y  5
y  2x  5
x  5  2y
x5

2 y
O x
x5
y 2


[0, 2] sc14 by [3, 3] sc11
5a. The x-intercepts of the graph are the solutions of
47. x  2y  11 3x  5y  11
the equation sin x  2 cos x. They are the same.
x  11  2y 3(11  2y)  5y  11
33  6y  5y  11 5b. y  tan 0.5x  cos x or y  cos x  tan 0.5x
11y  22
y2
x  2y  11 Page 459 Check for Understanding
x  2(2)  11 1. A trigonometric identity is an equation that is
x 7 (7, 2) true for all values of the variable for which each
48. ab  3 side of the equation is defined. A trigonometric
3
b  a equation that is not an identity is only true for
certain values of the variable.
(a  b)2  64
2. All trigonometric functions are periodic. Adding
a2  2ab  b2  64
the least common multiple of the periods of the
a2  2aa  a  64
3 3 2
functions that appear to any solution to the
equation will always produce another solution.
a2  6  a  64
3 2
3. 45  360x and 135  360x, where x is any
a2  a  70
3 2
integer
a2  b2  70

225 Chapter 7
4. Each type of equation may require adding, 12. tan2 x  2 tan x  1  0
subtracting, multiplying, or dividing each side by (tan x  1)(tan x  1)  0
the same number. Quadratic and trigonometric tan x  1  0
equations can often be solved by factoring. Linear tan x  1
and quadratic equations do not require identities. 3
x  4  k
All linear and quadratic equations can be solved
algebraically, whereas some trigonometric 13. cos2 x  3 cos x  2
equations require a graphing calculator. A linear cos2 x  3 cos x  2  0
equation has at most one solution. A quadratic (cos x  1)(cos x  2)  0
equation has at most two solutions. A cos x  1  0 or cos x  2  0
trigonometric equation usually has infinitely cos x  1 cos x  2
many solutions unless the values of the variable x  (2k  1) no solutions
are restricted. 14. sin 2x  cos x  0
5. 2 sin x  1  0 6. 2 cos x  30 2 sin x cos x  cos x  0
cos x (2 sin x  1)  0
2 sin x  1 
2 cos x  3
cos x  0 or 2 sin x  1  0

3
sin x  12 cos x  2 
x  2  k
1
sin x  2
x  30 x  30 
3
x  6  2k
7. sin x cot x  
2 5
3
or x  6  2k
sin x  
cos x
 
sin x 2 15. 2 cos v  1 0
3
cos x  
2
2 cos v 1
1
x  30 or x  330 cos v 2
8. cos 2x  sin2 x  2 1 2
cos v  2 at 3 and 3
4
2 cos2 x  1  (1  cos2 x)  2 2 4
2 cos2 x  1  cos2 x  1 v 3

3
3 cos2 x  0 16. W  Fd cos v
cos2 x  0 1500  100  20 cos v
cos x  0 0.75  cos v
x  90 or x  270
v 41.41
9. 3 tan2 x  1  0
3 tan2 x  1
1
tan2 x  3 Pages 459461 Exercises

3
tan x 
3 17. 2
 sin x  1  0 18. 2 cos x  1  0
 5 7 11
x  6 or x  6 or x  6 or x  6 2 sin x  1 2 cos x  1
10. 2 sin2 x  5 sin x  3 1 1
sin x   cos x  2
2 sin x  5 sin x  3  0
2 2 
(2 sin x  1)(sin x  3)  0 2
sin x  
2 x  120
2 sin x  1  0 or sin x  3  0
x  45
sin x  12 sin x  3
19. sin 2x  1  0
7 11
x  6 or x  6 no solutions 2 sin x cos x  1  0
11. sin2 2x  cos2 x  0 sin2 x cos2 x  14
1  cos2 2x  cos2 x  0 1
1  (2 cos2 x  1)2  cos2 x  0 sin2 x (1  sin2 x)  4
1  (4 cos4 x  4 cos2 x  1)  cos2 x  0 sin2 x  sin4 x  4  0
1
4 cos4 x  5 cos2 x  0 1
cos2 x(4 cos2 x  5)  0 sin4 x  sin2 x  4  0
cos2 x  0 4 cos2 x  5  0
or
5 sin2 x  12sin2 x  12  0
cos x  0 cos2 x  4 1
 5 sin2 x  2  0
x 
2  k cos x  
2 1
sin2 x  2
no solutions
1 
2
sin x   or 2
2 
x  45

Chapter 7 226
20. tan 2x  30 28. cos (x  45)  cos (x  45)  2

tan 2x  3
 cos x cos 45  sin x sin 45
2 tan x  cos x cos 45  sin x sin 45  2


1  tan2 x  3
 
2 
2
cos x  2  sin x  2
2 tan x  3 (1  tan2 x)

2 
2
2 tan x  3  3 tan2 x  cos x  2  sin x  2  2

3  tan x  2 tan x  3
2 0 2 cos x  2 
(3 tan x  1)(tan x  3 )  0 cos x  1
3 tan x  1  0 tan x  30 x  0
1 29. 2 sin v cos v  3  sin v  0
tan x   tan x  3

3 sin v (2 cos v  3 )  0
3 sin v  0 or 2 cos v + 3 0
tan x  
3
x  60
v  0 or v  180 2 cos v  3

x  30 
3
21. cos2 x  cos x cos v  2
cos2 x  cos x  0 v  150
cos x(cos x  1)  0 or v  210
cos x  0 or cos x  1  0 30. (2 sin x  1)(2 cos2 x  1)  0
x  90 cos x  1 2 sin x  1  0 or 2 cos2 x  1  0
x  0 2 sin x  1 2 cos2 x  1
22. sin x  1  cos x
2 1 1
sin x  2 cos2 x  2
sin x  1  1  sin2 x
 
2
sin2 x  sin x  2  0 x  6 cos x 
2
(sin x  1)(sin x  2)  0 5  3
or x  6 x  4 or x  4
sin x  1  0 or sin x  2  0
5 7
sin x  1 sin x  2 or x  4 or x  4
x  90 no solution
31. 4 sin2 x  1  4 sin x
23. 2  cos x  1  0 4 sin2 x  4 sin x  1  0
2 cos x  1 (2 sin x  1)(2 sin x  1)  0
2
 2 sin x  1  0
cos x  2
2 sin x  1
x  135 or x  225 1
1 sin x  2
24. cos x tan x  2
7 11
sin x 1 x  6 or x  6
cos x  2
cos x   
1 32. 2
 tan x  2 sin x
sin x  2 sin x

2 cos x  2 sin x

x  30 or x  150
25. sin x tan x  sin x  0   2 cos x
2
2
sin x (tan x  1)  0 
2  cos x
sin x  0 or tan x  1  0  7
x  0 or x  180 tan x  1 x  4 or x  4
x  45 or x  225 2  tan x  2 sin x would also be true if both tan x
sin x
26. 2 cos x  3 cos x  2  0
2 and sin x equal 0. Since tan x   
cos x , tan x equals
(2 cos x  1)(cos x  2)  0 0 when sin x  0. Therefore x can also equal 0 and
2 cos x  1  0 or cos x  2  0 .
 7
2 cos x  1 cos x  2 0, 4, , 4
1
cos x  2 no solution 33. sin x  cos 2x  1
x  60 or x  300 sin x  1  2 sin2 x  1
27. sin 2x  sin x 2 sin x  sin x  0
2

