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What is the difference between temporary

hardness and permanent hardness in water?

The hardness of water can be either

temporary or


Temporary hardness can be removed simply by boiling the water (see later).

Permanent hardness cannot be removed by boiling but can often be removed by

chemical treatment (see later).

Temporary hardness is caused by calcium and/or magnesium hydrogen carbonate.

These are formed as carbonated rain water passes over rocks containing carbonate
ions, for example

H2O(l) + CO2(g) + CaCO3(s) Ca(HCO3)2(aq)

H2O(l) + CO2(g) + MgCO3(s) Mg(HCO3)2(aq)

Permanent hardness is caused by calcium and/or magnesium sulphate. These are

formed as water passes over rocks containing sulphate ions, for example

aq. + CaSO4(s) Ca2+(aq) + SO42-(aq)

aq. + MgSO4(s) Mg2+(aq) + SO42-(aq)

Hard water contains dissolved magnesium and calcium ions.

These make it more difficult for the water to form a lather with
soap. Temporary hardness is caused by dissolved calcium
hydrogen carbonate (which is removed by boiling). is caused by
dissolved calcium sulfate (which is not removed by boiling).

Phenolphthalein is a chemical compound with
the formula C20H14O4 and is often written as "HIn" or "phph" in
shorthand notation. Phenolphthalein is often used as an indicator
in acidbase titrations. For this application, it turns colorless
in acidic solutions and pink in basic solutions.
Phenolphthalein is slightly soluble in water and usually is
dissolved in alcohols for use in experiments. It is a weak acid,
which can lose H+ ions in solution. The phenolphthalein molecule
is colorless, and the phenolphthalein ion is pink. When a base is
added to the phenolphthalein, the molecule ions equilibrium
shifts to the right, leading to more ionization as H + ions are
removed. This is predicted by Le Chatelier's principle.

Species H3In+ H2In In2 In(OH)3



pH <0 08.2 8.212.0 >13.0

Condition acidic or strongly

strongly acidic basic
s near-neutral basic

Color orange colorless pink to fuchsia colorless


Eriochrome Black T (EBT)

Eriochrome Black T is a complex metric indicator that is used in
complex metric titrations, e.g. in the water hardness
determination process. It is an azo dye. Eriochrome is a trademark
of Huntsman Petrochemical, LLC.
Formula: C20H12N3O7SNa
Molar mass: 461.381 g/mole
Appearance: dark red/brown powder


When used as an indicator in an EDTA titration, the characteristic

blue end-point is reached when sufficient EDTA is added and the
metal ions bound to the indicator are chelated by EDTA, leaving
the free indicator molecule.

Eriochrome Black T has also been used to detect the presence of

rare earth metals.

What is the color of EBT?

In its protonated form, Eriochrome Black T is blue. It
turns red when it forms a complex with calcium, magnesium, or
other metal ions. EBT is blue in a buffered solution at pH 10. It
turns red when Ca2+ ions are added.

Methyl Orange
Methyl orange is a pH indicator frequently used
in titrations because of its clear and distinct color change.
Because it changes color at the pH of a mid-strength acid, it is
usually used in titrations for acids. Unlike a universal indicator,
methyl orange does not have a full spectrum of color change, but
has a sharper end point. Methyl orange shows red color in acidic
medium and yellow color in basic medium.
Chemists use methyl orange as an indicator in the titration of
weak bases with strong acids. It changes from red (at pH 3.1) to
orange-yellow (at pH 4.4): pH-related color changes result from
changes in the way electrons are confined in a molecule when
hydrogen ions are attached or detached.
Methyl orange (pH indicator)

below pH 3.1 above pH 4.4

3.1 4.4

Chemical formula C14H14N3NaO3S

Molar mass 327.33 gmol1

Density 1.28 g/cm3, solid

Melting point >300 C (572 F; 573 K)

not precisely defined

Boiling point decomposes

Solubility in water 0.5 g/100 mL (20 C)

Solubility insoluble in diethyl ether[1]