The permanent magnet transverse flux motor (PMTFM) has an excellent torque to volume ratio compared to any of the conventional motors. The two phase disc rotor PMTFM to be discussed in this paper has a quite simple and robust construction compared with the usual rotating PMTFM. Therefore such a motor can be considered as a competitor for different automotive drives. In the paper two constructive variants are presented and for one of them the design procedure and the performance calculations are carried on by using a coupled analytical and 2D or 3D-FEM computation strategy.

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The permanent magnet transverse flux motor (PMTFM) has an excellent torque to volume ratio compared to any of the conventional motors. The two phase disc rotor PMTFM to be discussed in this paper has a quite simple and robust construction compared with the usual rotating PMTFM. Therefore such a motor can be considered as a competitor for different automotive drives. In the paper two constructive variants are presented and for one of them the design procedure and the performance calculations are carried on by using a coupled analytical and 2D or 3D-FEM computation strategy.

© All Rights Reserved

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Technical University of Cluj, Department of Electrical Machines

RO-400020 CLUJ, Daicoviciu 15, Romania

Phone: +40-264-401-232 / Fax: +40-264-594-921

e-mail: Ioan.Adrian.Viorel@mae.utcluj.ro

Abstract: The permanent magnet transverse differences for an axial flux PMTFM design-

flux motor (PMTFM) has an excellent torque to volume estimation was discussed briefly in [5]. A

ratio compared to any of the conventional motors. The mathematical model of the TFM is presented in

two phase disc rotor PMTFM to be discussed in this [7]. A basic view on the way the numerical

paper has a quite simple and robust construction models, finite element method (FEM) included,

compared with the usual rotating PMTFM. Therefore

such a motor can be considered as a competitor for

can be employed in the PMTFM design is given

different automotive drives. In the paper two in [8].

constructive variants are presented and for one of The automotive application, which is

them the design procedure and the performance considered here, requires, besides a very large

calculations are carried on by using a coupled torque to volume ratio, constructive simplicity

analytical and 2D or 3D-FEM computation strategy. and good reliability. Consequently the proposed

PMTFM structure a two phase stator and one

1. INTRODUCTION has active rotor in an axial flux pattern, Fig. 1.

proposed and named by Weh in the late 80s [1]

and several variants were designed and

prototyped by now [2], [3]. The claw pole flux

pattern implies the transverse flux concept, but

the TF machine has enlarged this concept by its

very dedicated topology, which includes usually

the flux concentration principle for the permanent

magnets (PMs) excited structures. Characteristic

for all types of TF machines is the presence of

the transverse flux paths and of the homopolar

MMF produced by a ring coil in which the current

flows parallel to the direction of rotation, [1] - [5].

The TF machine variants, with a disc-type

configuration proposed in [4], [5] differs in

principia, but have a common point, a much

simpler construction. Both of them employ

permanent magnets (PMs) on the rotor and a coil

type winding on the stator. The structure

proposed in [4] does not imply the flux

concentration and that was the main reason, Figure 1. General view of the two-phase

which conducted to not so good characteristics. TF machine

The structure proposed in this paper is based The two phase stator has the poles in

on the rotor flux concentrating pattern and the quadrature, while the rotor, with a flux

expected characteristics should be better than concentrating topology, is common for both

for the previously discussed TF machine. stator phases, Fig. 2. There are two possible

Basic design-estimation procedure for a constructive variants with pulse voltage supply,

radial flux permanent magnet transverse flux respectively with sinusoidal voltage supply, as

motor (PMTFM) was presented in [3], [6] and the shown lately in the paper.

The shaft is attached to the disk to rotate the

rotor. The stator consists of two sides, Figs. 1

and 2, one for each phase. The poles on each

side are attached to a plate which holds the

stator poles. The stator winding between the

stator poles is exposed to open air, which

assures a better cooling.

In the paper, two possible constructive

variants are discussed, one with unipolar pulse

voltage supply, the other with sinusoidal voltage

supply. A sizing-dimensioning procedure,

adapted for such a structure, was carried out

and, the motors characteristics were computed

based on the analytical and 2D or 3D finite

element method (FEM) field analysis.

The calculated results clearly show that the

two-phase proposed PMTFM, in both discussed

Figure 2. Stator poles and rotor variants, offers a valuable solution for the special

structure

drive application considered.

The machine structure uses a modular

concept. Each pole is constructed individually, 2. CONSTRUCTIVE VARIANTS,

thus, the number and the position of poles can

be modified. The winding is concentric, like a

SUPPLY AND CONTROL

torus. The rotor core has a flux concentrating

capability with a variable magnet area, so the air- The option for the actual structure is due

gap flux density can be adjusted independently mostly to its large torque to volume ratio,

of the rotor radius. constructive simplicity and good performances.