## 2 sin x cos x  sin x sin x(2 sin x  1)  0

2 sin x cos x  sin x  0 sin x  0 or 2 sin x  1  0
sin x (2 cos x  1)  0 x  0 or x   2 sin x  1
sin x  0 or 2 cos x  1  0 sin x  2
1

x  0 or x  180 2 cos x  1 7
1 x  6 or
cos x  2 11
x  6
x  120
or x  240

227 Chapter 7
34. cot2 x  csc x  1 41. 
1
 cos x  sin x
cos x  sin x
csc2 x  1  csc x  1
(cos x  sin x)(cos x  sin x)  1
csc2 x  csc x  2  0
cos2 x  sin2 x  1
(csc x  2)(csc x  1)  0
cos2 x  (1  cos2 x)  1
csc x  2  0 or csc x  1  0
2 cos2 x  1  1
csc x  2 or csc x  1
1 2 cos2 x  2
sin x  2 sin x  1 cos2 x  1
x

 or x 
5

3
x  2 cos x 
1
6 6
x  k
35. sin x  cos x  0
42. 2 tan2 x  3 sec x  0
sin x  cos x
2(sec2 x  1)  3 sec x  0
sin2 x  cos2 x
(2 sec x  1)(sec x  2)  0
sin2 x  cos2 x  0
2 sec2 x  3 sec x  2  0
sin2 x  1  sin2 x  0
2 sec x  1  0 or sec x  2  0
2 sin2 x  1  0
1
2 sec x  1 sec x  2
sin2 x  2 1 1
sec x  2 cos x  2
1 2
sin x 
 or
2 
2 cos x  2 x  3  2k or
3
sin x and cos x must be opposites, so x   5
4 no solution x  3  2k
7
or x  . 1
4 43. sin x cos x  2
36. 1  3 sin v  cos 2v 1
1  3 sin v  1  2 sin2 v sin2 x cos2 x  4
2 sin v  3 sin v  2  0
2
sin2 x(1  sin2 x)  4
1

(2 sin v  1)(sin v  2)  0 1
2 sin v  1  0 or sin v  2  0 sin2 x  sin4 x)  4
2 sin v  1 sin v  2 sin4 x  sin2 x  4  0
1
1
sin v  2 no solution
7 11 sin2 x  12sin2 x  12  0
v 
6 or v  
6 1
1 sin2 x  2  0
37. sin x  2 1
7 11 sin2 x  2
x  
6 2 k or x  6  2k 
2
sin x 
2
38. cos x tan x  2 cos2 x  1

sin x x  4  k
cos x  2 cos x  1
cos x   2

3
sin x  2(1  sin2 x)  1 44. cos2 x  sin2 x  2
2 sin2 x  sin x  1  0 cos2 x  (1  cos2 x)  2

3
(2 sin x  1)(sin x  1)  0 
3
2 sin x  1  0 or sin x  1  0 2 cos2 x  1  2
2 sin x  1 sin x  1 2  3

1 3
2 cos2 x  2
sin x  
2 x 
2  2k 2  3

 5
cos2 x  4
x 
6  2k or x  
6  2k 2
 3

cos x 

2
39. 3 tan2 x  3 tan x  11
3 tan x  3
2  tan x  0 x  12  k or x  12  k
tan x(3 tan x  3)  0 45. sin4 x  1  0
tan x  0 or 3 tan x  3 0 (sin2 x  1)(sin2 x  1)  0
sin2 x  1  0 or sin2 x  1  0
x  k 3 tan x  3


3
sin x  1
2 sin2 x  1
tan x  3 sin x 
1 no solutions
 
x  6  k x  2  k
40. 2(1  sin2 x)  3 sin x 46. sec2 x  2 sec x  0
2  2 sin2 x  3 sin x sec x(sec x  2)  0
2 sin x  3 sin x  2  0
2 sec x  0 or sec x  2  0
(2 sin x  1)(sin x  2)  0 1
cos x  0 sec x  2
2 sin x  1  0 or sin x  2  0 1
2 sin x  1 sin x  2 no solution cos x  2
1 2
sin x  2 no solution x  3  2k or
 4
x  6  2k or x  3  2k
5
x  6  2k

Chapter 7 228
47. sin x  cos x  1 58a. n1 sin i  n2 sin r
sin2 x  2 sin x cos x  cos2 x  1 1.00 sin 35  2.42 sin r
sin2 x  2 sin x cos x  1  sin2 x  1 sin r  
1.00 sin 35

2.42
2 sin x cos x  0
sin x cos x  0 sin r 0.2370150563
sin2 x cos2 x  0 r 13.71
sin2 x (1  sin2 x)  0 58b. Measure the angles of incidence and refraction
sin x  0
2 or 1  sin2 x  0 to determine the index of refraction. If the index
sin x  0 sin2 x  1 is 2.42, the diamond is genuine.
x  2k sin x 
1 59. D  0.5 sin (6.5 x) sin (2500t)

x  2  2k 0.01  0.5 sin (6.5(0.5)) sin (2500t)
0.02  sin 3.25 sin 2500t
48. 2 sin x  csc x  3
0.1848511958 sin 2500t
2 sin2 x  1  3 sin x
0.1859549654 2500t
2 sin x  3 sin x  1  0
2
The first positive angle with sine equivalent to
(2 sin x  1)(sin x  1)  0
sin (0.1859549654) is   0.1859549654 or
2 sin x  1  0 or sin x  1  0
3.326477773.
2 sin x  1 sin x  1 3.326477773
1  t  
sin x  2 x  2  2k 2500
 t 0.0013 s
x  6  2k or a
5 60. a sin(bx  c)  d  d  2
x 
6  2k a
3  a sin(bx  c)  2
49. cos v  2 1
3  5 7 sin(bx  c)  2
cos v  2 at 6 and 6 360
The period of the function sin(bx  c) is b, so
5 7
  v   360
6 6 the given interval consists of 
360
 b periods.
1 
50. cos v  2  0
  b
1
1 The equation sin (bx  c)  2 has two solutions
cos v  2
per period, so the total number of solutions is 2b.
1  5
cos v  2 at 3 and 3
 5
61.  xy  34
0  v 3 or 3 v 2
cos v sin v 17

 sin v  1 0
51. 2  sin v cos v 4 22

3


2  sin v 1
cos v  4 sin v 17

2
sin v 2  33 sin v  4 cos v 22



2  3
sin v  2 at 4 and 4 3 cos v  4 sin v  17

0v

 or
3
 v 2 3 sin v  4 cos v  22
4 4

52. 0.4636, 3.6052 53. 0, 1.8955
9 cos v  12 sin v  317

54. 0.3218, 3.4633
 16 cos v  12 sin v  82
55. sin v  D
5.5  107 25 cos v  82  317

sin v      317
82 
0.003
cos v  
25
sin v 0.0001833333333
v 0.01 v 18.68020037
360  v 341.32
56. sin 2x sin x
2 sin x cos x sin x
2 sin x cos x sin x 0
sin x(2 cos x  1) 0
The product on the left side of the inequality is
 5
equal to 0 when x is 0, 3, , or 3. For the product
to be negative, one factor must be positive and the
 5
other negative. This occurs if 3 x  or 3 x
2.
v2
57. R  g sin 2v
152
20  
9.8 sin 2v
0.8711111111 sin 2v
2v 60.5880156 or 2v 119.4119844
v 30.29 v 59.71

229 Chapter 7
 0 3 2
135 1 67. 2 1
62. cot 67.5  cot 2 cot v   
tan v
2 4 2
tan 2 
135


1 co s 135

1  co s 135 (Quadrant 1) 1 2 1 0
x2  2x  1  0



1  
2
2
 (x  1)(x  1)  0
  x10 x10
2
1  
2

 x  1 x  1
(x  2)(x  1(x  1)


2  2


2 68.
 
2 2


2


(2  2
)(2  2
)
 
(2  2
)(2  2
)


 4 
(2  
2) 2
 
2
22 
 
2
1
[5, 5] sc11 by [2, 8] sc11
cot 67.5   max: (1, 7), min: (1, 3)
2  2 

2 69. 3x  4  16 6  2y
2 x4 y3 (4, 3)
 
2  2 70. x  y  z  1 xyz1
2 (2  2) 2x  y  3z  5 x  y  z  11
 
(2  2 )(2  2) 3x  4z  6 2x  12
2
22 x6
 
42 3x  4z  6 x  y  z  11
 2
1 3(6)  4z  6 6  y  (3)  11
tan x 
2 4z  12 y2
63.   5
sec x z  3
sin x
 (6, 2, 3)
cos x 
2

1
 5
 71. g (x)
cos x x g(x)

2 7 4
sin x  5

2 5 2
Sample answer: sin x  5 g (x )  |x  3|
3 0
2
64. A  ,
3 2 1 2
y 1 4
2 O x
3
2
y  cos
3
1
72. A  2bh
1
O 90 180 270 360 A  2(6)(1)
A3
The correct choice is C.
 23

## 45 miles 5280 ft 12 inches 1 hour

65. 
hour 
mile 
     792 in/sec
ft 3600 sec
v
v  r t
v
792  7 1
792
  
7
792
7 2 18 rps
66. undefined

Chapter 7 230
Page 462 History of Mathematics 4.
Slope-Intercept Form: y  mx  b, displays
1. x2  52  52  2(5)(5) cos 10 slope and y-intercept
x 0.87
Point-Slope Form: y  y1  m(x  x1),
x2  52  52  2(5)(5) cos 20
displays slope and a point on the line
x 1.74
x2  52  52  2(5)(5) cos 30 Standard Form: Ax  by  C  0, displays
x 2.59 no information
x2  52  52  2(5)(5) cos 40 Normal Form: x cos f  y sin f  p  0,
x 3.42 displays length of the normal and the angle
x2  52  52  2(5)(5) cos 50 the normal makes with the x-axis
x 4.23
See students work for sample problems.
x2  52  52  2(5)(5) cos 60
x5 5. x cos f  y sin f  p  0
x2  52  52  2(5)(5) cos 70 x cos 30  y sin 30  10  0
3 1
x 5.74 x
2  2y  10  0
x2  52  52 2(5)(5) cos 80
3 x  y  20  0
x 6.43
x2  52  52  2(5)(5) cos 90 6. x cos f  y sin f  p  0
x 7.07 x cos 150  y sin 150  3 0

3 1
2x  2y  3
0
Angle Length of
Measure Chord (cm) 3x  y  23 0
10 0.87 7. x cos f  y sin f  p  0
7 7
20 1.74 x cos 4  y sin 4  52
0
30 2.59 2
x
2  
2
 2 y  52
0
40 3.42
2x  2y  102 0
50 4.23 x  y  10  0
60 5.00 8. 4x  3y  10 A2  
B2  
42  32 or 5
70 5.74 4 3 10
4x  3y  10  0 x
5 
5 y  5  0
 
80 6.43
4 3
90 7.07 5x  5y  2  0
3 4
sin f  5, cos f  5, p  2; Quadrant III
3
5 3
tan f  
4
or 4
7-6 Normal Form of a Linear Equation 5
f
9. y  3x  2
Page 467 Check for Understanding 3x  y  2  0
1. Normal means perpendicular A2  
B2   32  12 or 10

2. Compute cos 30 and sin 30. Use these as the 3 1 2
x y  0
coefficients of x and y, respectively, in the normal 
10 
10 10

3 1 3
10 10 
10
form. The normal form is 2x  2y  10  0. x
10 10 y  5  0
 

## 3. The statement is true. The given line is tangent to 

10 3
10 
10
sin f 
10 , cos f  10 ,
  p  
the circle centered at the origin with radius p.

10
 
10 1
tan f  or 3
310
 
10
f 18

231 Chapter 7
10. 2x  2y  6 17. x cos f  y sin f  p  0
2
x  2y  6  0 x cos 210  y sin 210  5  0

3 1
 B2  
A2   22  
(2)2 or 2 2x  2y  5  0
2 2 6
x
2  2y  2  0 3 x  y  10  0
2 2 18. x cos f  y sin f  p  0
x
2  2y  3  0
4 4
2 2 x cos 3  y sin 3  5  0
sin f  2, cos f  2, p  3; Quadrant IV
1 
3
2  2x  2y  5  0
2
tan f  or 1 x  3y  10  0
2

2 19. x cos f  y sin f  p  0
3
f 315 x cos 300  y sin 300  2  0
11a. 3x  4y  8 y 1 
3 3
x
2  2y  2  0
3
y x
4 2 x  3y  3  0
20. x cos f  y sin f  p  0
11 11
x cos 6  y sin 6  43
0
O x 3 1
x
2  2y  43
0
3x  4y  8
3x  y  830
21. 
A2  
B2  52  1
22 or 13
5 12 65
x
13 
13 y  13  0
 
11b. 3x  4y  8 5 12
3 x  13 y  5  0
1 
3x  4y  8  0
12 5
A2  
B2   32  (
4)2 or 5 3 , cos f   13 , p  5; Quadrant III
sinf  1 
3 4 8
x
5  5y  5  0 1
12
3 12
8 tan f  or 5
p  or 1.6 miles 5
5 13

## Pages 467469 Exercises f 247

12. x cos f  y sin f  p  0 22. xy1
x cos 60  y sin 60  15  0 xy10

3
1
x
2  2y  15  0 
A2  
B2  
12  12 or 2

1 1 1
x  3 y  30  0 
x   y   0
2 
2 
2
13. x cos f  y sin v  p  0 2 2 2
 
x
2  2y  2  0
x cos 4  y sin 4  12  0 2  2 
2
2 2
sin f  2, cos f  2, p  2; Quadrant I
x
2  y
2  12  0
2x  2 y  24  0
14. x cos f  y sin f  p  0 2

x cos 135  y sin 135  32 0 tan f  2
or 1
2 2 2
2x  y  32
0 
2 2
2 x  2 y  620
f  45
xy60
15. x cos f  y sin f  p  0 23. 3x  4y  15
5 5 3x  4y  15  0
x cos 
6  y sin 
6  23
0
3 1 A2  
B2   32  (
4)2 or 5
2x  y
2  23
0 3 4 15
x  y    0
3x  y  43 0 5 5 5
3 4
x  y  3  0
16. x cos f  y sin f  p  0 5 5
  4 3
x cos 
2  y sin 
2 20 sin f  5, cos f  5, p  3; Quadrant IV
0x  1y  2  0 4
5
y20 tan f  or 3
4
3