The stator and the rotor cores are made of The two constructive variants considered with

pre-cut transformer type silicon steel sheets and unipolar pulse voltage supply and with sinusoidal

the magnets (NdFeB) have very good voltage supply respectively have quite the same

performances (Hc = 930 kA/m, Br = 1.21 T). The basic construction. It means that in both cases

cross section of a stator and a rotor pole is the disc rotor poles pieces are common for both

illustrated in Fig. 2. Each rotor pole is stators which are placed on the rotor opposite

constructed from two identical core stacks with sides. The main difference consists in the

PM inserted in between. The rotor poles are number of stator poles, but the rotor PMs are

attached to a nonmagnetic disk that holds the placed in different manner, too. In the first case,

rotor cores. In Fig. 3 a view of the disc rotor with the UP variant, each stator has the same number

alternative polarity PMs is given. of poles as the rotor whose PMs are polarised all

in the same manner, Fig. 4.

Figure 3. View of the disc rotor with alternate Figure 4. A partial view of the axial field

polarity PMs PMTFM, UP variant

In the AP variant case each stator has half of

the rotor pole numbers, Fig. 5, and the rotor has

the PMs with alternate polarity, Fig. 3. In both

variants the stator and rotor pole length is equal

and the same.

pole dimensions

The UP variant, with the same number of

poles on rotor and both stator sides, has quite a

clear status and does not imply anything special.

The AP variant, Fig. 5, with its non-uniformly

distributed stator poles, offers the advantage of a

sinusoidal voltage supply. In Fig. 7 successive

Figure 5. A partial view of the axial field rotor positions against stator poles are

PMTFM, AP variant

presented. In a stator axis the air-gap flux

In Fig. 6 the main dimensions of the stator density variation is given, in a simplified manner,

and rotor poles are given. As settled before, the in Fig. 8.

poles have identical dimensions in both variants.

a) Rotor PMs with the same polarity b) Rotor PMs with alternate polarity

Figure 8. Simplified air-gap flux density variation in a stator pole axis

It is quite clear that in the AP variant the The stator current density was adopted

stator and the rotor number of poles should be J = 4 A/mm2, even it could be larger, to avoid any

increased in order to obtain a larger value for the problems concerning the PMs temperature

stator phase induced emf. One must consider over-increase. With a slot fill factor kfill = 0.5 and

the fact that by increasing the number of rotor a slot area Asl = 400 mm2 resulted a stator phase

poles the PMs volume is increased, too, and so current I = 16 A. The input voltage adopted is

is the motor cost. Therefore such an option V1 = 45 V and consequently the input power is:

should be carefully evaluated and adopted only if S1 = 2 45 16 = 1440 VA (6)

the output torque increases justify the extra cost.

It was not our intention to develop here a study For such a low power motor the efficiency

on this subject and to offer some solutions, it is and the power factor should be = 0.88,

the object of a paper which will follow this year. cos = 0.65 and the rated output power resulted:

Anyway, by calculating the main harmonic P2 = S1 cos = 824 W (7)

amplitude the results are:

B gM (1)UP = 0.5 B gM 0.64 T (1) which is near by the initial estimation.

The no-load air-gap flux density, with the

stator and rotor pole in aligned position, is

B gM (1) AP = B gM 1.15 T (2) obtained via a 2D-FEM calculation [5],

where the maximum actual amplitude of the air- Bg0 = 1.2 T and consequently the polar flux

gap flux density BgM was considered the same. produced by the PMs mmf results:

Obviously the above given values are gs = B g 0 AP = 0.415 10 3 Vs (8)

calculated considering only the PMs mmf, which

means a no-load operating for PMTFM. the no-load air-gap flux can be computed by

Considering that the number of turns is the same employing the magnetic equivalent circuit given

in both variants then the induced emf values, in Fig. 9a, where the leakage coefficient k,

computed by Faradays law, computed via a 2D-FEM analysis [5] is 0.0265.

d The air-gap flux produced by the stator phase

e = N (3) mmf with the poles in aligned position can be

dt computed by using the magnetic equivalent

are: circuit given in Fig. 9b. The stator phase leakage

magnetic reluctance can be computed in an

E MUP = N 2 n p A p 0.32 B gM (4)

usual manner, as for a rotating PMTFM [3].

E MAP = N 2 n p * A p 1.15 B gM (5)

emf in the AP variant is almost double to the

maximum induced emf in the UP variant, which

is quite favourable.