5

f 307

Chapter 7 232
x
24. y  2x 4 28. 
3 y4
2x  y  4  0 x
 y40
A2  
B2   (2)2 
3
 12 or 5

2 1 4 x  3y  12  0
x  y    0

 5  5 
 5   A2  
B2  
12  (
3)2 or 10

25 5 4 5 1 3 12
x
5  5 y  5  0
    x   y   0
10 10 10
5 2
5 4
5  3 
610
sin f  5, cos f  5, p  5; Quadrant IV 
10
 
10
 10 x  10 y  5  0
 
5 3  
610
5 sin f  
10 10
10 , cos f   10 , p  
 
tan f 
1
or 2 5 ; Quadrant II
25 310
  
5 10
f 333 tan f  
10
or 3

10
25. x3
x30 f 108
x y

A2  
B2  
12  02 or 1 29.   
20 24 1
1 3 x y
x
1  
1 0     1
20 24 0
x30 6x  5y  124  0
sin f  0, sin f  1, p  3 A2  
B2   62  52 or 61

0
tan f  1 or 0 
6
x  
5
y  
124
0

61 61 61
f  0 661 561 12061
61 x  61 y 
     0
26. 3 x  y  2 61
561 6
61 
12061
3 x  y  2  0 sin f   , cos f  
61

61 , p  
5
 A2  
B2   (3 
)2  (
1)2 or 2  
61
61

3 1 2 5
2x  2y  2  0 tan f  6 61 or 6
 

3 1 61
2x  2y  1  0 f 40
1 
3
sin f  2, cos f  2, p  1; Quadrant III 30. 
A2  
B2  
62  82 or 10; p  10
1 6 3 8 4
2 0 or 5 , sin f  10 or 5
cos f  1   

3
tan f  or 3 x cos f  y sin f  p  0
3
2 3 4
x
5  5y  10  0
f 210
1 3x  4y  50  0
27. y  2  4(x  20)
31. 
A2  
B2  
(4)2 
 42 or 42
; p  42

1 
y  2  4x  5 4 2 4 
2
cos f   or , sin f   or 
4 2  2 4 2 2 
x  4y  28  0 x cos f  y sin f  p  0

A2  
B2  
(1)2 
 42 or 17
 
2 
2
1 4 28
2x  2y  42
0
 x   y   0

17 
17 7
1 xy80
17 417 
2817
 17 x  17 y  17  0
     32. 22x  y  18
4
17 
17 
2817 22x  y  18  0
sin f   17 , cos f   17 ,
  p
4
17 A2  
B2   2(2)2 
(1)2  9
3
  22 1 18
17 x  y    0
tan f  or 4 3 3 3

17

17
18
p  3  6 units
f 104
33a. y

45
O x

1.25 ft

233 Chapter 7
33b. p  1.25, f  45 36a. y
x cos (45)  y sin (45)  1.25  0
2 
2
x
2  2y  1.25  0
x  2
2 y  2.5  0

34a. y 2
1 x
O

## The angles of the quadrilateral are 180  a,

90, f2  f1, and 90. Then 180  a  90 
f2  f1  90  360, which simplifies to
 
f2  f1  a. If the lines intersect so that a is an
O x interior angle of the quadrilateral, the equation
 works out to be f2  180  f1  a.
36b. tan f2  tan(f1  a)
tan f  tan a
f and the supplement of v are complementary  1

1  tan f tan a
angles of a right triangle, so f  180  v  90. 1

Simplifying this equation gives v  f  90. If the lines intersect so that a is an interior
angle of the quadrilateral, the equation works
34b. tan v. The slope of a line is the tangent of the tan f1  tan a
angle the line makes with the positive x-axis out to be tan f2   
1  tan f1 tan a .

## 34c. Since the normal line is perpendicular to , the 37. 5x  y  15

slope of the normal line is the negative 5x  y  15  0
reciprocal of the slope of . That is, 
1 A2  B2   52  (
1)2 or 26 
tan v 

5 1 15
cot v.  x   y   0

26 
26 26
34d. The slope of  is the negative reciprocal of the 5
26 26 
1526 
1526
1 x   y     0, p  
slope of the normal, or  tan f  cot f.
 26 26 26 26

35a. 
A2  
B2  
52  1
22 or 13 3x  4y  36
5 12 39 3x  4y 36  0
x  y    0
13 13 13  A2  B2  32  42 or 5
5 12 3 4 36 36
x  y  3  0 x  y    0, p  
13 13 5 5 5 5
12 5
35b. 3 , cos f  13 ;
sin f  1  Quadrant I 5x  2y  20
12 5x  2y  20  0

13
12 52  (
2)2  25
4  or 29

tan f  5 or 5 5 2 20
 x   y   0
13 
29 
29 29
f 67 5
29 2
29 
2029 
2029
x   y     0, p  
f  90  67  90 or 157 29 29 29 29
x cos 157  y sin 157  3  0 
1526 36
 5  

2029
29 13.85564879
  
12 5 26
1
3x  y
13 30 13.85564879  500 6927.824395; \$6927.82
y 38. 2 cos2 x  7 cos x  4  0
12 5
(2 cos x  1)(cos x  4)  0
13 x  13 y 30
2 cos x  1  0 or cos x  4  0
2 cos x  1 cos x  4
1
cos x  2 no solution
 5
x 
3 or x  
3
39. sin x  
1  co
s2 x sin y  
1  co
s2 y
O x

1  6 1  3
2 2

1
 
2

  
35c. See students work. 36 
35 5 5 
  
36 or 6
 
9 or 3
35d. The line with normal form x cos f  y sin f 
p  0 makes an angle of f with the positive sin(x  y)  sin x cos y  cos x sin y
 2
35 
5
 
6  3    6  3 
x-axis and has a normal of length p. The graph 1
  
of Armandos equation is a line whose normal
  5
235 
makes an angle of f  d with the x-axis and also 
18
has length p. Therefore, the graph of Armandos
equation is the graph of the original line rotated
d counterclockwise about the origin. Armando is
correct. See students graphs.

Chapter 7 234
2 
40. A  1, 4  2 or 90 1

y
45.

1 2
4 3
2

1
34
1 3 2
 5
4 1   
1 y  sin 4
1 2
4 3
 
x
y

15
0
   
1 3 2
 1 2
  x 1 3 2
5 4 1  4 3  y  5 4 1  15
    0
  
O 45 90 x
y
1 30
 5
15
  
1
x
y

6
3
  
(6, 3)
d 46. The value of 2a  b cannot be determined from
41. r  2
the given information. The correct choice is E.
13.4
r  2 or 6.7
x2  6.72  6.72  2(6.7)(6.7) cos 2620
x2 9.316604344
x 3.05 cm 7-7 Distance From a Point to a Line
x 17 1
42. 
x5 
25  x2  x  5
 
x 17 1 Page 474 Check for Understanding

x5 
x2  25  x  5
 
1. The distance from a point to a line is the distance
(x  5)(x  5)
x  5 
x

from that point to the closest point on the line.
17
(x  5)(x  5)
(x  5)(x  5)   (x  5)(x  5) x  5 
1
  2. The sign should be chosen opposite the sign of C
where Ax  By  C  0 is the standard form of
x(x  5)  17  x  5
the equation of the line.
x2  5x  17  x  5
x2  4x  12  0 3. In the figure, P and Q are any points on the lines.
(x  6)(x  2)  0 The right triangles are congruent by AAS. The
x  6  0 or x  2  0 corresponding congruent sides of the triangles
x  6 x2 show that the same distance is always obtained
between the two lines.
43. original box: V  wh
462 P
 48
new box: V  wh
1.5(48)  (4  x)(6  x)(2  x)
72  x3  12x2  44x  48
0  x3  12x2  44x  24
Q
x V(x) 4. The formula is valid in either case. Examples will
0.4 4.416 vary. For a vertical line, x  a, the formula
0.5 1.125 subtracts a from the x-coordinate of the point. For
a horizontal line, y  b, the formula subtracts b
V(0.5) is closer to zero, so x  0.5. from the y-coordinate of the point.
4  x  4  0.5 or 4.5 5. 2x  3y  2 2x  3y  2  0
6  x  6  0.5 or 6.5 Ax1  By1  C
2  x  2  0.5 or 2.5 d 
 A2  
B2
4.5 in. by 6.5 in. by 2.5 in. 2(1)  (3)(2)  2
d 
44. y x2  22  (
3)2
2 2
13
(2, 6) d or 
 13 13 
xy8 6. 6x  y  3 6x  y  3  0
(5, 3) Ax1  By1  C
d 
(2, 3) y3  A2  
B2
6(2)  (1)(3)  3
x d 
 62  (
1)2
O 12 
1237
d  or 

37

37
f(x, y)  3x  y  4
f(2, 3)  3(2)  3  4 or 7
f(2, 6)  3(2)  6  4 or 4
f(5, 3)  3(5)  3  4 or 16
16, 4

235 Chapter 7
7. 3x  5y  1 When x  2, y  1. Use (2, 1). 2
14. y  4  3x 2x  3y  12  0
3x  5y  3 3x  5y  3  0 Ax1  By1  C
Ax1  By1  C d 
d  A2  
B2
 A2  B2 2(2)  3(3)  (12)
3(2)  (5)(1)  3 d 
d   22  32
 32  (
5)2
25 2513

4
d   or 
2

34 d   or 13
17 
13
 34
2
34 
2513
   
17 13

8.
1
y  3x  3 Use (0, 3). 15. y  2x  5 2x  y  5  0
Ax1  By1  C
1 d 
y  3x  7 x  3y  21 0 A2  B2
2(3)  3(1)(1)  (5)
Ax1  By1  C d 
d   22  (
1)2
 A2  B2
0
1(0)  3(3)  21 d   or 0
d   5
 12  32 4
16. y  3x  6 4x  3y  18  0
30
d   or 310  Ax1  By1  C
 10 d  

310 A2  B2
6x1  8y1  5 2x1  3y1  4 4(1)  3(2)  (18)
9. d1   d2   d  
62  82  22  (
3)2  42  32
6x1  8y1  5 2x1 3y1  4 16 16
   d  5 or 5
 
10 13
16
x  813
613 y  513
  20x  30y  40 
5
(20  613
)x  Ax1  By1  C
17. d  
(30  813
)y  40  513
  0;  A2  B2
6x1  8y1  5 2x1 3y1  4 3(0)  (1)(0)  1
     d 
10 
13  32  (
1)2
x  813
613 y  513
  20x  30y  40 1 
10
d   or 
(20  613)x  (813
  30)y  40  513
0  10
10

10

10. (2000, 0) 10
When x  0, y  8. Use 0, 8.
Ax1  By1  C 3 3
d  18. 6x  8y  3
A2  
B2
6x  8y  5 6x  8y  5  0
5(2000)  (3)(0)  0 Ax1  By1  C
d  d 
52  (
3)2  A2  B2
10,000 3
34
ft  
6(0)  (8) 8  1
d 
 62  (
8)2
8 4
d  or 
10 5
Pages 475476 Exercises 4

5
Ax1  By1  C
11. d   19. 4x  5y  12 When x  3, y  0. Use (3, 0).
 A2  
B2
3(2)  (4)(0)  15 4x  5y  6 4x  5y  6  0
d  Ax1  By1  C
 32  (
4)2 d 
21  A2  
B2
d 
5 4(3)  (5)(0)  (6)
21 d 
 42  (
5)2
5
Ax1  By1  C 6 6
41
12. d  
d   or 
41 41
 A2  
B2
5(3)  (3)(5)  10
20. y  2x  1 Use (0, 1).
d  2x  y  2 2x  y  2  0
 52  (
3)2
Ax1  By1  C
10 
534 d 
d 
34
 or 17  A2  
B2
 2(0)  (1)(1)  (2)
534
 d 
17 22  (
1)2
13. 2x  y  3 2x  y  3  0 3 
35
Ax1  By1  C d 
5
 or  
5
d 
35
A2  B2 
2(0)  (1)(0)  3 5
d 
(2)2 
 (1)2
3 3 5
d  or 
5
5

Chapter 7 236
21. y  3x  6 Use (0, 6). 2
27. y  3x  1 2x  3y  3  0
3x  y  4 3x  y  4  0
Ax1  By1  C
y  3x  2 3x  y  2  0
d  2x1  3y1  3 3x1  y1  2
A2  
B2 d1  
 22  (
3)2 d2  
 32  12
3(0)  1(6)(1)  (4)
d   2x1  3y1  3 3x  y  2
32  12    
1 1

 10

2 10 13
d  10 or 
 
 5 x  310
210 y  310
  313
x  13
y  213

8
22. y  5x 1 Use (0, 1).   313
(210 )x  (13
  310
)y  310
  213
0
2x1  3y1  3 3x1  y1  2
8x  15  5y 8x  5y  15  0   
Ax1  By1  C  13 10 
d 
 A2  
B2 210
x  310
y 310
  313
x  13
y  213

8(0)  (5)(1)  15   313
(210 )x  (13
  310
)y  310
  213
0
d 
 82  (
5)2 28a. Linda: (19, 112)
20 
2089 Ax1  By1  C
d or 
d 
 89 89
 A2  B2

2089
  4(19)  (3)(112)  228
89
d 
3  42  (
3)2
23. y  2x Use (0, 0). 32
3
d  or 6.4
5
y  2x  4 3x  2y  8  0
Father: (45, 120)
Ax1  By1  C
d  Ax1  By1  C
 A2  B2 d 
 A2  B2
3(0)  2(0)  8
d 
d
4(45)  (3)(120)  228