AP variant, with four pole pair, Figs. 3 and 5. in

a) stator reaction flux b) no-load flux

the design stage a sizing-estimation procedure

was developed and consequently applied and a Figure 9. Magnetic equivalent circuit

2D-FEM analysis assures some complementary The maximum phase induced emf is:

calculations and an important check up

concerning the PMs operating point. E M = N g 0 2 n p 2 = 41.7 V (9)

The main dimensions are given in Fig. 6 and

and the phase inductance results

due to pole length the pole area results

Ap = 345.810-6 m2. Considering the air-gap g0

diameter, which is Dg = 0.16 m, the small number Ls = N p = 3.668 10 3 H (10)

I max

of poles and the reduced active volume of the

motor the expected output power was where the turn number is N = 50.

somewhere around 900 W.

If the stator current is oriented on the q-axis,

then the power factor results [6] cos = 0.668, a

value a bit larger than the initial adopted one.

The torque per pole pair and phase is [6]:

T pp = N p I M g 0 = 1.88 Nm (11)

T2 = 2 4 0.5 1.8 = 7.52 Nm (12)

which corresponds to a rated output power of

P2 = 945 W for a rated speed n = 1200 rpm.

It is obvious that the power factor increases if

the stator current has a d-axis component, but

decreases the developed torque and power for

the same phase current.

Anyway, as proved through a 3D-FEM

computation, the 3D mesh for the UP variant Figure 11. A portion of the two-phase PMFEM,

being given in Fig. 10, the power factor cannot UP variant, obtained through a symmetrical

be increased that much due to the large procedure

leakages existing in the stator homopolar

structure. To check the PMs operating point in order to

avoid the PMs demagnetisation due to the stator

reaction mmf a 2D-FEM analysis was used, the

resulting Bpm=f(I) characteristic for an aligned

position being given in Fig. 12..

flux opposes to the PMs flux

a) full view

As one can see the PMs demagnetisation is

avoided up to a stator current value larger than

the double rated value. In Fig. 12 the current on

the horizontal scale is the total current, in fact the

mmf produced by the stator phase.

The proposed two-phase PMTFM has a large

starting torque, larger than the rated one, which

is favourable for the considered application.

The proposed structure has a quite good

torque to volume ratio and an important simplicity

concerning its construction. The resulted

performances are quite closed to the

performances obtained for the rotating PMTFM

and due to its simplicity the two phase disc rotor

PMTFM is well suited to the specific application

b) detailed view considered.

It must be pointed out that the coupled

Figure 10. 3D-FEM mesh for stator and rotor core, a

analytical and 2D or 3D-FEM performance

symmetrical part

calculation carried on in this case gave quite

In the UP variant case the symmetry basic accurate results and it can be extended to some

element is given in Fig. 11. other similar cases.

4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT [4] Muljadi E., Butterfield C. P., Wan Yih-huie,

Axial-Flux Modular Permanent-Magnet

The work was possible due to the support Generator with a Toroidal Winding for

given by the Romanian Academy under grant Wind-Turbine Applications, IEEE

100/2004 and was partially carried out in co- Transactions on Industry Applications,

operation with the Dept. of Electrical Machines of vol. 35, No. 4, July/August, pp. 831-836,

RTWH Aachen, Germany. The researches were 1999.

supported also by the Romanian National [5] Popan, A.D., Viorel, I.A., Ciorba, R.C., Two

Council of Scientific Research in Higher phase transverse flux permanent-magnet

Education through a grant offered. machine, Proc. of ICEM 04, Krakow,

Poland, on CD-ROM.

[6] Blissenbach R., Henneberger G., Viorel I.

5. REFERENCES A., On the Single-Sided Transverse Flux

Machine Design, Electric Power

[1] Weh H., Jiang J., Berechnungsgrundlagen Components and Systems, Vol. 31, no. 2,

fr Transversalflussmaschinen, Archiv fr pp. 109-128, 2003.

Elektrotechnik, vol. 71, pp. 187-198, 1988. [7] Viorel, I.A., Blissenbach, R., Henneberger,

[2] Henneberger G., Viorel I. A., Variable G. Popan, A.D., The transverse flux motor

reluctance electrical machines, Shaker mathematical model, Rev. Roum. Sci.

Verlag, Aachen, Germany, 2001. Tehn., Electrotehn et. Energ., vol. 48,

[3] Viorel I.A., Henneberger G., Blissenbach no. 2/3, pp. 369-379, Bucharest, 2003.

R., Lvenstein L, Transverse flux [8] Hameyer K., Belmans R., Numerical

machines. Their behaviour, design, control Modeling and Design of Electrical Machines

and applications, Mediamira Publisher, and Devices, WIT Press, Southampton,

Cluj, Romania, 2003. 1999.

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