 32  22
 42  (
3)2
8 
813 48
d   or 13 d  or 9.6
13 5
8
13
  Linda
13
24. y  x  6 Use (0, 6). 28b. 4x  3y  228  0
xy10 4x  3(140)  228  0
Ax1  By1  C 4x  192
d 
 A2  
B2 x  48
1(0)  1(6)  (1) 29. Let x  1.
d 
12  12 y
tan v  x
5 52
d  or  y
2 2
tan 40  1
3x1  4y1  10 5x1  12y1  26
25. d1   d2   y 0.8390996312
 32  42 52  (
12)2 0.839  0
3x1  4y1  10 5x1  12y1  26 m 
10 y  y1  m(x  x1)
  
5 13
m 0.839 y  0.839 0.839(x  1)
39x  52y  130  25x  60y  130
y 0.839x
14x  112y  0
0.839x  y 0
x  8y  0 Ax1  By1  C
3x1  4y1  10 5x  12y 26 d 
 
5  
1

13
1
A2  
B2
0.839(16)  1(12)  0
39x  52y  130  25x  60y  130 d 
64x  8y  260  0 0.839
2  12

d  1.092068438
16x  2y  65  0
4x1  y1  6 15x1  8y1  68 1.09 m
26. d1   d2  
 4  1
2 2 (15)
 2  82 30. The radius of the circle is 
[(5) 
(2)]2 (6  2)2
4x1  y1  6 15x1  8y1  68 or 5. Now find the distance from the center of the
   
17
 17 circle to the line.
68x  17y  102  1512
x  817
y  6817
 Ax1  By1  C
d 
(68  1517
)x  (17  817
)y  102  6817
0
 A2  B2
4x1  y1  6 15x1  8y1  68 5(5)  (12)(6)  32
    d 
17
 17  52  (
12)2
68x  17y  102  1512
x  817
y  6817
 65
d 
13
(68  1517
)x  (17  817
)y  102  6817
0
d5
Since the distance from the center of the circle to
the line is the same as the radius of the circle, the
line can only intersect the circle in one point. That
is, the line is tangent to the circle.

237 Chapter 7
47 3 33. 2x  7y  5
31. m1    
3  1 or 4
3
2x  7y  5  0
y7 (x
4  1)  A2  
B2  
22  (
7)2 or 53

3x  4y  25  0 
2
x y  
7
0
5
Ax1  By1  C 
53  53 
 53 
a1   2
53 7 5
53 53
 A2  B2  53 x   0
   
3(1)  (4)(3)  25 53 y 53
a1  
 32  (
4)2 34. cos 2A  1  2 sin2 A
3 2
34
a1  5  1  2 6 
5
3  4 7  6
m2    or 
1  (3) 2
2 60
7 35.   2,   60
y  4  2(x  (3)) 1 1

7x  2y  13  0 y
Ax1  By1  C
a2  
 A2  B2
7(1)  2(7)  13
a2  
1
 72  22 y  csc (  60)
34 
3453 O 120
a2    or
 53
 
53
1 300 480
7  (3)
m3   
1  (1) or 5
y  7  5(x  1)
5x  y  2  0
Ax1  By1  C
a3   36. 110  3  330 180  (60  40)  80
 A2  
B2 x2  3302  3302  2(330)(330) cos 80
5(3)  (1)(4)  2
a3   x2 179979.4269
 52  (
1)2 x 424.24 miles
17 
1726 
a3   or 

 26

26 37. T  2 g
 1726
34 3453 
,   
T  2 
 2
5 53 , 26 
9.8
32. y T 2.8 s
10 2 1
38.  8 k
8 2 20
6 1 10 20  k
4 20  k  0
2
k  20
O 2 4 6 8 x 39. 2x  y  z  9 2x  y  z  9

2(x  3y  2z)  2(10) 2x  6y  4z  20
The standard form of the equation of the line 7y  5z  11
through (0, 0) and (4, 12) is 3x  y  0. The x  2y  z  7
standard form of the equation of the line through x  3y  2z  10
(4, 12) and (10, 0) is 2x  y  20  0. The y  2z  3
standard form for the x-axis is y  0. To find the
3x  y 5(y  z)  5(3) 5y  5z  15
bisector of the angle at the origin, set   y
3 
10 7y  5z  11 7y  5z  11
and solve to obtain y   x. To find the 2y  4
1  10 
bisector of the angle of the triangle at (10, 0), set y  2
2x  y  20 yz3 x  2y  z  7
  y and solve to obtain 2x  (1  5
)y
5 2  z  3 x  2(2)  (5)  7
 20  0. The intersection of these two bisectors 5  z x  6
is the center of the inscribed circle. To solve the (6, 2, 5)
1
system of equations, substitute y  
3
x into 40. square: A  s2 triangle: A  2bh
1  10  1
the equation of the other bisector and solve for x to 16  s2 6  2(4)h
20(1  10
) 20(1  10
) 4s 3h
get x   . Then y   
5  3 5  210
 5  3 5  210
 AE  s  h
3 60
    . This y-coordinate is the AE  4  3 or 7
1  
10 5  35   210

EF  AE
inradius of the triangle. The approximate value is EF  7
3.33. The correct choice is C.

Chapter 7 238
sin4 x  cos4 x
Chapter 7 Study Guide and Assessment 19. 
sin2 x
 1  cot2 x
(sin2 x  cos2 x)(sin2 x  cos2 x)
  1  cot2 x
Page 477 Understanding and Using the sin2 x
sin2 x  cos2 x
Vocabulary   1  cot2 x
sin2 x
1. b 2. g 3. d 4. a cos2 x
1 
sin2 x
 1  cot2 x
5. i 6. j 7. h 8. f
9. e 10. c  1  cot2 x
1  cot2 x
20. cos 195  cos (150  45)
 cos 150 cos 45  sin 150 sin 45

3 
2 
2
 22  2  2
1
Pages 478480 Skills and Concepts
1
11. csc v      2
6 
sin v 
4
1
 
1 21. cos 15  cos (45  30)

2  cos 45 cos 30  sin 45 sin 30
2 
2 
3 
2 1
 2  2  2  2
12. tan2v1 v sec2   2
6 
42  1  sec2 v 
4
17  sec2 v 22. sin 1
17 17
2   sin 12

17
  sec v  7
13. sin v  
1
 sin2 v  cos2 v  1  sin 4  6
csc v
 7  7

1

2
35  cos2 v  1  sin 4 cos 6  cos 4 sin 6
5
 
2 
3 
2
 22  22
3 1
16
3 cos2 v  2
5
    2
6 
5
cos v  5
4  
4
1   2
6 
14. sec v   
cos v tan2 v  1  sec2 v 
4
5 2 11 2 
tan2 v  1  4 2  tan  3  4 
1
 
4 23. tan 1  

5 2 
tan   tan 
5 9 3 4
 
4 tan2 v  1
6  
2 
3 1  tan  tan 
3 4
tan v  4
 31
 
  (1  sin2 x)
1 1 1  (3)(1)
15. csc x  cos2 x csc x  
sin x sin x
1  3
1 1  
     sin x
sin x sin x
1 3 

4  23
 sin x  or 2  3
2 
16. cos2 x  tan2 x cos2 x  1 24. cos x  
1  si
n2 x sin y  
1  co
s2 x
sin2 x
cos2 x 
cos2 x
cos2 x1
 1

 7
 2
25  
1  3
2 2

cos2 x  sin2 x  1

5
   
576 24 5
11  or 
625 25
 or 
9 3
1  cos v
17. 
1  cos v
 (csc v  cot v)2 cos (x  y)  cos x cos y  sin x sin y

5
cos v 2
 253  253
1  cos v 24 2 7
 
1
   
1  cos v sin v sin v
(1  cos v)2 
48  75
1  cos v  7

1  cos v
 
sin2 v 5
1  cos v (1  cos v)2

1  cos v
 
1  cos2 v
1  cos v (1  cos v)2

1  cos v
 
(1  cos v)(1  cos v)
1  cos v 1  cos v

1  cos v
 
1  cos v
sec v  1 tan v
18. 
tan v
 
sec v  1
sec v  1 tan v(sec v  1)

tan v
 
sec2 v  1
sec v  1 tan v(sec v  1)

tan v
 
tan2 v
sec v  1 sec v  1

tan v
 
tan v

239 Chapter 7
1 
25. cos y    sin y  
1  co
s2 y 

6
sec y 29. tan   tan 


12 2
1  3
1 2 2
 
3  


 1  cos 
2 6

5 1  cos 6
 
2 5
 3  or 
9 3


sin y 
3
tan y    1 
2

cos y
 
5  
3

3 
5 1 
 
2
or 2 2


tan (x  y) 
tan x  tan y

3
 
2  
2  3



3
1  tan x tan y


(2  3
)(2  3
)
5 5
  
  
4 2 (2  3
)(2  3
)
 
5 5
  
1  4 
2

 
(2  3

43
 )2

5  2
5

4
 2  3

 
8  5
5 30. sin2 v  cos2 v  1

3 2
sin2 v  5  1
8
10  45
 
16
8  5
5
sin2 v  25
180  825
 180  255

 
61
or 61 sin v  5
4
150
26. cos 75  cos 
2 sin 2v  2 sin v cos v
   255
1  cos 150 4 3
2
24



3  25
1  
2
 
 
2 31. cos 2v  2 cos2 v  1
3 2
 25  1

2  

3 7
 2  2
5
7 sin v 2 tan v
7

4 32. tan v   
cos v tan 2v   
1  tan2 v
27. sin   sin 
 
8 2 4 4
 2 3
7


5 4
1  cos 4   or   
3
  3 4 2
2
5  
1  3


2 24
1   7
2
 
33. sin 4v  sin 2(2v)
2
 
2  2
  2 sin 2v cos 2v
 2
 2252
5
24 7
45
28. sin 22.5  sin 2 336
  
 

1  cos 45 625
2
34. tan x  1  sec x


2 (tan x  1)2  sec2 x
1 
2
  tan2 x  2 tan x  1  tan2 x  1
2
2 tan x  0
2 
 2

 2 tan x  0
x  0
35. sin2 x  cos 2x  cos x  0
1  cos2 x  2 cos2 x  1  cos x  0
cos2 x  cos x  0
cos x (cos x  1)  0
cos x  0 or cos x  1  0
x  90 or x  270 cos x  1
x  0

Chapter 7 240
36. cos 2x  sin x  1 45. 6x  4y  5
1  2 sin2 x  sin x  1 6x  4y  5  0
2 sin2 x  sin x  0  A2  
B2   62  (
4)2 or 213

sin x (2 sin x  1)  0 
6
x  
4
y  
5
0
sin x  0 or 2 sin x  1  0 2 13 2 13 213
1 3 2 5
x  0 or x  180 sin x  2 
13 13 13
13 x  13 y  26  0
    
x  30 or 2
13 313 5
13
x  150 sin f   13 , cos f   13 , p
  

2 2
13
37. sin x tan x  2 tan x  0  
2
13
tan f  or 3
tan x sin x  2  0
2

313
 
13
2

tan x  0 or sin x  2  0
x  k f 146
2

sin x  2 46. 9x  5y  3
 3 9x  5y  3  0
x  4  2k or 4  2k
A2  
B2   92  52 or 106

38. sin 2x  sin x  0 9 5 3
x  y    0
2 sin x cos x  sin x  0 106 106 1
06
sin x (2 cosx  1)  0 9106 
51 06
x  y    0
3
106
sin x  0 or 2 cos x  1  0 106 106 106
51
06 9106 
3106
x  k cos x  2
1 sin f  106 , cos f  
  , p  ; Quadrant I
106 106
2 106 5
x  3  2k tan f   or 9

9106
4 
or x  3  2k 106
f 29
39. cos2 x  2  cos x
cos2x  cos x  2  0 47. x  7y  5
(cos x  1)(cos x  2)  0 x  7y  5  0
cos x  1  0 or cos x  2  0  A2  
B2  
12  (
7)2 or 52

cos x  1 cos x  2 1 7
x  y    0
5
52 52 52
x  2k no solution
2 72 2
40. x cos f  y sin f  p  0 10x  10y  2  0
  72
 2 2

x cos 3  y sin 3  23
0 sin f  10, cos f  10, p  2; Quadrant II
1 
3
x
2  2y  23
0 72


10
x  3y  43 0 tan f  or 7
2 

41. x cos f  y sin f  p  0 10
x cos 90  y sin 90  5  0 f 98
0x  1y  5  0 Ax1  By1  C
48. d  2
y50 2A
 
B
42. x cos f  y sin f  p  0 2(5)  (3)(6)  2
2 2
d 
x cos 3  y sin 3  3  0  22  (
3)2

1 
3 6 6
13
2x  2y  3  0 d or 
 13 
13

x  3 y  6  0 49. 2y  3x  6 3x  2y  6  0
Ax  By  C
43. x cos f  y sin f  p  0 d
1 1

2 A
2  B
x cos 225  y sin 225  42 0 3(3)  2(4)  (6)

2 
2 d 
2 x  2y  42
0 32  22
23 2313
xy80 d   or 13

13
44. 
A2  
B2  
72  32 or 58
 
2313
 
7 3 8 13
x   y  0

58 58 58 50. 4y  3x  1 3x  4y  1  0

758 
358 
458 Ax1  By1  C
x  y    0
58 58 29 d  2 

358 
758 4
58 A

2 
B
sin f  58 , cosf  58,
  p  29; Quadrant I 3(2)  (4)(4)  (1)
d 

358  32  (
4)2

58 3 23 23
tan f   or 7 d  5 or 5

758
 23

58 5
f 23

241 Chapter 7
1
51. y  3x  6 x  3y  18  0 57. x  3y  2  0
Ax1  By1  C 3
d  y  5x  3 3x  5y  15  0
A 2 B2 x1  3y1  2 3x1  5y1  15
1(21)  (3)(20)  18 d1   d2  
d  (1)2 
 32 3 2  (
5)2
12  
(3)2 x1  3y1  2 3x1  5y1  15
   
21 
2110
d   or 
10
10 34
 10
x 34
x  334
y  234  310
x  510
y 
52. y  3  6 Use (0, 6). 
1510
x
y  3  2 x  3y  6  0   310
(34 )x  (334
  510
)y 
Ax1  By1  C   1510
234  0
d  2 x1  3y1  2 3x1  5y1  15
 A  B2   
1(0)  (3)(6)  6
d   10  34
 12  (
3)2
x  510
310 y  1510
  34
x  334
y
24 12 10
d   or 
5  234

 10
12 10   310
(34 )x  (334

d   5 )y 234
510   1510
0
3
53. y  4x  3 Use (0, 3).
3 1
y  4x  2 3x  4y  2 0
Ax1  By1  C
Page 481 Applications and Problem Solving
d  2  58. The formulas are equivalent.
A  B2
sin2 v
3(0)  (4)(3)  (2)  
d   v02 tan2 v
v0 2
cos2 v
32  (
4)2  
2g sec2 v
  1
14 14 2g  
d  5 or 5 cos2 v
14 sin2 v
d  5 v0 2   
cos2 v cos2 v
   
54. x  y  1 Use (0, 1). 2g  
1 cos2 v
xy5xy50 cos2 v
Ax  By  C v02 sin2 v
d
1 1
  2 g
2 A
2   B Ax1  By1  C
1(0)  1(1)  (5) 59. d  
d  A2 B2
12  12 4(1600)  (2)(0)  0
4 d 
d  or 22  42  ( 2)2
2
6400
d  22
 d  
20
2
55. y  3x  2 Use (0, 2). d  1431 ft
Ax1  By1  C x
d   60. sin 30   
100 30  45  v  90
A 2B2
2(0)  (3)(2)  3 100 sin 30  x v  15
d 
22  (
3)2 50  x
x
9 9
13 cos v  y
d   or 

13 13 50
56. y  3x  2 3x  y  2  0 cos 15  y
x 3 50
y  2  2 x  2y  3  0 y 
cos 15

d1 
3x1  y1  2
 d2  
x1  2y1  3 y 51.76 yd
 32  12  12  22
3x1 y1 2 x1 2y1  3
   
10 5 Page 481 Open-Ended Assessment
35x  5
y  25  10
x  210
y  310
 30
1. Sample answer: 15; 15  2
(35  10
)x  (5  210
)y  25
  310
0
sin 2  

3x1 y1 2 x 2y  3
30 1  cos 30



  
1 1
 2
10 5 


3
35x  5
y  25  10
x  210
y  310
 1 
2
  10
(35 )x  (5
  210
)y  25
  310
0  
2

2  

3
 2
30
cos 2  

1  cos 30
2



3
1 
2
 
2
 
2  3

 2

Chapter 7 242
30
tan 2  
1  cos
1  cos 30

30
3. One way to solve this problem is to label the three
interior angles of the triangle, a, b, and c. Then



3 write equations using these angles and the
1 
2

  exterior angles.

3
1  a  b  c  180
2
x  a  180
y  b  180


2  3


 
2 z  c  180
2  3
 Add the last three equations.

2 x  a  y  b  z  c  180  180  180


(2  3
)(2  3
) x  y  z  a  b  c  180  180  180
 
(2  3
)(2  3
) Replace a  b  c with 180.

4
x  y  z  180  180  180  180
(2  3)2
 
3 x  y  z  180  180 or 360
 2  3
 The correct choice is D.
1  cos2 x
2. Sample answer: sin x tan x    4. Since x  y  90, x  90  y.
cos x
1  cos2 x Then sin x  sin (90  y).
sin x tan x   
cos x sin (90  y)  cos y
sin x sin2 x sin x sin(90  y) cos y
cos x  cos x
sin x          1
cos y cos y cos y
sin2 x sin2 x

cos x  
cos x
The correct choice is D.
Another solution is to draw a diagram and notice
b b
that sin x  c and cos y  c.
b

SAT & ACT Preparation sin x

cos y 
c
1 x
b

c
c
a
Page 483 SAT and ACT Practice y
1. The problem states that the measure of A is 80. b
Since the measure of B is half the measure of
5. In order to represent the slopes, you need the
A, the measure of B must be 40. Because A,
coordinates of point A. Since A lies on the y-axis,
B, and C are interior angles of a triangle, the
let its coordinates be (0, y). Then calculate the two
sum of their measures must equal 180. y0 y
slopes. The slope of  0  (3)  3 . The slope
 is 
AB  
mA  mB  mC  180 y0 y
80  40  mC  180 of ADis 
0  3   3 . The sum of the slopes is
 
y y
120  mC  180     0.
3 3
mC  60 The correct choice is B.
The correct choice is B. 6. Since PQRS is a rectangle, its angles measure 90.
2. To find the point of intersection, you need to solve The triangles that include the marked angles are
a system of two linear equations. Substitution or right triangles. Write an equation for the measure
elimination by addition or subtraction can be used of PSR, using expressions for the unmarked
to solve a system of equations. To solve this angles on either side of the angle of x.
system of equations, use substitution. Substitute 90  (90  a)  x  (90  b)
2x  2 for y in the second equation. 0  90  a  b  x
7x  3y  11 a  b  90  x
7x  3(2x  2)  11 The correct choice is A.
7x  6x  6  11
x5
Then use this value for x to calculate the value
for y.
y  2x  2
y  2(5)  2 or 8
The point of intersection is (5, 8). The correct
choice is A.

243 Chapter 7
7. Simplify the fraction. One method is to multiply 9. Since the volume V varies directly with the
y2 temperature T, the volume and temperature
both numerator and denominator by .
y2 satisfy the equation V  kT, where k is a constant.
1 1 1

 
y  y
y2
y  y When V  12, T  60. So 12  60k, or k  5.
  y2  1
The relationship is V  5T.
2 1 2 1
1  y   1  y  
y2 y2 To find the volume when the temperature is 70,
y3  y 1
  substitute 70 for T in the equation V  5T.
y2  2y  1 1
y(y2  1) V  5(70) or 14. The volume of the balloon is
 
(y  1)(y  1) 14 in3.
y(y  1)(y  1)
 
(y  1)(y  1)
The correct choice is C.
y2  y
10. Two sides have the same length. The lengths of all

y1 sides are integers. The third side is 13. From
Another method is to write both the numerator Triangle Inequality, the sum of the lengths of any
and denominator as fractions, and then simplify. two sides must be greater than the length of the
1 y2  1
third side. Let s be the length of the other two
y  y 



y sides. Write and solve an inequality.
 
2s  13
2 1 y2  2y  1
1  y    s  6.5
y2 y2
y2  1 y2 The length of the sides must be greater than 6.5.
 y
y2  2y  1 

But the length of the sides must be an integer.
y(y  1)(y  1)
 
(y  1)(y  1)
The smallest integer greater than 6.5 is 7. The
y2  y answer is 7. If you answered 6.5, you did not find

y1 an integer. If you answered 6, you found a number
The correct choice is A. that is less than 6.5.
8. Since the triangles are similar, use a proportion
with corresponding sides of the two triangles.
BC BD
  
AC AE
2 4
  
23 AE
2AE  4(2  3)
AE  10
The correct choice is E.

Chapter 7 244